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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're planning to formats for college take the AP English Literature and Composition exam, you'll need to get familiar with what to expect from the test. Whether the 2018 test date of Wednesday, May 9 is near or far, I’m here to help you get serious about preparing for the exam. In this guide I’ll go over the test's format and question types, how it's graded, best practices for cite preparation, and essay, test day tips. You’ll be on cause in school, your way to AP English Lit success in no time! The AP Literature Exam is a three-hour exam that contains two sections. First is an hour-long, 55-question multiple choice section, and then a two hour, three question free-response section. The exam tests your ability to essay analyze works and excerpts of literature and also cogently communicate that analysis in essay prompt, essay form. Read on formats for college, for a breakdown of the two different sections and their question types. The multiple-choice section, or Section I of the exam, is 60 minutes long and best writing mfa programs in us, has 55 questions. For College? You can expect to university studies see 4-5 excerpts of prose and essay formats for college, poetry.

You will, in general, not be given an author, date, or title for these works, although occasionally the how to quotes in an title of a poem is given. Unusual words are also sometimes defined for you. The date ranges of works could fall from the 16th to the 21st century. Formats? Most works will be originally written in English, although you may occasionally see a passage in translation. There are, generally speaking, eight kinds of cause and effect essay on cheating in school questions you can expect to see on the AP English Literature and Composition test. I’ll break each of them down here and give you tips on how to identify and approach them. Tiny books carried by ladies is not one of the question types. The 8 Multiple-Choice Question Types on the AP Literature Exam. Without further ado, here are the eight question types you can expect to formats see on the AP lit exam.

All questions are taken from the sample questions on the “AP Course and Exam Description.” These are questions that test your ability to understand what the cause and effect on cheating passage is saying on a pretty basic level. They don’t require you to essay formats do a lot of for uc application interpretation—you just need to know what is actually going on. You can identify these from formats words and phrases like “according to,” “asserting,” “mentioned,” and so on. Basically, words that point to a fairly concrete register of cause essay meaning. You can succeed on these questions by careful reading of the text. You may have to formats go back and re-read parts to make sure you understand what the passage is saying. These questions ask you to infer something—a character or narrator’s opinion, an author’s intention, and so forth—based on what is said in the passage. For Me? It will be something that isn’t stated directly or concretely, but that you can assume based on what is stated clearly in the passage. You can identify these questions from words like “infer,” and “imply.” The key to these questions is to formats for college not be tripped up by the fact that you are making an inference—there will be a best answer, and it will be the choice that is best supported by cause essay in school, what is actually found in the passage. In many ways, inference questions are like second-level reading comprehension questions—you need to know not just what a passage says, but what it means. Identifying and Interpreting Figurative Language.

These are questions in which you have to either identify what word or phrase is figurative language or provide the meaning of a figurative phrase. You can identify these as they will either explicitly mention figurative language (or a figurative device like simile or metaphor) or will include a figurative language phrase in the question itself. Formats? The meaning of figurative language phrases can normally be determined by the phrase’s context in the passage—what is said around it? What is the phrase referring to? Example 1: Identifying. Example 2: Interpreting. These questions involve identifying why an author does what they do: from using a particular phrase to repeating certain words. Basically, what techniques is the author using to construct the passage/poem and to what effect? You can identify these questions by words like “serves chiefly to,” “effect,” “evoke,” and “in order to.” A good way to approach these questions is to ask yourself, so what? Why did the author use these particular words or this particular structure? These questions will ask you to describe something about a character.

You can spot them because they will refer directly to characters’ attitudes, opinions, beliefs, or relationships with other characters. This is, in many ways, a special kind of cause in school inference question since you are inferring the broader personality of the character based on the evidence in essay formats, a passage. Also, these crop up much more commonly for prose passages than poetry ones. Some questions will ask you to identify or describe something about the passage/poem as a whole: its purpose, tone, genre, etc. You can identify these by phrases like “in the passage,” and “as a whole.” To answer these questions, you need to think about the excerpt with a bird’s-eye view.

What is the overall picture created by all the tiny details? Some questions will ask you about cite in an essay specific structural elements of the passage—a shift in tone, a digression, the specific form of a poem, etc. Essay For College? Often these questions will specify a part of the is art passage/poem and essay for college, ask you to identify what that part is creative writing mfa programs in us, accomplishing. Being able to identify and understand the significance of any shifts —structural, tonal, in genre, etc—will be of key importance for essay formats these questions. Very occasionally you will be asked a specific grammar question, such as what word an adjective is modifying.

I would also include in this category very specific questions like the meter of a poem (i.e. iambic pentameter). These questions are less about the literary artistry and more about the fairly dry technique involved in having a fluent command of the English language. That covers the 8 question types! Keep track of these. The AP Literature Free-Response Section. Section II of the exam is two hours long and involves three free-response essay questions —so you'll have roughly 40 minutes per essay. Note, though, that no one will prompt you to move from essay to essay, so you can theoretically divide up the university case studies time how you want (but be sure to leave enough time for each essay). The first two essays are literary analysis essays of essay for college specific passages, with one poem and business case studies, one prose excerpt—and the final is an analysis of for college a given theme in a work selected by you, the smoking student. Essays One and Two - Literary Passage Analysis. For the first two essays, you’ll be presented with an excerpt and directed to analyze the excerpt for a given theme, device, or development.

One of the passages will be poetry, and essay formats, one will be prose. You will be provided with the essay smoking thank author of the work, the approximate date, and some orienting information (i.e. the plot context of an excerpt from a novel). For the third and final essay, you’ll be asked to discuss a particular theme in a work that you select. You will be provided with a list of notable works that address the given theme below the prompt, but you can also choose to formats for college discuss any “work of literary merit.” So you DO have the hamlet essay power to choose which work you wish to write an essay for college, essay about, but the key word here is “literary merit.” So no genre fiction! Stick to safe bets like authors in university business, the list on essay for college, pages 10-11 of the Course and essay what, Exam Description. (I know, I know—lots of ‘genre’ fiction works DO have literary merit, and Shakespeare actually began as low culture, and so on formats, and so forth. Essay Smoking Thank? You may well find academic designations of “literary merit” elitist and problematic, but the time to rage against the literary establishment is not your AP lit test.) Here’s a sample question (from 2011): As you can see, the list of works provided spans many different time periods and countries: there are ancient Greek plays ( Antigone ), modern literary works (like Margaret Atwood’s The Blind Assassin or Barbara Kingsolver’s The Poisonwood Bible ), Shakespeare plays ( The Merchant of for college Venice ), 19th-century Russian lit ( Crime and Punishment ), and so on.

You might even see something by this guy. How Is the best creative writing mfa programs AP Literature Test Graded? The multiple-choice section of the formats for college exam comprises 45% of your exam score. The three essays comprise the other 55%. Each essay, then, is worth about 18%. As on other AP exams, your raw score will be converted to a score from creative writing 1-5. You don’t have to get every point possible to get a 5 by essay for college, any means—but the AP English Literature test does have one of the lowest 5 rates of all APs, with only 7.4% of students receiving 5s in 2016. But how do you get raw scores at all? For the multiple-choice section, you receive a point for each question you answer correctly. There is no guessing penalty, so you should answer every question—but guess only after eliminating any answer that you know is wrong to up your chances of choosing the correct one.

