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Glass menagerie essay

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Blogging is the New Persuasive Essay. As an English teacher, I#8217;ve had numerous conversations with college professors who lament the writing skills of their first year students. Menagerie. But not all writing. Most students are capable of solid expository writing. It#8217;s their skill with persuasive writing that#8217;s the problem. Specifically, they#8217;re weak at writing a thesis statement that can be argued.

I spend three years teaching my high school students how to write a persuasive essay. For many students, it takes that long. By Kate Essays. (And I#8217;m lucky to have them that long in my school.) Part of the problem is that our current school systems #8212; and glass menagerie essay not just in model essays Canada #8212; aren#8217;t great at producing independent thinkers. Without this ability, it#8217;s hard to create a great thesis statement, anticipate the arguments against essay, it, and purchase then compose your own argument in light of what you understand about the pros and cons of an issue. So for three years, I write for them, and with them. We talk about opening paragraphs, and they learn how to write them with their thesis statement either as the first or last sentence. (The latter requires more skill.) They learn to use transition words, embed quotations to support their argument, consider the advantages of active vs. passive voice, vary their sentences, and menagerie many other skills, all in the hope of creating a strong argument. The truth is lately I#8217;ve come to question the point of much of this. Does the purchase, average person, once they leave school, spend a lot of essay, time composing academic essays? Is this the best way for essay, our students to show their learning? In some places, the academic 5 paragraph essay is hailed as the Holy Grail of non-fiction writing achievement. Glass Menagerie. Yet even if a student can become a great persuasive essay writer, they#8217;re still only semi-literate, at least according to the definition of 21st Century Literacies.

While traditional essay writing may not help alleviate this situation, I think blogging can. Here#8217;s the problem; Blogging is an entirely different beast. Louisiana Purchase Essay. And one of the things I#8217;ve learned about menagerie, my students is that they don#8217;t necessarily transfer a skill they#8217;ve learned in louisiana purchase one area to another without difficulty, or even prompting. For one, the paragraphing is different. The large, solid paragraphs of glass menagerie, prose that can be found in a typical persuasive essay, can feel arduous and by kate cumbersome to all but the most determined reader. Glass Menagerie. Instead, blog paragraphs tend to be shorter. It allows the piece to purchase essay, feel fluid and speeds up the glass essay, rate at research which your reader reads (often through the glass menagerie, glare of a computer monitor or on a phone or tablet screen). And while the research paper on community radio, effective blogger still uses transition words, as many aren#8217;t necessary to glass menagerie, provide the piece with a feeling of fluidity and coherence. Sometimes a paragraph is one simple sentence, used for emphasis. Another thing is the thesis statement.

Its placement, in a blog, is up for grabs. Did you catch where mine is? Actually, I haven#8217;t written it yet. Huh?! Blogging also requires a different voice. The way I blog isn#8217;t quite how I talk, but it#8217;s no where close to how I write a formal essay. Furthermore, the voice used in blogging needs to internet essay questions, be rich, sharp and distinct, to menagerie essay, gain an audience.

And while some may argue that academic writing could stand to have a bit more colour and flair, I#8217;m not sure that#8217;s currently the accepted norm (although I wish it was). In a formal essay, I would never use a sentence fragment. Ever. In a blog, it provides emphasis. General Papers Essays. Nor would I use slang in an essay. But here? Yep.

In one of my posts, I double-dog dared my readers. Could you imagine double-dog daring anyone in glass an academic essay? If you try it, let me know the result. Another thing that changes is providing your reader with evidence to support your points. In teaching the the awakening by kate chopin, typical formal essay, I show my students how to quote directly, indirectly, and using individual words. Blogs still use direct quotes, but an menagerie indirect quote can be as simple as a vague mention and a link. I think blogging is the essays, new persuasive essay -my thesis, finally. Truth is, I love writing essays. There#8217;s something satisfying about rendering the glass, chaos of thoughts into an elegant form. But I love blogging more.

It feels like playing. I also find it more useful. While our students will need to know how to reports, write essays to get through university, many won#8217;t use it after that, unless they remain in academia. I think writing and persuasive thinking skills are important. However, I question the current products we require of students as proof of their learning.

Most of the glass essay, essays written by our students likely end up in the garbage or the computer trash can. And most are for an audience of one. Blogging has the potential to reach and influence many. Furthermore, it has greater potential for being a life-long skill. And isn#8217;t that our goal in education? People from all walks and the awakening chopin essays professions blog for the purpose of teaching, creating, and informing.

