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resume to last point Resume Media has evolved into a collection of features that might. appeal to users who have libraries of video and haiku, audio files. Designed in Windows. The Giver Essay Test! Mostly works in Linux. Dissertation Blog! Not yet in OSX. Resume Media displays the saved positions of all media as well as a. bookmark where last played in each table. Media segments can be.
defined without editing your file allowing you to watch or listen. to your favorite parts. Media can be automatically added or removed. from a table when the media stops or finishes. Old-style tv video. ratios can be adjusted without going to the VLC menu each time. There are fun settings to essays against online dating sample media for a number of dissertation haiku blog, seconds or. play at different speeds. And more. album.
The resume feature then allows you to play and stop and. quickly resume whichever entries interest you at the time until you. have finally completed the essay list. Sort the dissertation haiku blog list to see which entries. you have started. chapters. Never lose your place. Adjust 'rewind' time to your liking.
to help re-sync your memory with the story. Essay! Adjust 'playback speed' to speed up (or slow down) that over-acting narrator or to save time. Then go to the segments list to play whichever highlights that. friends and relatives are leaning over your shoulder to haiku blog see. You can also tag the descriptive essay on your individual titles in a single file album. a table.
Then, when you are ready, move one entry to VLC, expand it, and import the dissertation blog media list back to a different table for execution. The playing media is bookmarked with an '*' symbol. When finished, the bookmark advances to the next unfinished media. If all media finished, the example of a bookmark increments to the next media. There's a convenient button to play the bookmark where you left off. Play unfinished or whole table with options to randomize and loop.
* Designed in Windows. Mostly works in Linux. Dissertation! Does not work in OSX. See Mac Attack and Licking Linux near the and all statistics end of the dissertation haiku blog description. * If this version is - rebecca critical essays, not available in dissertation haiku the VLC Addons Manager, you can.
install it manually from this Addons site. Open zip file, copy the lua. file to essay neighborhood C:Users%UserName%AppDataRoamingvlcluaextensions. or %homedir%/.local/share/vlc/lua/extensions/ for Linux (unhide .local) Create ..luaextensions directory if necessary. Delete old versions. When installed, restart VLC and check 'Resume Media' in dissertation blog View menu. (Extensions must be checked each time VLC is opened. It's OK. Example Of A Research! ) * A Command prompt window will flash in blog Windows the first time only. to create the data directory ..vlcVLC Resume Media.
Note: The [play/options] menu changes while VLC playlist is playing. * If the VLC playlist is stopped (not playing), then you can click. [play/options] [add VLC] to add the VLC playlist to current table. * If the VLC playlist is essay, playing (or paused), then you can click. [play/options] [position] to haiku blog add the daphne du maurier - rebecca essays playing media to dissertation haiku blog the table. * There's a setting to allow automatic new entries when media stops. * Click [play/options] [settings] to but dissertation statistics access the settings table. * There is dissertation, a media-just-started tolerance of 60 seconds, so you have. 60 seconds to sample media without saving the and all but dissertation statistics stop position. * When resuming, position will rewind 5 seconds from saved position. * Settings 'media-just-started' and haiku, 'rewind' are adjustable.
* In the statistics event there are identical media names in dissertation haiku blog the VLC playlist, Resume Media assumes they are truly identical (same media file). * Operations are performed on current table. Descriptive Neighborhood! Switching tables while. media playing may cause stop position to be updated in dissertation the new table. * Marking a table with '*' will remove media from table when finished. * The number of tables is adjustable from 1 to 50 tables. * Higher tables are not deleted when the the giver number of tables is lowered. * To delete a table datafile, remove all contents and remove mark '*'.
* Combining tables saves the highest position of duplicate entries. * When sorting by time, 'Finished' media will always be at the bottom. * You can set media saved positions to 'hh:mm:ss' or to dissertation haiku 'Finished'. * 'Finished' media will not update position unless reset to example of a 'hh:mm:ss'. * 'Finished' media will remain in any table when replayed to the end. * You can backup your tables if needed by copying the dissertation haiku blog data directory. (In the online dating data directory, the table # in each file is the file # plus 1) * If you open Resume Media while a media is playing, the next stop. event will be undetectable. Dissertation Haiku! Stop and restart media to allow detection. or click [play/options] to and all but dissertation manually save the position without stopping. useful for making convenient tables of playlists.
Note that the saved. position and bookmark are meaningless for dissertation haiku these files and do not. respond as expected. two instances of VLC must switch to different tables so that the. instances do not overwrite each other's tables. changes and need to restore a table, then go to [settings] and enter: restore t1 | restore t1 t2 | restore all , where.
t1 = table to restore, t2 = alternate destination, all = all tables. There are three Key=Value parameters which can be set for each. media in any table. The two picture keys are described in the Picture. section following this and apply to video only. The third key is:
A reasonable range for % is 25 to 300 and the default is RMP=100. The motivation for adding the speed key is to allow up or down tuning. of an instrumental audio to sync it with a live instrument performance. (See Pitch setting in the Fun Settings section further down.) * If the Playback Speed setting in the Settings table is set to other. than 100 (also see Fun Settings) then that speed setting overrides the. individual RMP speed keys for each media. * Go to the Resume Media Settings and allow application of keys. * While a media is playing (or paused), go to: [play/options] [keys] to set the keys for media in the current table. * Spaces are not allowed in Key=Value. * To delete a key, enter Key= (no value) or remove Key= altogether. * To delete all keys, clear the essays against dating input line.
* There is dissertation haiku blog, one level of [undo], then [cancel] will reset the essay on your keys to. the values before [keys] was pressed. * There is dissertation, a Keys setting in the Settings table which is 1, 2 or 3: 1= Do not apply keys (existing keys are preserved in the tables) 2= Apply keys. Against Online! Also, when in the [keys] input screen, corresponding. keys which have been placed in the playing media's metadata (explained. further down) will be read from the metadata and placed in the input.
box to allow easy manual entry of the key values into the table. 3= Apply keys. Also, corresponding keys which have been placed in. the playing media's metadata will be read from the metadata and. automatically entered into dissertation the table for that media. Note: It may take several plays to successfully read the metadata. You can place keys (ex. RMP=102) in a media file's metadata comments. section to save the keys with the media file when not in a table.
* Changing metadata is easier in Windows. Example Research Paper! Go to Properties Details Comments. If you select a group of similar files, you can change them. all at once. Remove write-protection first. * When in the [keys] or [segments] screen, you can enter getallkeys in the haiku input line to retrieve all keys (including segment keys) into. the input line for critical easy transfer to a file's metadata comments section. * Segments are also keys, but their structure is normally hidden.
Be careful when including segment keys in dissertation haiku the metadata, since they can. be long. The limit using Windows properties is. (Be careful changing metadata using VLC. I have seen media corrupted.)
I might generalize to allow any vlcrc parameter to be used as a key. Let me know if you want a particular VLC parameter added to the. keys to allow individual media adjustment and I will check it out. Parameters differ in du maurier - rebecca success when applied by lua extensions. Users with videos or tv recordings that need picture adjustment might. be tired of manually adjusting the picture in VLC each time they play. There are Resume Media keys to adjust aspect-ratio and crop values. automatically while a video is dissertation haiku, playing.
* Picture keys are RMA=nn:mm and RMC=nn:mm where nn:mm are ratios. (Ex. RMA=16:11 might make a boxy tv video aspect-ratio more appealing.) * See the and all but dissertation Keys section above to enter keys into the table. * For technical reasons, application of picture keys is limited to. single selection plays initiated from any one of the Resume Media play.
options. Multiple selections will play normally. Since videos are. usually long, playing one at a time should not be an issue. Segmenting of blog, media allows you to set start and of a research paper, stop times and name. the segments for any media (usually video, but audio also). Resume. Media will play the segments while ignoring the other parts.
* Go to the Resume Media Settings and blog, allow segmenting of paper, media. * Play any media in dissertation haiku the current Resume Media table. (Pausing is ok, since a paused media is still considered to be 'playing'.) * Now click [play/options] [segments] to daphne du maurier critical essays prepare to edit segments. * Click [get] without selection to add media position to dissertation haiku blog the input box. With a selection, [get] will load existing segment into the input box. * Segment elements are [start stop name]. Get a start and stop time, add an optional name, click [save]. Save order is based on start time. - The start/stop times will be switched if they are out of order. - Type 'end' instead of a time to essays against dating indicate play to dissertation haiku blog end of essays against, media. - The segment name cannot contain parentheses, ( or ). * You can [delete] unwanted segments. * Segment play is dissertation blog, limited to single plays initiated from Resume Media.
Multiple selections will play normally without segments. * Setting mousewheel to position control in VLC Hotkey Preferences. can make locating start and stop times more convenient. * There is of a mini paper, a Resume Media setting to haiku set the VLC Fullscreen setting. Use this to keep segment play in a window or fullscreen. An alternate. Fullscreen setting in the VLC Video Menu lasts for corporate strategy essay one VLC session. * For consistent window viewing, you might want to consider unchecking. 'Resize Interface to haiku blog Video size' in against VLC Interface Preferences. * By default, the media name will show on a video at the beginning of. each segment.
There is dissertation haiku, a VLC Video Preference setting to turn that off. attempt is made to make the segments behave like a single file. The. segments will play in order and then the media will be marked finished. The media can be stopped and resumed in any segment. You can click. later in the time line and Resume Media will play the du maurier essays segment closest. to the time clicked.
Clicking past the last segment will finish media. If [^loopv] selected in [play More] then the segments will loop. so the media will just play from there until it hits the end time of. the segment it was playing. Resume Media can detect When you click. past the segment end time and thereby decide what should be done next. Clicking Play in VLC instead of Resume Media will not play segments. If you highlight some segments, then when the current segment ends,
Resume Media will loop the highlighted segments. This allows you to. dynamically choose which segments will play. Also, clicking later in. the time line (past the segment end) will play the next highlighted. segment instead of the one closest to the time clicked, thus allowing. you to jump through the highlighted segments.
When there are no. highlights or you exit from the segment list, segments play normally. Be careful not to click [delete] when segments are highlighted. * Run time lets you sample all media for a set number of seconds. * Start time lets you start further into the media. Haiku! A saved position. will override this value. * Playback speed lets you, say, listen to an audio book faster or.
have fun with a video, etc. * Pitch setting allows the audio pitch to vary or be unaffected when. playback speed is varied. Allows tuning of instrumental audio media. * Loop setting allows automatic looping when playing from Resume Media. that one song or piano piece out of a 100 you are looking for. (Use saved positions combined with Run time for deep sampling.) I have not had access to of a research paper a Mac for a while now. Mac users who want to. experiment to dissertation haiku get Resume Media working on OSX can try the following: Set allowosx = true near top of lua file for Resume Media to run.
For tinkerers only. Essays Against Dating! Don't get mad at anyone. Back up your lua file. Go down to osx_display() function and tinker with display settings. There is some additional explanation of the display issues there. When (if) the display works, I will check the haiku rest of the and all but dissertation functions. *** constructive comments are welcome *** The dialog window starts out large and gets longer with each operation. the VLC developers, and accepted.
There hasn't been any movement on. fixing this issue since 4/27. The VLC team needs programmers to help. to make Resume Media for dissertation blog OSX possible. Everything seems to work properly in Linus except segmenting. I will work to fix this issue. Please let me know if there are. other repeatable issues that you would like me to address. Thanks. If you like this program, please put your mouse cursor on the 'Score' at the essays online dating top and click the plus sign when it appears. Thanks!!
Last changelog: 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in dissertation addition to later Windows. Setting to example of a mini research paper show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for blog constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds.
2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part. Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in descriptive essay neighborhood the vlc directory.
Tables backed up before a session and blog, restorable during the and all but dissertation session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in dissertation haiku blog segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in the giver essay test segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for haiku play in online the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608.
Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting.
2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to set picture keys, saved positions and dissertation, settings. Change to picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing. Setting to online suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639.
New settings for start time, run time and playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables.
Improve a few behaviors. Display and dissertation haiku, adjust picture keys for the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to the giver test version 2.40 due to dissertation haiku unresolved issue in du maurier critical version 3.
V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay. Main menu and other buttons improved. If media is dissertation haiku blog, playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media.
Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only. Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is now '*' instead of daphne - rebecca critical essays, 'K'.
User settings (variables) are now adjusted in blog the dialog window. Removed the essays dating instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and haiku blog, the dialog for the majority of users. Moved user variables to top of du maurier critical essays, download file for easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of blog, table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Control media and essay, resume from the blog VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind').
Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to essay 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the dissertation haiku blog previous update to include the on your case where the media is paused. If the dissertation haiku table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is against, playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play.
Allow media to remain in an excluded table when completed. Set X for dissertation normal exclude or K to keep media with time reset to and all but dissertation 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the next stop event is undetectable in this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the dissertation haiku tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update.
Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for multiple tables. Essays! Entries can be sorted by time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to import the VLC playlist. * To add it automatically, click [Play/Options] and then [Settings]. Blog! Near the bottom, change Block- to Allow new table entry when media stops.
From then on, when you stop a media in VLC, Resume Media will add the media name and stop position to the current table if it is daphne essays, not already there. Good luck, Rocky. I can open the haiku extension from the menu under VLC/Extensions but the window that opens never contains anything. I've also tried setting 'simple = true' in the file and still no luck, and also various ways of pausing/stopping/closing a video. and create subdirectory ..luaextensions. and created a text file named VLC Resume Media V3.lua 2. Type Cntl-A to and all statistics highlight the whole file contents. 3. Type Cntl-C to copy the file contents to the clipboard. 4. Open the dissertation blog VLC Resume Media V3.lua file you created in example of a research paper a text editor like Notepad. 5. Type Cntl-V to dissertation blog copy the contents into the file. Close the file.
6. And All! Open VLC and go to View menu at the top. 7. If everything went as planned, you will see Resume Media V3 at the bottom of the View Menu. 8. Haiku Blog! Click it, and the Resume Media dialog window will open. Getting the same result as others - Resume pops a large window, striped, with no content, titled 'Resume Media Table 1'. I use windows 7 and strategy essay, when I press the download button I am immediately transferred to a txt page which says this - -- VLC Lua Extension by Rocky Dotterer 5/5/2014. filename = -- change if you want file(s) in haiku your own directory. How can I download the Extension?
2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows. Setting to essays against dating show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux.
2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part. Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and dissertation haiku, restorable during the session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605.
Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for essays play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in dissertation blog table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to and all not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior.
2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to set picture keys, saved positions and settings. Change to picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing.
Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for start time, run time and playback speed
Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in dissertation haiku the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors.
Display and adjust picture keys for the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added.
Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay. Main menu and other buttons improved. If media is playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only. Of A Mini! Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is now '*' instead of 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in the dialog window. Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus.
simplifying Resume Media and the dialog for the majority of users. Moved user variables to top of download file for dissertation haiku easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Essay! Control media and resume from the VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind'). Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to haiku 'Finished.'
Amend the previous update to include the case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is but dissertation, playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to remain in dissertation an excluded table when completed. Set X for normal exclude or K to descriptive essay on your neighborhood keep media with time reset to dissertation haiku 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is - rebecca, opened while media is. playing, because the next stop event is undetectable in haiku this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the descriptive essay neighborhood tables dialog display.
Correct open table option broken in dissertation haiku blog last update. Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned.
Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for multiple tables. On Your! Entries can be sorted by time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to import the VLC playlist.
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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. 13 Resume Mistakes That Make You Look Dumb. Before you get invited in for an interview, employers and recruiters look at your resume to see if you’re a good enough candidate for the job to be worth their time. If your resume doesn’t look good, you don’t look good.
Even if you’re qualified, a silly mistake on your resume can kill your chances. Think of dissertation, your resume as your 60 second audition in front of - rebecca essays, a judge on one of those reality TV talent shows. The person reviewing your resume (Britney, Simon, Xtina) will quickly decide whether to give you a shot at haiku blog, the big time or send you packing. So the golden rule is: Make a good first impression, and the giver essay don’t look dumb! You can do this by dissertation blog, avoiding common mistakes on your resume — the kind that we see even great candidates making. Remember, you only have a few seconds to either make a good first impression or to make a really bad one. 1. Spelling mistakes and grammatical errors. A grammar error or misspelling can stand out like a sore thumb and tell the employer that you’re careless. Luckily, these mistakes are easily avoidable. Strategy? Spell check, but don’t rely on spell check to do all of the work for you. I have seen plenty of resumes with embarrassing mistakes that spell check didn’t catch — it was a real word, just not the one that the candidate wanted to use in his resume (be careful to never, ever leave that first “L” out of “public relations” in your resume).
Your eyes see what you meant to type instead of what’s really there. An objective reader can make a big difference in haiku blog, helping you catch spelling and grammar problems as well as many of the other mistakes listed in this post. It is particularly important to corporate essay, proofread carefully if you are applying for jobs that require writing skills and/or attention to detail. For a potential future boss, your resume is your first work sample and should reflect your ability to write, edit, and proofread if hired. If you’re not sure about a grammar, word usage, capitalization or punctuation issue, just look it up.
Grammar Girl is just one great resource for dissertation practical application of grammar rules. You want your resume to stand out, but there is such a thing as standing out in a bad way. You may think it’s creative to use 6 different fonts and colors, but that kind of essays against dating, creativity tends to just look clumsy. Avoid too many font types and steer clear of font sizes that are too big or too small. Big fonts make you look like you are SHOUTING (and can also indicate that you don’t have enough good content to fill a resume with normal-size text). Small fonts may help you keep your resume to dissertation haiku, one page, but it’s not worth it if the reader has to squint. You should also avoid long paragraphs and long blocks of the giver essay, text. Most people scan resumes very quickly and often skip over long paragraphs and miss key information. Use white space and dissertation haiku bullets to make your resume format easy on the eye. Descriptive Essay? Use of bullets can also ensure better reader comprehension when visually scanned. Leave comfortable margins on the page and make sure that everything is neatly aligned.
Look neat. Look smart. Also, keep in mind that there’s a good chance you resume will be scanned electronically as more and more companies use special software to index resumes. Haiku Blog? If you’re using wacky fonts, the software may not pick up important keywords and and all but dissertation your resume could get tossed undeservedly. Your resume is meant to be a marketing document — an introduction that will get you in the door for an interview. Haiku Blog? This isn’t the essays against online dating, time to “think outside the box” and design a glossy, hot pink, legal-sized resume with clip art and glitter. There are better ways to demonstrate your creativity. Save the blog, arts and crafts for Pinterest.
Also, avoid using weird colors, weird formats or weird paper stock. Corporate? Your resume should be simple and elegant. Dissertation Blog? Go minimalist and let the example mini research paper, words speak for haiku blog themselves. If you’re presenting a hard copy of essay test, your resume in person, make sure it doesn’t look like it was just pulled out of the trash can (or it’s very likely to end up back in the circular file). After all, you wouldn’t go to an interview wearing a dingy shirt or a hideous tie so don’t hand out a wrinkled, smudged, or coffee-stained resume. When you bring your resume to an interview, carry it in a folder to keep it crisp and dissertation fresh. In general, try to descriptive on your neighborhood, keep your resume to dissertation haiku blog, 1-2 pages in length. Recent graduates should aim to essays dating, stick to one page while more experienced candidates can get away with using more space. If you’re still short on work experience and are having difficulty filling a page, think about dissertation haiku blog listing relevant school coursework and extracurricular activities. - Rebecca Essays? Include volunteer work and the contributions you’ve made in that arena. You’ll also have space to dissertation blog, list pertinent skills — including your prowess with different software programs and other tactical skills that apply to the job (review the job description and against online use the employer’s language).
As you develop in dissertation haiku, your career and add more jobs to your resume, you won’t have space for these “extras.” However, during the early days of your career, this information can help a potential employer see your potential. Remember to use common sense here: No need to mention your collection of Twilight memorabilia or that you were runner-up in the 2010 SpongeBob look-alike competition. Even if you’ve been working for many years, you should try to daphne du maurier - rebecca essays, keep your resume to 2 pages if possible. There are exceptions — CVs for academic positions and some other roles tend to be longer and more detailed. (I know this first-hand since I just reviewed a 79-page resume from very accomplished academic client). However, keep in mind that employers are always going to be most interested in the jobs that you’ve held recently. Use your space wisely to share more details about dissertation blog your most current and relevant work experience and edit down the descriptions of your earlier jobs to the bare necessities. As your resume gets longer, you may even be able to drop early positions that have little to do with your current career path. Formatting can also help you reduce your page count — just don’t get too creative (see Mistake 2 above).
If you lie on your resume, you’re taking a big risk. First of all, you’re very likely to get busted during the du maurier, background and reference checks. Even if you get lucky and make it through the hiring process, dishonesty on your resume can get you fired down the road — even if you’ve been doing a great job. Just ask former Yahoo! CEO Scott Thompson. If you haven’t yet graduated from college, for dissertation example, put down the name of the school you’re attending and state your expected graduation date. Don’t say you’ve graduated if you haven’t. Another common fib is example mini research paper, with languages.
Many people list under “skills” that they can speak a foreign language (or two…or four), when in fact they can only string a few sentences together. Don’t think you won’t eventually be found out – you will. And trust me, it’s tough to learn Japanese in a weekend. One of the blog, main things that employers focus on essay on your neighborhood, is how long you worked at your previous jobs. Dissertation? They are going to be scanning for and all but dissertation dates and blog zeroing in on short tenures and long gaps between positions.
Make sure to the giver essay, put down, for each job, the date that you started working and the date that you left (month and year is haiku blog, sufficient). You’re not fooling anybody by leaving these out if they don’t make you look good. Essays Online? A lack of dates will read as an attempt to hide something. If you have gaps in your resume, you can read our article on dealing with resume gaps. Proof the dates carefully. Dissertation Haiku Blog? It’s easy to overlook mistakes when it comes to essays against online dating, numbers. You don’t want your resume to say “May 2020” instead of “May 2010.” This may sound silly, but it happens more often you might think: people forget to haiku, update their resumes to include their most recent contact information. If you’ve moved or changed phone numbers, make sure that your phone number, address and e-mail information is critical, up to date.
If you don’t, you could be waiting for a call or a message that you’ll never receive. Also, make sure you have a professional sounding email address. If your name is John Smith, using the address “[email protected]” (which you hilariously created in dissertation haiku, 2005) is du maurier - rebecca critical, not a good idea. It’s always better to create a new email address that’s somewhat professional. Blog? Even if you can’t get [yourname] @gmail.com – at strategy, least get something neutral sounding (like jsmith92 or smithjohn11 ). Also, don’t get an haiku blog, address that’s too long and weird (like [email protected]) . It’s too easy for a typo to happen when someone is emailing you – and it’ll drive people crazy.
If you want to but dissertation, include an dissertation haiku, objective in your resume, make sure that it’s as tailored as possible to example research paper, the job that you’re applying for. Avoid vague statements like: Looking to apply my skills and experience in dissertation haiku, a fast-paced, challenging environment. It will catch your reader’s eye much more if your objective clearly matches the the giver, job description. For example, [Looking for a mid-level marketing position at a premiere/reputable/growing fashion/advertising firm.] You should also think about whether including an objective statement is dissertation blog, really the best use of that prime real estate at the top of your resume. In most cases, we recommend using a Professional Summary instead of an Objective. However, an objective statement can be useful for some candidates — new grads with resumes that don’t otherwise convey career goals in strategy, a clear way and career changers who are seeking a position that’s not an obvious next step. Your resume should be focused, concise and emphasize achievements and skills that fit the job you’re applying for.
If you are applying for a sales position, for example, you should emphasize targets that you’ve met in prior jobs. Dissertation Blog? Including percentages and numbers can be useful. For example, [“Increased _______ by 25% in strategy essay, Store XYZ” or “Reduced operations backlog by 50% for the fiscal year in dissertation haiku blog, 2009.”] Think about how best to on your, present your experience and skills in a way that would impress your potential employer. This probably means customizing your resume for each position, especially if you are considering more than one type of dissertation blog, opportunity. Carefully review the job description and descriptive then take the time to tailor your resume to emphasize the strengths and experience that are most relevant for the position. 11. Including “red flag” information. Your goal is to blog, land an but dissertation statistics, interview by giving the employer a compelling overview of the job skills and experience that make you a good candidate. Don’t sabotage your chances by including information that could raise concerns. Don’t list things like “left previous role because of haiku blog, internal political issues” or “I took this job because it was close to home.” There will be time to discuss your reasons for leaving and taking positions in the interview.
By then, you will have used Big Interview to daphne du maurier essays, prepare and dissertation haiku practice so that you can discuss your reasons in a positive and professional way. You want your employer to know what you did in your previous jobs, but you don’t need to include the online, kitchen sink. Describe your job duties in enough detail to give the employer a good idea of dissertation haiku, your general responsibilities. Leave out unnecessary or minute details that won’t lift you up as a candidate. More importantly: Highlight your job achievements. Against Dating? Use bullet-points to help the reader focus in on dissertation blog, your accomplishments. Too many candidates make the mistake of including a detailed job description instead of emphasizing individual contributions. Rather than just listing your job duties, which can be passive and and all but dissertation statistics boring, use action verbs that imply you actively got things done.
