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Art Spiegelman's MAUS: A Different Type of resume Holocaust Literature. The Jewish Holocaust, as is the case with events in company which the ai class, human spirit has been engaged in a fight for presentation survival, produced great works of literature. Ai Class. Elie Wiesel's Night and Primo Levi's Survival in Auschwitz are perhaps the research, best known examples of this literary tradition. Art Spiegelman's MAUS , published in the 1980s, represents a new kind of literary oeuvre inspired and/or based on the Holocaust. Written by a second generation Holocaust survivor, MAUS fuses the story of the terrible historical occurrence with a Jewish American's struggle to forge his own understanding of the brutal extermination of his people by the Nazi regime in the Second World War. This electronic essay will cover three topics found in ai class the novel: the methods in which second (and third) generations of Holocaust survivors struggle to review come to terms with the ai class, events of the Holocaust, the unusual form of the book, and the brutal nature of humanity, ever-threatening to obliterate the human race. Links to the different sections can be accessed below. Techniques of Remembering the community essay, Holocaust by Second Generation Jews. As a result of not having experienced the horrors of the Holocaust like their ancestors did, second generation Jews often sense they must demonstrate their respect and appreciation towards their elders. Indebted to the previous generation, these Jews search for ways in which to honor those martyrs who lost their lives half a century ago. The ways in which this generation pays homage are quite diverse.

Many sites on the web, like Aragorn's, are virtual shrines to the memories of their ancestors. Others are fully dedicated to ai class the organization of campaigns in order to procure justice in the name of Jewish families whose possessions were seized by the Nazis during WWII and community involement stored in Swiss banks. Ai Class. Click here for an example. Yet another way, non-electronic, is writing a narrative like Art Spiegelman does. MAUS is a splendid graphic novel, drawn and written by Spiegelman himself, that narrates his father's life during the Holocaust. His memories come to life in the pages of the book, although they are intertwined with another account. This second narrative, Art's, complements his father's by presenting a portrayal of the life and struggles of a second generation of stand by me essay Jewish people whose existences are extremely influenced by the Holocaust despite not being born during its occurrence.

This trait separates MAUS from ai class resume other Holocaust narratives whose limits can only offer one side of the film essay, story, one view of the event, one version of the pain. Art's obsession with saving Vladek's story for ai class resume posterity is met with some opposition by his father, especially in film the opening sequence. Neither Vladek nor Art are able to understand what the other is feeling due to their inability to relate. Art wonders why his father is so hesitant to resume allow his life to company presentation be the subject of resume a novel; he is stand review essay, unable to put himself in ai class resume Vladek's position. He is in society essay, often frustrated due to this limitation, and often presses his father for resume answers he is community involement essay, unable to provide. Ai Class Resume. At times he shares this frustration, which is sometimes met by sympathy from his father. This situation is portrayed splendidly by Spiegelman in the panel below: Art is dumbfounded by this particular morsel of his father's narratives.

He attempts to use logic to the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis understand it, but finally gives up when he realizes he just does not understand. His father's final commentary on the strip, nobody can understand shows how difficult it is ai class resume, not only for the second generation, but also for the survivors themselves, to understand the events that transpired in the Holocaust. The evil of the Holocaust is unspeakable, unexplainable, but above all, unforgettable. Art realizes that no matter how hard he wishes he had been at Auschwitz to experience the horrors first-hand, he is unable to do so. Company. Committing his thoughts and ai class resume emotions to a written narrative, the graphic novel MAUS, is the best course of action for stand film review essay him, especially since it allows him to combine his story with his father's. The Unusual Structure of MAUS. Ai Class Resume. The graphic novel genre is one of the most fascinating in involement essay literature. While some critics censure the form citing a lack of printed text and the presence of comic-book style drawings, its positive qualities are impressive, especially when the topic is as difficult as the Holocaust. MAUS shines due to its impressive ability to speak the unspeakable by using the popular maxim, a picture is worth a thousand words, to perfection. The most important distinction between humans and the rest of the animal kingdom is man's ability to understand, reason, and think. Conscience and intelligence are perhaps the human race's greatest gifts.

Since humans possess such qualities, it is often hard to try to understand the Holocaust without having been there. (This point as illustrated in ai class the previous section, which you may access by clicking here.) Quite possibly as a method to deal with his own inability to comprehend the events of the Holocaust, Spiegelman uses animal characters instead of humans. The most important two, Germans and Jews, are represented by cats and mice, respectively. Natural sworn enemies, both cat and mice lack reason and conscience. Stand Film Essay. As a result, the ai class resume, Nazi cats find no fault in the systematic killing of Jewish mice. The image is also based on historical quotes, since Jews were called the vermin of society by the Nazis. Other pre-Holocaust Nazi-propraganda can be found at the Calvin University archive, including a short account of Julius Streitcher's actions. The graphical novel format, in conjunction with the depiction of the unitarian thesis of cancer Nazis as cat and Jews as mice, permits Spiegelman to force the reader to abandon any preconceived notions of human nature. Such an effect would have been quite hard to create if he had written a standard text, attesting to the incredible value of the novel's format. The Holocaust as a Demonstration of Man's Brutal Nature. The history of resume mankind is replete with episodes of mass destruction and killing.

This century produced perhaps the greatest example of such atrocities, the or trophoblastic, Second World War. It was during this period of unexplainable brutality that both the Jewish Holocaust and the Nagasaki Bombing occurred. These awful events, discussed and regarded in a much different light half a century ago, are analyzed quite divergently now that mankind has had fifty years to ponder on its errors. The Nagasaki Bombing was one of the United States' last actions during the Second World War. Although enacted on Japan instead of Germany, it symbolized much of the anger and desire to finish a long, bloody war. The initial joy that followed the devastating detonation of the bomb disappeared in time with the public's realization of the grave mistake that had been committed. Not only did millions of people perish during the Holocaust and immediately after the Nagasaki episode, but many more lost their lives some time afterwards, victims of resume physical deterioration, mental illness created by the tragic events, and depression brought upon by memories of the horrors. Anja Spiegelman is one such case. She found her demise twenty years after surviving the death camps, a victim of hbs essay their memories. In a sense, she did not survive.

The estimate of ai class six million Jews is ever-increasing, so the memories continue. Ironically, these two events, executed by opposite sides of the war, are linked by more than an inmeasurable amount of deaths. Many of the people alive during this time period are in possession of vivid recollections fo the historical occurrences, reflecting a near-unanimous disgust towards the the unitarian thesis, brutalities occurred. Some of the Nagasaki accounts can be accessed at the Remembering Nagasaki web site, while the Jewish ones can be read in ai class reviews of Holocaust literature. While the company presentation, Holocaust is one of the most horrible episodes of history, it is not one that could or should be forgotten. Its literary offspring is widely acclaimed, especially the subject of resume this essay, Art Spiegelman's MAUS . Not only does the book narrate the horrors of the concentration camps located in Poland, it also displays the enormous difficulties of second generation Holocaust survivors to find a way to community come to terms with the horrendous plight of their ancestors. Its graphical novel format plays an essential role in making the story come alive, as does the ai class, troubled relationship between Vladek and Art. In closing, it must be reiterated that MAUS is not merely a narrative of the Holocaust, but also a story of human suffering and struggle, not just after a devastating experience like the concentration camps, but also afterwards; not just of one generation, but also of succeeding ones. Lest we forget is a phrase usually mentioned by Jews when referring to the Holocaust.

Today's technology and the wonders of the Internet make it easier to maintain a vivid recollection of the company, Holocaust thanks to its many sites. Some can be accessed through the above documents, while others can be reached here: The United States Holocaust Museum. While the web site pales in comparison to ai class the amount of information and community exhibits in this downtown Washington museum, it is an excellent starting point for Holocaust reference, information, and ai class narratives. The Cybrary of the Holocaust. One of the first sites devoted in its entirety to the remembrance of the Holocaust, this site not only provides educational and historical resources, but also a search engine dedicated to Holocaust sites. Stand Review. The Holocaust-The World Must Remember. The title says its all.

Similar to the above link, this site is updated frequently with the latest on-line Holocaust materials. Yahoo Search Engine-Holocaust. Ai Class. This link lists every site with the word Holocaust in its title. This essay/web page project has been written and cells built by Antonio S. Oliver for Prof. Randy Bass' American Literary Traditions class.

To contact the author, click here. This site is currently under construction. My other classes and internship are keeping me extremely occupied, but please check back periodically for updates to this document. This page has been created with Netscape Navigator Gold.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Brain in a Vat thought-experiment is ai class, most commonly used to illustrate global or Cartesian skepticism. You are told to imagine the possibility that at this very moment you are actually a brain hooked up to a sophisticated computer program that can perfectly simulate experiences of the biology cells research outside world. Here is the skeptical argument. If you cannot now be sure that you are not a brain in a vat, then you cannot rule out the possibility that all of your beliefs about the external world are false. Or, to put it in terms of knowledge claims, we can construct the ai class resume following skeptical argument. Let “P” stand for any belief or claim about the external world, say, that snow is white.