Scoring for smoking multiple choice is pretty straightforward. However, essay scoring is a little more complicated. Each of your essays will receive a score from 0-9 based on the College Board rubric. Essay Formats? You can actually find question-specific rubrics for is art for me all of the released free-response questions for AP English lit (see “scoring guidelines”). While all of the essay formats rubrics are broadly similar, there are some minor differences between each of them. I’ll go over how to cite in an, the rubrics now—both what they say and what they mean for formats you. Poetry Passage Analysis Rubric. What the on cheating in school College Board Says. These essays persuasively address the essay for college assigned task. These essays offer a range of interpretations; they provide a convincing reading and analysis of the poem.

They demonstrate consistent and effective control over the elements of composition appropriate to the analysis of poetry. Their textual references are apt and specific. Though they may not be error-free, these essays are perceptive in their analysis and demonstrate writing that is essay for uc, clear and sophisticated, and in the case of a 9 essay, especially persuasive. Essay Formats For College? Your argument is best mfa programs, convincing and it addresses all elements of the prompt. Essay? You interpret the language of the poem in a variety of ways (i.e. What? your analysis of the poem is essay for college, thorough). Your essay is how to cite quotes in an essay, particularly well-written and essay formats for college, well-organized. You appropriately reference specific moments in the poem to support your argument. A 9 essay is particularly persuasive.

These essays reasonably address the assigned task. Cite In An Essay? They are less thorough or less precise in the way they address the task, and their analysis is less convincing. These essays demonstrate an ability to essay formats for college express ideas clearly, making references to and effect essay on cheating in school the text, although they do not exhibit the same level of formats effective writing as the 9-8 papers. Essays scored a 7 present better-developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the prompt, but your analysis is not as complete or convincing as a 9-8 essay. How To Hamlet Quotes Essay? You do make specific references to the poem and your writing is clear and effective, but not necessarily masterful. These essays respond plausibly to the assigned task, but they tend to be superficial in formats for college, their analysis. Essay Is Art For Me? They often rely on paraphrase, which may contain some analysis, implicit or explicit. Their analysis may be vague, formulaic, or minimally supported by references to the text. There may be minor misinterpretations of the poem. These essays demonstrate some control of language, but they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7-6 essays.

You answer the prompt in a way that is not implausible or unreasonable, but your analysis of the poem is surface-level. You may paraphrase the poem instead of making specific references to its language. You may not adequately support your analysis of the poem, or you may misinterpret it slightly. Your essay is not a total mess, but not necessarily particularly well-organized or argued. These lower-half essays fail to formats offer an adequate analysis of the poem.

The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant, or ignore part of the assigned task. Evidence from the poem may be slight or misconstrued, or the essays may rely on writing mfa programs, paraphrase only. The essays often demonstrate a lack of for college control over the conventions of composition: inadequate development of ideas, accumulation of errors, or a focus that is unclear, inconsistent, or repetitive. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt. Your analysis of the essay what is art poem is incomplete or incorrect, or you do not reference any specific language of the poem. Your essay is undeveloped, unclear, or poorly organized. Essay? A 3 essay either significantly misinterprets the poem or is particularly poorly written. These essays compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 4–3 range. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the student’s assertions are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the poem. These essays may contain serious errors in grammar and mechanics.

They may offer a complete misreading or be unacceptably brief. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the poem. Only minimal attempt is made to respond to the prompt. For Me? Essay is disorganized or not supported by evidence from the for college poem. May contain numerous grammar and mechanics errors. May completely misinterpret the poem or be too short. A 1 essay barely mentions the poem. These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is university case studies, made to respond to the prompt. These essays are entirely blank. You didn’t write anything!

Prose Passage Analysis Rubric. For College? What the College Board Says. These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays make a strong case for creative writing the student’s interpretation. They may consider a variety of literary devices, and they engage the text through apt and specific references. Essay? Although these essays may not be error-free, their perceptive analysis is apparent in writing that is clear and effectively organized. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and writing in us, more effective control of language than do essays scored an 8. Your argument is convincing and addresses all parts of the prompt. You discuss a number of literary devices in your analysis and use specific and appropriate excerpts from the formats for college text as evidence in your argument.

Your writing is clear, focused, and cause and effect essay, well-organized. A 9 essay has a particularly well-developed interpretation of the text and essay formats, is better-written than an how to cite quotes essay, 8. These essays reasonably address the task at hand. The writers provide a sustained, competent reading of the passage, with attention to a variety of literary devices. Although these essays may not be error-free and are less perceptive or less convincing than 9–8 essays, they present ideas with clarity and control and refer to the text for support. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the prompt. For College? Your interpretation is smoking thank, coherent and you reference multiple literary devices in your analysis.

You do reference specific moments in the text for support. Your essay is adequately organized and focused. However, your argument may be less convincing or insightful (i.e. more obvious) than a 9-8 essay. These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading of the passage but tend to be superficial or thin. Essay Formats For College? While containing some analysis of the passage, implicit or explicit, the way the assigned task is addressed may be slight, and essay on cheating, support from the formats passage may tend toward summary or paraphrase.

While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by surface errors. Best Creative Writing? These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7–6 essays. Formats? You address the prompt, but your argument may be surface-level. You rely too much on summary or paraphrase of the text in your argument instead of using specific moments in the text. Your essay does have some elements of organization and focus but has some distracting errors.

These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the passage. Essay Smoking? The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant; the writers may ignore part of the assigned task. Essay Formats? These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors. Best Writing In Us? Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt, whether because your argument is partly unrelated to the task at hand or simply ignores elements of the essay formats prompt. Your essay is poorly focused and/or repetitive and has little textual support. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the essay smoking passage and/or is very poorly written.

These essays compound the essay weaknesses of the essays in the 4–3 score range. They may feature persistent misreading of the passage or be unacceptably brief. They may contain pervasive errors that interfere with understanding. Essay What Is Art? Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the student’s ideas are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the passage. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the for college passage.

Essay does not adequately address the assigned task. It may be very short or repeatedly misinterpret the passage. May be poorly written enough that it is hard to essay understand. These essays may be unfocused, unclear, or disorganized. These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is essay formats, made to is art respond to the prompt. These essays are entirely blank. You didn’t write anything! What the College Board Says. These essays offer a well-focused and persuasive analysis of the essay formats assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. Using apt and specific textual support, these essays address all parts of the prompt.

Although these essays may not be error-free, they make a strong case for their interpretation and discuss the what is art for me literary work with significant insight and understanding. For College? Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of language than do essays scored 8. Your essay convincingly addresses the task in a way that is clear and cause on cheating, focused. You reference many specific moments in the text in support of your argument. You build a strong case—with lots of evidence—in support of your interpretation of the text. Essay Formats For College? Your argument shows a deep understanding of the text. A 9 essay has more complex analysis and is better-written than an 8. These essays offer a reasonable analysis of the harvard university work of the assigned theme and essay formats, how it relates to the work as a whole. These essays address all parts of the prompt. Essay What For Me? While these essays show insight and understanding, their analysis is less thorough, less perceptive, and/or less specific in supporting detail than that of the essay for college 9–8 essays. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. Your essay addresses the task adequately. Your interpretation of the text is apt and shows that you generally understood it, although your analysis may be more conventional or include less specific textual evidence than a 9-8 essay.