Here are some good examples: Led, Created, Delivered, Managed, Implemented, Increased, Achieved, Organized, etc. The thesaurus can be your friend if you find you are overusing certain words on your resume. Just don’t get too crazy trying to impress them with your awesome vocabulary — you want them to actually understand what you did (skip “confabulate” and dissertation haiku “propagage” and essays against dating other Word-of-the Day entries). Your resume is haiku blog, your first face forward to the employer, so it’s very important that you take the time to to make sure it looks great and is an accurate and essays against online dating powerful representation of your qualifications. Haiku Blog? Common mistakes (even the seemingly little ones) can kill your chances of getting an interview. When it comes to your resume, you really can’t be too perfect. Humor: If you’re in the giver essay test, the mood, here’s Resume Richard offering you his “solid” advice on dissertation, making your resume stick out. Pamela Skillings is against online dating, co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and haiku JP Morgan Chase. Strategy? She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association.
55 Comment to 13 Resume Mistakes That Make You Look Dumb. Can I put smart art in my resume? Great advice, thank you! Thanks, this was helpful! What is haiku, better one column format or two column format in resume? Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of against online dating, experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to dissertation blog, the City of New York.
She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. Essays Online Dating? Continue reading. Copyright © 2017 Big Interview – Job Interview Training - All Rights Reserved. Skillful Communications, LLC | 244 Fifth Avenue, 2nd Floor | New York, NY 10001 XML SItemap.
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Histoire des Alpes - Storia delle Alpi - Geschichte der Alpen (1998)/09. Dissertation Haiku Blog? PRODUKTION, VERARBEITUNG UND VERTEILUNG. Du Maurier - Rebecca Critical Essays? [ 107 ] PRODUKTION, VERARBEITUNG UND VERTEILUNG UBERLEGUNGEN ZUR BEDEUTUNG METALLISCHER ROHSTOFFE BEI DER AUSBILDUNG POLITISCHER SYSTEME IM SUDBAYERISCHEN ALPENVORLAND WAHREND DER BRONZEZEIT. Dissertation Haiku Blog? Production, transformation et distribution. Corporate Essay? Reflexions sur la signification des matieres premieres metalliques dans la formation des systemes politiques dans les prealpes bavaroises pendant l'Age du bronze. Dissertation? Cette contribution s’interesse aux possibilites qu’offrent les trouvailles et les resultats des fouilles archeologiques en vue de tirer des enseignements sur les processus politiques en jeu dans la partie meridionale des Alpes bavaroises durant l’Age du bronze.
La situation bavaroise y est comparee a celle des pays de l’est de l’Europe centrale et du sud-est de l’Europe, qui sont plus faciles a caracteriser du fait de leur proximite des civilisations hautement developpees de la Mediterranee orientale. Il apparait une concordance etonnante aussi bien dans le developpement chronologique de l’occupation que dans le genre et le but des ouvrages de fortification. Essay Test? Contrairement aux pays du Danube, le sud de la Baviere dispose d’un ensemble de sources supplementaire: les objets funeraires. L’article essaie de montrer les liens existant entre les fortifications d’altitude des prealpes, les places fortifiees a la lisiere des Alpes, les lieux de stockage des metaux et les riches tombes avec leurs temoignages de l’extraction et de la transformation des metaux. Cette demarche a ete rendue possible grace a un projet de recherche, qui doit permettre de mieux connaitre les dimensions economique et politique de la distribution du metal durant l’Age du bronze dans les prealpes orientales. Der Forschungsstand in Suddeutschland  ist im Vergleich mit demjenigen des mittleren und unteren Donauraumes, unter dessen Einfluss die Kulturen der suddeutschen Bronzezeit uberwiegend stehen,  nicht befriedigend. Dort lassen sich immerhin die Grundzuge der historischen Entwicklung einigermassen exakt umreissen: Nach einer Phase der fruhbronzezeitlichen Belegung (2000-1600 v. Chr.) ist ein zeitweiliges Aussetzen in blog, der Besiedlung von Hohenplatzen zu beobachten, die in essays against online dating, Nordungarn und Siebenburgen erst mit der Stufe Bronze D, also im 13. Dissertation Blog? vorchristlichen Jahrhundert wieder aufgenommen wird. In Westungarn und der Slowakei scheint der Hiatus kurzer zu sein und endet bereits in der Mittelbronzezeit um 1500 v. Strategy Essay? Chr. Dissertation Haiku Blog? Fur die Auswahl des Platzes sind ausser strategischen Erwagungen auch naturliche Verkehrswege, etwa am Zusammentreffen von Flusstalern massgeblich.
In vielen Fallen sind zudem direkte Zusammenhange mit den Lagerstatten naturlicher Ressourcen auszumachen. And All Statistics? Fur das sudbayerische Alpenvorland und die Schotterplatten, weite Ebenen, die nach dem Ruckzug der eiszeitlichen Gletscher entstanden, ist lediglich der Kenntnisstand uber offene dorfliche Siedlungen in den letzten Jahren enorm gewachsen. Haiku?  Einer relativen Dichte fruhbronzezeitlicher Graberfelder, denen erst seit neuestem zeitgleiche Siedlungen zugeordnet werden konnen,  folgt ein Absinken sowohl der Siedlungs- wie auch der Grab- und Hortfunde wahrend der mittleren Bronzezeit, fur das bisher keine plausible Erklarung zur Verfugung steht, das aber kaum eine tatsachliche Siedlungsleere widerspiegeln durfte. And All? Mit der spaten Bronzezeit, also seit dem 13. Dissertation Haiku Blog? vorchristlichen Jahrhundert tritt dann der Siedlungstyp des Gehoftes mit mehreren Gebauden wohl unterschiedlicher Funktion auf, der sich ohne grossere Anderungen bis in but dissertation, die keltische Eisenzeit des 5./4. Jahrhunderts v. Blog? Chr. The Giver? fortsetzt. Haiku? Als bevorzugte Topographie ist wie in den Dona ulandern die Lage am Rand von Mooren oder Flussauen belegt und auch die Verkehrsgunst spielt eine entscheidende Rolle.  Eine andere Situation begegnet bei spatbronzezeitlich belegten Hohen- [ 109 ] Siedlungen des Alpenvorlandes, die prinzipiell seit langem bekannt sind; da jedoch ihre herausragende topographische Lage bis in die jungste Zeit reprasentative Bauten anzog, fehlen gemeinhin befriedigende Aufschlusse zur Art der Befestigung und Besiedlung oder zu Zweck und Charakter.  Die Dauer der Belegung lasst sich zumeist nur grob umreissen. Daphne Critical Essays? Immerhin lasst das ostliche Sudbayern mit Hohensiedlungen wie dem Freisinger Domberg  einheitliche Belegungsfolgen erkennen, die mit spater Fruhbronzezeit (17./16. Dissertation? Jahrhundert v. And All? Chr.), spater Mittelbronzezeit und Spatbronzezeit (14.-10. Dissertation Haiku Blog? Jahrhundert v. But Dissertation Statistics? Chr.) Parallelen mit den Anlagen des Donauraumes zeigen. Eine weitere Gruppe mittel- bis spatbronzezeitlich belegter, burgahnlicher Hohenorte, deren chronologische Entwicklung vergleichbar mit jener der grossen Hohensiedlungen des Voralpenlandes ist, kontrollierte die Ein- beziehungsweise Ausgange zu den Alpentalern mit ihren Erzlagerstatten und Passen. Dissertation Haiku Blog?  Damit erscheint ein soziookonomischer Zusammenhang gegeben, in essays online dating, dem die drei Siedlungstypen des Voralpenlandes, namlich offene dorfliche Siedlungen, grosse, teilweise befestigte Hohensiedlungen im Flachland und kleinere Hohenplatze am Alpenrand unterschiedliche Funktionen besassen. Wie sahen diese Funktionen aus und in dissertation haiku blog, welcher Beziehung standen sie zum wichtigsten Wirtschaftsgut der Bronzezeit, dem Kupfererz der Ostalpen?
In den Landern des ostlichen Mitteleuropa und Sudosteuropa ermoglicht die grosse Anzahl von entsprechenden Funden eine statistisch nachprufbare lokale Affinitat von Metallhorten zu befestigten Hohensiedlungen. Sowenig uber die Rolle befestigter und unbefestigter Hohensiedlungen im Gefuge spatbronzezeitlicher Gesellschaften bekannt ist, so sehr legen doch Platzwahl und Art der Fortifikation den Schluss nahe, dass sie zum einen dazu dienten, geschatzte Werte vor rauberischem oder kriegerischem Zugriff zu schutzen; die stereotype Lage an strategy essay, verkehrstechnisch und strategisch wichtigen Punkten und die regelhaft wiederkehrende Sitte der Niederlegung von Bronzedepots auf oder in der Nahe solcher Burgen belegt, dass eine zweite Aufgabe die Sicherung oder Kontrolle von Handel und Verkehr war. Haiku Blog?  Uber die Art der Macht, die von diesen Platzen ausging, ist allerdings ebensowenig Aufschluss zu erhalten wie uber die Rolle und Funktion der herrschenden Personen oder Gruppen. Corporate Essay? Fur die vergleichbare Entwicklung in blog, Suddeutschland kann die Hohensiedlung «Rachelburg» uber den nordlichsten Randhohen des Alpeninn- [ 110 ] Abb. The Giver Essay? 1: Die Lage der spatbronzezeitlichen Hohensiedlung Rachelburg im Gefuge der Nordtiroler Urnenfelder (13.-10/9. Haiku Blog? Jahrhundert v. Chr.). Mini Research? Dreieck: Hohensiedlung Rachelburg; Offene Quadrate: Urnenfelder im Bereich der Rachelburg; Gefullte Quadrate: Urnenfelder des Tiroler Inntales. Haiku Blog? [ 111 ] Abb. 2: Rohgusskuchen aus Fahlerzen des Tiroler Inntales.
Hortfund vom Fuss der Hohensiedlung «Rachelburg», Gemeinde Flintsbach, Landkreis Rosenheim, Oberbayern. Abgebildet sind ganze Gusskuchen (links oben), Halb- bis Drittelfraktionen (rechts oben), Viertelfraktionen (links unten) und Reste des Schmelzvorganges (rechts unten). Essay? tales als idealtypisch gelten,  ein Ensemble, dessen einzelne Bestandteile, namlich Burg oder Akropolis, geschutzte Hohensiedlung und Talsiedlung ohne Zweifel in einem Funktionszusammenhang standen (Abb. I). Blog?  Einen Schlussel zur Deutung stellt ein Hortfund dar, der 1992 im Bereich der Talsiedlung bei der Erweiterung einer Sandgrube entdeckt und planmassig geborgen werden konnte. Critical Essays? Es handelte sich dabei um Gusskuchen mit einem Gesamtgewicht von fast genau 50 kg, die in dissertation, ein Gefass geschichtet waren. Sie wiesen unterschiedliche Grossen und Gewichte auf, wobei der uberwiegende Teil aus Bruchstucken mit identifizierbaren Fraktionen bis zu einem Viertel bestand (Abb. Statistics? 2). Dissertation Haiku Blog? Die Datierung liegt zwischen Bz D und Ha A2 also im Zeitraum zwischen 1300 und 1000 v. Descriptive Essay? Chr. Nun sind Brucherzhorte in dissertation blog, Suddeutschland zwar nicht gerade selten,  nur in Ausnahmefallen erreichen sie allerdings das Gewicht des Flintsbacher Depots und nie sind sie mit den gewaltigen zeitgleichen Depotfunden des Donauraumes zu vergleichen, deren Brucherzmassen in essays dating, Einzelfallen die Tonnengrenze uberschreiten. Von wenigen Ausnahmen abgesehen tauchen [ 112 ] sie nie im Bereich der Lagerstatten im Salzburger, Kitzbuheler und Unter-inntaler Bereich auf, ein Phanomen, das seit der fruhen Bronzezeit registriert werden kann und auch am Alpensaum sind sie eher selten. Massiert treten sie dagegen im Voralpenland auf, wobei der chronologische Umgriff mit jenem der Hohensiedlungen des Alpenvorlandes und des Alpenrandes ebenso kongruiert wie mit den Nordtiroler und Munchner Urnenfeldern: Das Schwergewicht liegt zwischen dem 13. Haiku Blog? und dem 11. Jahrhundert.
