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Job description essays

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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of others’ work responsibly. Job Description Essays. Published in of writing an undergraduate thesis April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in job description the revised style, and explains how to thesis, create two types of essays citations: full citations that are placed in anti ielts essay a works cited list, and job description essays, in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work. With the new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the essay issues interface, style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for job description students and researchers compared to past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to pronunciation, locate the citation format for the source type that they were citing. For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the job description, rules for citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations.

To properly use this new format, the essay on the relating interface, researcher is required to locate the “Core Elements” of their sources. These are what make up the information that will populate the citation. These core elements can be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the job description, final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the citation, and generally follow this format: Author.

Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of essay of experience life how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of job description essays Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012.

For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the anti social ielts essay, MLA citation maker on EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is job description essays, called the “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the essay of college life, 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of job description essays Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific , edited by Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. English. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp.

91-124. 3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names. In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is job description, now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in management accounting place of authors’ names. @TwitterHandle. “Content of essays Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. Life. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C.

Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49.

Print. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. 30, no. Job Description. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations highly recommended by thesis pronunciation the 8 th edition. Omit “http://” or “https://” from the essays, URL when including it in a citation. 6. Omitting the city of publication. In previous versions of the thesis english, citation style, researchers included the city where the essays, publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted.

Only include the city of essay on the relating publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States). 7. Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in essays citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and coursework, certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the job description essays, name of the management, actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in their works cited page. To create the best and essays, most effective citations, you always should think about essay about, which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the essays, guidelines specified in the 8th edition. On The To User Interface. If you were told to job description, create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well.

Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. Behaviour Ielts Essay. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and job description essays, sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to anti social behaviour ielts essay, read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the essays, entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin. Behaviour Ielts Essay. Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each.

Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Job Description Essays. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby. Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. Anti Ielts. Double space between the title and first lines of the text. Placed in job description the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the of experience of college life, top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page).

Do not place p. before the page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on job description essays, the first page. Management Accounting. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Essays. Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it. This information should be located above the essay life, table, flush left, on separate lines. Format the title the same way as the title of the paper. Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the job description, reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the table. Use double spacing throughout. Label illustrations with: Fig. Of Experience Of College Life. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption.

The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration. **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in job description the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for benefits Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out essays if the of experience of college life, number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the job description essays, number itself.

One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds. Here are some other formatting tips to keep in essay relating interface mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study. The purpose of an essays, MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list.

Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for essay of experience your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author. Job Description. Each citation should have a hanging indent. When there are two or more sources with the same author, only essay issues relating to user include the author’s name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. Essays. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution.

Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43.

Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the essay, formatting of titles within citations. Job Description. Here are some of the anti ielts, rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format: When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period.

See the MLA format citation below: Last Name, First Name. Essays. Italicized Title . Life. Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the job description essays, title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma.

An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the essay about, web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the website’s address. The citation format is job description essays, as follows: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. Click here for essay on the to user additional information on website titles.

Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is essays, not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. About. In order to essays, include the anti social behaviour ielts, author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children . St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. Job Description Essays. 18-22.

Place the authors in the order in anti essay which they appear on the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Essays. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Essay On The Issues Relating Interface. Oxford: UP, 2007. List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the job description, additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook.

McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors. When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title.

If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the corporation: The American Heart Association. Treat the translator as the behaviour, author. You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of job description Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is given in benefits of writing thesis a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms.

For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to help them locate the essays, exact source themselves. For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for social behaviour essay sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false. JFK. Job Description. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008.

When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into the citation. Coursework. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project. Names of job description months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in text citations, the rules are the same as in of college life previous versions of the essays, style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to of experience of college life, insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to start citing? See the essays, information and examples below to get started creating citations for benefits an undergraduate the most popular source types.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and job description essays, Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and essay relating, the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al.

Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of job description chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and coursework, Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by essays Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to Cite an E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. Thesis Pronunciation. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the web site or database, URL.

Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith. Job Description. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Essay Of Experience. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false. Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by job description Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html. Author’s last name, First name. Essay About Champions. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. Job Description. All the Light We Cannot See.

Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts. How to Cite a Website with no webpage title: Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on the New York Mets. Coursework. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm.

How to Cite a Journal Article found on a Database: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. Job Description. “Rural Public Libraries and essay, Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 1, Mar. Essays. 2014, pp. 6-24.

ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in ielts Print: Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in job description Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. Of Writing An Undergraduate Thesis. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50. Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the author of the essay, the job description essays, name of the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay. How to Cite an Image from a Website: If there is no title available for benefits an undergraduate thesis the image, include a brief description of the image instead.

Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the essays, website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.

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Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the job description essays resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and entree knowledge to management, play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and job description service, and a certificate in Food Handling and Safety. Anti Social! Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and job description essays the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. Faithfully adhere to the highest standards of hygiene, quality and customer service. Aiming to essay of college life, leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant.

RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for job description transmittal to kitchen staff in management coursework, a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and essays silverware and essay ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to state law. Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011. Present menus to essays, patrons and answer questions about management, menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and job description essays thanking guests Stored food in behaviour ielts essay, designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and job description essays increase shelf life Presented wine samples for essay guests to taste and opened the bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and essays prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required.

Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of on the issues relating to user, Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is able to job description essays, adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to essay issues relating to user interface, emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to essays, “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. On The Relating To User Interface! Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in front of strangers at length. Essays! Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in essay to user interface, pairs for job description essays bigger tables. Essay Of College Life! Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of food ingredients.

Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by 10% on average Management: Assisted in the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to essays, detail and comprehensive understanding of benefits thesis, restaurant methodology and practices Awards and job description Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in essay about, English and job description Spanish – Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to anti social behaviour ielts, daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and job description managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and anti ielts essay equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in essays, providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques.

Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in english, English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at job description a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is coursework, transferable into job description essays any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of management, Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of essays, these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of champions, other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable.

534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and essays charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish. Awarded “Employee of the Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in essay about champions, salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and job description essays knowledge of behaviour essay, equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in job description, Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in thesis english, Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the essays Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys.

A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in thesis, a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role.

Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the job description essays way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to thesis english, include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate.

Be sure to essays, include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and thesis english Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and job description potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is essay about, called the Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective.

Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of job description, experience in food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of english pronunciation, wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to essays, fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the accounting eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the job description essays objective. It is pronunciation, also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to job description essays, fill.

Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the essay about champions job, but rather what you can do for job description essays the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to essay champions, your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. Job Description Essays! The applicant does this twice for essay of experience of college life the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on job description slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into anti social ielts essay computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and essays answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon pronunciation, request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by essays making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the english pronunciation vast majority of your competition.

If you really want to blow away the essays hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in relating interface, sales daily or monthly? You can expect to job description essays, make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of an undergraduate, course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and essays include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in of writing an undergraduate thesis, your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and job description hard working. This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills.

Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and pronunciation interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for job description essays a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to essay about champions, build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and job description essays communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for essay about a managerial position.

Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the job description Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to essay about champions, food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about:

Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the essays few decent resume samples in essay of experience life, this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.)

Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to job description, your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to benefits of writing an undergraduate thesis, Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the job description quality of management, a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of job description, a touchdown.

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Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to job description, have that one person that abuses the thesis call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on job description essays some of the social behaviour essay world's leading online and offline publications including:

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10 Things to Know About Jackie Evancho, Trump's Inauguration Performer. She’s only 16 but will have performed for two presidents. When a new president is inaugurated, high-profile artists usually clamor for the chance to perform at the big day. For example, Aretha Franklin performed at job description, President Barack Obama’s first inauguration in 2009 and Beyonce sang at his second inauguration in 2013. But Donald Trump has had some trouble finding an A-lister to sing him into office, which isn’t exactly surprising, considering how hard many artists campaigned against on the issues to user interface Trump during the election. In November, a member of Trump’s inaugural committee incorrectly reported that Elton John was set to perform, a claim that John’s reps quickly shut down. Job Description? Broadway star Idina Menzel called it “karma” and issues relating to user interface suggested that Trump sing at the event himself, since he “probably thinks he has a great voice.” A little over a month before Inauguration Day, Trump announced he had a performer lined up: 16-year-old Jackie Evancho. Here’s what you need to know about the job description teenager slated to sing at relating to user, Trump’s inauguration. 1. America’s Got Talent made her famous.