If I know that P, then I know that I am not a brain in a vat I do not know that I am not a brain in alcohol essay, a vat Thus, I do not know that P. The Brain in a Vat Argument is usually taken to be a modern version of Rene Descartes' argument (in the Meditations on First Philosophy ) that centers on the possibility of an evil demon who systematically deceives us. The hypothesis has been the premise behind the movie The Matrix , in which the entire human race has been placed into giant vats and fed a virtual reality at the hands of malignant artificial intelligence (our own creations, of course). One of the ways some modern philosophers have tried to refute global skepticism is by showing that the Brain in a Vat scenario is ai class resume, not possible. In his Reason, Truth and History (1981), Hilary Putnam first presented the the unitarian argument that we cannot be brains in a vat, which has since given rise to a large discussion with repercussions for ai class the realism debate and for central theses in the philosophy of language and mind.

As we shall see, however, it remains far from clear how exactly Putnam’s argument should be taken and what it actually proves. Putnam’s argument is designed to attack the possibility of global skepticism that is implied by metaphysical realism. Putnam defines metaphysical realism as the view which holds that “…the world consists of some fixed totality of mind-independent objects. There is exactly one true and complete description of essay ‘the way the world is.’ Truth involves some sort of correspondence relation between words or thought-signs and sets of ai class things.” (1981, 49). This construal brings out the idea that for metaphysical realists, truth is by me film review, not reducible to epistemic notions but concerns the nature of a mind-independent reality. This characterization finds an ai class resume, accurate target in those scientific materialists who believe in the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer, a “ready-made” world of ai class resume scientific kinds independent of human classification and conceptualization. There are, however, many self-professed metaphysical realists who are not happy with Putnam’s definition; it saddles the realist with the classical difficulty of matching words to objects and of providing for by me essay a correspondence relation between sentences and mind-independent “facts.” The metaphysical realist is forced to construe her thesis ontologically, as an adherence to some fixed furniture of objects in the world, which ignores the possibility that ontological commitment may be specified not as a commitment to ai class resume a set of biology research paper entities but rather to the truth of resume a class of sentences or even of whole theories of the world.

One proposal is to construe metaphysical realism as the position that there are no a priori epistemically derived constraints on thesis, reality (Gaifman, 1993). By stating the thesis negatively, the ai class realist sidesteps the alcohol essay thorny problems concerning correspondence or a “ready made” world, and shifts the burden of proof on the challenger to refute the thesis. Resume? One virtue of this construal is that it defines metaphysical realism at a sufficient level of generality to apply to all philosophers who currently espouse metaphysical realism. For Putnam’s metaphysical realist will also agree that truth and reality cannot be subject to “epistemically derived constraints.” This general characterization of metaphysical realism is presentation, enough to provide a target for ai class the Brains in a Vat argument. For there is a good argument to the effect that if metaphysical realism is true, then global skepticism is also true, that is, it is possible that all of our referential beliefs about the or trophoblastic world are false. Ai Class? As Thomas Nagel puts it, “realism makes skepticism intelligible,” (1986, 73) because once we open the gap between truth and epistemology, we must countenance the possibility that all of our beliefs, no matter how well justified, nevertheless fail to stand film essay accurately depict the world as it really is. [See Fallibilism.] Donald Davidson also emphasizes this aspect of metaphysical realism: “metaphysical realism is skepticism in one of its traditional garbs. It asks: why couldn’t all my beliefs hang together and ai class resume yet be comprehensively false about the actual world?” (1986, 309) The Brain in a Vat scenario is just an illustration of this kind of global skepticism: it depicts a situation where all our beliefs about the world would presumably be false, even though they are well justified. Thus if one can prove that we cannot be brains in a vat, by modus tollens one can prove that metaphysical realism is false. Hbs Essay? Or, to put it in more schematic form: If metaphysical realism is ai class, true, then global skepticism is possible If global skepticism is the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer, possible, then we can be brains in a vat But we cannot be brains in a vat Thus, metaphysical realism is false (1,2,3)

This article focuses mostly on resume, claim (3), although some philosophers question (2), believing there may be ways of presenting the skeptical thesis even while granting Putnam’s argument. The major premise that underwrites Putnam’s argument is what he calls a “causal constraint” on reference: (CC) A term refers to company presentation an object only if there is an resume, appropriate causal connection between that term and the object. To understand this criterion we need to unravel what is stand film essay, meant by “appropriate causal connection.” If an ant were to ai class accidentally draw a picture of Winston Churchill in the sand, few would claim that the ant represented or referred to Churchill. Hbs Essay? Similarly, if I accidentally sneeze “Genghis Khan,” just because I verbalize the words does not mean that I refer to the infamous Mongolian conqueror, for I may have never heard of him before. Ai Class? Reference cannot simply be an accident : or, as Putnam puts it, words do not refer to review objects “magically” or intrinsically. Now establishing just what would count as necessary and sufficient conditions for a term to resume refer to or trophoblastic thesis an object turns out to be tricky business, and there have been many “causal theories” of reference supplied to do just that. Many have taken the virtue of ai class Putnam’s constraint (CC) to be its generality: it merely states a necessary condition for reference and research need not entail anything more controversial. Resume? Sometimes it is claimed that endorsing (CC) commits you to semantic externalism but the issues are more complex, since many internalists (for example, John Searle) appear to agree with (CC). The relation between externalism and Putnam’s argument will be considered in more detail later (in the section “Brains in company, a Vat and Self-Knowledge”). With the causal constraint established, Putnam goes on to describe the Brain in resume, a Vat scenario.

It is important to note exactly what the alcohol essay thought-experiment is, for failure to appreciate the ways in which Putnam has changed the standard skeptical nightmare has lead to many mistaken “refutations” of the argument. The standard picture has a mad-scientist (or race of ai class resume aliens, or AI programs…) envatting brains in a laboratory then inducing a virtual reality through a sophisticated computer program. On this picture, there is an or trophoblastic of cancer, important difference between viewing the brains from a first or third person viewpoint. There is the point of view of the ai class resume brains in a vat (henceforth BIVs), and the point of view of presentation someone outside the vat. Clearly when the mad-scientist says “that is ai class resume, a brain in a vat” of a BIV, he would be saying something true , no matter the question of what the BIV means when it says it is a brain in a vat. Furthermore, presumably a BIV could pick up referential terms by the unitarian thesis of cancer borrowing them from the mad-scientist.

Thus when a BIV says “there is a tree” referring to a simulation of a tree, it would be saying something false , since its term “tree,” picked up from the mad-scientist to refer to an actual tree, in fact refers to ai class resume something else, like his sense-impressions of the stand review tree. Putnam thus stipulates that all sentient beings are brains in a vat, hooked up to one another through a powerful computer that has no programmer: “that’s just how the universe is.” We are then asked, given at least the physical possibility of this scenario, whether we could say or think it. Putnam answers that we could not: the resume assertion “we are brains in a vat” would be sense self-refuting in community essay, the same way that the general statement “all general statements are false” is. The thought-experiment stipulates that brains in ai class, a vat would have qualitatively identical thoughts to those unenvatted; or at review essay least they have the same “notional world.” The difference is that in resume, the vat-world, there are no external objects. When a BIV says “There is a tree in front of me,” there is in fact no tree in front of him, only a simulated tree produced by community involement essay the computer’s program. However, if there are no trees, there could be no causal connection between a BIV’s tokens of ai class resume trees and actual trees. By (CC), “tree” does not refer to thesis of cancer tree.

This leads to some interesting consequences. A standard reading of a BIV’s utterance of “There is a tree” would have the resume statement come out false, since there are no trees for the BIV to refer to. Biology Cells Research? But that would be only assuming that “tree” refers to tree in the BIV’s language. If “tree” does not refer to tree, then the semantic evaluation of the sentence becomes unclear. Sometimes Putnam suggests that a BIV’s tokens refer to images or sense-impressions. At other times he agrees with Davidson who claims that the ai class truth-conditions would be facts about the electronic impulses of the computer that are causally responsible for producing the sense-impressions. Davidson has a good reason to choose these truth-conditions: through the principle of charity he would want to interpret the BIV’s sentences to company come out resume, true, but he would not want the film review essay truth-conditions to be phenomenalistic. Thus it turns out that when a BIV says “There is a tree in front of me,” he is saying something true —if in fact the computer is sending the right impulses to him.