A number of my recent Masters courses didn#8217;t require papers; instead, they required blogging. Glass Essay. Why? Because blogging is the new persuasive essay. If we#8217;re trying to prepare our students to think critically and argue well, they need to reports, be able to blog. It allows for interaction. It allows for glass menagerie essay, ideas to by kate essays, be tested. Glass Menagerie Essay. And the best posts anywhere in cyberspace tend to have a point that can be argued. I think blogging across the curriculum, not just in essay Language Arts, allows for both formative and essay summative assessment. Blogs allow us to see the progression in the development of both thinking and writing.

It may actually take more talent and skill to create an general papers interesting persuasive post (or series of menagerie, posts) on general model the French Revolution than a traditional essay. We need to teach blogging as a skill. Students definitely need to understand how and glass menagerie why the mechanics (and style) of general papers, blogging are different. Grade One blogger (Kathy Cassidy) The solution? Blogging needs to menagerie, start earlier, much earlier. I read recently of a kindergarten teacher who blogs with her students. Great idea. There#8217;s a teacher in my division who does amazing things with her grade one class. I#8217;m not proposing that you need to do things radically different. Teach whatever you teach for Language Arts, or other subjects, but include a blog component. So if you#8217;re teaching sentence structure, teach your students to create complete sentences while blogging.

Blogs, like traditional writing, need great structure. If you#8217;re focusing on capitalization or punctuation, transfer this skill to blog writing as well. If you#8217;re teaching paragraph structure, teach students the homework tn, paragraph structure required for traditional essays and menagerie essay that for blogs. They#8217;re different. Explain why. Newspaper. It#8217;s likely they won#8217;t be good at it at first. But there is merit to the quote, #8220;Anything worth doing, is worth doing badly.#8221; A middle years teacher at my school used to glass menagerie essay, stress out when we talked about student writing. She wanted to newspaper, know if she was teaching them enough. My reply: #8220;All I need them to do is write solid paragraphs.

If they can do that, I can teach them all kinds of things.#8221; Really, everything I teach is either an addition to, or a subtraction from, a solid paragraph. Glass. My work builds on research on community radio her work. I don#8217;t need her to teach what I teach. That#8217;s my job. But without her previous work, mine becomes much more difficult. The same is true with blogging. Menagerie Essay. Starting from scratch with blogging in grade 10 isn#8217;t impossible.

But we could do so much more if they already had the basics. In order to write well, you need to research on community radio, write a lot. If you don#8217;t currently teach your students to blog, please start. Our students need you to. Glass. And if you already teach your students to homework, blog, keep it up.

Because blogging is an important 21st century skill. It#8217;s the new persuasive essay. Latest posts by Shelley Wright (see all) Are You Ready to Join the Slow Education Movement? - August 26, 2014 Academic Teaching Doesn#039;t Prepare Students for Life - November 7, 2013 Start with Why: The power of student-driven learning - June 21, 2013. Shelley, I love this!! I started using Kidblog with my 3rd graders last year, and glass looped up with them this year. The Awakening Chopin Essays. Their 4th grade blogs were much improved, and I enjoyed watching them begin to develop their own blogging #8220;style#8221;. Menagerie Essay. I did get some negative comments from both parents and other teachers that this was not #8220;writing.#8221; They felt it was too casual and too unstructured. (I#8217;ll admit, the model, Grammar Nazi in me gasped when I saw sentences in glass essay your blog beginning with #8220;and.#8221;) In lieu of a research paper this year, my students created Glogs that contained text boxes with information (well written paragraphs), but also allowed links, images, and a personal design. Research. They loved it! I think you are absolutely right that students need to understand the glass, difference. There are times when more formal writing is necessary, so I#8217;m sure to teach it and require it on certain assignments.

I love it though that blogging enables them to discover their writing style and voice. Blogging does feel like playing, and kids love to play. If blogging makes them love to write, I think we#8217;re fools not to encourage it! Thanks for a great post! Thanks, Patti. I think, unfortunately, there are many people who don#8217;t see the point or value of blogging. My students, for the most part, have always enjoyed it.

What I disgree with is teaching only academic writing in questions schools. I think there are many formats our students need to learn #8212; blogging being only one. I think there#8217;s value to academic writing, but most of our kids aren#8217;t going to become academics, and that#8217;s a good thing #128578; Throughout high school I was taught that you couldn#8217;t start a sentence with because or and. Then I went to glass, university and was told you could. Reports. Boy was that a shock! When I was in college I was taught not to use the glass essay, first person pronoun in my writing, EVER. The Awakening By Kate Essays. Then I went to glass essay, graduate school (Harvard) and everybody did it! Shocked again. The Awakening Chopin Essays. Patti, thanks for posting links to keep me updated. I would love to try this with my kids this year but I need to be able to do it too!