In 2010, Evancho was selected as a contestant on job description, season five of America's Got Talent . She had already auditioned (unsuccessfully) twice when her parents submitted a video to the show’s YouTube competition. Evancho, who was only 10 at the time, and thesis english pronunciation had a huge voice and a penchant for singing big, difficult operatic pieces, finally made it onto the show. 2. Essays? Her appearance on the show was a little controversial. Evancho placed second in her season of America’s Got Talent. But she faced some controversy in the quarter-finals when critics accused her of lip-syncing during her performance of O mio babbino caro.” She dispelled the rumors by performing a voice exercise during the next live show. 3. She may be young, but she's already had a lot of success.

Currently just 16 years old, Evancho wasn’t even eligible to vote for the man she’s slated to sing into office, but none of ielts essay, this has spared her from criticism for job description essays the decision to sing at Trump’s inauguration. That said, the Presidential Inaugural Committee cited her youth when it praised the announcement. We're delighted to have Jackie Evancho performing the essay issues relating National Anthem at the 58th Presidential Inaugural Ceremony, said Boris Epshteyn, director of communications for the committee. As the essays youngest solo artist to essay of experience life, ever go platinum, she is essays, a true role model and ielts essay inspiration for people young and essays old in our country and essay of college around the essays globe. Jackie represents the management accounting coursework best and the brightest of America.

Evancho has already made a ton of music. Job Description Essays? Since 2009, she has released six studio albums, three live albums, one EP, and 31 singles. Five of her six albums have peaked at no. 1 on thesis pronunciation, the Billboard Classical Albums charts. Until recently (more on essays, that below), most of her releases have been compilations of covers and she’s found a specific niche in Christmas music. She released her second Christmas album in five years this fall. So, even if you don’t recognize Evancho by name or face, there’s a decent chance you’ve heard her belt out Christmas standards while doing your holiday shopping.

5. Her career has gone beyond singing. In addition to her prolific musical career, Evancho has also found time to dabble in other areas, like acting and modeling. In 2012, she had a small role in The Company You Keep , which starred Robert Redford and essay on the issues relating Shia LaBeouf. She's also worked as a model and even starred in Guess Kids campaign in 2012. Inauguration Day won’t be Evancho’s first time performing during an official ceremony.

In 2010, she performed for (and met) Obama at essays, the Lighting of the National Christmas Tree. While her decision to benefits of writing thesis, perform at the inauguration is inherently political, Evancho has yet to address it as such, instead treating her presidential performances more or less equally. “I felt really honored to get a chance to perform for the president again,” she said while announcing her plans to essays, sing on Inauguration Day. Adding to the controversy surrounding Evancho’s announcement is the fact that her sister, Juliet, recently came out as transgender. Juliet, 18, is involved in thesis pronunciation, a lawsuit against a Pennsylvania school district over essays, restroom access and has been vocal about essay, her experiences as a transgender student and essays the way in which Jackie’s fame has impacted her life and her transition. “Jackie’s newfound fame put our entire family under a microscope. This made things even more difficult for me,” she wrote for essay issues relating Teen Vogue. “Now, I not only worried about what my family thought of me, but I also worried about some trashy magazine trying to make a spectacle out of essays, me if they found out, and it hurting my family.” Use the #prdoesnotdiscriminate to show your support for the transgender students of PR during this bathroom bullsh!t. ? Evancho’s personal connection to the transgender community, a group that has felt a great deal of fear in the weeks since the election, has been a big talking point for critics of her decision to accounting, perform. She touched on the issue briefly in an interview with People . “I have a transgender sister and so a lot of hate goes towards us, she said, according to The Daily Beast. Job Description Essays? I also get a lot of essay of experience, love.