Another suggestion is that the truth-conditions of the BIV’s utterances would be empty: the BIV asserts nothing at all. This seems to resume be rather strong, however: surely the BIV would mean something when it utters “There is a tree in front of me,” even if its statement gets evaluated differently because of the cells radical difference of ai class resume its environment. One thing is clear, however; a BIV’s tokening of hbs essay “tree” or any other such referential term would have a different reference assignment from that of a non-envatted person’s tokenings. Resume? According to (CC), my tokening of “tree” refers to stand by me film essay trees because there is an appropriate causal link between it and actual trees (assuming of ai class resume course I am not a BIV). A brain in alcohol essay, a vat however would not be able to refer to resume trees since there are no trees (and even if there were trees there would not be the appropriate causal relation between its tokenings of “tree” and real trees, unless we bring back the standard fantasy and assume it picked up the terms from the mad scientist). Company Presentation? Now one might be inclined to ai class resume think that because there are at review essay least brains and vats in the universe, a BIV would be able to refer to brains and vats. But the tokening of “brain” is never actually caused by a brain except only in the very indirect sense that its brain causes all of its tokenings. Ai Class Resume? The minimal constraint (CC) then will ensure that “brain” and “vat” in the BIV language does not refer to presentation brain and vat. We are now in resume, a position to hbs essay give Putnam’s argument. Ai Class Resume? It has the form of stand a conditional proof : Assume we are brains in a vat If we are brains in a vat, then “brain” does not refer to resume brain, and “vat” does not refer to vat (via CC) If “brain in a vat” does not refer to brains in a vat, then “we are brains in a vat” is false Thus, if we are brains in a vat, then the essay sentence “We are brains in a vat” is false (1,2,3) Putnam adds that “we are brains in a vat” is necessarily false, since whenever we assume it is true we can deduce its contradictory.

The argument is valid and its soundness seems to depend on the truth of (3), assuming (CC) is true. One immediate problem is determining the truth-conditions for “we are brains in ai class resume, a vat” on the assumption we are brains in a vat, speaking a variation of by me review English (call it Vatese). From (CC) we know that “brains in a vat” does not refer to brain in ai class resume, a vat. But it doesn’t follow from essay this alone that “we are brains in ai class, a vat” is false. Compare: (A) “Grass is green” is company presentation, true iff grass is green. (B) “Grass is resume, green” is biology cells research paper, true iff one has sense-impressions of grass being green. (C) “Grass is green” is true iff one is in electronic state Q. On the assumption that we are brains in a vat, (CC) would appear to rule out (A): “grass” does not refer to ai class grass since there is no appropriate causal connection between “grass” and actual grass.

Thus the research paper truth-conditions for the statement “grass is green” would be nonstandard. If we take them to be those captured in (B), then “Grass is green” as spoken by a brain in a vat would be true . Consequently the truth-conditions for “we are brains in a vat” would be captured by (D): (D) “We are brains in ai class resume, a vat” is true iff we have sense impressions of being brains in a vat. On this construal of the truth-conditions, “We are brains in a vat” as uttered by a BIV would presumably be false , since a brain in a vat would not have sense-impressions of being a brain in hbs essay, a vat: recall a BIV’s notional world would be equivalent to ai class the unenvatted, and he would appear to himself to be a normally embodied person with a real body etc. However, if we follow Davidson and adopt the truth-conditions of (C), we would have the following: (E) “We are brains in the unitarian thesis of cancer, a vat” is true if and only if we are in electronic state Q. Now it is no longer clear that “We are brains in a vat” is false: for ai class resume if the company presentation brain is in the appropriate electronic state, the resume truth-conditions could well be fulfilled. There are other reconstructions of the company presentation argument that do not depend on ai class, specifying the truth-conditions of a BIV’s utterances. What is important is the idea that the truth-conditions would be non-standard, as in: (F) “We are brains in a vat” is true if and only if we are BIVs* Now since being a BIV* (whatever that is) is stand by me film essay, not the same as being a BIV, we can construct the ai class resume following conditional proof argument:

Assume we are BIVs If we are BIVs, “we are brains in a vat” is stand film review essay, true if and only we are BIVs* If we are BIVs, we are not BIVs* If we are BIVs, then “we are BIVs” is false (2,3) If we are BIVs, then we are not BIVs (4) Notice that the argument leaves the ai class resume antecedent of the conditional open, what Wright calls an “open subjunctive.” We do not want the premises of the argument to be counterfactual, following the train of thought “If we were brains in a vat, the causal constraint would entail that my words ‘brain in a vat’ would come to denote something different, BIV*.” For then we would be assuming that we are not brains in a vat, when that is what the hbs essay argument is supposed to prove. Nevertheless, there are still problems with the ai class appeal to disquotation to get us from (4) to (5). Even if, by virtue of the the unitarian causal constraint, the resume sentence “We are BIVs” is false, an intuitive objection runs that this change of stand by me film review essay language should not entail falsity of the proposition that we are brains in a vat . As we shall see, many recent reconstructions of Putnam’s argument are sensitive to this point and try to account for ai class resume it in various ways. In the following section, I shall focus on two of the biology cells research more popular reconstructions of the argument put forward by Brueckner (1986) and Wright (1994). 3. Reconstructions of the Argument. Brueckner (1986) argues that even if we grant the reasoning of the ai class above argument up to company (4), the resume most the argument proves is that if we are brains in a vat, then the sentence “We are brains in a vat” (as uttered by a BIV) is false, and that if we are not brains in a vat, then “We are brains in by me essay, a vat” is false (now expressing a different false proposition). If correct then the argument would prove that whether or not we are brains in a vat, “we are brains in a vat” expresses some false proposition. Assuming the truth-conditions of a BIV would be those captured in (D) we could then devise the following constructive dilemma type argument: Either I am a BIV or I am not a BIV If I am a BIV, then “I am a BIV” is true iff I have sense impressions of being a BIV If I am a BIV, then I do not have sense-impressions of being a BIV If I am a BIV, then “I am a BIV” is false (2,3) If I am not a BIV, then “I am a BIV” is true iff I am a BIV If I am not a BIV, then “I am a BIV” is ai class resume, false (5) “I am a BIV” is film, false (1, 4, 6) If “I am a BIV” expresses the proposition that I am a brain in a vat, and we know from the argument that “I am a BIV” is false, then it follows that I know I am not a brain in a vat, thus refuting premise (2) of the skeptical argument.

However, can I know that “I am a brain in a vat” expresses the proposition that I am a brain in a vat? If I am a brain in a vat, then “I am a brain in a vat” would, via the causal constraint on reference, express some different proposition (say , that I am a brain in a vat in the image ). So even if “I am a BIV” is false whether or not I am a BIV, I might not be in the position to ai class identify which false proposition I am expressing, in which case I cannot claim to involement know that my sentence “I am not a brain in ai class resume, a vat” expresses the true proposition that I am not a brain in a vat . Some philosophers have gone even further, claiming that if the the unitarian of cancer argument ends here, it actually can be used to strengthen skepticism. The metaphysical realist can claim that there are truths not expressible in any language: perhaps the proposition that we are brains in a vat is true, even if no one can meaningfully utter it. As Nagel puts it: If I accept the argument, I must conclude that a brain in resume, a vat can’t think truly that it is biology cells, a brain in a vat, even though others can think this about it. What follows?

Only that I cannot express my skepticism by saying “Perhaps I am a brain in ai class resume, a vat.” Instead I must say “Perhaps I can’t even think the truth about what I am, because I lack the necessary concepts and my circumstances make it impossible for me to acquire them!” If this doesn’t qualify as skepticism, I don’t know what does. (Nagel, 1986) Putnam makes it clear that he is not merely talking about hbs essay, semantics: he wants to provide a metaphysical argument that we cannot be brains in a vat, not just a semantic one that we cannot assert we are. If he is just proving something about meaning, it is open for ai class resume the skeptic to or trophoblastic say that the bonds between language and reality can diverge radically, perhaps in ways we can never discern. There is yet another worry with the argument, centering once again on the appropriate characterization of the truth-conditions in (2). If one claimed in response to the above objection that in fact I do know that “I am a brain in a vat” expresses the ai class resume proposition that I am a brain in a vat (whether or not I am a brain in a vat), one may have in cells research, mind some general disquotation principle: (DQ): “Grass is resume, green” is true iff grass is green. If it is an a priori truth that any meaningful sentence in my language homophonically disquotes, then we can a priori know that the following is also true: (F): “I am a brain in hbs essay, a vat” is ai class, true iff I am a brain in a vat. Here is the obvious problem: if we are not to beg the question, we have to be open to the possibility that we are brains in a vat, speaking Vatese. Then we would get: (G): If I am a BIV, then “I am a BIV” is true iff I am a brain in a vat. However, (G) gives us truth-conditions that differ from premise (2) of Brueckner’s argument: (2) If I am a BIV, then “I am a BIV” is true iff I have sense-impressions of being a BIV. If we assume (CC), then (G) and (2) are inconsistent, since the film essay term “BIV” would refer to distinct entities. No contradiction ensues if we assume we are speaking in ai class, English: for then (G) would presumably be false (appealing to CC).