These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading, but they tend to creative be superficial or thinly developed in analysis. They often rely upon plot summary that contains some analysis, implicit or explicit. Although these essays display an attempt to for college address the prompt, they may demonstrate a rather simplistic understanding and support from the in us text may be too general. Essay Formats For College? While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by essay smoking thank, surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7–6 essays. Your essay addresses the prompt, but your argument may be very basic and/or rely too much on plot summary instead of true analysis of the essay formats text. Your essay may reveal that you do not thoroughly understand the text.

Your essay may have some grammar/linguistic errors. Your essay is not especially well-organized or focused. These lower-half essays fail to writing mfa programs adequately address the essay for college assigned task. The analysis may be partial, unsupported, or irrelevant, and the essays may reflect an incomplete or oversimplified understanding of essay in school how a given theme functions in the text, or they may rely on essay formats for college, plot summary alone. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors; they may lack control over essay prompt application, the elements of college-level composition. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading and/or demonstrate inept writing.

Your essay does not address the prompt. Your analysis shows that you either do not understand how to address the prompt, cannot build support for your interpretation, or do not understand the text. Essay Formats? Your essay may be poorly organized, poorly written and/or repetitive. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the chosen work and/or is very poorly written. Although these essays make some attempt to respond to best mfa programs in us the prompt, they compound the weaknesses of the papers in essay for college, the 4–3 score range. Often, they are unacceptably brief or incoherent in presenting their ideas. They may be poorly written on several counts and contain distracting errors in grammar and mechanics. Remarks may be presented with little clarity, organization, or supporting evidence. Essay Prompt? Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the essay formats text. Your essay does not address the prompt.

It may be too short or make little sense. Cite Quotes In An Essay? These essays may be unfocused, poorly organized, completely unsupported, and/or riddled with grammatical errors. Essay Formats? These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to cause and effect on cheating the task. Formats? No real attempt is made to respond to application the prompt. These essays are entirely blank. You didn’t write anything! As you can see, the essay for college rubric for the poetry essay is focused more on poetic devices, and cause and effect in school, the rubric for essay for college the prose essay is focused more on in an essay, literary devices and techniques.

Both of those essays are very specifically focused on the analysis of the formats for college poem/prose excerpt. Case Studies? By contrast, the student choice essay is focused on how your analysis fits into for college the work as a whole. Prompt? To get a high-scoring essay in the 9-8 range, you need to not only essay for college, come up with an original and intriguing argument that you thoroughly support with textual evidence, your essay needs to be focused, organized, clear, and quotes essay, well-written. And all in 40 minutes per essay! If getting a high score sounds like a tall order, that’s because it is.

The mean scores on each of the essays last year was around a 4 out of 9. That means, most essays were scored lower than a 5. For College? So even getting a 7 on these essays is an essay, accomplishment. If you write it down, it must be true! Skill-Building for Success on the AP Literature Exam. There are several things you can do to hone your skills and best prepare for the AP Lit exam. Read Some Books, Maybe More Than Once. One of the most important things you can do to prepare yourself for the AP Literature and essay formats, Composition exam is to read a lot, and read well. You’ll be reading a wide variety of smoking notable literary works in your AP English Literature course, but additional reading will help you further develop your analytical reading skills. You might check out the College Board’s list of “notable authors” on pages 10-11 of the “Course and formats for college, Exam Description.” In addition to reading broadly, you’ll want to become especially familiar with the details of 4-5 books with different themes so that you’ll be sure to be prepared to write a strong student choice essay. You should know the creative plot, themes, characters, and structural details of these 4-5 books inside and out. See my AP English Literature Reading List for essay for college more guidance. One thing students may not do very much on their own time, but that will help a lot with exam prep, is to read poetry.

Try to read poems from a lot of eras and authors to case get familiar with the language. When you think you have a grip on basic comprehension, move on to close-reading (see below). Hone Your Close Reading and Analysis Skills. Essay For College? Your AP class will likely focus heavily on close reading and analysis of prose and poetry, but extra practice won’t hurt you. Close-reading is the ability to identify which techniques the author is using and why they are using them. You’ll need to be able to do this both to gather evidence for original arguments on the free-response questions and to answer analytical multiple-choice questions. Here are some helpful close-reading resources for prompt for uc prose: The University of formats Wisconsin-Madison’s writing center has a guide to close-reading.

You can also check out this close-reading guide from the essay prompt Harvard College Writing Center. The Purdue OWL has an article on steering clear of close-reading “pitfalls.” And here are some for essay formats for college poetry: The University of Wisconsin-Madison also has a poetry-reading guide. In An Essay? There’s also an excellent guide to reading poetry at, complete with two poetry close-readings. Learn Literary and Poetic Devices. You’ll want to be familiar with literary terms so that any questions that ask about them will make sense to you. Again, you’ll probably learn most of these in class, but it doesn’t hurt to brush up on them. Here are some comprehensive lists of literary terms with definitions: The majority of your grade on the AP English Lit exam comes from essays, so it’s critical that you practice your timed essay-writing skills. You of course should use the for college College Board’s released free-response questions to how to cite hamlet quotes practice writing complete timed essays of each type, but you can also practice quickly outlining thorough essays that are well-supported with textual evidence. Taking practice tests is a great way to prepare for the exam.

It will help you get familiar with the exam format and experience. You can get sample questions from the Course and Exam Description, there are released College Board exams here, and we have a complete article on AP English Lit practice test resources. Formats For College? Be aware that the university released exams don’t have complete slates of free-response questions, so you may need to supplement with released free-response questions (see link in above section). Since there are two complete released exams, you can take one towards the beginning of formats for college your prep time to get familiar with the exam and set a benchmark, and one towards the end to make sure the experience is fresh in your mind and to check your progress. Don't wander like a lonely cloud through your AP lit prep. Cause Essay? Here are my top 6 tips for taking the for college exam: On the multiple-choice section, it’s to your advantage to answer every question. If you eliminate all of the answers you know are wrong before guessing, you’ll up your chances of guessing the what is art correct one. Don’t rely on your memory of the passage when answering multiple-choice questions (or for writing essays, for that matter). Look back at the passage!

Interact with the text —circle, mark, underline, make notes, whatever floats your boat. This will help you retain information and actively engage with the passage. This was mentioned above, but it’s critical that you know 4-5 books well for essay formats the student choice essay. You’ll want to know all the characters, the plot, the themes, and any major devices or motifs the author uses throughout. Be sure to plan out how to cite in an your essays! Organization and focus are critical for formats for college high-scoring AP Literature essays.

Manage your time on essays closely. One strategy is to start with the essay you think will be the easiest to answer. Harvard? This way you’ll be able to get through it while thinking about the essay other essays. And don't forget to eat breakfast! Apron optional. The AP Literature exam is a three-hour exam: It includes one 55-question, hour-long multiple-choice section based on four-five prose and essay, poetry passages, and essay formats, a two hour free-response section with three essays—one analyzing a poetry passage, one analyzing a prose passage, and one analyzing a work chosen by the student. The multiple-choice section is worth 45% of your total score and the free-response section is worth 55%. Harvard Business? Essays are scored on a rubric from for college 0-9. Raw scores are converted to university business case a score from 1-5. Formats For College? Here are some things you can do to prepare for the exam: Read books, and essay what, be particularly familiar with 4-5 works for the student choice essays Read poetry Work on your close-reading and for college, analysis skills Learn literary devices Practice writing essays Take practice tests! On test day, be sure to really look closely at all of the passages and closely interact with them by marking the text in a way that makes sense to you.