Die bronzezeitliche Spatphase zwischen dem 11. und dem 9. Against Dating? Jahrhundert ist so gut wie nicht vertreten. Blog? Es stellen sich somit verschiedene Fragen: a) Wenn das Erz offensichtlich in Rohform von den Lagerstatten weg verhandelt wurde, wo liegen die Verarbeitungsstatten? b) Existiert ein funktionales Netz zwischen Lagerstatten, Hohensiedlungen am Alpenrand und Hohensiedlungen des Voralpenlandes und wie ist es beschaffen? c) Was steckt hinter der Deponierung von Gusskuchen und Brucherz und warum werden sie nicht in den Herkunftsgebieten deponiert? d) Besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Versiegen der Kupfervorrate in Tirol und Salzburg und dem Ende von Graberfeldern und Hohensiedlungen? Als Trager der spatbronzezeitlichen Kultur Sudbayerns sah man lange Zeit die Bewohner einer Region des Voralpenlandes, des Riegseegebietes, an, die in of a, traditioneller Weise ihre Toten in Grabhugeln bestattete. Blog? Die Wurzeln der Riegseegruppe reichen in of a mini research paper, die mittlere Bronzezeit und auch ihre soziale Entwicklung scheint sich eher langsam in kleingruppenhaften Organisationsformen zu vollziehen. Dissertation Haiku?  Dies verwundert, denn gerade wahrend der mittleren Bronzezeit nehmen die Fordermengen in corporate, den ostalpinen Kupferbergwerken, insbesondere im Salzburger Raum stetig zu.  Obwohl in den Grabern der Riegseegruppe ab der Stufe Bz C an den Schwertern die Entwicklung eines Hauptlingsadels mit kriegerischem Anspruch deutlich wird und ein aus den Beigaben ablesbarer, gewissermassen bauerlicher Wohlstand und einige Importstucke nahelegen,  dass die kriegerische Oberschicht an haiku, dem Mehrwert, der aus der Verarbeitung und Distribution des alpinen Kupfers herruhrte, partizipierte, fehlen doch ganzlich irgendwelche Hinweise, die auf direkte Verfugung uber Ressourcen, Werkstatten oder Verkehrswege hindeuteten. And All But Dissertation? Seit Beginn der 80er Jahre tauchte im Zuge grossflachiger Grabungen auf [ 113 ] den Schotterflachen um Munchen, Ingolstadt und auf dem Lechfeld bei Augsburg eine Gruppe von Flachgrabern auf,  die mit den Hugelbestattungen der Riegseegruppe in dissertation blog, ihrer Anfangsphase gleichzeitig sind, in ihrer Grundidee jedoch erheblich von diesen abweichen und eher mit jenen der fruhen Stufe der Salzburger und Tiroler Urnenfelder ubereinstimmen. Essays Dating?  Wie aus dem Sachgut ersichtlich, ist die Ideenwelt der in ihnen Bestatteten vom Donau- und ostlichen Mittelmeerraum beeinflusst. Dissertation Haiku?  Die sozialen und okonomischen Unterschiede zu den Bestattungen der Riegseeleute sind deutlich, wenngleich ohne Zweifel Kontakt und Austausch bestanden. Alle bislang bekannt gewordenen Graber dieser Gruppe befinden sich an wichtigen Punkten einer naturlich vorgegebenen Verkehrsgeographie, wo sich der Handel, vornehmlich wohl jener mit Kupfererz bundelte und verzweigte und wo in essay, Folge der Anhaufung von materiellen Gutern auch Fernbeziehungen zu sudostlichen Hochkulturen geknupft werden konnten.
Die Eliten dieser Gruppe werden wahrend der spaten Bronzezeit archaologisch in dissertation haiku blog, Schachtgrabern mit Wagenbeigabe sichtbar.  Bezeichnend ist die Art und Zusammensetzung, in and all, der Grabbeigaben in Flachgrabern der suddeutschen Spatbronzezeit niedergelegt wurden. Dissertation Blog? Die Niederlegung von Gutern in on your neighborhood, Grabern dieses Typs weicht erheblich von jenen der Hugelgraber wie von den einfachen Brandgrabern der Urnenfelder-zeit ab. Zwar zeichnet sich in blog, Grosse und Anlage des Grabschachtes noch durchaus die an strategy, der Korperbestattung orientierte Vorstellungswelt der Hugelgraberbronzezeit ab, in dissertation haiku blog, der Deponierung von verbrannten Bronzen am Rande der Grabkammern tritt jedoch ein neuer gedanklicher Kontext entgegen. Essay Test? In der Kombination von Wagenteilen, Pferdegeschirr, Waffen, Gusskuchen, Barren, Halbbfertigprodukten, Symbolgut und Geschirr ebenso wie in dissertation blog, der Niederlegung auf einem Haufen scheint ein Muster auf, das auch in test, den Horten des Donauraumes begegnet.  Massenstatistisch ist dies bis jetzt und vermutlich auch in dissertation blog, Zukunft nicht zu belegen, da die Exklusivitat von Grabausstattungen der beschriebenen Art dies verhindert: Nur eine dunne soziale Oberschicht konnte uber Mittel und Fernbeziehungen verfugen, die notig sind, um fremde Sachformen und neues Gedankengut aufzunehmen. Eine besondere Rolle nehmen dabei Zeugnisse der Produktion, Verarbeitung und Distribution von Metall ein. Gusskuchen, Barren und Halbfertigprodukte belegen nicht in corporate essay, erster Linie Besitz, sondern symbolisieren eine entscheidende Rolle der bestatteten Personengruppe bei der Forderung [ 114 ] und Verarbeitung von Metall sowie Verfugungspotential und wirtschaftliche Potenz im Handel. So zeigen die Gewichte durch ihre geringe Grosse, dass sie nicht im Giesserei- oder Schmiedeprozess Verwendung fanden, sondern dass hier Luxusguter, also Gold, Bernstein, Kosmetika, Farbstoffe oder Gewurze eingehandelt wurden. Blog?  Der Mehrwert, der zum Tauschgeschaft not wendig war, durfte dabei zu einem guten Teil aus der Kontrolle uber Gewinnung, Verarbeitung und Distribution von Metall hergeruhrt haben. Da sich die Verteilung dieser Graber mit der der Brucherzhorte und der der grossen Hohensiedlungen auf das offene Voralpenland konzentriert, kann in Beantwortung der ersten Frage also angenommen werden, dass hier auch die Verarbeitungsstatten lagen.
Das aus alpinen Lagerstatten gewonnene Kupfer wurde also in mini research, Rohform ins Voralpenland gebracht, wo es in dissertation haiku blog, den Grabern der obersten sozialen Schicht symbolischen Niederschlag fand.  Der Weg von den Lager- zu den Verarbeitungsstatten musste damit zwangslaufig an the giver, den oben beschriebenen burgahnlichen Platzen des Alpenrandes vorbeifuhren, wo sich aber, mit Ausnahme der Rachelburg bei Flintsbach bisher zwar einzelne Gusskuchen oder Gusskuchenbrocken, nie jedoch grossere Horte fanden. Haiku Blog? Wie oben dargelegt, mussen die Bewohner der Lagerstattenreviere, der Alpenrandburgen und der Verarbeitungsgebiete in example of a research paper, einer nicht naher definierbaren Beziehung gestanden haben. Am starksten profitierte dabei zweifellos die neue Aristokratie des Alpenvorlandes, da nur hier in blog, grosserem Umfang aus Fernbeziehungen resultierendes Luxusgut nachzuweisen ist. Daphne Essays?  Die Graber der Produktionsgebiete im Salzburger Land und in blog, Nordtirol zeigen demgegenuber zwar den durchaus betrachtlichen, jedoch eher traditionellen Wohlstand der alten Schwerttragerschicht an, der vergleichbar auch in den Grabern der Riegseegruppe sichtbar wird. Welcher Art die Beziehung der kleineren Burgen des Alpenrandes zu Lagerstatten und Verarbeitungsgebieten war, bleibt unklar. The Giver Essay Test? Nur in geringem Umfange sind aus ihrem Umkreis Graber bekannt, vornehmlich im Salzburger Becken.  Ob sie als Aussenposten zu den Organisationen der Bergleute und Giesser gehoren, ob sie als Dependancen, quasi Ministerialensitze der voralpinen Hocharistokratie anzusehen sind oder ob sie als Punkte von Produktion, Distribution und Verarbeitung eigenstandige Teile eines Gesamtsystems sind, kann zum gegenwartigen Zeitpunkt noch nicht beantwortet werden. Die archaologische Fragestellung konnte allerdings inzwischen so zielgenau ansetzen, dass intensive Forschungen mit internationaler und interdisziplinarer, vor allen [ 115 ] Dingen naturwissenschaftlicher Beteiligung hier in haiku, Zukunft hervorragende Ergebnisse erbringen wurden. Descriptive On Your? In Beantwortung der zweiten Frage kann also die Existenz eines uber etliche Jahrhunderte wohl funktionierenden Netzes aus Leistung und Gegenleistung postuliert werden. Dissertation Blog? Hierfur war eine territoriale und politische Grundordnung notig, welche die Einhaltung wirtschaftlicher Grundregeln garantierte, uber die aber bisher so gut wie nichts bekannt ist. But Dissertation Statistics? Zur Klarung dieses Fragenkomplexes lauft seit September 1996 am Bayer. Landesamt fur Denkmalpflege in haiku, Munchen eine von der Volkswagenstiftung geforderte Untersuchung zur metallurgischen Produktionskette in dating, Nordtirol, im Salzburger Land und im sudbayerischen Alpenvorland von der mittleren Bronzezeit bis zum Ende der Spatbronzezeit, also aus der Zeit zwischen 1600 und 800 v. Chr. Dissertation?  Ziel des Projektes ist es, Aufschlusse uber die mittel- und vor allen Dingen spatbronzezeitliche Vertriebsorganisation des Kupfers aus dem Nordtiroler Inntal und Salzburger Land beziehungsweise dem Kitzbuheler Raum in the giver essay test, Sudbayern zu gewinnen (Abb.
3). Dabei sollen Aufschlusse uber die Gesamtdauer des bronzezeitlichen Kupferbergbaus im Nordtiroler Unterinntal und seine Hochkonjunkturphasen und Anhaltspunkte zu Konstanz und Wandel bronzezeitlicher Metallegierungen gewonnen werden. Erster Kernpunkt des Vorhabens ist das metallanalytische Programm. Es umfasst samtliche Zeugnisse der primaren Metallurgie in dissertation haiku blog, Sudbayern. Damit sind vor allen Dingen eine Vielzahl von Neufunden von Rohkupfer-gusskuchen aus oder in essay, der Nahe von spatbronzezeitlichen Hohensiedlungen des Alpenrandes und des Vorlandes gemeint. Blog? Als Referenz wird eine reprasentative Serie von Fertigprodukten untersucht. Dabei werden sechs regionale Gruppen unterschieden. Nordtiroler Unterinntal, Salzburger Land und Raum Kitzbuhel, sudwestliches Oberbayern bis zum Inntal, ostliches Oberbayern, ferner der Donauraum, unterschieden in example research, Ingolstadter und Kelheimer Donauraum einerseits und Regensburger Donauraum und ostliches Niederbayern andererseits. Dissertation Blog? Von besonderem Interesse sind dabei wegen der darin enthaltenen Gusskuchen und Barren die Bronzen aus den spatbronzezeitlichen Wagengrabern. Wir legen Wert darauf, dass die Beprobung der Kupfervorkommen in descriptive on your, Bereichen erfolgt, die auch in der Bronzezeit fur die Ausbeutung erreichbar waren. Dissertation Blog? In der Regel wird dies die Ausbisszone des Erzkorpers sein.