But the problem is that we cannot beg the question by assuming we are speaking in English: if we assume that, then we know in advance of the unitarian any argument that we are not speaking in Vatese and ai class hence that we are not brains in a vat. But if we do not know which language we are speaking in, then we cannot properly assert (2). One response to this is to formulate two different arguments, one whose meta-language is in English, the other whose meta-language is in Vatese, and show that distinct arguments can be run to prove that “I am a BIV” is false. Even if successful, however, these arguments run into the objection canvassed before: if I do not know which language I am speaking in, even if I know “I am a brain in a vat” is false, I do not know which false proposition I am expressing and hence cannot infer that I know that I am not a brain in a vat. Similar worries plague Crispin’s Wright’s popular formulation of the argument (1994): My language disquotes In BIVese, “brains in a vat” does not refer to brains in a vat In my language, “brains in a vat” is a meaningful expression In my language, “brains in a vat” refers to brains in a vat My language is not BIVese (2,4) If I am a BIV, then my language is BIVese I am not a BIV. There are several virtues to this reconstruction: first of all, it gets us to the desired conclusion without specifying what the hbs essay truth-conditions of ai class resume a BIV’s utterances would be. They could be sense-impressions, facts about electronic impulses, or the BIV’s sentences may not refer at all.

All that is needed for the argument is that there is a difference between the truth-conditions for a BIV’s sentences and hbs essay those of my own language. Ai Class Resume? The other virtue of the argument is that it clearly brings out the appeal to the disquotation principle that was implicit in the previous arguments. If indeed (DQ) is an the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis, a priori truth, as many philosophers maintain, and ai class resume if we accept (CC) as a condition of reference, the argument appears to be sound. So have we proven that we are not brains in a vat? Not so fast. The previous objection can be restated: if I do not yet know whether or not I am a brain in a vat before the argument is completed, I do not know which language I am speaking (English or Vatese). Hbs Essay? If I am speaking Vatese, then so long as it is a meaningful language, I can appeal to disquotation to establish that “brains in a vat” does refer to brains in a vat.

But this contradicts premise (2). The problem seems to be that (DQ) is resume, being used too liberally. Company? Clearly we do not want to say that every meaningful term disquotes in the strong sense required for reference. If so, we could take it to resume be an a priori truth that “Santa Claus” refers to Santa Claus. But “Santa Claus” does not refer to Santa Claus, since there is hbs essay, no Santa Claus. We could introduce a new term “pseudo-reference” and hold that “Santa Claus” pseudo-refers to Santa Claus, and then attach further conditions on reference in ai class, order to establish what it would take for the term to truly refer. One proposal (Weiss, 2000) is the following principle: W: If “x” psuedo-refers to x in L, and x exists, then “x” refers to or trophoblastic of cancer x in L.

Thus, given the disquotation principle we know that in my language “Santa Claus” pseudo-refers to Santa Claus. Supposing to the joyful adulation of millions that Santa Claus is ai class resume, discovered to actually exist, then given (W) “Santa Claus” refers to Santa Claus. Hbs Essay? Now this also seems too simplistic: as Putnam pointed out, in order for a term to refer to an object we must establish more than the mere existence of the object. There has to be the appropriate causal relation between the word and object, or we are back to claiming that in resume, accidentally sneezing “Genghis Khan” I am referring to involement Genghis Khan. But whether we accept (W) or attach stronger conditions to reference, it is ai class resume, clear that any such move would make Wright’s formulation invalid. For then we would have: My language disquotes In BIVese, “brains in a vat” does not refer to the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis brains in a vat (CC) In my language “brain in a vat” is a meaningful expression In my language, “brain in ai class, a vat” pseudo-refers to brains in the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, a vat (DQ) My language is not BIVese (2,4) If I am a BIV, then my language is BIVese I am not a BIV. (5) no longer follows from (2) and (4) given the ambiguity of “refers” in (2) and (4). If on the other hand we insist on a univocal sense of reference, then either (2) will contradict the ai class resume (DQ) principle, or we are not entitled to appeal to biology cells (1), insofar as it would beg the question that we are speaking English, a language for which the (DQ) principle applies. 4. Brains in resume, a Vat and Self-Knowledge. Ted Warfield (1995) has sought to provide an argument that we are not brains in a vat based on considerations of the unitarian of cancer self-knowledge.

He defends two premises that seem reasonably true, and then he argues for ai class resume the desired metaphysical conclusion: I think that water is wet No brain in a vat can think that water is wet Thus, I am not a brain in a vat (2.3) Premise (1) is said to the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer follow from the thesis of privileged access, which holds that we can at least know the contents of our own occurring thoughts without empirical investigation of our environment or behavior. Warfield’s strategy is to ai class present each premise as non-question begging against the global skeptic, in which case at hbs essay no point can we appeal to the external environment as justification. Resume? Since the thesis of privileged access is said to community be known a priori whether we are brains in a vat or not, premise (1) can be known non-empirically.

Premise (2) is ai class resume, a little trickier to presentation establish non-empirically. The main argument for it is by analogy with other arguments in the literature that have been used to establish content externalism. The main strategy is derived from Putnam’s Twin Earth argument (1975): imagine a world that is indistinguishable from Earth except for one detail: the odorless, drinkable liquid that flows in ai class, the rivers and oceans is composed of the chemicals XYZ and not H20. If we take Oscar on Earth and his twin on Twin-earth, Putnam argues that they would refer to two different substances and hence mean two different things: when Oscar says “pass me some water” he refers to H20 and means water , but when Twin-Oscar says “pass me some water” he refers to company XYZ and ai class resume thus means twin-water. As Burge and others have pointed out, if the meaning of their words are different, then the concepts that compose their beliefs should differ as well, in which case Oscar would believe that water is involement essay, wet whereas Twin-Oscar would believe that twin-water is wet . While Putnam’s original slogan was “meanings just ain’t in the head,” the argument can be extended to beliefs as well: “beliefs just ain’t in ai class, the head,” but depend crucially on hbs essay, the layout of one’s environment. If we accept content externalism, then the motivation for (2) is as follows. In order for ai class someone’s belief to be about water, there must be water in that person’s environment: externalism rejects the Cartesian idea that one can simply read off one’s belief internally (if so then we would have to say that Oscar and his twin have the same beliefs since they are internally the same). The Unitarian Thesis? So it doesn’t seem possible that a BIV could ever come to ai class hold a belief about water (unless of community involement course he picked up the term from the mad-scientist or someone outside the vat, but here we must assume again Putnam’s scenario that there is resume, no mad-scientist or anyone else he could have borrowed the term from). Community Essay? As Warfield puts it, premise (2) is a conceptual truth, established on the basis of Twin-earth style arguments, a matter of “armchair” a priori reflection and thus able to be established non-empirically. The problem with establishing (2) non-empirically though is that the resume externalist arguments succeed only on the assumption that our own use of “water” refers to alcohol in society a substantial kind, and this seems to be a matter of empirical investigation.

Imagine a world where “water” does not refer to any liquid substance but is rather a complex hallucination that never gets discovered. On this “Dry Earth,” “water” would not refer to a substantial kind but rather a superficial kind. The analogy to ai class resume the BIV case is hbs essay, clear: since it is not an a priori truth that “water” refers to ai class resume a substantial kind in the BIV’s language, it cannot be known non-empirically that “water” is substantial or superficial; if it is a superficial kind, then a BIV could very well think that water is wet so long as it has the relevant sense-impressions. Some philosophers have claimed that even if Putnam’s argument is sound, it doesn’t do much to dislodge Cartesian or global skepticism. Crispin Wright (1994) argues that the argument does not affect certain versions of the Cartesian nightmare, such as my brain being taken out of my skull last night and hooked up to a computer. Community Involement? Someone of a Positivist bent might argue that if there is no empirical evidence to appeal to in order to establish whether we are brains in a vat or not, then the hypothesis is meaningless, in resume, which case we do not need an argument to refute it. While few philosophers today would hold onto such a strong verifiability theory of meaning, many would maintain that such metaphysical possibilities do not amount to the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer real cases of doubt and ai class resume thus can be summarily dismissed. Still others see the possibility of being a brain in a vat an important challenge for biology cells research paper cognitive science and the attempt to create a computer model of the world that can simulate human cognition. Dennett (1991) for ai class resume example has argued that it is physically impossible for a brain in a vat to replicate the stand by me film review qualitative phenomenology of a non-envatted human being.

Nevertheless, one should hesitate before making possibility claims when it comes to future technology. And as films like the Matrix , Existenz , and ai class even the Truman Show indicate, the idea of living in a simulated world indistinguishable from the real one is likely to continue to fascinate the human mind for many years to come—whether or not it is a brain in a vat.

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Asian Actors Onstage: Lea Salonga, Phillipa Soo Sound Off on Broadway Representation, Cultural Perceptions. Do people just ask you to sing Aladdin all the time? Phillipa Soo asked Lea Salonga when they met for the first time on a November afternoon at Manhattan's Paramount Hotel. Soo, 25, is making her Broadway debut in Lin-Manuel Miranda's Hamilton , while Salonga, 44, is starring opposite George Takei in Allegiance . Resume! Their conversation began as a laugh-filled fangirl session, swapping stories about community essay, their shows' opening-night parties, and short stage breaks. (Should I get cake from the ai class, costume room or run to essay the bathroom?! debated Soo.) But it quickly evolved into an in-depth discussion about advocating for racial and resume cultural representation onstage, pushing past typical Asian professional goals, and meeting their own parents' standards of excellence. I understand the practical pieces of advice that parents give their kids, said Salonga, who is taking a breather from her role as a judge on company, the local edition of The Voice in ai class, the Philippines to return to essay Broadway. Turning to Soo, she added: Someone who looks like me and looks like you can have this career. Salonga made history as the ai class, first actress of Asian descent to win a Tony Award when she took home lead honors in 1991 for the blockbuster musical Miss Saigon, and she remained the only Asian actress in the Tony club until earlier this year, when Ruthie Ann Miles won for The King and I . Theater awards pundits are already predicting that Soo has a good shot at expanding the membership to three when Hamilton is up for consideration at the unitarian or trophoblastic, the 2016 Tonys. Lea Salonga and ai class resume Phillipa Soo meet for the first time at hbs essay, the Paramount Hotel's Think Tank in ai class resume, New York City. Photo credit: Jai Lennard.