This will help on multiple-choice questions and the free-response essays. Be sure also to outline your essays before you write them! With all this mind, you’re well on your way to AP Lit success! If you're taking other AP exams this year, you may be interested in our other AP resources: from the Ultimate Guide to the US History Exam, to the Best 2016 Review Guide for AP Chemistry, to the Best AP Psychology Study Guide, we have articles on tons of AP courses and exams. Essay For Uc? We also have comprehensive lists of practice tests for AP Psychology, AP Biology, AP Chemistry, and AP US History. Formats? Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by essay smoking, 4 points?

We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to essay formats for college helping students succeed in all areas of harvard university studies life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is essay, it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this site.

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Point/Counterpoint: Paying College Athletes. The notion of paying college football players has been an ongoing debate since the early 1900’s. With current television revenue resulting from NCAA football bowl games and March Madness in essay formats for college, basketball, there is now a clamoring for compensating both football and basketball players beyond that of an athletic scholarship. This article takes a point/counterpoint approach to the topic of paying athletes and may have potential implications/consequences for college administrators, athletes, and coaches. Dr. John Acquaviva defends the application, current system in which colleges provide an athletic scholarship that provides a “free college education” in return for playing on the university team. Dr.

Dennis Johnson follows with a counterpoint making the case that athletes in formats for college, these sports should receive compensation beyond that of a college scholarship and forwards five proposals to harvard studies, pay the athletes. Key words: pay for play, athletic scholarships. Introduction: History of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) The idea of essay formats paying college athletes to compete dates back to what is is art for me considered to essay formats for college, be the first intercollegiate competition. In a regatta between Harvard and Yale Universities, Harvard used a coxswain who was not even a student enrolled at the Ivy League school (5). Much like today’s universities whose appetites for appearances in corporate-sponsored “big money” football bowl events; Harvard may have used the non-student to hamlet quotes, please regatta sponsor Elkins Railroad (23). In the late 1800’s, football played by college teams was a brutal sport but enjoyed by many fans. However, from 1900 to 1905, there were 45 players who died playing the sport (22).

This prompted President Theodore Roosevelt to summon the presidents of for college Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, and threaten them with a ban unless the sport was modified. As a result of that meeting, a group of 62 university presidents convened to form the case studies, Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1906. This group evolved into formats for college, the NCAA in 1910, but as a group it only possessed supervisory power (22). College football became even more popular in the period of 1920-1940. This was a time when commercialism in the educational system was being questioned on for uc a variety of levels. One such fundamental question was posed in 1929 by Howard Savage, a staff member of the Carnegie Foundation. He raised a question in an article entitled Athletics in American College (originally published in 1930 but reprinted in 1999) “whether an institution in the social order whose primary purpose is the formats for college, development of the intellectual life can at the same time serve an agency to essay for uc, promote business, industry, journalism, and organized athletics on an extensive commercial basis? More importantly, the formats, report asked “can it (the university) concentrate its attention on securing teams that win, without impairing the sincerity and vigor of its intellectual purpose” (9, p.495)?

Savage also states that “alumni devices for recruiting winning teams constitutes the most disgraceful phase of recent intercollegiate athletics” (9, p. 495). In sum, the original 1929 report claimed that “big time” college sports were not educational, but were entirely financial and commercial. Athletes during the early and mid-1900’s were routinely recruited and paid to play; and there were several instances where individuals representing the schools were not enrolled as students. For example, there is one report of a Midwestern university using seven members of harvard case studies its team that included the town blacksmith, a lawyer, a livery man, and four railroad employees (5). Essay Formats For College! Other athletes at colleges were given high paying jobs for which they did little or no work. In 1948, the NCAA adopted a “Sanity Code” that limited financial aid for athletes to tuition and fees, and required that aid otherwise be given based on need (5). In the early 1950’s, with the threat of several southern schools bolting from the NCAA, the code was revised to quotes in an, allow athletic scholarships to cover tuition, fees, and a living stipend. However, by the mid-1950’s many schools were still struggling with the issue of offering athletic scholarships.

Some university presidents ultimately decided to maintain the principles of amateurism and further serve the mission of essay formats higher education. Those were presidents of universities that today make up the Ivy League. They concluded that it was not in essay prompt application, the best interest of their universities to formats for college, award athletic scholarships, and have remained steadfast even today. After passing Title IX in the mid 1970’s, the NCAA absorbed the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) and began to govern women’s sport at the collegiate level. Over the cause on cheating, past 50 years, the for college, NCAA has also expanded into three divisions with a multitude of best writing mfa programs championship events on a yearly basis (20). There are more than 1,300 member institutions that represent an estimated 400,000 student athletes who participate in sport (21). Formats For College! The result of best writing in us this growth and development are enormous increases in revenue. NCAA President Mark Emmert reports the NCAA revenues for the 2010-11 fiscal year is projected at formats for college, $757 million, of which $452.2 million will go to Division I members (14). While seemingly operating in a purely capitalistic/professional atmosphere, the NCAA continues to endorse an amateurism concept in college athletics.

These competing, and cite hamlet quotes essay often contradictory, values lead some college athletes in big time football and basketball programs to essay formats for college, question the status quo of the present system through their words and actions. For example, many athletes are still attempting to get their “piece of the pie,” albeit under the table. And so it leads to our point-counterpoint. Point: College Athletes Should Not Be Paid. The intensity of the argument to pay college athletes has escalated in how to hamlet essay, the past few years. Perhaps it’s because of the current economic climate and everyone, including amateur athletes is looking for for college, ways to make money? Or maybe it’s because many higher learning institutions have given the public access to their annual budget and readers focus on essay the profit of select athletic programs? Or maybe it is due to the absurd coaches’ salaries and formats the money that colleges make from football bowl games and basketball tournaments? Regardless, this has magnified the fact that the athletes see none of these profits and thus begs the simple question: “Where’s my share?” Perhaps a fair question, but to university business, understand this argument better, a healthy debate is needed.

So, here are some points to consider. Colleges and universities provide an invaluable and vital service to essay formats, our communities: education. A now-famous bumper sticker once read: “If you think education is expensive, try ignorance.” To address that very slogan, the U.S. census bureau, as reported by Cheesman-Day and Newberger (7), expressed this best when they reported that the lifetime earnings for those with a college degree are over quotes in an, $1 million dollars more than non-graduates. Formats For College! Despite such a statistic, essays and how to hamlet in an essay op-ed columns continue to pour in from those who favor paying student-athletes while simultaneously refusing to formats for college, acknowledge or accept the value of a college education. Is a college education priceless or not? A sports-journalist in a recent national radio interview proposed that any argument against creative mfa programs, paying college athletes based on the sole reason that education is the prize is “antiquated”. But what seems antiquated and even shortsighted is the essay formats, belief that paying a college athlete some (or even a lot of) money will solve all or even some of student’s long-term issues.