Great blog post on writing. Glass Essay. I#8217;m constantly trying to louisiana essay, find more and essay various ways to essay questions, have students write in essay my Grade 8 US History class. Part of my task is to prepare them for the persuasive essay format on the ACT and the MME (Michigan Merit Exam). Reports. Your blog was helpful. Glass Menagerie. Thanks. As I started reading your blog I was thinking, I teach some of those things to my fourth graders. Essay. However, it seems after fourth grade the glass, writing drops to research reports, a minimal until it is tested again in 7th grade. (Or at least that#8217;s the way it appears to me). I introduced blogging to my students 2 years ago and they loved it! It inspired more students to write as they had the global audience (which I think is a big draw).

This year my students enjoyed it as well. However, I never really thought about the difference between writing in a blog and writing formally but will be discussing it with this year#8217;s class. Really, sharing your writing via a blog is exciting especially when you receive comments. I#8217;ll be sharing your post around as I would love to glass, get more teachers to see the importance of blogging! Thanks for sharing. Thanks, Nancy! Students having an authentic audience is important. That#8217;s why we normally write. We have something to general, communicate to someone, and we choose the best medium for it, as well as an appropriate style. I wonder what Language Arts would become if we thought of it as a communications class? This rings true for me in every paragraph.

I have recently begun a blogging project with some very able Year 10 students (please have a look at my blog!) and there has been quite a lot of resistance along the lines of #8220;What#8217;s the point?#8221; Your emphasis on moving with the times instead of stubbornly sticking to tradition strikes a resonant chord with my own teaching. Please keep this up, you have just made my day! I think, sometimes, kids don#8217;t see the point. They#8217;re not really used to having any of menagerie essay, their work having a point or a real audience. I found that once my students got used to doing work that was authentic and the awakening by kate essays meaningful, the #8220;what#8217;s the glass, point?#8221; stopped. While I agree with much of the fine print of your argument, specifically notions of voice and your ideas about what good writing should feel/sound like, it seems to homework hotline tn, me that your premise is glass menagerie essay, false. The blog/ persuasive essay duality is a false dichotomy. Certainly, students should consider form and purpose when they write, but they shouldn#8217;t learn, and we shouldn#8217;t teach, that blogs are all short paragraphs richly voiced.

Great essays, and great blogs, can also be written with long and internet questions well voiced paragraphs. I think we do our students and each other a disservice when we promote, teach, or otherwise create these sorts of false either/ors. (The same is true of the grammar policing we do often at school, evidenced by Patti#8217;s mention of using a conjunction at the beginning of a sentence in a comment above.) Good writing works. We can explore and explain why it works, but it#8217;s never as simple as following all the rules for the particular container or mode or genre. It#8217;s in the playful fiddling with all of those that good writing emerges. Thanks for engaging my brain here. I agree that good writing is good writing, and I don#8217;t believe that blogs or the persuasive essay is an either/or thing. Essay. I think both should happen, but where I currently work, it doesn#8217;t. I see too often the academic essay hailed as the most essential skill a student can develop. I think the reason behind it is the awakening essays, laudable;students should be able to argue their point of glass, view. But too often there is no authentic audience or task attached to homework hotline, it, and glass menagerie essay it becomes for students another hoop to jump to get the #8220;A#8221;.

I think the thing that bothers me the most about it is the heirarchy that develops around kids who are considered #8220;academic#8221;, those who can write the essay, and research paper on community those who are not. This is bad for kids and teachers, so lately I#8217;ve come to ask why are we doing all of this, and aren#8217;t there more important skills they can learn? I#8217;m not sure I agree with you on the long paragraphs in a blog. Glass. I think you have to be a great writer to pull it off, and I haven#8217;t read a lot of those. But that#8217;s also what I tell my students. I don#8217;t tell them they can#8217;t do it. Instead, I tell them they have to be a strong writer to make it work. And for on community, some of them, that#8217;s the challenge they need. They want to see if they can do it because they desire to be a strong writer.

I teach composition at the community college level and trying to break the 5 paragraph habit is one of the first things I work with them on. That and essay the act of critical thinking and then writing down those critical thoughts. Papers. I think a blog is a great way to glass, show students there is paper on community, more than one way to express themselves. I am also a firm believer in blogging with my students! I have used Kidblog for the past two years with my 5th graders., and it is an amazing tool to create motivated writers! #8220;Write On!: Why I Love Kidblog!#8221; I like and appreciate the fact that you made your points and also demonstrated them. I agree that paragraphs must be short for menagerie, continuity, ease of flow and for referring back. I would add that you can include pics, vids, links, graphs, etc. to add flair and information to your persuasive blog/ opinion post. Also, when I teach blogs in Writers Craft (gr 12) I make them aware that their audience is potentially the rest of the questions, world. Daunting. And it makes them want to proofread a lot more and to consider the attractiveness of their blog and their writing style. Essay. Think about this: It is incredible that we as teachers can teach writing in such a way that the teacher isn#8217;t the essay, only one whoever sees their writing.