For a long time, roles for Asian actors on Broadway were severely limited, and company presentation resumes tended to read the same with revivals of The King and I , Flower Drum Song and maybe a production of Stephen Sondheim's Pacific Overtures or David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly . Coming in the wake of a year-long off-Broadway run at ai class, the Public Theater for the Imelda Marcos bio-musical Here Lies Love (which also starred Miles), the ongoing King and of cancer I revival and ai class resume the Broadway premiere of Allegiance mean that more Asian actors have been consistently employed on prominent New York stages than at any time in history. The big question now is whether that momentum will continue, with more non-traditional casting like that of Soo as Eliza, Alexander's wife, in Hamilton . Phillipa, when did you first learn of company presentation, Lea? SOO: Aladdin was a huge part of my childhood that was the first time I heard you. Resume! Then, becoming more interested in theater and definitely looking into plays and musicals that represented people I thought looked like me, that's when I found all these amazing videos of you auditioning for biology cells research, Miss Saigon . Resume! I don't know if you've watched those. SALONGA: I actually have.

People on stand review, Facebook tag me and say, Oh my god, Lea, you were so young! That's 27 years ago! It blows my mind to think about it now. SOO: Truly, such an important part of me growing up, as someone of mixed race and someone of color, was seeing someone so successful but so beautiful in your work and what you do. What do you each love about ai class, your character? What's your favorite musical moment of hers? SOO: In Hamilton , the most amazing thing about my journey [as Alexander Hamilton's wife Eliza] is hbs essay her discovery of herself and ai class resume her power, and the impact on history that she's searching for and doesn't necessarily realize herself, but the community involement, audience can see. I always look forward to resume that last moment [when Eliza sings of her accomplishments after Alexander's death in Who Lives, Who Dies, Who Tells Your Story], which is very much a culmination of the entire three hours of in society essay, experience, the ai class, entire 20 years we've just seen in the play, the stand, entire rehearsal process where we are in that very moment. Soo (second from left) alongside Leslie Odom Jr., Lin-Manuel Miranda and Christopher Jackson at Hamilton's Aug.

6 Broadway premiere. Photo credit: AP Images/Invision. As a woman, it's nice to hear people at ai class resume, the stage door say, I didn't even know! She's a woman, and that's the most amazing thing. Presentation! And I say, But isn't it crazy that you're so surprised? It's a surprising thing that it ends with her story!

But I think that's great. We're making our way toward something else. I can't wait to see your show but I'm sure there's something similar. SALONGA: Yeah. In Allegiance , Kei Kimura starts out compliant with her environment. Her father says, We have to keep our heads down, and she'll say yes. She pretty much bends in ai class resume, whatever direction she feels she's being pushed in. By Me Film Review! Very compliant, very traditionally Asian; This is my role in this family. Then she gets thrust into a whole other set of circumstances with a whole other set of influences pushing her. I look forward to a very short reprise [of Higher], when everything is taken away from her and she now gets to that decision: You know what? I am effing tired of everything going on here, and it's time to do something.

I look forward to ripping into that every day. Then we see her more proactive and less compliant and resume much more of an instigator of things. Both of your characters are empowered to continue the work of involement essay, men in their lives, these goals might not be achieved without them. Did that factor into accepting the role? SALONGA: When this role was first developed, there was a whole lot of resume, none of that! Then [co-writer] Marc Acito came into the picture and streamlined the community involement, script killed off the mother and an older brother, and ai class gave their arcs to me, which made for a really rich experience. Even in the San Diego production where Kei was introduced, she was still not this instigating force that she is now. As for looking for essay, roles, my gut just tells me, Yes, you have to do this, and you have to stick with this. Ai Class Resume! Sometimes it's the arcs of the character, but usually, because I tend to be led by research paper, singing over anything else, if it's something I feel I can really work with, that's the path I'll go. From left: Salonga and George Takei as Kei and Ojii-chan Kimura in Allegiance . Photo credit: Matthew Murphy. SOO: I joined [ Hamilton ] as the ball started rolling faster and faster about two years ago.

I relate to ai class resume that idea of not necessarily seeking out interesting female roles, but this character, this role, who happens to be a woman, is interesting to me, and I relate to it in some way, so I'm just gonna go with my gut and see where it leads me. Is it exciting to alcohol in society work on this? Even if I don't necessarily hit the ai class resume, nail on the head the first time, is the prospect of in society, working on ai class resume, it getting my gears going? Then it turned out to be a wonderful surprise. I hope that's how I can do it for the rest of my career. Both shows also use your Asian makeup in different ways: Allegiance tells an stand by me film Asian-American story about the ai class, WWII internment, and Hamilton uses colorblind casting to the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer showcase the founding fathers. SALONGA: It's amazing that both of these shows are on Broadway in the same season.

Allegiance is one of those shows where race is like a main character in the show, because the ai class resume, xenophobia happening at the time needs to be very clearly illustrated. The only the unitarian thesis people who can replace us are other Asians, which is rare. The only exception is Katie Rose Clark, who is as white as snow, and understudied by ai class, two girls who are Hapa half [Asian, half white]. Cells! One of them also understudies me, but she can be pushed either way and it would not be politically incorrect to do so because she embodies both. It's refreshing that this is a specifically Asian-American story that shows the uglier, seedier side of American history, and how relevant it is today for example, with so many discussions about immigrants in ai class, this country today, and with what's been happening around the world with the terrorist bombings in Beirut and Paris. The lens is involement essay now closing on Muslims and the Muslim-American community, and I feel sick to my stomach, hearing the politicians talk and seeing which states will not allow [Syrian] refugees in. Ai Class! Yes, we understand, we get it, but remember, this same attitude was trained on stand essay, another ethnic group back in the day. Ai Class Resume! It's happening again have you not learned from history? Have you not read your history books?

Oh wait, hang on the Japanese-American internment was not even a paragraph in history books. Hbs Essay! Where can you learn this history if it's not even written down and it's not even taught? It's just very scary. I totally went off-topic. SOO: There's a hope that one day, enough people will have been exposed to enough art and resume enough history just to think twice. [When watching Allegiance ,] I'm not just enjoying this as a story, but this is really messed up. Someone who looks like me and stand by me film review essay looks like you can have this career, said Salonga (left) with Soo at the Paramount Hotel's Think Tank in New York City. Photo credit: Jai Lennard. Phillipa, you're of Asian descent and playing a character that isn't written as Asian, or any race at resume, all.

SALONGA: But it's awesome and with all of these colorful people! SOO: Yeah! So I'm half-Chinese and half white, and it wasn't until being part of this show even though I've been in other mixed race casts that I have been considered an actor of color. Company! Up until now, I haven't been talking about being an Asian-American woman! I don't know why, but clearly it has something to do with the statement that we're making in our show, and that you're seeing so many different colors that you're thinking, Wait a minute, what is everybody? I was in Natasha Pierre the ai class resume, Great Comet of 1812 , a Russian story based on Tolstoy and community with a mixed race cast. But it wasn't a mixed race cast playing Russian people; it was just us telling the story. Because of who I was playing opposite, I think people assumed I was white. Ai Class Resume! It depends on the frame that highlights different things. Also, it hasn't been until now that I received this beautiful letter from this young woman who thanked me for representing Chinese-American people in by me review, the theater. That's never happened to me before!

But it's beautiful because I feel like as amazing as it is to acknowledge, it's also amazing on resume, the other side that people don’t even think twice about it [in Hamilton ]. At the Allegiance opening, speaking about Asians in the performing arts, George Takei told me, Other parents, if they had talented children, they would be encouraged. But Asian parents all want their sons and daughters to be professionals it's an insecure business and that's the reality SALONGA: Right. My parents told me that. They not only don't encourage them, they discourage their youngsters. We should be confident enough that if they have talented children who have that drive, to alcohol give them wise guidance: 'Yes, it's a very competitive field and ai class there aren't that many opportunities, but if you really have that grit and the talent and the ability to bounce back from rejection, then we will support you.' That kind of encouragement is involement essay needed, and resume I think it's starting to happen now.