The fear of the NCAA, as it should be, is that the hamlet quotes in an, mere notion of paying college athletes undermines the university’s primary purpose – education, something far more valuable than a modest annual stipend proposed by many. Formats! If it currently appears that the universities “don’t really care” about the athlete, paying them would intensify that belief, not dissolve it. The irony in best creative writing, this dispute is that student-athletes do cost the university a substantial amount of money each year. For example, a full scholarship over four years can range between $30,000 and essay formats $200,000 depending if the institution is public or private (29). But let’s address this main point head on: There is an obvious lack of appreciation of a college degree from those in favor of paying athletes, and until a genuine gratitude for this concept develops, this argument will probably continue to thank, linger. Point #2: There Are Problems with Payment. Despite the well-documented scandals and corruption in college athletics (30), many would probably agree that paying athletes would exponentially increase the need for intense NCAA oversight – an enormous task by all accounts. Essay! Plus, there are the best writing mfa programs in us, practical issues to consider. For example, how much should the essay formats, athletes get paid and will payments be based on performance? What if the quotes in an essay, athlete gets hurt?

What if the athlete is essay formats a bust and despite remaining on the team, doesn’t start or even play at all? – Issues that seem to raise far more questions than answers. But perhaps most important – What will happen to essay smoking, the non-revenue sports at the colleges who lose money from all of formats for college their sports programs – including football and case studies basketball? It has been shown that only essay, a fraction of hamlet quotes in an essay Division I football and men’s basketball programs turn a profit (24, 20). The other Division I football and basketball programs as well as sports such as baseball, softball, golf, hockey, women’s basketball (minus a couple of notable programs), and just about all Division II sports not only fail to make money, but actually drain their athletic budgets. The outcome here would be inevitable: Forcing athletic departments to pay its football and basketball players would result in the eventual elimination of formats for college most, if not all, of the non-revenue sports. Is that what we want? We cannot afford to is art for me, be myopic on this issue. That is, there are only a limited number of programs that make big money, but yet there are hundreds of schools who absorb big losses at the cost of essay formats for college providing athletes a place to compete and earn a degree. How To Hamlet In An! The purpose of the NCAA, along with Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), Little League, and dozens of essay other organized forms of prompt application amateur sport is to for college, provide a venue to play these sports – something we should not take for essay, granted. The problem is that some have shifted in thinking that playing an organized sport is for college a right, whereas it still stands as a privilege. Point #3: The University Offers More Than an Education.

Concerts, lecture series by prominent people, on-stage productions, movies, intramural sports, fitness facilities, and a variety of for uc clubs are all part of the typical university experience. Most students agree that colleges are self-contained acres of learning and socializing, all which takes place in a safe environment. It’s common for schools to subsidize the above-mentioned on-campus activities by adding fees to the tuition – which means that it’s free to essay formats, a full-scholarship athlete. Other benefits to the athlete include the regular use of pristine gyms, well-manicured fields, athlete-only (and often team-only) workout facilities, sports medicine care, the opportunity to travel via away games, specialized meal plans and free foot gear and athletic attire. In addition, athletes are improving their trade from the best coaching minds in the sport; not to mention having access to some of the best nutrition and strength/conditioning personnel. And perhaps the most overlooked benefits are that the school provides the player with high-profile name recognition, a dedicated fan base, media exposure, and a competitive atmosphere with proven rivals, all of which took decades, effort and money for each institution to establish. Point #4: The Athletic Department Has Its Role. Keep in mind that student-athletes are not employees of the thank, university, rather they are students first and athletes second. The university can indeed make money from the sports programs; however, for essay for college, those that do, the money simply goes back into the athletic program to smoking thank, fund the essay formats, non-revenue sports (24). In fact, every year the NCAA sponsors over 80 national championships in three divisions, demonstrating the range and depth of their organization (20).

While it is true that the champion in essay smoking thank, football and men’s basketball (and most other sports for that matter) seem to come from essay formats a relatively small pool of essay smoking thank universities, it might be safe to assume that paying athletes would create an even bigger disparity since so few universities actually make money. Let’s face it, we are an underdog-loving country, and paying athletes would all but ensure that teams like Butler University, who made it to the Final Four in formats for college, consecutive tournaments (2010 and 2011), will never do it again. From the moment the full-scholarship papers are signed, each participant’s role is very clear: Schools accept the responsibility of the student’s tuition, meal plan, and boarding, while the athlete is provided with the opportunity to prompt, earn a degree, engage in college life and play their favorite sport in essay, a well-organized, and often high profile fashion. For Uc! The document signed by for college each student-athlete describes this agreement in an unmistakable manner. Although wordy and at application, times complex – a necessity due to the nature of the agreement – there’s no vagueness in the general arrangement or a hidden agenda from either party (10). Essay Formats! A failure to honor the basic premise of essay any such contract would cause all forms of business – big or small – to formats for college, crumble. If for some reason the university could be held liable for entrapment or some other form of dishonesty, then their athlete’s argument would stand on firmer ground. But frankly, the details of this agreement are well known by all involved, and rather strangely, no one seems to mind when signing them.

In conclusion, it should be noted that any NCAA improprieties or blatant corruption may have a carry-over effect into empathizing with the position given here. While corruption and other related-concerns are legitimate and need investigation, paying college athletes still remains a separate debate. It is vital to this process to view each NCAA issue independently and avoid making judgments on them as a whole. The position here is that, like many organizations, the NCAA should not be dismissed or discredited on for uc one issue due to formats for college, the mishandling of others. Further, if the contention is that many student athletes enter college unprepared or that athletics takes up too much time to excel (or even earn a degree), those are separate, but much needed arguments, and are not related to the issue of paying athletes. Now more than ever, we live in an era of entitlement. At one time our country viewed the chance at higher education as a priceless commodity. However, it now seems that a college education is not held in the same esteem and worse yet, some see it as simply an prompt application opportunity to earn money.

Although it is now evident that there has been a failure to convince much of the public of the true value of an education, keeping college athletes as pure amateurs remains the right thing to do. Counter Point: Athletes in “Big-Time” Sports Should Be Paid. The argument that a college athletic scholarship is an equal quid pro quo for a college education has been utilized since athletic scholarships were approved by the NCAA in 1950’s. My colleague makes one point that is totally accurate – a college graduate can in fact make a great deal more money over a lifetime when compared to essay formats for college, non-graduates. Best Creative! However, the remainder of the author’s points are half-truths and in reality just plain falsehoods.

For instance, a “full athletic scholarships” do not provide a “free” education (as it does not cover all costs incurred from formats for college matriculation to graduation. In many cases, the university does not live up to its end of the bargain of best creative writing mfa programs providing an education; as evidenced by the dismal number in essay formats for college, the graduation rates, especially among African Americans. Furthermore, the athletic scholarship is harvard university case studies only a one-year (renewable) agreement that can be terminated by the coach or university in any given year for any reason. In debating the pay-for-play issue in college athletics, the history of the governing body (i.e., currently the formats, NCAA), their mission and view of amateurism, the what is art for me, past history of formats for college college athletes benefitting financially, and the degree to which athletes benefit from the university experience must all be examined. The counter point section of this paper addresses each point made by my colleague. Using the Eitzen (12) analogy comparing the NCAA and big-time athletic programs to is art for me, the old southern plantation system will be the essay formats for college, underpinning wellspring for the subject of athlete exploitation and the financial benefits enjoyed by smoking thank the university derived from for college that plantation-like exploitation. An economic viewpoint will be presented to demonstrate the thank, cartel-like atmosphere held by the NCAA while maintaining the essay formats, illusion of amateurism. Finally, five proposals that outline means to promote pay-for-play in NCAA Division I football and men’s basketball will be presented. The arguments that follow are specifically tailored for university business, those two sports at schools who receive bonus money from the NCAA, as those universities and essay formats for college their coaches enjoy considerable revenue from TV contracts and essay thank sponsorships generated by formats bowl games and thank “March Madness” appearances.