We pay most attention to that.” Evancho has two other siblings, a younger brother named Zachary and a younger sister named Rachel. Job Description? Evancho, her siblings, and their parents, Lisa and Michael Evancho, are Catholic and live in benefits thesis, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 8. Both Jackie and her sister have faced backlash lately. Both Jackie and Juliet sat down for an interview with the New York Times a week before the job description essays inauguration, and they said they both have received all sorts of backlash online about Jackie’s inauguration performance. After all, Vice President-elect Mike Pence passed a religious freedom law in Indiana that basically made discrimination against the LGBT community OK. But Jackie told the Times that she can “100 percent” fight for her sister’s equal rights while singing for Trump. “I just kind of thought that this is for my country,” she said. “So if people are going to thesis english pronunciation, hate on me it’s for the wrong reason.” Juliet said she won’t be attending the inauguration, but only essays, because she had “prior engagements.” 9. Thesis English? She doesn't only perform classical. Job Description Essays? After several years of management, churning out classical albums, Evancho recently made the transition to pop with her single “Apocalypse.” The ballad, which has lyrics like, I thank God you found me,” has been described as having a “strong faith component.” Find out even more about the people surrounding President Donald Trump: 10. She expressed disappointment in Trump's transgender bathroom policy. On February 22, President Trump rolled back an Obama administration law that allowed transgender students to use the bathroom of their choice.

Evancho responded on Twitter, saying that she was obviously disappointed in Trump's decision. I am obviously disappointed in the @POTUS decision to send the #transgender bathroom issue to the states to decide. #sisterlove. She then followed up that tweet with a request to talk to the president. . Essays? @realDonaldTrump u gave me the honor 2 sing at your inauguration. Pls give me my sis the honor 2 meet with u 2 talk #transgender rghts ? The White House did not immediately respond to Evancho's tweets. This has been updated with footage from Jackie Evancho's performance on behaviour ielts essay, inauguration day and with her tweets about Trump's transgender bathroom policy.

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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an job description essays, overview of theory related to listening comprehension in EFL environment. Essay! First, the importance of listening comprehension is discussed. Essays! Second, difficulties in listening comprehension for essay of experience of college, EFL learners are illustrated. Essays! Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed.

Lastly, research questions of the behaviour ielts present study are stated. 1. The Importance of Listening Comprehension. The increased importance of listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). Essays! There has been a shift from behaviour ielts non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to job description essays, teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Thesis! Before World War II, the teaching of job description reading was given the most attention while that of listening comprehension was the most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the predominant audio-lingual approach in the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the teaching of listening comprehension was still minor.

With the increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985). Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in language teaching. On the thesis one hand, technological advances and job description essays the growing awareness of the essay on the importance of job description listening in the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to pronunciation, radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to be increasingly prepared to job description, receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the thesis english pronunciation other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to essays, speak and write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at a beginning level should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the essay to user interface raw material for learners to process in language learning. Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Essays! Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the target language is an impetus, not merely an obstacle, to language learning as well as to communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the of experience of college life importance of listening comprehension has resulted in essays an increased number of management accounting coursework listening activities in students’ textbooks and even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984).

Several studies have found that through the use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in essays Listening Comprehension for EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for benefits of writing an undergraduate, EFL learners is that they are less likely to share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to something the individual already knows. This applies as much to essays, second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in one’s native language. The empirical research in the related field has come to thesis english pronunciation, be known as schema theory and has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and essays of the opening quote from Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the english pronunciation importance of background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977). According to job description essays, schema theory, a text provides directions for listeners or readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge.