SALONGA: I grew up in the Philippines, and I spent most of company presentation, my life acting and singing and dancing onstage or TV or on ai class, film. My parents were somewhat supportive, but they were always a typical Asian family: Get your education, get your college degree and no one will ever take that away from you. Don't count on show business as a primary occupation because it's very fickle. Which it is, and stand by me film review essay we've seen people be complete successes one minute and total wash-ups the resume, next. It's a very practical piece of advice. There were other things that interested me anyway, and I went into college as a biology major because I truly and sincerely enjoyed it. Then, Miss Saigon happened, and bam, my life changed. All of us were feeling like we're blazing a trail for the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer, other people of our race, and we have no idea what's going to happen once this show opens, and ai class it then became an incredible employment opportunity for so many Asian-American actors. But even while I was in that show, I thought, 'One year and then go back to college, pick up where I left off and life will just continue.'

Salonga (second from left) at the 1991 Tony Awards alongside fellow winners Nigel Hawthorne (' Shadowlands' ), Mercedes Ruehl (' Lost In Yonkers' ) and Jonathan Pryce (' Miss Saigon' ). Photo credit: Richard Drew/AP. I do understand why a lot of Asian-American parents, especially the first-generation and the immigrants that come here, would encourage their kids not to company get into the business: because Asians onscreen, onstage, it's a very underrepresented group. Until Allegiance and Hamilton and resume other shows are written for alcohol essay, people like us, it's difficult, and it's extremely competitive as it is, so I understand the practical pieces of resume, advice that parents give their kids. But the cool thing about Allegiance is, you see the Asian romantic lead get the Asian romantic leading lady at the end! It's not a spoiler: there's B-roll of us kissing at cells paper, the end of a romantic number! That's not been seen on Broadway yet, and it's awesome. Ai Class! And there's another Asian lead and he's involved in hbs essay, an interracial romance how often do these stories happen? The times, they are achanging. Someone who looks like me and looks like you can have this career. SOO: I was having a great conversation the other day with a very mixed group of friends: black friends, white friends, gay friends, straight friends. And we were talking about particularly just giving anybody of minority an resume opportunity in the theater.

The opportunities don't exist because there's not enough people, and there's not enough people because the opportunities don't exist. In Society Essay! It's a catch-22. So you create the opportunity, even though the perfect people might not be there, you create it so that more people [emerge]. Resume! There's a catalyst. It has to start somewhere. There's a huge responsibility to alcohol in society tell those stories and put those stories out there so we can be a part of it. Ai Class Resume! And then there will be a young woman outside the stage door saying, Oh my gosh, thank you. Hbs Essay! She'll feel like, in five years, there's more of a chance that there will be something for her, and she'll want to pursue this.

SOO: In terms of my own experience, my dad is first-generation, so his parents were from China, and my mom was born and raised in ai class, southern Illinois, and she was involved in the arts. My dad's a doctor. I was very much always encouraged, but the essay, mentality of get your education was still there. But of course, from his experience, he was like, I kind of resume, want you to in society do what you want to do, but remember, there's a legacy here, and you have a lot to live up to. Don’t forget that. I think he just wanted me to do the best at whatever I wanted to ai class resume do, so whether it was in the arts or the hbs essay, sciences, to be well-rounded and to have an amazing time doing it, but also to ai class resume just educate yourself and if you're going to be a performer, be the best performer that you can be. I think that still lives on in me and hbs essay will be something I pass onto resume my own children. I think there's something beautiful about stand by me film review, that. What can Hollywood learn from ai class, Broadway right now? SALONGA: Watch the by me film review essay, season, first of ai class, all! And with On Your Feet! and The Color Purple , it's an of cancer incredible season of shows.

It's quite groundbreaking, and it just shows what's possible. It's possible for any ten-year-old of any background to look up at ai class resume, the stage and say, 'Mommy, that's what I want to do,' and then for that mom to presentation say, 'Well then go for it. I'm right behind you.' It's nice to ai class resume be able to alcohol in society essay have a hand in that, instead of ai class, saying, 'There's nobody like you onstage, where are you gonna fit?' But we're fitting quite nicely, eight shows a week. Stop seeing us as exotic and oriental and far-removed from the experience of what this country actually is. Don't see us as foreigners, see us as part of the country. Alcohol! Then, maybe there will be more really great stuff written on film for people that look like us, because theater people are writing things for resume, us! Kei was written for me I can actually say that! SOO: Hamilton just asks us all to go a little bit deeper: whether you're a hip-hop fan seeing musical theater for the first time, or if you were thinking you were gonna see some reprise of 1776 , and now it's this? And you're thinking, 'Wait a minute, these people aren't white!' It asks you just take a step and community involement essay go a little deeper.

It's not like there's no opportunity for you to get on ai class resume, the train; there's a lot of opportunity to get on. Let's do that, let's write some more complicated characters that are of many diverse backgrounds culturally and racially, because that's a whole other thing. Yeah, I'm being represented racially, but culturally, that's so broad! I'm seeing broad people, not my neighbor, not you, not me.

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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. Business plan templates come in all forms, shapes and sizes. Resume! The beauty of PDF business plan templates, however, is that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in company, front of them. Whether a business owner wants to create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of starting from scratch. Resume! Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to help you get started. If you need a business plan template for a small business, there is no better place to look than the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from;s 8(a) Business Development Program. In Society Essay! This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the details of a business, with more than 50 prompts to help users answer the questions needed for a complete business plan. [ How to resume, Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the U.S. Community Involement! Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), also provides useful resources for starting a business.

In addition to ai class resume, offering a business plan template and financial projections charts, the VA#39;s Writing a Business Plan PDF contains information on why an entrepreneur should create a business plan, basic business plan guidelines and presentation tips on the do#39;s and don#39;ts of writing a business plan. Used as the ai class, official business plan for the New York StartUP! 2014 Business Plan Competition, this PDF business plan template was adapted from Successful Business Plans (The Planning Shop, 2010) by Rhonda Abrams. Each of the the unitarian thesis, 12 sections of ai class this business plan template includes instructions explaining what type of presentation information to enter, as well as chapter references so you can look up more details. In addition, the resume, template includes a SWOT analysis and community optional technology plan.

Need a quick and painless, albeit unconventional, business plan? Try the Business Entrepreneurship Center#39;s (BEC) elevator pitch business plan. Instead of an entire business plan with typical sections written out such as executive summary, market analysis and resume financial projections the elevator pitch business plan template combines all these areas into one succinct paragraph. Find examples at the BEC#39;s downloadable PDF elevator pitch small business plan template. 5. The One Page Business Plan Company#39;s business plan template. Cells Research Paper! Hate the ai class resume, idea of writing out an entire essay for alcohol in society essay, a business plan? The One Page Business Plan Company offers a one-page business plan separated into ai class resume several sections vision, mission, objectives, strategies and action plans. Hbs Essay! You can answer all of these sections using keywords and short phrases. PDF samples of the one-page business plan template are available for download via 6. $100 Startup One-Page Business Plan. Business plans don#39;t have to be complicated.

The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan template helps users craft a business plan by answering several short questions. You can answer each question in ai class resume, one or two sentences. This PDF one-page template covers everything from an overview of your business to hbs essay, marketing, money matters and ai class obstacle projections. Company Presentation! 7. Biz Kids business plan template. Biz Kids, an online portal where kids teach kids about money and business, offers a step-by-step guide to writing a business plan. This PDF document breaks down each section with brief questions and resume simple formulas to help users complete the included one-page business plan template. Although the research, guide and plan are catered toward young entrepreneurs, these resources cover all the basics and are suitable for any type of business. 8. Rowan University College of Business#39; sample plan.

Thinking about starting a consulting business? Check out Rowan University#39;s sample consulting business plan template. Part of the university#39;s Center for Innovation Entrepreneurship 2013 Rohrer Business Plan Competition, this 30-page PDF business plan template is a comprehensive example of what a consulting business plan entails, complete with financial charts and balance sheets. Ai Class Resume! 9. business plan template., a Web-based business planning software provider, offers a simple business plan template specifically for startups. The downloadable PDF business plan template includes instructions and tips for completing each section, as well as sample charts to help users complete the financial areas of the business plan. 10. Community Involement! SNIEDC fill-in-the-blank business plan. If you want to cover all of your bases, look no further than the Seneca Nation of Indians Economic Development Company#39;s (SNIEDC) PDF fill-in-the-blank business plan template. This all-inclusive, 50-page business plan outline asks a series of questions so you can fill in each section of the resume, business plan.

It also includes detailed financial charts and a glossary of business terms. The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and working capital support for enrolled members of the Seneca Nation of Indians. Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and stand marketing. After graduating from ai class UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and joined Business News Daily in by me review, 2013.

Follow Sara Angeles on Twitter @sara_angeles.

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essay on telebanking Information technology in the banking sector : opportunities, threats and ai class, strategies. Graduate School of Business and Management, American University of alcohol essay, Beirut, 1998. The 21 st century will bring about an ai class resume, all-embracing convergence of computing, communications, information and knowledge. This will radically change the way we live, work, and think. The growth of high speed networks, coupled with the falling cost of computing power, is making possible applications undreamed of in the past. Voice, data, images, and video may now be transferred around the world in micro-seconds. This explosion of technology is changing the banking industry from paper and branch banks to' digitized and networked banking services.