Point #1: Athletic Scholarships Provide a “Free Education” is not correct. As mentioned, in the 1950’s the NCAA approved adding living stipends to athletic scholarships that previously included only tuition and fees. Today, the essay formats, “full ride” scholarship can only include tuition, fees, room, board, and books. And as mentioned in the previous section, in some cases, depending on the school attended, that scholarship can be worth anywhere from $30,000 to $200,000, although the figures $20,000 to $100,000 over a four year period might be more accurate. In any case, that still does not cover the full cost of attending college. The Collegiate Athletes Coalition (CAC) estimates that NCAA scholarships are worth about how to hamlet quotes $2000 less than the cost of formats attending a university, as it does not account for expenses such as travel and sundries. Former Nebraska head football coach and United States Congressman, Tom Osborne (R-NE), calculates the is art, gap between scholarship funding and the actual cost of attendance to essay for college, be closer to $3,000. Even former NCAA President, Myles Brand, indicated that he favored increasing scholarship limits: “Ideally, the best writing mfa programs in us, value of an athletically related scholarship would be increased to cover the full-cost of for college attendance, calculated at between $2,000 to $3000 more per year than is currently provided, I favor this approach of providing the business, full cost of attendance” (23, p.232).

So yes, the scholarship can be seen as pay for play, or at for college, the very least, a quid pro quo for essay, services rendered during a four year period. However, even with a full scholarship, an athlete will have to pay somewhere between $8,000 and $12,000 out of pocket to bridge the cost-of-living gap. Essay For College! Therefore, the full athletic scholarship does not provide a “free” education. Thus question remains: is the full scholarship a fair and equitable deal for the athlete? Athlete Exploitation-The Plantation System. Eitzen (12) among others (27) makes the analogy that the NCAA operates like the “plantation system” of the hamlet quotes in an essay, old south. The coaches are the overseers who get work from the laborers (players) who provide riches for the masters (universities) while receiving little for their efforts. Essay Formats! Perhaps slightly over-stated (obviously the athlete is not a slave, but maybe an indentured servant), the is art for me, student–athlete is dominated, managed, and controlled, and they don’t receive a wage commensurate to their contribution as expressed in dollars earned by formats for college the university. Eitzen notes that athletes are sometimes mistreated physically and mentally and are often denied the rights and freedoms of cause on cheating in school other citizens.

Ultimately, they have no real democratic recourse in an unjust system. There are other similarities to the plantation analogy. Slaves were not free to leave the essay formats, plantation much like an essay for uc application athlete cannot get out of a letter of essay formats intent (without penalty) and/or transfer without the penalty of sitting out a year. Much like the slaves who had no right to privacy, athletes are subject to mandatory drug testing (even though their coaches/masters are not tested), room checks, and limits on where they can and cannot go in the community. How To Quotes Essay! The athletes can be prohibited from political protests and the right to assemble. Formats! And finally, they can be subjected to mental cruelty and physical abuse (e.g., early morning torture sessions), all in order to create obedient slaves; student athletes. Furthermore, collegiate athletics is often the only game in best writing, town for many of essay formats for college these athletes.

For instance, football players must be in mfa programs, their third year of college or over for college, the age of 21 to enter the National Football League (NFL). Essay For Uc! Basketball players, on the other hand, must attend college for one year or ultimately sit out a year before they can enter the National Basketball Association (NBA). Formats! Thus, the essay for me, college game has become a “feeder system” similar to a minor professional league and it is in essay for college, reality, “the only game in town.” Point #2: Athletes Don’t Know the “Real” Deal. My colleague is partially correct in that most student athletes know that they are getting a scholarship that will allow them to go to essay smoking thank, school and play a sport. However, many don’t know the “real deal” as they generally have very little understanding they are about to enter a “plantation-like” system in which their scholarship in formats, not guaranteed (i.e., renewable yearly) and can be terminated at any time. Student-athletes are also a led to believe that they will play and receive a college degree while possibly picking up a few fringe benefits along the best creative writing in us, way.

Take, for example, the recent stories regarding players like Reggie Bush, Cam Newton, or the players at Ohio State who received money and/or other benefits as a result of essay formats for college playing football. Even though student athletes know they will not get directly paid for playing, many desire and even expect some form of compensation. Slack (25) surveyed 3,500 current and retired football players in 1989 only to find that 31% had received under the table money during their college careers and 48% knew of others who had received payments. This seems to imply that while many recruits may indeed know “the deal”, they display their discontent by accepting payments or other benefits not currently allowed by the NCAA. In reality, the statement “athletes know the deal” with regard to academic achievement and smoking thank degree completion seems to lack substance. Dr. Formats For College! Nathan Tublitz, co-chair of the Coalition on Intercollegiate Athletes, an organization of 51 faculty senates whose purpose is to remind college presidents, athletic directors, and coaches that student athletes are students first. Essay Prompt For Uc! He points out that: “…schools aren’t doing these kids any favors by admitting them when it’s unlikely that they will succeed academically. We bring 17 year-old kids, some of them from the inner city and we wine and dine them.

They have female chaperones. We put them up in fancy hotels. Essay Formats! They come here and see an incredibly fancy locker room with individual TV screens, air conditioning and harvard university case videogames. Essay For College! They go in and see the new football stadium and the new $200 million basketball arena. Best Creative Mfa Programs In Us! They see a medical training facility that is stunningly beautiful with waterfalls, treadmill pools, and the sate-of-the-art medical and dental equipment. They come here and are treated like royalty. Until they break a leg or get put on the second string and they get set aside. Many don’t earn a degree. They don’t have the for college, training or the skills to be independent after they leave the university.

They’re lost (28, p.D10).” When the scholarship is signed, the athlete and his family have reasonable expectations which include efforts by the coaching staff and university administration to meet all obligations of the contract. Additionally, my colleague notes, “that failure to honor the how to hamlet, basic premise of any such contract would cause all forms of business – big or small – to crumble.” If the NCAA and athletic departments in higher education are a business, why are they allowed to act in a cartel-like fashion? And finally, do student athletes really know the “deal” when they penned their name on national signing day? It appears they don’t. Point #3: The University Offers More than Education-It’s Possible-But Not Probable. Academic Detachment. My colleague also makes the claim that the university offers more than an education (e.g., concerts, lectures, intramurals, and clubs) in settings that enrich the college experience. Due to essay for college, the plantation effect, however, many athletes are not able to take advantage of those events. For instance, few if any of the scholarship athletes would be allowed to play in an intramural contest for the coach’s fear of injury. Student athletes are also over-scheduled with study halls, practices, weight training sessions, film study, individual workouts, more practice, travel, and competition; all in an attempt to help athletes maintain focus on is art their sport.

Adler and Adler (1) spent five years recording systematic information regarding the athletes’ lives in a big-time college basketball program. After observing, interviewing, and essay formats traveling with them, they concluded that big-time basketball and essay thank being seriously engaged in academics were not compatible. They also found that freshmen had a period of optimism regarding academics when they first arrived on formats campus, but after about two semesters they found that the social isolation combined with the creative writing mfa programs in us, fatigue of training kept them from becoming involved in academic life. Positive feedback these basketball players earned was always athletic-related and not academic. They soon learned what they had to do to essay formats for college, stay eligible. Coaches made sure they scheduled classes that did not interfere with practices.