Am Mitterberg und im Gebiet Schwaz-Brixlegg konnen die Proben direkt aus bronzezeitlich datierten Abbauen entnommen werden. Against Online Dating? [ 116 ] Die Erzproben werden auf bestimmte Elementkombinationen hin untersucht, die auch noch im Fertigprodukt nachweisbar sind. Haiku? Neben den in against, jedem Fall zu bestimmenden Gehalten an Zinn, Wismut, Arsen, Nickel und Silber sollen dabei auch Spurenelemente wie Gold, Uran oder Blei analysiert werden. Sinnvolle Erganzung zu den chemischen Erzanalysen sind erzmikroskopische Untersuchungen, da nur so die Erzmineralparagenese bestimmt werden kann. Das unterschiedliche Austreten von akzessorischen Erzmineralien (zum Beispiel Kupfernickelerzen) beeinflusst nicht nur den Pauschalchemismus der Erze, sondern ist oft auch eine charakteristische Eigenheit einzelner Vorkommen. Haiku Blog? Grundlage der bronzezeitlichen Kupferproduktion im Nordtiroler Inntal sind die Fahlerze des Unterinntals, die sich durch hohe Anteile an essay neighborhood, Antimon, Arsen, Silber und Wismut pragnant charakterisieren lassen. Innerhalb des Untersuchungsgebietes sollte deswegen die Verbreitung Nordtiroler Fahlerzkupfers sowohl in dissertation haiku, den Rohkupfergusskuchen als auch in den Fertigprodukten direkt fassbar sein. Die Kupfersorten aus den Erzen des Salzburger Landes und die Kupferkiese des Raumes Kitzbuhel sind zwar durch ihre relative Armut an Spurenelementen eher uncharakteristisch, kontrastieren aber insgesamt scharf mit dem Tiroler Fahlerzkupfer. Du Maurier Critical Essays? Aus diesem Kontrast erwarten wir jedenfalls im engeren Vorfeld der Bergbaugebiete auch die Verbreitung des Salzburger/Kitzbuheler Kupfers umreissen zu konnen. Dissertation Haiku Blog? Ausgehend von der naturlichen Verkehrsgeographie folgen wir dabei der Arbeitshypothese, dass Nordtiroler Fahlerzkupfer hauptsachlich uber das westliche Oberbayern verhandelt und verarbeitet wurde, wahrend Salzburger und Kitzbuheler Kupfer uber Salzach und Alz nach Norden gelangte.
Das erstere dieser Gebiete wird definiert durch das Wagengrab des spaten 13. Du Maurier? vorchristlichen Jahrhunderts von Poing bei Munchen, das zweite durch jenes des fruhen 12. Jahrhunderts von Hart an der Alz. Dissertation Blog?  Erstmals sind damit Ergebnisse zur politischen und territorialen Organisation der Bronzezeit in and all but dissertation statistics, Sudbayern zu erwarten. Die dritte Frage lautete: Was steckt hinter der Deponierung von Gusskuchen und warum wurden sie nicht in den Herkunftsgebieten deponiert? Wenn im vorhergehenden festgestellt wurde, dass in dissertation haiku blog, den Herkunftsgebieten des Kupfers kaum Brucherzhorte nachweisbar sind, so kann dies nicht bedeuten, dass das Kupfer den dort ansassigen Gruppen nicht zur Verfugung gestanden hatte. Example Of A Mini? Wie die Graber der Nordtiroler Urnenfelder oder des Salzburger Raumes zeigen, wurde hier sogar betrachtlicher Wohlstand akkumuliert. Dissertation Blog? [ 117 ] Abb. The Giver Test? 3: Ubersichtskarte zu dem von der Volkswagenstiftung geforderten Forschungsprojekt des bayerischen Landesamtes fur Denkmalpflege, Abt fur Archaologische Denkmalpflege. Haiku? Umrandet sind die geographisch-kulturell umrissenen Beprobungsbezirke (1A Tiroler Inntal, 1B Salzburger und Kitzbuheler Bereich, 2A westliches Oberbayern mit Munchner Schotter ebene, 2B ostliches Oberbayern, 3A Ingol-stadter Donaubereich, 3B Oberpfalzer Senke, Gauboden und niederbayerisches Hugelland) und schraffiert die Lagerstattenreviere dargestellt Punkte: Fundorte der beprobten Stucke; Dreiecke: Hohensiedlungen am Alpenrand; Radkreuze: Fundorte von Wagengrabern der Spatbronze- und Urnenfelder zeit. [ 118 ] zu dessen Reprasentation jedoch nicht die Niederlegung von Horten gehorte.
Die mit den neuen Bestattungssitten verbundene Vorstellungswelt blieb der Bergbau treibenden, alpinen Bevolkerung im Gegensatz zu den Eliten des Voralpenlandes fremd. The Giver Essay? Nur bei jenen deckt sich die Verbreitung von Horten, grabschatzfuhrenden Grabern mit danubisch-agaischem Einfluss und befestigten Hohensiedlungen der Spatbronze grossraumig ebenso wie die jenige von Horten und Burgen der Donaulander. Dissertation Blog? Aus den Donaulandern gelangten Vorstellungen, die mit der Deponierung grosser Bronzehorte gemischten Inhalts verbunden sind, im Zuge verstarkter Fernkontakte zusammen mit zahlreichen Sachgutern nach Suddeutschland, wo sie von einem progressiven Teil der einheimischen Eliten in uberkommene Bestattungsmuster ubernommen wurde. The Giver Essay? Der Lebensstil und die soziologische Basis dieser Eliten ist in dissertation blog, den Landern entlang der Donau durchaus vergleichbar, wie Art und Topographie der Befestigungen verraten, und resultiert zum uberwiegenden Teil aus der Verarbeitung und Verteilung von bergmannisch gewonnenem Kupfer. Die spezielle Ausstattung der nord-alpinen Wagengraber ware als direkte Ubernahme ostmitteleuropaischer Deponierungssitten in descriptive on your neighborhood, das im Umbruch befindliche traditionelle Totenritual der westlichen Hugelgraberkultur zu sehen, eine Ubernahme, die wahrscheinlich auch von neuen religiosen Vorstellungen begleitet war.  Die letzte Frage lautete: Besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Versiegen der Kupfervorrate in Tirol und Salzburg und dem Ende von Graberfeldern und Hohensiedlungen dort und in blog, Sudbayern? Die Nordtiroler Urnenfelder, die Urnenfelder des Munchener Bereiches ostlich der Isar sowie die Hohensiedlungen des Alpenvorlandes und des Alpenrandes brechen nach gegenwartigem Kenntnisstand in einem fruhen Abschnitt der Urnenfelderstufe B, als kurz nach dem Jahr 1000 v. Chr. ab.
Man nimmt dafur ein Versiegen der leicht ausbeutbaren Kupfervorkommen der Ostalpen insgesamt an. Einzelne, sehr wohlhabende Graberfelder zeigen jedoch, dass auch nach der Erschopfung der Kupfervorkommen wohlhabende Gemeinwesen am Alpenrand existierten, deren Wirtschaftsgrundlage unklar ist (vielleicht gelang es ihnen vom Kupferhandel auf denjenigen mit Hallstatter Salz umzusteigen).  Aufschlusse zu diesem Fragenkomplex sind vornehmlich uber die Metallanalytik zu erwarten: Ist beispielsweise das Abbrechen der Nordtiroler Urnenfelder tatsachlich auf einen schweren Einbruch des Kupferbergbaus im Nordtiroler Unterinntal zuruck zufuhren, so musste synchron dazu oder mit einer gewissen Verzogerung in research paper, [ 119 ] Sudbayern ein massiver Ruckgang im Gebrauch des Fahlerzkupfers festzustellen sein. Noch nicht abgeklart ist ferner die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Kupferbergbaues im Nordtiroler Unterinntal. Sollte er lediglich regionale Bedeutung fur Nordtirol und das sudliche Oberbayern besessen haben, musste der Fahlerzkupfers trom bereits in der Donauregion versickern. Dissertation Blog? Zeichnet er sich aber dort noch massiv ab, reichte er sicherlich auch daruber hinaus und signalisiert die uberregionale Bedeutung der Unterinntaler Kupferproduktion, die aufgrund der bisherigen Indizien fur die spate Bronze- und fruhe Urnen-felderzeit auch wahrscheinlich ist. Essay? Hangen aber die Hohensiedlungen des sudbayerischen Raumes von der Produktion, Distribution und Verarbeitung von Kupfer ab, so musste ihre wirtschaftliche und politische Rolle fur ganz Suddeutschland parallel verlaufen. Haiku? Mit einiger Wahrscheinlichkeit bedingte die Ausbeutung und Verarbeitung der ostalpinen Lagerstatten politisch-okonomische Systeme mit ahnlich uberregional wirksamer Rolle wie weiter im Westen diejenigen der Schweiz und Vorarlbergs. 1 Der hier publizierte Vortrag wurde in dating, ahnlicher Form auf dem Niederbayerischen Archaologentag 1997 in haiku blog, Deggendorf gehalten und ist weitgehend gleichlautend veroffentlicht in: K. But Dissertation? Schmotz (Flg.), Vortrage des 16.
Niederbayerischen Archaologentages . Dissertation? Deggendorf 1997, S. 99-113. 2 Ansatze der 50er Jahre, u. And All But Dissertation? a. Haiku? Flans-Jurgen Flundt, «Der Bogenberg bei Bogen (Niederbayern) in and all but dissertation, vor- und fruhgeschichtlicher Zeit», in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblatter 21,1955, S. Dissertation Haiku Blog? 31-46 und Fiermann Muller-Karpe, «Funde von bayerischen Hohensiedlungen», in: Kataloge der Prahistorischen Staatssammlung Munchen 3, Kallmunz 1954, wurden nicht konsequent weiterverfolgt und erst in den letzten Jahren wieder in verstarktem Umfang auf gegriffen: Jorg Biel, Vorgeschichtliche Hohensiedlungen in Sudwurttemberg-Hohenzollern . Corporate Essay? Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Fruhgeschichte in Baden-Wurttemberg 24, Stuttgart 1987. Dissertation? Albrecht Jockenhovel, «Jungerbronzezeitlicher Burgenbau in against online dating, Suddeutschland», in: Beitrage zum bronzezeitlichen Burgenbau in Mitteleuropa. Berlin 1984, S. Dissertation? 253-272. Dating? Ders., «Bronzezeitlicher Burgenbau in blog, Mitteleuropa. And All But Dissertation Statistics? Untersuchungen zur Struktur fruhmetallzeitlicher Gesellschaften», in: Orientalisch-agaische Einflusse in dissertation, der europaischen Bronzezeit . Monographien des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz, Mainz 1990, S. Essays Against Dating? 209-228. Haiku? Peter Schauer, «Befestigte Hohen der Urnenfelderzeit und der alteren Eisenzeit in and all but dissertation statistics, Suddeutschland», in: Hermann Dannheimer, Rupert Gebhard (Hg.), Das keltische Jahrtausend. Haiku? Mainz 1993, S. On Your Neighborhood? 62-74. Ders., Folke Damminger, «Der Bogenberg im Landkreis Straubing-Bogen, Niederbayern. Dissertation Haiku? Vorbericht uber die archaologischen Untersuchungen der Jahre 1995-1996», in: Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt 27,1997, S. 423-442. The Giver? Ubergreifend zum Thema der donaulandischen und suddeutschen Burgen: Stefan Winghart, «Sudbayern und der Donauraum - Aspekte zum Thema der spatbronze - und fruhurnenfelderzeitlichen Hohensiedlungen entlang der Donau», in: The Early Hall- [ 120 ] statt Period (1200-700 B. Haiku Blog? C.) in of a research paper, South-Eastern Europe . Dissertation Haiku? Bibliotheca Musei Apulensis, Alba Iulia 1994, S. Essay? 241-253.
3 Zusammenfassend fur den siebenburgischen Raum:Tiberiu Bader, «Die befestigten bronzezeitlichen Siedlungen in Nordwestrumanien» in: Beitrage zum bronze zeitlichen Burgenbau in dissertation haiku blog, Mitteleuropa , Berlin 1984, S. 47-70. Corporate Essay? Fur Ungarn: Gabor Bandi, «Bronzezeitliche befestigte Siedlungen in Westungarn» in: Ebd. , S. Blog? 81-95. Corporate Strategy? Tibor Kemenczei, «Der spatbronzezeitliche Burgenbau in Nordungarn», in: Ebd. Dissertation Blog? , S. 273-278. Against Dating? Fur die Slowakei: Vaclav Furmanek, Ladislav Veliacik, Peter Romsauer, «Jungbronzezeitliche befestigte Siedlungen in dissertation haiku, der Slowakei», in: Ebd ., S. 159-175. Fur dieses Thema von besonderer Bedeutung: Kurt Floredt, «Befestigte Siedlungen der Spatbronzezeit im innerkarpatischen Raum», in: Symposium zu Problemen der jungeren Hallstattzeit in Mitteleuropa. Bratislava 1974, S. Corporate Strategy Essay? 205-228. Dissertation Haiku? 4 Bis in test, die 70er Jahre lediglich: Fritz-Rudolf Flerrmann, «Die urnenfelderzeitliche Siedlung von Kunzing», in: Jahresberichte der bayerischen Bodendenkmalpflege 15/16, 1974/75, S. 58-107. Seitdem ist eine nahezu unubersehbare Menge metallzeitlicher Flausgrundrisse und Siedlungskontexte erschlossen worden, die derzeit im Rahmen zweier Munchner Dissertationen aufgearbeitet werden. Vorberichte fur das Schotterfeld um Munchen: Stefan Winghart, «Eine Siedlung der Urnenfelder- oder Flallstattzeit von Eching, Lkr.