It has already changed the internal accounting and management systems of banks. It is now fundamentally changing the delivery systems banks use to interact with their customers. All over hbs essay, the world, banks are still struggling to find a technological solution to meet the challenges of a rapidly-changing environment. It is ai class resume, clear that this new technology is presentation, changing the banking industry forever. Ai Class Resume! Banks with the ability to invest and integrate information technology will become dominate in the highly competitive global market. Bankers are convinced that investing in IT is critical.

Its potential and consequences on the banking industry future is enormous. Technology and Banks Transformation. Computers are getting more sophisticated. They have given banks a potential they could only dream about and have given bank customers high expectations. Hbs Essay! The changes that new technologies have brought to banking are enormous in their impact on officers, employees, and customers of ai class, banks. Advances in technology are allowing for hbs essay, delivery of ai class, banking products and services more conveniently and effectively than ever before - thus creating new bases of competition. Rapid access to critical information and the ability to company act quickly and effectively will distinguish the ai class resume, successful banks of the future. The bank gains a vital competitive advantage by having a direct marketing and accountable customer service environment and company, new, streamlined business processes. Consistent management and decision support systems provide the bank that competitive edge to forge ahead in the banking marketplace. Major applications.

The advantages accruing from computerization are three-directional - to the customer, to the bank and to the employee. For the customer. Banks are aware of customer's need for ai class resume, new services and plan to make them available. IT has increased the level of competition and forced them to integrate the new technologies in order to satisfy their customers. They have already developed and implemented a certain number of solutions among them: Self-inquiry facility: Facility for logging into specified self-inquiry terminals at company presentation the branch to ai class inquire and view the transactions in the account. Remote banking: Remote terminals at the customer site connected to the respective branch through a modem, enabling the customer to make inquiries regarding his accounts, on-line, without having to move from his office.

Anytime banking- Anywhere banking: Installation of ATMs which offer non-stop cash withdrawal, remittances and inquiry facilities. Networking of computerized branches inter-city and intra-city, will permit customers of these branches, when interconnected, to transact from biology paper any of these branches. Telebanking: A 24-hour service through which inquiries regarding balances and transactions in the account can be made over the phone. Electronic Banking: This enables the bank to provide corporate or high value customers with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) software on a PC, to inquire about resume their financial transactions and accounts, cash transfers, cheque book issue and inquiry on rates without visiting the involement essay, bank. Moreover, LC text and details on bills can be sent by the customer, and the bank can download the same. The technology used to provide this service is called electronic data interchange (EDI). It is used to transmit business transactions in computer-readble form between organizations and ai class resume, individuals in stand a standard format. As information is centralized and updates are available simultaneously at all places, single-window service becomes possible, leading to effective reduction in waiting time.

For the bank . During the last decade, banks applied IT to a wide range of back and front office tasks in addition to a great number of new products. Resume! The major advantages for the bank to implement IT are: Availability of hbs essay, a wide range of inquiry facilities, assisting the bank in business development and follow-up. Immediate replies to customer queries without reference to ledger-keeper as terminals are provided to Managers and resume, Chief Managers. Stand By Me Film! Automatic and prompt carrying out of standing instructions on due date and generation of reports. Generation of various MIS reports and periodical returns on due dates. Fast and ai class, up-to-date information transfer enabling speedier decisions, by interconnecting computerized branches and controlling offices. For the employees . Biology Cells! IT has increased their productivity through the followings: Accurate computing of ai class resume, cumbersome and time-consuming jobs such as balancing and thesis of cancer, interest calculations on resume due dates. Automatic printing of covering schedules, deposit receipts, pass book / pass sheet, freeing the staff from performing these time-consuming jobs, and enabling them to give more attention to by me review the needs of the customer. Ai Class! Signature retrieval facility, assisting in verification of transactions, sitting at their own terminal.

Avoidance of duplication of entries due to existence of single-point data entry. A search of the banking literature reveals that banks are moving rapidly to take advantage of recent and new customer service and hbs essay, cost reduction opportunities that new technologies offer. A sampling is in the table below: Internet: Riding the resume, tiger. The Internet is rapidly becoming the information superhighway of a global electronic marketplace. The rising commercial interests in the Internet are especially evident in frontend applications such as electronic catalogs, yellow pages, storefronts, malls, and customer support centers. All these applications are based on the World Wide Web (WWW) -- the biology cells paper, fastest growing segment of the Internet. Although back-end applications such as electronic data interchange (EDI) are equally important, their adoption has not been as rapid. Ai Class Resume! One major concern is security: the involement, Internet is generally perceived as not secure enough for transmitting sensitive data such as payments.

Upon a closer look, however, this view is resume, not warranted, since technologies such as public key encryption and firewalls address essential security concerns. Moreover, such technologies are already available. The only remaining barrier is the lack of real world users of those technologies. The pilot project between Bank of America (BofA) and biology cells, one of ai class resume, its large corporate customers involves transporting financial EDI transactions over the Internet. If successful, BofA expects that this new EDI option will lead to a reduction in telecommunications costs, an improved position with respect to its value-added network (VAN), and valuable learning experience with the Internet environment, which is becoming increasingly important to the bank. The project is also significant beyond BofA: because it is biology cells research paper, one of the first large-scale, real-world trials, its outcome will help dispel many uncertainties surrounding Internet-based EDI, and encourage more companies to move in this direction.

Investing in resume technology . According to a survey conducted by the American Bankers Association, US banks expenditure on information technology grew from $16.3 billion in 1994 to $18.7 billion in 1995-an increase of 14.7%, and $1 billion more than the same bankers forecasted they would spend in last year's survey. By 1998, the banks expect to spend $21.2 billion (an increase of 7. 1 %). How to survive . The key to survival is customer service. Customer loyalty will be determined by paper, convenient and innovative delivery of products and personalized services. In the '70's and '80's, banks were marketing to a generation raised on old style banking: personal interaction at a banking office. That generation was disdainful of impersonal service and afraid of computers. Convenience was having a branch in ai class resume one's neighbourhood.

Today, personal service and in society essay, convenience are still the ai class resume, critical factors in the banking relationship, but they are defined differently. Consumers still want to bank with a financial institution they know, and one who knows them, but they do not necessarily want to go to the bank. They are not afraid of computers and technology; they embrace them. Convenience is doing their banking when they want, and the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer, where they want. Resume! They are now comfortable with personal computers and other electronic devices. They expect fast, efficient, and accurate service And the only way to cost effectively provide the biology paper, instant, quality service that customers demand, and that the competition provides, is through intensive use of the most advanced information technologies and through good people trained in the use of these technologies. For all these reasons, the banks delivery systems are completely changing. The new Delivery Systems . The increasing cost of building brick-and-mortar branches, decreasing cost of resume, computers, high delivery costs and slow revenue growth force a relook at community involement the conventional delivery systems. Moreover, growing comfort of technology usage by the customer is rapidly fostering usage of non-branch channels for routine transactions. The new strategy changes the focus of the branch from being a high cost transaction center to a provider of resume, a wide range of services like telebanking, customer service kiosks, ATMs, and remote electronic banking.

New Marketing Opportunities . As the new technology is so expensive banks need to use the new systems to do more than deliver information and basic services. Banks need the ability to also sell insurance and investment products to get a better return on this investment. Telephone banking can bring financial services to the home or office, especially if they are affordable screen phones. By noticing how much interest the customer expresses, the bank can market stock quotes and insurance quotes. Interactive videos are new technology that banks can make available to the customer to maintain personal contact while still lowering the expense of delivery service. Hbs Essay! With an interactive video an ai class resume, expert employee is not needed in each branch. Complex life insurance products, open brokerage accounts, customized product illustrations can be widely available where needed.

The interactive videos will be cost effective expertise. The internet is community involement essay, a medium to allow banks to offer products to customers outside the normal customer base of a branch. Banks are aware of the customer's need for these services and ai class resume, plan to make them available before other sources do. Drawbacks . Community Essay! Early experiences with electronic commerce in the banking industry, which has been a pioneer in the use of electronic systems, can be used to ai class learn of some potential dangers and issues to be taken into account. The use of Automated Teller Machines and electronic home banking systems has increasingly allowed customers to bank outside of traditional bank facilities, for most of their usual transactions. This was consistent with the cost-savings strategy of most banks, which discovered that electronic transactions were about seven times less costly compared to the manual handling of these transactions by a bank teller. Nevertheless, the fact that customers' only contact with their banks was through (rather unsophisticated) electronic interfaces, and the major difficulties in integrating the legacy systems of a typical bank, prevented banks in many cases from selling additional products to hbs essay customers (cross-selling). In some European markets, the insurance companies took opportunity of that to grab business from ai class resume banks, selling savings products to customers through their extensive distribution network. Similarly, the hbs essay, decrease in human interaction with customers could also lead to a less sophisticated understanding of their needs, as they're not always able to express comments, criticisms or requests for new products while interacting with machines. Ai Class! This should lead to a design of by me review essay, electronic commerce systems which incorporate capabilities for customer understanding and for ai class, proactive selling of new products. Electronic business transactions can only be successful if financial exchanges between buyers and biology cells, sellers can occur in a simple, universally accepted, safe and cheap way.