Ultimately, the researchers realized that academic detachment was encouraged by the peer culture, and because of their social status (e.g., big man on campus), it became difficult for them to focus on academics. Coakley (8) reported that not all of the athletes in the Adler Adler (1) study experienced academic detachment. Those who entered college well-prepared with appropriate high school courses, strong parental support and an ability to prompt for uc, develop relationships outside of sport were able to succeed in the classroom. It’s important to note that too many minority athletes from low socioeconomic environments struggle in academics – an essay formats issue that is often perpetuated by the coaches. For instance, Robert Smith, former running back for harvard case, Minnesota Vikings and pre-med student while at essay formats, Ohio State, needed two afternoon labs in the same semester. Essay Thank! Since the essay, labs conflicted with practice, coaches suggested that he drop them because of the cause and effect, commitment he made to play football.

Against the wishes of the coaching staff, Smith took the classes but was forced to sit out the season as red shirt athlete; a further example of the plantation effect. Benson (3) noted that one perspective was missing from the essay for college, literature included a full expression from the black athletes point of view. How To Cite Hamlet Essay! Benson conducted a qualitative interview study of 12 African American students at a DI football program where the essay formats, graduation rate was 31-40% for smoking, black football players compared to 60-70% of white football players. The results in this instance cannot be generalized due to the small sample size (N=12), but it does provide a snapshot of the thoughts regarding education and athletics of this group. Further, they reflect the results obtained by Adler Adler (1). Another major finding of the Benson (3) study was that the marginal academic performance was created by a series of interrelated practices engaged in by all significant members of the academic setting, including peers, coaches, advisors, teachers, and essay formats the student athletes themselves. It began in the recruitment, and continued through the how to cite quotes essay, first year. Black student athletes received the message that school was not important, and that as time passed, they had no real control over their destiny in the classroom. It was simply a matter of survival to keep the grade point average (GPA) to a point to be eligible. They all felt like the coaches did not “walk the talk” in terms of academics.

They would just talk the academic game in public but then in reality they would have “fits” if classes ever interfered with the program. Simply put, student athletes learned it was a matter of survival and a basic expectation to maintain a GPA just high enough to formats for college, remain eligible to compete (3). “The Black Dumb Jock”. Harry Edwards (13) discussed the creation of the essay smoking, “black dumb jock” image prior to studies completed by Alder and Alder (1), Benson (3), and Coakley (8). He (i.e., Edwards) theorized that they were not born, but rather systematically created. The previous mentioned studies serve as evidence to support his statement (1, 3, 8). The exploitation of athletes is not solely an NCAA issue but a societal one. For example, Fred Butler was passed on for college through elementary, middle, and high school because he was a good football player. He graduated from high school reading at a second grade level and went to El Camino Junior College.

There he took a number of physical activity classes while hoping to be drafted into the NFL. When no offer came, he played at California State University-Los Angeles for a year and what for me a half. When again no offer came and his eligibility expired, he failed out of school within months with no degree, no offers to play pro ball, and no skills to use for employment. And he still could not read! (18). Similarly, Former NFL player Dexter Manley testified before a Senate Committee that he played four years at Oklahoma State University, only to leave the formats, school illiterate. Hamlet Quotes In An Essay! And the sad feature is that academic detachment from the university athletic department perspective doesn’t seem to be an issue because there are always more impoverished (and usually minority) kids waiting to come in and play. Thus, student athletes in many cases cannot take advantage of the essay for college, many extras offered by smoking thank a college education.

Why do athletes accept a diluted academic experience or the essay for college, corruption of in us doctored transcripts, phantom courses, surrogate test takers, and tutors writing papers? Perhaps it is formats because they are disenfranchised under the current system, and creative writing mfa programs will lose scholarships, starting roles, and eligibility if they complain. Formats! George Will argued that “College football and basketball are, for many players, vocations, not avocations, and essay for me academics are unsubstantiated rumors” (12, p.5). So do full scholarship athletes get a chance to take advantage of all the extras of the university experience? More than likely it is not the case especially when they can’t even hope for a meaningful degree. NCAA as a Cartel. Essay Formats! Kahn (16) examined the operation of the college football and basketball systems of the NCAA and offers lessons about the determinants and effects of supply and demand. Specifically he utilizes economic principles to calculate the value of essay college football player to a university. He notes that total ticket revenues for football and men’s basketball were $757 million in for college, 1999, total value that exceeded the total ticket sales for all of professional baseball, football, and hockey that year.

A figure indicating that the NCAA is a very successful business entity engaged in capitalism. According to the cartel theory, the NCAA has “enforced collusive restrictions on payments for factors of production, including player compensation, recruiting expenses, and essay assistant coaches salaries; it has restricted output; and it has defeated potential rival groups (16, p. 211).” He notes, along with others (11, 15, 16, 30), that the NCAA can impose sanctions that range from scholarship reductions, elimination from post-season play to for college, program death penalties (e.g., Southern Methodist football); and possibly even threaten a school’s academic accreditation. However, restriction of pay to players is the main way in which the harvard business case studies, organization acts to restrict competition. Economists who have studied the NCAA “view it as a cartel that attempts to produce rents, both by limiting payments for inputs such as player compensation and by limiting output” (16, p.210). When looking at the rent values based on college football or men’s basketball players’ performances, they are paid below a competitive level of compensation based on estimates of marginal revenue product produced of these players (6). Their analysis considered the total revenue for a school and the number of essay formats players that were eventually drafted by a major professional league. Utilizing this framework they concluded that in for uc, 2005 dollars a draft-ready football player returned $495,000 to essay formats, the university, while a draft-ready basketball player was worth $1.422 million for essay thank, men’s basketball. And all of this compared to the approximately $40,000 paid in scholarship worth. This indicates that the NCAA does indeed use cartel power to pay top athletes less than the athlete’s market value. Based on a workload of 1000 hours per year and an average scholarship value, economist Richard Sheehan (16) calculated the essay, basic hourly wage of a college basketball player at prompt application, $6.82 and a football player at $7.69.

Coaches’ hourly wages, on the other hand, ranged from $250-$647 per hour (depending on salary). Again, using the formats for college, Eitzen metaphor, the mfa programs in us, masters accumulate wealth at the slave’s expense, even though the athlete/slave’s health is jeopardized by participation (12). Parent (23) notes the hypocrisy of the amateurism construct when looking at these capitalism issues. Essay Formats For College! He notes that the essay smoking thank, former president of the University of Washington, William Gerberding, said, “As one contemplates the obvious fact that so many of the most gifted athletes are economically and educationally disadvantaged blacks, this becomes less and less defensible. I have become increasingly uncomfortable about having a largely white establishment maintaining an elaborate system of rules that deprives student-athletes, many of whom are non-white, of adequate financial support in the name of the formats for college, ideals of amateurism” (p.236). So, why do athletes tolerate this system? They do mainly because they are disenfranchised and essay is art fear losing their scholarships and eligibility if they complain.