This is a huge shift and speaks to the way s of the world of the next generation. Until someone comes up with an #8220;The Elements of Blog Style#8221; that Bud and Tom and Shelley and menagerie essay others agree deserves respect, we don#8217;t have a real standard to go by. The Awakening Chopin Essays. Shelley describes what makes sense to her #8212; Bud Hunt, a respected National Writing Project proponent demurs. Menagerie Essay. No doubt others do as well. The Awakening Chopin. Tom says that #8220;paragraphs must be short for continuity, ease of flow and for menagerie, referring back.#8221; I#8217;m not sure it is a #8220;must#8221; but in nearly a decade of editing group blogs and online diaries with a hundred or more educators, my sense is that this is the awakening chopin essays, *generally* a good rule of thumb. It seems to me that the blog author needs a very good reason to publish long paragraphs that will appear on a screen at an unpredictable size and width (density) and be viewed by all kinds of eyes with all kinds of vision challenges. Certainly the writing will need to be compelling! I don#8217;t know the glass, history of the long paragraph (chances are I#8217;ll be researching it this week to satisfy my demon), but I#8217;m guessing that long paragraphs are the residual of several thousand years of writing on smooth flat rocks and hides and papyrus and hard-to-get pulp paper printed a sheet at a time.

Humans crammed as much as they could into the scarce space. Nothing scarce about cyberspace. Why not change the rules? Nostalgia for writing styles is okay I certainly have some myself. But nostalgia is not a good basis for contemporary rulemaking. Here#8217;s an excellent way to create an authentic audience for your students! #8220;Quadblogging:Creating a Global Connection!#8221; Very interesting food for thought.

To be sure, blogging provides a more authentic audience, something that is purchase, sorely needed! I also agree that when it comes to writing, there is no #8220;form#8221; with blogs. Menagerie Essay. The issue is that students, and the rest of research, us, must realize that when something is glass menagerie, written such as a persuasive essay, there should be some points of reference. What I find is, that due to a society that cannot focus but for short periods of time, thoughts are expressed based on research paper on community radio unfounded suppositions. Students have to realize that more formal, traditional writing, gives them practice on conventions such as writing full words, sentences, etc. and some other standards of grammar. Essay. Not old fashioned, but keeps things from the awakening by kate chopin essays becoming a free-for-all. I think blogging should provide students with the opportunity to practice using conventions and form #8212; in an authentic context. I don#8217;t think that only formal writing can, or should, do this. I think one of the glass menagerie essay, things we often forget when teaching writing is that we#8217;re teaching them to homework tn, communicate, and that in writing there is a #8220;code#8221; of menagerie essay, communication that has developed over the centuries between reader and homework hotline tn writer.

There are reasons we write and punctuate as we do. Instead, we often teach rules, rather than the intimate relationship between reader and writer. I think the latter is much more persuasive for glass essay, students and creates better thinkers and writers in the long run. Thank you for that article. I#8217;ve been perusing articles on education for newspaper research, about three hours now, and I am glad I came across yours.(catching up on my education articles) Not only do we need to move toward the realities of glass essay, our students experiences, but there is room for interpretation on how we teach to reports, it. We can argue all day long on the who#8217;s and how#8217;s , but at the end of the day is your writing effective. In whatever form or voice you choose. Glass Essay. peoples response to your blog will be the best indicator. Now, how about those poorly constructed e-mails. Would someone please blog on the voice and content of louisiana purchase, e-mails.

If I#8217;m not written into your will, I#8217;m not reading a long drawn out e-mail. Peter, no one is suggesting that blogging should become a #8216;free-for all#8221;, it#8217;s all about creating enthusiasm for longer pieces of writing that create and sustain a point of view. Of course we should insist on menagerie standard English, but we can do that when setting up the success criteria for internet essay, blogging just as we would for a formal essay. Menagerie. If blogging gets students to louisiana essay, engage with and develop their process of writing, I#8217;m all for menagerie, it, especially if it helps students understand that they may express themselves in writing through a variety of structures. Louisiana. As a high school teacher I spend an enormous amount of time and energy trying to convince students that not every idea they have needs to be one that can be expressed in five paragraphs. Menagerie. I do worry, however, that the by kate, informality of menagerie, blogs may encourage vague and homework hotline tn formless expression of feelings and suppositions. Though the academic essay is only one mode of written expression it does teach students important skills that transfer to glass menagerie, other modes: the structuring of ideas, the presentation and rigorous analysis of evidence, the effects of sentence structure and voice on meaning, to research paper on community radio, name but a few. Of course, having students write blogs can also teach them these skills if their blogs are held to certain standards.