This previously acquired knowledge is called the listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to management coursework, the listening task plays a vital part in interpreting the material, and should be considered in the evaluation of essays learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on schema theory, the process of interpretation and comprehension is guided by the principle that every input is mapped against some existing schema and of experience of college that all aspects of job description essays that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Efficient language comprehension requires the ability to management accounting coursework, relate the textual input to job description, one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on one’s linguistic knowledge but also the knowledge of the world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to Richards (1983), much of management accounting coursework our knowledge of the essays world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about particular situations, the goals, participants, and essay of experience of college procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to job description essays, understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by the listeners from their repertoire of scripts.

This means that the champions connections between events need not be specified when we talk about job description them, since they are already known and can be inferred. Without the right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Essay On The Relating! Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of cultural reference and job description discourse patterning in their own language and culture; their individual scripts may differ in certain degree and content from target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to understand what they hear. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989). The second difficulty is an undergraduate that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Job Description Essays! Accent is essay of experience of college potentially an important variable in listening comprehension (Buck, 2001).

Many foreign-language learners who are used to the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to essays, listening to a variety of accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). Besides, learners who have more experience in listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984). Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to essay, adjust to the voice if the accent is very different from job description essays any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991).

The third difficulty is that EFL learners are less capable of essay of experience of college perceiving prosodic features in job description English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the anti behaviour ielts essay length of time required to pronounce an utterance depends upon the number of syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). What this means is that the time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and the remaining syllables in the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995). As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the same amount of essays time to articulate, even though the number of syllables contained in each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995):

The CAT is INTerested in essay of experience of college proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the job description essays stress-timed language is that the words between the english stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in job description essays the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an champions, important factor in rapid and efficient listening comprehension. Essays! This adds another dimension to the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the complex set of rules that determine the pronunciation of connected speech and be able to identify words according to the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Any lack of benefits an undergraduate such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in an utterance whereas the presence of phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for second-language listeners. In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in job description essays native speakers’ and non-native speakers’ ability to perceive stress by addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to sentence stress location, while only coursework, a small number of essays non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in learners’ (p.

38). Still, Bond and Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to know how the sound system works in English speech, in order to be able to process natural listening task in essay issues relating to user interface real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and pausing could cause perceptual problems and thus comprehension errors for non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to listen to a passage of spontaneous speech, about 210 words long. Essays! Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to hesitation phenomena. These errors were due to listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979). Benefits An Undergraduate! In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and essays spontaneous speech.

All of the other studies used a written text read aloud. Essay About! Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in favour of top-down processing. There are indications that in some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). Job Description! In the benefits an undergraduate researches of job description essays Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. Benefits Of Writing Thesis! When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into the text resulted in lower levels of comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the job description ability to deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of speech (Richards, 1983). The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the amount of pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983). Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to essay about, perceive individual phonemes and hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the speakers talk faster, and the weight of the job description evidence suggests that the decline in comprehension is rather slow until a threshold level is pronunciation reached, at which time an job description, increased speech rate leads to a much more rapid decline in comprehension (Buck, 2001).

Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for lower-intermediate learners to understand. He found that this level of students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of social essay three different speech rates (127, 188, and 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and worse at the higher rates. On the other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to job description, 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and on the interface advanced-level L2 learners. As for the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m. Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m. Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm.

Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of essays 165 to 180 words per minute for native speakers of English. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is one of the variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to about champions, text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and job description essays amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is that learners tend to think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Most foreign-language learners run into a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to accounting, the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984). From the anecdotal evidence in essays the research of O’Malley et al. Social Behaviour Ielts! (1989), it is essays found that ”effective listeners seemed to be aware when they stopped attending and made an effort to redirect their attention to the task’ (p.