In essence, this pay-for-play discussion revolves around amateurism, as advertised by the NCAA, and its competing capitalistic drive for income. According to Tulsa Law School professor Ray Yasser, the best option for athletes to change the system for their benefit is to unite and “file an antitrust suit…against the NCAA and their universities, with the claim being that the essay formats for college, NCAA and their universities are colluding to create a monopoly over the athlete’s ability to share in the profits generated from college athletics” (23, p.236). While the points for maintaining the for uc, status quo were stated previously, there has been sufficient evidence presented in for college, this section to stimulate discussion of paying players. The “play for essay what for me, a diploma” agreement is not happening in many cases, as the athlete failure rate indicates. Another example is national champion Connecticut men’s basketball program losing two scholarships for the upcoming season as a result of essay formats a poor Academic Performance Rating (APR) from the NCAA (11). Thus, the following pay for play proposals are being submitted for consideration. It would appear that NCAA should get out best writing in us, of the commercial business of football and basketball and follow the Ivy League example of providing an environment that is truly amateur where student athletes actually are students first. That move would certainly place the student first in the student athlete term. Formats! However, it doesn’t seem pragmatic that either the for me, NCAA or any of the major universities are in any hurry to formats for college, turn away millions of dollars per year in profits. Therefore, it is time to consider some pay-for-pay proposals. California and Nebraska have already passed state legislation that would enable colleges to compensate athletes; however they are blocked by the NCAA from doing so (23).

Therefore, I submit five proposals that could possibly be implemented: Big Ten Plan and/or Work Study Proposal: At the hamlet quotes in an essay, very least, the NCAA should follow former NCAA President Miles Brand’s suggestion and allocate athletes include a $2,000-$3,000 cost of living increase to full scholarships. Since athletes are supposedly only essay, allowed to spend 20 hours per essay thank, week involved with sport-related activities, this might actually be paid as 20 hours of work study or as a monthly living stipend. This would provide the athletes with the needed income for clothes, laundry, sundries, travel, and essay formats for college other small item expenses. Officials from the Big Ten are currently discussing a similar proposal that would help their athletes meet expenses not covered in an athletic scholarship. Big Ten commissioner Jim Delany reports league athletic directors and university officials have seriously discussed using some of their growing TV revenue to pay athletes more. This proposal which would give athletes a $2,000-$5,000 per year living stipend also has the essay smoking, support of current NCAA president Mark Emmert (2). SEC Game Pay Proposal: The Southeastern Conference, another of the formats, big time football conferences recently entered into the pay for play discussion. University of South Carolina coach Steve Spurrier put forth a proposal at the recent conference meetings to pay players $300 per game. The proposal was supported by essay smoking thank several other coaches.

This type of a proposal could pay athletes anywhere from $300-$1000 per game based on time played per game. Since most players do not play more than 30 minutes a game, a player could be paid on a per-minute of essay formats for college competition basis. At a rate of $20 per minute a player could net $600 for a game and approximately $6000-$7,000 per season. Professional League Proposal: Ron Woods (27) puts forth a proposal submitted by Peter Plagensa, visiting professor at Middlebury College, regarding the pay-for-play issue. He appears to agree with the likes of Stanley Eitzen that the current practice of colleges and the NCAA do in fact “amount to a little more than a plantation system” (27, p. 67). He suggests that the big time college football and basketball maintain the million-dollar industry by making them an age 23 and under professional league.

This proposal would allow universities to cite hamlet quotes in an essay, hire players as college staff (much like the cafeteria or groundskeepers) at moderate salaries plus room and board. Formats! Universities could also grant the athletes free academic classes until they earn a degree (even after playing days are over). Revenue Sharing Proposal from and effect TV/NCAA Proceeds: “College basketball players watch the formats, coach roaming the sidelines in his $1,500 custom-make suit. They read about his $500.000 salary and $250,000 perk from a sneaker deal. Creative Mfa Programs! They watch the schools sell jerseys (and T-shirts) with the player’s numbers on them. They see the athletic director and NCAA officials getting rich and you wonder why they might ask; hey where’s my share?

What am I, a pack mule” (17, p.46) Tim Tebow related on formats the Daily Show (26) that he joked with his college coach prior to a national championship game about essay in school getting a cut of his bonus money to ensure a victory. This brings another revenue sharing possibility to the surface: coaches sharing their bonuses and essay other performance incentives with the players. Most coaches in big time programs are paid huge bonuses based on team record and ranking, all a result of essay prompt application player performance. For instance, according to for college, 2009 IRS income tax reports, Mike Krzyewski received $2,222,543 in bonuses and incentives (4). Essay Prompt Application! Coaches under this proposal would be required to essay formats for college, share 25-50% of their bonuses with the players.

Isn’t it reasonable to best creative writing mfa programs, expect the essay for college, athletes to get a cut of the bonus money? After all, they (i.e., the players) are the ones who put the prompt for uc, coaches in a position to earn those bonuses. My colleague has argued in point #2 that paying athletes raise a myriad of other issues, such as how much should they receive, what happens if an athlete gets hurt, and so on. That is a discussion for another time. Essay! First, we must agree that it is fair to compensate NCAA Division I football and basketball athletes beyond that of an athletic scholarship; then and only then may payout details be chronicled. Note: a reminder that we are only on cheating in school, discussing compensation for the NCAA Division I-A football and basketball players; not the athletes in the AAU, Little League or other truly amateur venues of organized sport. Throughout the history of the NCAA, college athletes have routinely received compensation beyond that of a full college scholarship (e.g., room and board, tuition, books). While such compensation is illegal, athletes like Reggie Bush and others receive under-the-table benefits as evidenced in the Slack survey (25). Additionally, many athletes in “big time” programs do not receive a degree for their efforts in the athletic arena.

Universities routinely admit students based on their athletic skills that are academically ill-prepared for success. As seen in essay formats for college, the research (1, 3), many athletes that aspire to be academically successful soon lose hope with the over-scheduling and pressures of sport preparation. As a result, many college athletes, a majority of which are minorities, fail out of school once coaches have utilized their eligibility. The NCAA functions like a cartel, keeping cost down while increasing profits. Rents for a draft-ready athlete earn the how to cite hamlet essay, university somewhere between $500,000 for football and $1.422 million for men’s basketball (16), leading to essay formats, a pseudo-plantation system where the coaches oversee the athletes demanding work and controlling their schedules on mfa programs and off the field. Formats! This unbalanced system allows athletes to earn the equivalent of $6.80-$7.69 an how to quotes hour (12) while coaches like Nick Saban of formats Alabama or Mack Brown of Texas earn over five million dollars a year (4). If the how to cite hamlet in an essay, NCAA continues as a corporate entity and acting in for college, a cartel-like fashion making millions of dollars a year, implementing a plan to essay what is art, pay student athletes for formats, playing must be considered. Otherwise, America’s institutions of higher learning should follow the essay what is art for me, Ivy League schools’ example and eliminate athletic scholarships, get out of the big time sport business, and get on formats for college with providing students with a complete educational experience. Few discussions within sport are more common or controversial than the debate to pay college athletes.

Some arguments are well thought and articulated, while others lack insight and are simply driven by essay for me passion. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a new perspective and some historical insight – all supported by the literature – regardless of their stance on essay formats this issue. Moreover, readers who may actually be heard by the NCAA may offer a position that has yet to be considered. The concession here is university that despite any decision by essay the NCAA in the near future, we can be assured that college administrators, coaches, and athletes will continue this debate. However, their arguments may now be seen as relevant and more reasoned.