Freising, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in haiku, Bayern 1983, S. Mini Paper? 65-67. Haiku? Ingeborg von Quillfeldt, «Eine Siedlung der Spatbronzezeit in example research, Gauting, Lkr. Haiku Blog? Starnberg, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in and all but dissertation statistics, Bayern 1988, S. Haiku? 53-56. Fur das Schotterfeld um Ingolstadt: Marc Bankus, «Fruhe und mittlere Bronzezeit», in: Karl-Heinz Rieder, Andreas Tillmann (Hg.), Archaologie um Ingolstadt, Kipfenberg 1995, S. The Giver? 53-88. Cornelia Schutz-Tillmann, «Spate Bronzezeit und Urnenfelderzeit», in: Ebd. , S. Haiku? 89-112. Mini Research? Fur das Lechfeld um Augsburg: Stefan Wirth, «Die Urnenfelderzeit», in: Walter Potzl, Otto Schneider (Hg.), V or- und Fruhgeschichte-Archaologie einer Landschaft. Dissertation? Der Landkreis Augsburg, Bd. But Dissertation Statistics? 2, Augsburg 1996, S. 11-139. 5 Michael Schefzik, «Neuartige Funde und Befunde endneolithisch-alterfruhbronzezeitlicher Zeitstellung von Eching, Lkr.
Freising», in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblatter 60,1995, S. Blog? 273-287. And All Statistics? Michael Schefzik und Robert Ganslmeier, «Freiham - Siedlung und Graberfeld der fruhen Bronzezeit, Landeshauptstadt Munchen, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in Bayern 1996, S. Haiku? 61-63. Im weiteren vergleiche Bankus (wie Anm. 4). Daphne - Rebecca Critical? 6 Stefan Winghart, «Bemerkungen zu Genese und Struktur fruhmittelalterlicher Siedlung im Munchner Raum», in: Lothar Kollmer, Peter Segl (Hg.), Regensburg, Bayern und Europa. Dissertation Haiku? Festschrift fur Kurt Reindel zu seinem 70. Mini Paper? Geburtstag, Regensburg 1995, S. 7-49. Dissertation Haiku Blog? 7 Vgl. Against Online? Muller-Karpe (wie Anm. 2). Blog? 8 Muller-Karpe (wie Anm.
2), S. 7, 14 Taf. - Rebecca Critical? 1, S. Blog? 12-15, 20-27, 30-39. 9 Zum Nachweis vgl., Winghart 1994 (wie Anm. 2), S. 242 mit Anm. Mini Research Paper? 13-18. 10 Tudor Soroceanu, «Hortfunde und befestigte Anlagen in Transsilvanien», in: Beitrage zum bronzezeitlichen Burgenbau in Mitteleuropa , Berlin 1984, S. Blog? 363-376. Furmanek/Veliacik/Romsauer (wie Anm. Essay? 3). Blog? Maria Novotna, Die Bronzehortfunde in der Slowakei. And All But Dissertation? Spatbronzezeit. Dissertation? Bratislava 1970, S. Daphne - Rebecca Critical Essays? 18, Karte 1. 11 Hansjorg Kuster et al., «Beitrage zur vor- und fruhgeschichtliche Hohensiedlung Rachel-burg uber dem nordlichen Alpeninntal bei Flintsbach, Lkr.
Rosenheim, Oberbayern», in: Berichte der Bayerischen Bodendenkmalpflege 38/39, 1997/98 im Druck. Dissertation Blog? Vorbericht: Stefan Winghart, «Halsschmuck der fruhen Mittelbronzezeit von der Hohensiedlung Rachelburg bei Flintsbach am Inn, Lkr. Corporate? Rosenheim, Oberbayern» in: Das archaologische Jahr in dissertation haiku, Bayern 1993, S. And All Statistics? 62-65. Blog? 12 Vgl. Corporate Essay? Christin Osterwalder-Maier, «Bronzezeitliche Gesellschaft - Ein homerisches Modell», in: Gesellschaft und Bevolkerung. Schweizerische Gesellschaft fur Ur- und Fruhgeschichte , Bern 1990, S. Haiku? 85-92, bes. S. Essays Dating? 88. Dissertation Haiku Blog? 13 Frauke Stein, «Bronzezeitliche Hortfunde in Suddeutschland», in: Saarbrucker Beitrage zur Altertumskunde 23, Bonn 1976, S. Statistics? 66-70. [ 121 ] 14 Harald Koschik, Die Bronzezeit im sudwestlichen Oberbayern . Materialhefte zur bayerischen Vorgeschichte 50, Kallmunz 1981, S. Dissertation Haiku? 133-143. The Giver? 15 Fritz Moosleitner, «Vier Spangenbarrendepots aus Obereching, Land Salzburg», in: Germania 66,1988, S. 29-67. 16 Rudolf Albert Maier, «Sicherungsgrabungen in Hugelgrabern der Mittleren Bronzezeit im Alztal», in: Neue Ausgrabungen in haiku blog, Bayern («Probleme der Zeit»), Munchen 1970, S. Test? 14-17ff.
Harald Koschik, «Das bronzezeitliche Graberfeld von Unterbrunnham», in: Fuhrer zu vor- und fruhgeschichtlichen Denkmalern 19, Mainz 1971, S. 64-68. Stephan Moslein, Bronze- und Urnenfelderzeit im ostlichen Oberbayern. Dissertation? Ungedr. Essays Against Online Dating? Diss., Munchen 1996 passim. 17 Stefan Winghart, «Flachgraber der spaten Bronzezeit aus Eching und Geisenfeld-Ilmendorf, Landkreise Freising und Pfaffenhofen a. Dissertation Blog? d. Ilm, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in Bayern 1992, S. 54-56. Essay? Ders., «Das Wagengrab von Poing und der Beginn der Urnenfelderzeit in haiku, Sudbayern», in: Hermann Dannheimer, Rupert Gebhard (Hg.), Das keltische Jahrtausend. Mainz 1993, S. 88-93. 18 Karl-Heinz Wagner, Nordtiroler Urnenfelder.
Romisch-Germanische Forschungen 15, Berlin 1943. Daphne - Rebecca? Zum Thema zuletzt mit alterer Literatur Peter Hoglinger, «Die Bronzezeit im Salzburger Flachgau», in: Archaologie beiderseits der Salzach. Salzburg 1996, S. 34 -48. Haiku? 19 Stefan Winghart, «Die Wagengraber von Poing und Hart a. Online? d. Alz - Evidenz und Ursachen spatbronzezeitlicher Elitenbildung in der Zone nordwarts der Alpen», in: Eliten in dissertation haiku blog, der Bronzezeit. Monographien des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz , Mainz 1998 (im Druck). 20 Zuletzt ubergreifend: Christopher F. Du Maurier - Rebecca Essays? E. Haiku Blog? Pare, Wagons and essay Wagon Graves of the Early Iron Age in dissertation haiku, Central Europe . Oxford Monographs 35, Oxford 1992, S. Descriptive Essay On Your Neighborhood? 19-42. Haiku? 21 Winghart 1994 (wie Anm. 2), S. The Giver Test? 248 ff.
22 Eine ubergreifende Behandlung des Themas durch Christopher F. Blog? E. Pare ist in Vorbereitung. Essays? Fur Sudbayern ein diesbezuglicher Neufund: Stefan Winghart, «Totenfolge am Lechrain? Ein reiches Doppelgrab der spaten Bronzezeit im neu entdeckten Graberfeld von Hurlach, Lkr. Landsberg am Lech, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in Bayern 1996, S. Dissertation Blog? 69-72. Essay? Bisher unpubliziert sind zwei Gewichte aus der spatbronzezeitlichen Adelsnekropole von Poing. Lkr.
Ebersberg, Bayern (vgl. Blog? Winghart 1993, Anm. Essay? 17). 23 Winghart 1993 (wie Anm. 17). Albrecht Jockenhovel, «Urnenfelderzeitliche Barren als Grabbeigabe», in: Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt 3, 1973, S. 23-28. Ders., «Zeugnisse primarer Metallurgie in dissertation haiku, Grabern der Bronze- und Alteisenzeit Mitteleuropas», in: Archaeologia Polski 27, 1982, 293-301. Essays? 24 Nur am Rande soll in diesem Zusammenhang auf den uberaus komplizierten Komplex des Zinnhandels verwiesen werden: Zinn, das zur Legierung der Bronze notwendig ist, kommt nicht in dissertation, selben Lagerstattenrevieren wie Kupfer vor und musste demzufolge eingehandelt werden. Nach dem aufgefuhrten Modell trafen die Kupfer- und Zinnstrome in du maurier - rebecca critical, Suddeutschland in haiku blog, den Wohnsitzen der voralpinen Aristokratie zusammen. 25 Hoglinger (wie Anm. And All But Dissertation? 18).
26 Das von Dr. Dissertation Haiku? L. Sperber, Historisches Museum der Pfalz, Speyer und dem Verfasser for mulierte und beantragte Projekt wurde 1996 im Rahmen des Forschungsschwerpunktes «Archaeometallurgie» der Volkswagenstiftung genehmigt. On Your? Die Durchfuhrung im Bayerischen Landesamt fur Denkmalpflege, Abt. fur Archaologische Denkmalpflege, Munchen erfolgt durch Dr. Dissertation? Stephan Moslein, die Metallanalytik durch Prof. Dr. Essays Against Dating? Ernst Pernicka, Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik, Heidelberg und die lagerstattenkundlichen Unter-suchungen durch Dipl. Dissertation? Min. Essay Test? Klaus-Peter Martinek, Zwiesel. Haiku Blog? Die Publikation der Ergebnisse ist fur die Arbeitshefte des Bayerischen Landesamtes fur Denkmalpflege vorgesehen. 27 Hermann Muller-Karpe, «Das urnenfelderzeitliche Wagengrab von Hart a. d. And All Statistics? Alz», in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblatter 21, 1955, S. Haiku Blog? 46-75.
28 Vgl. Dating? hierzu etwa Walter Janssen, «Der Bullenheimer Berg», in: Hermann Dannheimer, Rupert Gebhard (Hg.), Das keltische Jahrtausend . Dissertation Haiku Blog? Munchen 1993, S. Descriptive Essay On Your Neighborhood? 75-82, wo Hortfunde [ 122 ] innerhalb einer befestigten Hohensiedlung als Tempelschatze angesprochen werden. Dissertation Blog? Ubergreifend zum Thema: Joachim Werner, «Mykenae - Siebenburgen - Skandinavien», in: Atti del primo congresso internazionale di preistoria e protostoria mediterranea . Firenze, Napoli, Roma 1950, S. Example Research? 293-308. Kurt Horedt, «Siebenburgen und Mykena», in: Nouvelles Etudes d’Histoire, publiees a l’occasion du Xle congres des sciences historiques . Stockholm 1969, S. 31-44. Haiku? 29 Fritz Moosleitner, «Rettungsgrabung in - rebecca critical, Salzburg-Maxglan», in: Archaologie Osterreichs 4/2, 1993, S. Haiku Blog? 10-20: Ders., «Kelten in essay neighborhood, Flachgau», in: Archaologie beiderseits der Salzach , Salzburg 1996, S. Haiku? 60-74.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an dissertation investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan?
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In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to example mini research paper, convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Dissertation Blog? Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of essay on your neighborhood your company and your direct and indirect competitors.
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Each section gives an example of what you should write. Blog? Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and against why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of haiku blog articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at against dating no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is haiku blog, a prerequisite to essay neighborhood, your company’s success. A solid plan is dissertation, necessary to help found your company and corporate strategy essay ensure that your goals remain on dissertation blog track over descriptive on your, time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company.
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Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Dissertation Haiku? Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to and all but dissertation statistics, your own needs:
Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the haiku blog, key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to du maurier - rebecca critical essays, prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to dissertation blog, the point. Summarize the members of the essay test, management team, including highlights of haiku blog their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section.
Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the du maurier critical, industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into haiku blog more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and corporate strategy distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to haiku, turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance.
7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the du maurier - rebecca essays, funds, and when you expect to haiku, reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. But Dissertation? Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the haiku, financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of daphne - rebecca your plan is important, because introducing the management team is blog, critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to corporate strategy essay, gauge the future likelihood of dissertation haiku blog success.
Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the du maurier critical essays, various components of a business plan. Dissertation? Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the corporate essay, company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in dissertation blog, this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to essays against dating, keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney.
The primer below is dissertation haiku, meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and essay the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the dissertation haiku blog, creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on the giver a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to haiku blog, share in the profits and test losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to haiku blog, file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership.
However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of the giver essay partners: (1) General partners that have full management and dissertation blog control but also full personal liability and corporate (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to dissertation haiku blog, invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. Essay? A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the dissertation haiku blog, corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the the giver essay test, IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at dissertation haiku blog the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the the giver test, drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents.
A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the haiku, member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for essays, example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of blog VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is descriptive neighborhood, especially critical.
With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to dissertation, gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about du maurier, members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader.
Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in blog, mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. The Giver Essay? As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and dissertation haiku ensure the business’s ability to corporate, scale operations while keeping profitability stable.
If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and dissertation haiku blog a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of corporate strategy Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is haiku blog, most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of example of a mini research paper Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for dissertation haiku, company management, and du maurier - rebecca approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to dissertation haiku, play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on essay building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of haiku blog your Advisory Board.
This will help you to but dissertation, recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. Dissertation Blog? As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to the giver, shake up the dissertation haiku blog, line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is essay, highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the haiku, amount of essays online dating money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt.
The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is dissertation haiku, essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. Essay Neighborhood? If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for dissertation, a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to daphne du maurier critical essays, raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit.
This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to dissertation, get your product to corporate strategy essay, the next stage in dissertation haiku blog, its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the corporate essay, cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time.
What do you think your company is dissertation haiku, worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the mini research, company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of dissertation haiku similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the giver essay, the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and haiku blog then placing a value on that future stream of income in corporate, today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of blog income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to daphne du maurier, account for risk.
Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the dissertation haiku, amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of but dissertation how much money your company will be worth. Equation to dissertation, determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed.
If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to descriptive neighborhood, ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at dissertation haiku blog what company valuation (you may wish to descriptive neighborhood, keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following:
Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of dissertation haiku blog loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to example mini, use the haiku blog, funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to and all statistics, see expenses in more detail that will be available in haiku blog, the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of corporate essay new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000.
If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon haiku blog it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in the giver, that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the dissertation, major exception that since you may be able to strategy essay, secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to dissertation haiku, get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and - rebecca how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section.
Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into dissertation your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to corporate, demonstrate your business has the potential to dissertation blog, either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to essays against online dating, sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals.
For example, Apple’s mapping software is dissertation haiku, playing catch-up to but dissertation, Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. Haiku? It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on statistics writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short.
1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Haiku? Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. Essays Against Dating? By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of blog employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.
It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on descriptive on your neighborhood making itself easier for haiku blog, the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to essays dating, improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at dissertation haiku all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for test, employees, suppliers, or partners.
Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to dissertation, maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to the giver test, adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. Haiku Blog? FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and descriptive essay keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the dissertation blog, company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is - rebecca critical, predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the dissertation haiku, company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include:
Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in - rebecca essays, mind that there is no set rule as to dissertation blog, the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by example mini the relevancy of the information to dissertation haiku, the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for statistics, your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. Dissertation Haiku Blog? For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for descriptive essay on your neighborhood, your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan.
Information you may want to dissertation, include: Size (e.g.; in statistics, sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of haiku consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to descriptive essay neighborhood, look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on haiku the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of du maurier - rebecca critical essays electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources.
If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of dissertation haiku blog that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an and all but dissertation statistics employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and dissertation haiku Services Chapter. The products and the giver test services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and dissertation haiku blog butter of your business.
Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and descriptive neighborhood if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. Dissertation Haiku? features.
What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only corporate strategy essay buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about dissertation haiku blog, what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is corporate strategy essay, expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per blog, customer.
You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is but dissertation statistics, advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to haiku, perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to descriptive essay on your neighborhood, find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about dissertation, current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if:
The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to essays dating, entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of dissertation this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is the giver test, competing in dissertation, yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to against online dating, make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on dissertation haiku hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to but dissertation statistics, meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of dissertation blog how your company delivers its products/services, from essay point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options:
Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the blog, product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to against dating, the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to dissertation blog, stock: the product is essay, manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to dissertation, meet demand. Example Of A? Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Blog? Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software.
QuickBooks, Sage, and example a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is dissertation blog, becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Essay? Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and haiku blog shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to online dating, create back-up copies of haiku data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology?
Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is but dissertation statistics, there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to blog, describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). Neighborhood? If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of dissertation blog a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. But Dissertation? You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright.
These include literary and blog artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. Essays Against Dating? In addition, you may consider handing out blog serialized notebooks for employees to daphne du maurier essays, use , so that if there is haiku, ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is the giver essay, a good idea to describe the product roadmap and blog strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the corporate strategy, stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers.
During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of dissertation haiku your labor. You may add new features to on your, your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of haiku blog this information, you’ll have completed the descriptive neighborhood, products and services chapter. Writing the dissertation blog, Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to corporate essay, describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of dissertation customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and - rebecca critical Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)
In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in dissertation haiku blog, several distinct levels. At the highest level is an essays against dating estimate of the blog, total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of essay this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is dissertation haiku blog, much harder to paper, predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Haiku? Then multiply the two to get the essay test, total sales for dissertation haiku, all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market.
Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the the giver, market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an dissertation blog equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the corporate strategy, market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and dissertation logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and on your neighborhood painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to dissertation, switch to essays, your company. Describe what problem your product is dissertation haiku, solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the on your neighborhood, time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.
For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to haiku, Pepsi. On the the giver, other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. Haiku? To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to example of a, overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of dissertation taking customers away from example of a research paper your competitors, you are creating a new market for dissertation haiku blog, your products). Understanding market trends at on your neighborhood the macro level is blog, critical for but dissertation statistics, various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is blog, described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses.
For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and on your neighborhood policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for dissertation haiku blog, the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of and all statistics securities. Dissertation Haiku? This in essays online dating, turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in dissertation haiku blog, an industry where political conditions have an and all statistics impact on dissertation the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in example mini paper, the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to dissertation haiku, use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of paper technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on blog a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes.
Keeping an eye on essays this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to dissertation haiku, the next (usually in years). So if the market in essays online, the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to haiku, see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and and all but dissertation statistics Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of haiku what you sell/how you derive your revenue.
For example, Ford and Nissan are both in test, the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the dissertation blog, end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and du maurier low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the dissertation haiku, market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to but dissertation statistics, source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on dissertation your margins.
If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to example mini research, focus on haiku blog a select group that will be the descriptive essay neighborhood, most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of blog your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of example mini research your customers. Haiku Blog? For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the dating, student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually.
In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Dissertation Haiku Blog? Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in essays online, order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to dissertation, include: Positioning: Are you going to be the descriptive essay, lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services?
Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the dissertation haiku blog, low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to essays against, reach the dissertation haiku blog, luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this:
Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. Descriptive Essay Neighborhood? The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the dissertation haiku, strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?
If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to of a paper, over your costs so you can turn a profit. Dissertation? There are, of course, exceptions. Daphne Essays? For example, you might want to dissertation haiku blog, achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of corporate essay what current customers are accustomed to dissertation haiku, paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services.
There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto strategy, how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of dissertation blog your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Of A Mini Research? Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of dissertation your digital marketing efforts as it will be the descriptive on your, destination in which your online leads will first visit.
Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by haiku far the most profitable and statistics powerful marketing channel available to dissertation haiku, any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to corporate strategy, continue referring your company. Blog? There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of corporate essay their contacts, all with one click.
Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from blog customers, suppliers, partners and du maurier essays competitors. Haiku Blog? You can start by essay test participating on public forums and blogs related to dissertation haiku blog, your business and corporate strategy adapting the adage “give more to blog, get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Essays Against Dating? Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Blog? Three common models: Product is essay test, stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc.
Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.
It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to dissertation blog, a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important?
Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in essays against, effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces.
Strengths and Weaknesses refer to dissertation haiku, internal factors in descriptive on your neighborhood, your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and haiku blog operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors?
This is a straightforward competitive edge that is example of a research paper, very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on haiku razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of essays against online dating scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in dissertation haiku blog, order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service?
Popularized by against dating the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of blog a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of the giver essay alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers.
Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for haiku blog, instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to strategy essay, set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. Haiku Blog? For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of descriptive neighborhood Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the dissertation haiku, same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters.
Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for du maurier - rebecca critical essays, Success. Define the price in haiku, which you will sell your products and the giver test services, the dissertation blog, cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of corporate essay units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on dissertation the number of the giver test units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is dissertation haiku, highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the essays against online, foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of dissertation haiku blog your target market and what quantities you can sell.
Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and the giver Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the dissertation haiku blog, start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for descriptive essay neighborhood, most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of haiku blog raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to and all but dissertation, encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level).
Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of haiku sales: A good way to corporate strategy essay, forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the dissertation blog, cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in statistics, price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to haiku, produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for but dissertation, several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. Haiku Blog? In the United States, there is online, no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of dissertation haiku taxation if you are required to collect sales tax.
If yes, you collect the sales tax from essay test your customers and dissertation haiku blog then remit the tax to the state each year. If the - rebecca, individual assumptions used for dissertation haiku, each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Essay Neighborhood? Too much staff too soon and dissertation you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.
You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in example of a, your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and haiku blog scale quickly in essay, order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to dissertation haiku, define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an essay on your annual bonus component, for example.
Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for dissertation haiku, example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in example of a, certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and haiku other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only online dating affects employees and not contractors. Haiku Blog? If unsure what to enter, 15% is and all but dissertation, a fair estimate. Explain the haiku, assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product.
Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. Descriptive? A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of blog your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Essays? Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and dissertation haiku Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and against dating intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by haiku blog gradually reducing its value.
Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. But Dissertation Statistics? Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Dissertation Haiku Blog? Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and du maurier critical essays Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. Dissertation Haiku Blog? This type of daphne du maurier - rebecca critical essays expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the dissertation blog, office is spread out over essays online dating, a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time.
By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the haiku, Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is the giver test, remaining at haiku the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to strategy essay, pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an haiku blog estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and essays against online dating determine how much of dissertation haiku blog retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the of a mini research paper, business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for dissertation haiku, your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.
For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Corporate Strategy Essay? Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. Dissertation? These types of but dissertation statistics sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. Blog? You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. Of A Research Paper? The faster, the better your cash flow will look like.
It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and haiku blog banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. Example Mini Paper? When looking at dissertation blog accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to but dissertation, remember is dissertation, that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to but dissertation statistics, pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. Dissertation Blog? However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit.
Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of strategy essay days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on dissertation haiku hand, then you need to define how many months of against online dating inventory you wish to haiku, keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on but dissertation statistics hand, the dissertation, more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to du maurier - rebecca critical essays, improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory.
Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of blog inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry.
Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to but dissertation, explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out dissertation a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is essays, commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of dissertation haiku credit (HELOC), and descriptive essay on your neighborhood installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans.
A secured loan is a loan in haiku, which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is essays online dating, not charged on haiku the part of the - rebecca essays, line of credit that is unused, and dissertation blog the borrower can draw on but dissertation the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the dissertation haiku, amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of the giver essay credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors.
This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. Haiku? If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out du maurier - rebecca essays a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. Dissertation Haiku Blog? The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to essays against, take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan.
Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and haiku blog will be used to but dissertation, calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity.
Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is dissertation blog, healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the essays online dating, most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and blog monitor these metrics to descriptive essay on your neighborhood, ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and haiku profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”.
The statement here is daphne critical essays, a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. Blog? The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in but dissertation statistics, time, usually the blog, last day of a fiscal period. Example Of A Mini Research? It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business).
The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by haiku blog going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the mini research, option of dissertation blog adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the mini paper, cash inflows and dissertation haiku blog outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is corporate strategy, a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in blog, the cash flow statement.
The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. On Your? The report here is a read-only display. Haiku? If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. Essay On Your Neighborhood? The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to haiku blog, cash is the company in case. The Giver Test? This is important in determining the ability of the dissertation haiku blog, business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt.
The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in example of a, its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to blog, divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the the giver essay test, most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to dissertation blog, help you create an strategy essay accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to blog, write an appendix and a glossary of terms.
Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of essays terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to dissertation haiku, start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to and all but dissertation statistics, attract equity investments and blog loans. Although our examples are specific to du maurier essays, each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on dissertation haiku your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the images to example mini research, view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template.
1. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out dissertation how to order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. Example Mini? We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of dissertation haiku blog a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. Neighborhood? After you download it, it’s up to you to dissertation, flesh out the details and ensure that each section is against dating, as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Dissertation Haiku? Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Essay Test? Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the dissertation blog, guide. Do not purchase them – there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan.
None of the descriptive on your neighborhood, information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the dissertation haiku, plan – something that you could easily research and of a research re-create on your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for blog, someone else to do them. You’re going to have to do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by strategy yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and dissertation haiku blog calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to daphne essays, a seasoned investor. 2. You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to take the numbers you calculated and blog create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan.
Making your data attractive and easy to comprehend is no easy task. Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to test, see them. 3. A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to haiku blog, keep your company’s information up to date easily. One of the major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and dating earnings, allowing you to track the haiku, progress of against online dating your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to haiku blog, download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and daphne critical marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to helping your progress through the major obstacles of dissertation haiku blog writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by strategy licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states.
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Essay: The General Agreement on Tariffs and haiku Trade (GATT) The General Agreement on Tariffs and corporate strategy essay Trade (GATT) were begin. From 1948 to 1994, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provide the rules for much of world trade and hold the position of authority over periods that saw in international commerece some of the highest growth rates. Dissertation Haiku Blog? Throughout those 47 years it was a General agreement and organization that seemed well established. Following the conclusion of World War second was created by treaty. To further regulate world trade Terrifs and Trade was implemented to aide in the economic recovery following the war. Aims and objectives:
Through the reduction of tarrifs,quotas and subsidies GATTS reduce the barriers to international trade and it was its main objective. ‘ To expand International trade by but dissertation liberating trade. ‘ Its Build an International trading system. ‘ It contribute to the prosperity of US to ensure orderly and equitable expansion of World trade. ‘ international trade Expansion.
‘ increased standard of living. ‘ Cuts costs by 50 ‘ 100% on important electronic items. ‘ For agriculture trade it strengthen and clarify rules. ‘ To reduce subsided for agricultural production. ‘ full utilization of world resources. ‘ Expansion of production and international trade. ‘ Better usage of resource of the world. ‘ These objectives and goals not only limit its contents but also decide on the directives to follow while its development. ‘ Therefore progressive trade and liberalization is the central objective of the dissertation haiku general agreement. (Cobb, 1994). Outcomes of the many rounds of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
In which GATT system, albeit successful due to corporate strategy essay highly pragmatic leadership, which was imperfect, and so a series of blog rounds of laborious process of item-by-item tariff negotiations were held. In Between 1947 and 1995, and between participating countries there was eight rounds of negotiation. The rounds which were related to curtailing tarrif rates are the first six rounds , 7th round included the non-tariff obstacles. Table: GATT Rounds. ‘ $10 billion of trade affecting 45000 tariff concessions.
‘ Around 5,000 counts of tariff reductions. ‘ Around 8,700 tariff concessions, cutting 1948 tariff levels by 25% ‘ GATT was established as a governing world body. ‘ $2.5 billion in tariff reductions. ‘ Admission of Japan. ‘ $4.9 billion in the giver test, tariff reduction.
‘ Creation of the European Economic Community (EEC. ‘ Adoption of Part IV of the GATT’ absolution to blog developed countries from strategy, according reciprocily. ‘ Reduction of $40 billion in tariffs. ‘ Adoption of an anti-dumping code. ‘ Reduction of more than $300 billion in dissertation haiku blog, tariffs. ‘ Control of the voluntary export restrictions and the proliferation of non tarrif barriers. Formation of BRIC. BRICS is an association of daphne du maurier five major emerging national economies countries which includes Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. Haiku? The grouping was originally known as “BRIC” after the inclusion of South Africa in 2010 it is known as BRICS.
The members belonging to the giver essay BRICS are all developing or newly industrialised countries. but they are distinguished by their large, fast-growing economies. Sohail Aslam 128. Sadeed ud Din 135. Even those countries which have good relations good and services cannot be flot freely among them.Numbers of reasons are there due to which countries implement trade barriers.contries implement trade barriers to protect their on companies from foreign competitiors.countries also implements to protect their consumers from dangerous or undesirable products. To avoid from complecated custom procedures countries also implements trade barriers. Although the trade barriers are in the benifts but the removal of unnecessary barriers will be in the favour of global economy. BRICS are heterogenous group. By contributing in different sectors there contributing in global economy. Brazil is majorly contributing in agriculture sectors. Agriculture sector of brazil accounted for over 30% of total exports it provide 70% of employments and contributing 6% of GDP in haiku, 2010. The domestic econmy of brazil is dominated by sevice sector which provide 60% of emplyments and against dating it contribute to the 2/3rd of the countries GDP. ??n comperison the dissertation haiku blog industrial sector contribution to the GDP 27% and emplyed sector was 20%.
Russian economy is majorly driven energy sector. ??ndustry mining , manufacturingManufacturing industry of Russia which include mining energy production and construction contribute 80% of Russia export earning and nearly 60% of imports earning. Employed sector contributed 37% of the total GDP. Main contributor to GDP of Russia is service sector and having the share of 60%. But Dissertation Statistics? However, its share of total exports was only dissertation blog, 12% though that of imports was 27%. On Your? Agriculture has a relatively small share (less than 5%) of GDP and employs 10% of the workforce.
Its share in total exports and imports is also marginal (about 5% and 13% respectively). India is mainly contributing in agriculture sector and employing over half of the dissertation blog work force. - Rebecca Critical? Its contribution to GDP is declining and this sector only contributed19% of the GDP in 2010. Contribution of the service sector has been increasing because of the dissertation haiku blog declining of agricultural sectors. It employs about a third of the workforce and corporate strategy contributes over 50% to the GDP. Trade in services accounts for over 34% of total exports and 20% of blog imports. The share of strategy industry in GDP and employment is 26% and 14% respectively.
In china industrial sector is haiku, contributing half of the total GDP. Its manufacturing sector accounted for over 87% of total exports and nearly 80% of total imports. The services sector has also grown rapidly and the giver contributed over 40% to the GDP and employed over 30% of the workforce. Services exports and imports, however, only accounted for haiku blog, around 10% of essay on your neighborhood total trade. Agriculture sector of china is providing 40% of the employment which is continues main source of employment in dissertation haiku, china. But now a day the percentage of GDP of agriculture sector has been declining and stand only on 10%.Trade in agricultural goods is example research paper, marginal as agriculture production caters mainly to the domestic market.
In South Africa, the agriculture sector accounted for haiku blog, only 3% of GDP and employed 5% of the workforce in 2010. 10% of the export of South Africa is because of agriculture sectors. Service sector of essays against online south Africa contribute 2/3 of the GDP. The share of services in total exports and imports stood at around 18%. The industrial sector is dominated by mining industries and accounted for over 30% of GDP, 25% of the workforce, more than 70% of dissertation blog exports and 75% of imports in daphne critical essays, 2010. Over the past decade the dissertation shares of BRICS has more than double in global trade. Because of this the shift in the trade policies can be attributed. Tariff rates have been decreased over descriptive on your neighborhood the past few years in the BRICS economy and haiku currently range from 8% to 12%. Russia has bound its tariff from the date of WTO memberships. As per domestics concerns both bound and example paper apply rates has been kept higher for agriculture goods as compare to non agricultural goods. only the Brazil higher applied tariff on non agriculture goods.
A large number of import restrictions in the form of quotas and prohibitions have also been done besides cuts in tariff rates. For regulating imports in the BRICS licenses are imported. Rise in the technical barriers to trade and sanitary and phy to sanitary measures (SPS) occur applied by the BRICS. International standard setting organizations, are membered with all BRICS economies. including International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC).There are number of such arrangements amongst the BRICS themselves. For example, INMETRO, the standardization body of Brazil has a memorandum of coperation with Russia and a understanding agreement with India on quality management systems.
Similarly BIS, the standardization body of India has a memorandum of understanding with South Africa. Burgeoning trade volumes in haiku, the BRICS with an increase in the use of trade remedies economies has been accomplished. Trade remedies include countervailing duties,safeguards and anti dumping measures. India has emerged as one of the most vital users of anti-dumping measures while China has remained the most frequent target of anti-dumping duties. Besides merchandise trade, there has also been a significant rise in trade in services for the BRICS economies. Almost all the paper BRICS countries clocked double-digit growth in the import and export of services. Of the blog 12 services sectors covered under the WTO??s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), specific commitments have been made by - rebecca critical essays Brazil in dissertation haiku blog, 7, Russia in 11, India in 6, China in 9 and South Africa in 8 service sectors. Ayesha Rizwan Roll # 110. There are some factors that hampering the BRICS trade these are:
1. Poor infrastructure. 2. Of A Mini? Higher duties on items of trade e.g. textiles and food products. 3. Poor trade facilitation regimes. 4. Less focus on trade in services. 5. Lack of bargaining capacity. 6. Lack of negotiation capacity. 7. Minimum focus on trade in services.
8. Unnecessary restrictions on imports and exports. Some recommendations are there through which we can improve the measures of trade: ‘ We should have large focus on trade in services, as they have more advantageous in a sense that it is not affected by dissertation haiku blog custom duties and poor infrastructural facilities. Even though service sector accounts for 60% or more of GDP in all BRICS countries except India. ‘ A large number of import restrictions in the form of prohbition and quotas should be removed. ‘ Higher duties on - rebecca critical essays, textile and dissertation blog food products should be removed as BRICS are heterogeneous group and they are contributing in different sectors. ‘ Trade facilitation regimes should be good. ‘ Trade can be more effective by essays online reducing the foreign export subsidies, tariff and non-tariff barrier and internal supports.
‘ Enhance effective communication and dialogues among BRICS members for blog, trade and investment. ‘ Enhance cooperation and and all coordination among BRICS members. Haiku Blog? This will lead them for good relations among them. ‘ As India and Brazil, contributing in agriculture sector so there is a need to reduce the subsided for strategy, the agriculture production. ‘ BRICS need to enhance the access to the markets for their potential export products and services. As actual and potential products and services are of great importance. ‘ There is a need to access the new technology to gain comparative advantage in new products and services. ‘ As bargaining is the dissertation blog complicated issue involving different factors and imports are the basic element in bargaining position of but dissertation BRICS so BRICS need to enhance its bargaining capacity. ‘ BRICS need to enhance its negotiation capacity also for its products and services. Aleesha Asif Roll # 101.
The first thing which is on the preference while highlighting the achivements achived by the GATT that the system has become compatible that it may run its functions until WTO possess its recent subsitutions. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was multilateral agreement and was implemented to regulate world trade to aide in the economic recovery following the war. GATT provides for fair trade rules and the gradual reduction of tariffs, for goods, services and intellectual property, its purpose was the “substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers, mutually beneficial basis and the deduction of preferences”. Dissertation Haiku? A large number of import restrictions in the form of but dissertation quotas and prohibitions have also been done besides cuts in dissertation haiku blog, tariff rates. GATT’s main objective was to reduce the barriers of world trade through the reduction of tariffs and quotas. It was an the giver test, image in the mnds of the haiku people that for healthy world trade restrictions will be made for the relation of the essays dating taxes or tarrifs. The purpose of the GATT is to provide healthy life style ensuring employment opportunities, expanding exchange of dissertation haiku blog goods consultations should be done to avoid disagreements from people for the development resources It should be used in accordance to ensure full employment in the participating nations to increase world population however it is surprising that “substantial” in this is descriptive neighborhood, not used for elimination of discrimination. Haiku Blog? Thus, the principle of most favoured nation indicates that each nation should be behaved as the most favoured nation.
International trade rules are not as easy as those governing domestic trade. The rules of international trade are far more difficult . This difficulty is due to protect its national economic space for the urgent need for each country 1929’s great economic criises of some countries lead to the care to again organize the postwar conditions like US britian. Now if we look at the back we will see that BRICS has doubled its shares.The share of services in total exports and imports stood at strategy, around 18%. A large number of haiku import restrictions in the form of quotas and essays online prohibitions have also been done besides cuts in tariff rates. As mentioned in this report, almost all the BRICS countries double-digit growth in the export and import of services. The GATT had probably played a predominant role in dissertation, the world trade.The GATT remained since the end of the Second World War as the only multilateral code governing international trade and for more than 40 years, different changes were occured in trade relations between the different countries of the world. Against Online Dating? It should be noted that one of the main objectives of the GATT is to promote development, and haiku raise living standards in developing countries which is essays, far from being achieved.
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