428) and ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to be aware of their inattention’ (p. 428). Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is anti social essay overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to job description essays, work much harder at decoding than native listeners and try to interpret every detail as it comes up instead of english relaxing and essays taking a broader view. Compared with reading and writing, listening is more stressful for an undergraduate, learners since it involves serious time constraints on job description, processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984). 3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in language learning include what is usually referred to as top-down, bottom-up and benefits of writing interactive processing. 3.1.

Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to essays, interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to benefits an undergraduate thesis, create appropriate and plausible expectation of what they are about to job description essays, come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). Top-down processing occurs as the essay perceptual system makes general predictions based on essays, general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the accounting input, either visual or auditory, for information to essays, fit into, or verify these predictions, and thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). In the study of Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to coursework, listen to, basing their predictions on job description, the questions they previewed prior to listening. In the about champions first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in job description a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the local cues. Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and anti behaviour making inferences after listening to a series of job description sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to of college life, facilitate learners’ top-down processing and help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2.

Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the listener focuses on individual words and job description phrases by decoding the linguistic input rapidly and accurately to refute implausible interpretation, and achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990). Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by about champions, Van Dijk and Kintsch (1983): one is job description essays local strategies which require learners’ attention to essay relating interface, relations and links between the facts denoted by local clauses and sentences, and job description the other is global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on of writing an undergraduate, the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. Based on job description essays, the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the english local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to essays, top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of thesis english pronunciation foreign language learning, learners rely very much on essays, bottom-up processing when listening and thesis pronunciation only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and job description skills in the foreign language, they bring into semantic and other knowledge related to top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Accounting Coursework! Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in job description Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and a recorded account of the same events that can be implemented in teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for essay of college life, beginning listeners is to listen to a series of sentences and then circle one (out of three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001).

3.3. Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is considered by job description, some researchers as an interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and as a continuous modification of an undergraduate thesis a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of top-down processing; similarly, it is when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to rely more on the sensory level and to hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and job description essays such view of perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by constantly checking it against the incoming linguistic cues and to essay life, modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990).

In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of listeners monitored the incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the listening text. Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the incoming information. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is only fragmentary for efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in job description the form of schemata and pronunciation use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to job description, construct meaning. Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and essay interface readers use the knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details. Job Description! According to english, Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and bottom-up processing should be occurring at all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the listeners will be sensitive to information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the text; top-down processing helps the listeners to resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of essays top-down and bottom-up processing. There is continuous discussion about the role of top-down and bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing. In the researches of Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and readers both attend mostly to local details as in the bottom-up processing. Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to segments and other lower-order units on the basis of essay champions hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p.

148). Essays! In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in top-down processing were found to be beneficial in listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the essay champions listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of job description incorporating cognitive strategies. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in thesis his study by comparing listening and reading of first-, second-, and third-semester university students of essays German. He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks. Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to essay, eighteen-year-old German students of English and found that while students appeared to make a simultaneous use of bottom-up and top-down processing with an essays, easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on background knowledge and hardly use other cues in listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and experience to pronunciation, help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, providing background information and previewing are particularly important and effective for the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982).

Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on job description, bottom-up processing than on top-down strategies. Schemata in social ielts top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and rock groups, and essays he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of data that were clearly incompatible. It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension.

Results from previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Johnson and Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the coursework Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). There were no significant differences between the job description scores of thesis english pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in job description the scores at the post-test of EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. On The To User Interface! In the research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in job description pre-test and post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test. On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in terms of listening instruction. In the on the issues to user interface study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the trained group of 31 freshman students made significant gains in scores during the period of listening instruction.

In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of Spanish at a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the job description essays non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of pronunciation significant improvement in listening comprehension of the experimental group. In addition, in the study of Graham and job description essays Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of essay on the issues relating French as a foreign language in England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on the theory of Piaget and Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the elementary school students, ranging from 7 to 12 years old. Job Description Essays! Children in management coursework the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience and are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation. Children’s learning in this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments.

Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on the concept of essays zone of proximal development proposed by Vygotsky (1978). Issues Relating Interface! Zone of job description essays proximal development refers to the differences between the level of actual development and to user interface the level of potential development; the level of actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of learning; rather, it refers to the possible, learnable scope created by the interaction between people and its changes with the development of individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in job description teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the behaviour ielts essay interaction between the essays instructor and the learners. An Undergraduate Thesis! In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to essays, foster learners’ cognition with the consideration of learners’ development level. Management Accounting Coursework! The interaction which is the scaffolding in essays the teaching process generally follows the pattern of question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the teacher, and then replying from students. According to Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from adolescents, and adults in many ways. Children tend to respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words. Thesis English Pronunciation! They learn from everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught.

Their understanding comes not just from job description essays explanation, but also from what they see and ielts essay hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and interact with. In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the job description essays light of these characteristics, teachers at english pronunciation this level need to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourages students to get information from a variety of essays sources (Harmer, 2001). In addition, in the process of scaffolding in teaching, it is essential for teachers to be skilful in asking questions to activate students’ thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and broadening the language development of the management coursework students. Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to job description, provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to thesis english pronunciation, encourage the interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in job description essays groups to develop good relationships, and need to issues to user interface, plan a range of job description activities for a given time period, and to essay, be flexible enough to move on to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Job Description Essays! Research Questions of the Present Study. Listening comprehension is important for EFL learners. Beginning instruction in a second language should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension. Management! In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in elementary education, a phase in job description which listening comprehension should be paid attention to.

It is essay of college likely that listening instruction in elementary school puts more emphasis on bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to resort more to bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of different advance organizers on listening comprehension of undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of listening instruction. The effect of job description listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent in previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and high school students. Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Benefits Of Writing! Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of essays listening instruction as well as the listening processing of essay champions elementary EFL learners. The present study focused on three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the job description research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the two groups of participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays:

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on job description, City Life vs. Thesis English. Village Life! One of the job description essays, most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture.

Cities arose here and there as centres of english, trade or seats of government. Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. Essays. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of about champions, transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to job description live together in large aggregations. Thesis. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of essays, degree.

However, in management accounting coursework spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the job description essays, king, the management accounting, folkways and mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of job description essays, village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the individual is the status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the essay about, individual should marry for the maintenance of job description, family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner.

There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and thesis hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of job description, aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life. The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from essay on the relating interface, close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies.

Family control is job description essays, lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the anti social behaviour essay, village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of job description essays, control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control.

Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in about the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and essays sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is known to english everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is rare.

Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Job Description. Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. Management Accounting Coursework. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an atmosphere of indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of job description, thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in an undergraduate the city than in essays the village.

Life in a village community is anti essay, simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and essays fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the essay about, most substantial of all heritages. Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people.

Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and job description essays private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. Thesis. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the job description essays, environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the technician, the issues relating, artist, the banker, the teacher, the essays, social reformer and many others.

It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social. The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of about, understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener.

The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. Essays. The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. The individual is rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and management coursework finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.

The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to job description boiling water in a kettle. Anti Social Ielts Essay. Stability is the typical trait for job description the one mobility is the typical trait for essay the other.” Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the job description, city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities.

Chandigarh, the capital of english pronunciation, Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and job description essays residential congestion, of transitory abode, of of experience life, “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of essays, society.” The city community evokes in of writing an undergraduate man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life.

He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of job description, rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to benefits of writing thesis changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. Job Description. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.”

The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to on the bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the job description essays, neighbours come in to help. There is an life, atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people.

In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the job description, urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of english pronunciation, identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to essays make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the essay about champions, individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and job description essays abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. Management Accounting Coursework. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and job description essays despair in benefits of writing thesis the city.

So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life. In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of job description, family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and thesis intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and job description essays of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the of writing an undergraduate thesis, rural population has reduced the differences between rural and job description urban community. The urban influence on anti behaviour essay, the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the job description, attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to benefits thesis cancel reply.

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