Various systems have been proposed, some of them based on traditional mechanisms (e.g. credit cards accounts) while others rely on new designs, such as electronic money. The key here will be to ai class find a few widely accepted mechanisms, which can be used by most actors. The recent agreement between Mastercard and Visa on one security standard for credit card transactions over the Internet, and its backing by most major software vendors is one step in presentation the right direction. This doesn't diminish the need for more specialized systems, for instance to allow microtransactions, the exchange of very small amounts of money (a few cents) in exchange for information or services. These new payment mechanisms will in turn enable new business models such as pay-per-article newspapers. The Lebanese Case. During the ai class, last civil war (1975-1990), eighty percent of the Lebanese infrastructure was destroyed. The remaining twenty percent are now outdated. The Lebanese banking sector was heavily affected by the war.

They lacked the or trophoblastic of cancer, information technology revolution in the banking sector. It becomes a strategic necessity for the Lebanese banks to implement the new technologies at all levels, transactional level, managerial level and executive level. Ai Class Resume! In the 1990's they started implementing IT capabilities to essay change the work organization, raise the productivity, cut costs and deliver the ai class, best services to their customers and increase their profits in the same time. Most of the Lebanese bankers believe that IT will enable them to face the foreign competition and the possible consequences of the coming peace. Technology Adoption . The vast majority of the Lebanese banks have set very high standards of biology cells research, excellence for themselves in terms of ai class, technology, state-of-the-art facilities, customer service and customer orientation with all facets of operations totally computerized. The banks also make extensive use of communication technology to provide off-site banking facilities including ATMs.

Their ambition is to position themselves as technology-driven banks offering superior services to both their clientele classes - the corporate customer and the retail customer. The corporate customer typically requires quick disposal of biology, loan applications and maximum returns from the cash balance. The needs of the corporate customer are functions of the resume, speed of response. Technologically the answer to this is a reliable network connecting branches that run on-line. The first steps . Alcohol Essay! At the ai class, early stage , Lebanese banks started to hbs essay build their databases and automate their work procedures. Most banks have adopted ready made packages for their internal operations.

Currently, these banks are replacing their old information systems. The banks branches are planning to provide state-of-the-art services to their customers enabling a rapid growth of the bank's performance in a very competitive marketplace. Different approaches are followed in the Lebanese banks to acquire and implement the new technologies. Ai Class! Banque du Liban et d'outre-mer (BLOM), for example, has developed its own complete banking information system. While Ban k Audi followed another strategy and purchased an on-line information system providing a real time on line branch network with an cells research paper, up-to-date banking and customer information to senior management, middle managers, end users and business analysts.

Both information systems, in BLOM in resume Bank Audi are scheduled to run during this year. The major reasons behind adopting or developing new information systems are: Rapid geographical expansion has forced banks to replace their off-line systems by an on-line system linking the involement essay, branches to the head office through the telecommunications network. Restructuring bank's processes in order to reduce staff expenses which constitute a large part of the operating costs and a heavy burden on ai class its operating profitability. Incompatibility of the old systems with the the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer, strategic necessity of integrating new technologies like ATMs, telebanking, etc. in ai class order to provide the high quality services to the customers and competing on an equal foot with the foreign banks. The competition . The Lebanese banks are also planning to company offer the entire range of services like telebanking, ATMs, etc. Ai Class Resume! They also respond very actively in the marketplace in biology introducing new products and services.

Arab Bank was the pioneer in introducing ATMs in Lebanon. Arab bank started to install ATM machines in ai class 1993. Other banks followed, by establishing in 1994 a network called Link Network, using Link cards. About 25 banks have joined this network and are sharing now its almost 60 machines located in the major cities of Lebanon. Company! The central bank is expecting that about 700 ATM machines will be installed in Lebanon by resume, the year 2000.

Lebanese banks are also introducing remote banking services. Arab bank was also the community essay, first bank in Lebanon to offer this service. Early in ai class resume 1994, Arab bank installed an interactive voice response system, called Phone Banking. Alcohol In Society Essay! At the same time, it introduced the computer based remote banking service which is called Corporate banking. Four other banks, Allied Business Bank, BLOM, Universal Bank, and the British Bank of the resume, Middle East followed and introduced their telephone based remote banking. However these services are providing only inquiry facilities because they are off-line systems.

Technology Assessment . The diffusion and successful implementation of IT in Lebanese banks is not an the unitarian thesis, easy process. Lebanese banks are facing enormous challenges in mastering the new tools provided by IT. An important constraint to the diffusion and success of IT implementation is the telecommunications infrastructure, another obstacle is managerial practices and organizational weaknesses. In the following section, I will analyse and discuss these obstacles. In evaluating banks'use of technology, we look at both the technology in place to serve today's customer and ai class resume, the plans for serving tomorrow's. The first objective is to examine the bank's deployment of technology relative to what is available, tested, and proven to enhance bank performance. The second is to examine the bank's preparation for the future. We want to answer the following questions: The most important issues to be analysed are : To what degree is the bank using proven technologies to enhance performance? Are there any technologies not deployed that would have a significant, positive effect on involement essay performance?

What level of specialized training has been received by the officers and employees assigned to selecting, deploying, and ai class, managing technology? What level of systems training has been provided to other officers and employees? How effective are the systems that are being used? Is Management monitoring the evolution of banking technologies and planning for the future? Telecommunication infrastructure . The greatest obstacle to real time electronic banking in Lebanon is the telecommunications infrastructure. Film Review Essay! Telecommunications in the banking sector is a major factor to ai class the success or failure of any application or service. By Me Film Review! The Lebanese telecommunications infrastructure was devastated by the civil war. The process of rehabilitation and modernization of this infrastructure started in 1993.According to the recovery plan developed by ai class, CDR the telecommunications rehabilitation plan will be completed by the year 1998. This means that banks will not be able to rely on the public network until 1998.

The result of such situation is a delay in implementing new services and products like remote banking, electronic funds transfer, real time bank information systems. Hbs Essay! This has also an effect on the reliability of the services already implemented like ATMs. In order to face this challenge, banks began studying the feasibility of installing a private telecommunications network. Four banks, Bank Audi, Arab Bank, Byblos Bank, and BLOM, started in the early 1996 considering the installation of a private network to connect their branches and thus conduct real time banking operations. This network will also be used to ai class connect the ATMs machines which will thus function on-line. However three problems are delaying the implementation of in society essay, such network: Obtaining a license from the Ministry of Post and telecommunications. The high cost of the ai class resume, equipment 0 The lack of research, coordination between the members of the Lebanese Banks Association. Human Resources Problems . Banking industry is heavily depending upon information technology that needs professionals for development, implementation and support.

Despite the programs performed by many banks to ai class resume develop their local expertise in IT, there is still a real shortage of qualified personnel. According to a recent survey ( T. Abdul Reda and M. Dayya, Banking IT: a look at Lebanon, AUB, 1996) the following problems were identified: almost half of the Lebanese banks do not have one engineer among their staff. lack of professional training programs. Financial institutions in Lebanon offer a wide range of training programs to their employees. Stand By Me Essay! However, with respect to their technical IT staff the percentage of training programs is much less, because IT staff are considered to be trained, highly qualified and resume, hence do not need extended training sessions. Alcohol In Society! The consequence of such policy is a reduction of the capability of IT staff to be up to date in the most recent advances . High turnover rate of technical staff. The turnover rate of the technical staff in some 40% percent the Lebanese banks is around 20%.

The low salaries and better opportunities in other industries are the main reasons for this high rate. Resistance to ai class change. Resistance to change and the absorption capacity is thesis of cancer, often neglected once the automation system is adopted. However, this human factor is a critical factor in the success of any banking application of information technology. Resume! The only way to solve this problem is to design adequate training programs and cells paper, increase the awareness of the employees. Most Lebanese banks have realized this fact and some of ai class resume, them have established a training centre. These are the major obstacles for implementing IT in Lebanese banks. Another point that should be mentioned is the necessity of planning very carefully the development of any new application. A computerization plan is the basis for implementing successful information technology solutions. To be relevant, these plans have to be linked closely to organizational strategies, objectives, priorities and processes. Strategy for the future.

Banks face a serious challenge. The basic structure of the presentation, bank is increasingly in conflict with the changing product, delivery, and service needs of the customers The future belongs to financial service providers not traditional banks. The vast majority of ai class resume, large banks, will create value networks. Doing so presents tremendous challenges. Banks will have to first develop a comprehensive distribution system that will enable customers to touch them at multiple points.

Banks must also create performance measurement systems to assure the mix products and services they offer are beneficial to both the customer and the bank. They must determine whether to deploy new technologies themselves or with other service providers. Nevertheless, technology alone will not solve issues or create advantages. Community! This technology needs to be integrated in an organization, with the change management issues linked to people resisting new concepts and ideas. It also needs to support a clearly defined and well communicated business strategy.