The five-paragraph essay may be some dirty bathwater that needs to be tossed, but let#8217;s make sure to essay, save the on community, baby, the hallmarks of good writing. I absolutely agree that blogging is an excellent platform for writing and provides the with an authentic audience. I recently attended the glass menagerie essay, ISTE conference and attended a session on general essays establishing connections through blogging presented by Lisa Parisi Brian Crosby. Your blog just reaffirms everything that I took away from this session. Menagerie Essay. Lisa and on community radio Brian#8217;s students#8217; writing is essay, truly amazing because, as you mentioned, they have the newspaper reports, opportunity to use their own voice to take on issues that matter to them, then when they receive responses to menagerie, their posts, they are further inspired to write even more. Research. I have the opportunity to coordinate a Teaching American History Grant,, primarily targeted for fifth grade teachers who lay the foundations of American History in their instructional program. One of our grant goals is to utilize Web 2.0 technology as an instructional and collaboration tool. Glass Menagerie Essay. This past year the teachers created their own blogs and homework tn have been utilizing them primarily as a means of communicating/collaborating with each other. The goal for this next year is to have each of the teachers create a blog in their classroom (or utilize one they have already created) so that students can utilize this platform for writing, with the goal of having others responding to glass, their blogs. Since persuasive writing is one of the types of reports, writing taught in glass fifth grade, I believe there will be several opportunities for the students to utilize these persuasive writing techniques in their blogs.

I hope you enjoyed ISTE this week I remember coming back from my first one quite overwhelmed! There are no large conferences like that in Ontario and it took me a while to the awakening by kate chopin, unpack all that I learned. Although I have only menagerie essay been blogging for 6 years, I#8217;ve noticed big changes. Blogs or #8216;weblogs#8217; used to be places where folks shared their travels and newspaper learning on the web so that others could follow their links and glass essay have some understanding of where they received inspiration, new connections or knowledge. Now, you#8217;re lucky to have any links at all shared, and essay questions if they are, they are often links back to the writer#8217;s own work! Don#8217;t get me wrong, I love that blogs give students an authentic audience (especially since persuasive writing is a part of our curriculum here in Ontario as early as the primary grades) and glass menagerie I#8217;m not a #8216;purist#8217; about them. I have been using and promoting blogging as a part of balanced literacy since 2006 and believe they can serve many purposes. I just hope that we do let blogs stand apart from some of our traditional forms of writing so that we aren#8217;t trying to do old school things with new tools. Many unread and discarded blogs exist because teachers jump onto the blogging bandwagon without scaffolding students to research reports, real conversations and authentic purposes for writing. Thanks for bringing up some important conversations here. #128578; I completely agree with what you#8217;ve said, especially your point, #8220;Many unread and discarded blogs exist because teachers jump onto menagerie essay the blogging bandwagon without scaffolding students to real conversations and authentic purposes for writing.#8221; I think this is one of those #8220;21st C. skills#8221; that students need. What does it mean to general, speak and blog authentically?

This will be an menagerie essay especially difficult thing for many high school students to answer since they#8217;ve often had few authentic writing experiences in their academic career. But this ia an important discussion! This is great! I worked with 4th and5th graders this past year on blogging. They did an amazing job! Really only since Jan#8230;came so far. General Papers Essays. Thanks for this thinking! I think writing for more than an audience of 1 changed their effort, energy and enthusiasm!

It#8217;s amazing what kids can do in essay such a short time. Thanks for research on community radio, sharing! I think Wright brings up a lot of good points about blogging in glass this article. I remember writing persuasive essays and feeling stuck to pick a topic. Essay. When I did settle on glass essay one it felt so typical of a persuasive argument. Homework Tn. We are pushing more and more for authentic practice and work from students and blogging is an excellent way to practice naturally. There are blogs about everything under the menagerie essay, sun that you could allow students to use in order to start with and purchase essay practice blogging. A teacher could then create a class blog and post: Who has the best blog in the class? Hook, line, and sink her! What better way to menagerie, get kids into it then going right to what they are passionate about.

I could only imagine how long that blog would be and the many mini-lessons it could contain. Some trouble I experienced with persuasive writing was creating the the awakening essays, opposing sides arguments. Through blogging students will actually have those arguments given and then will have to menagerie, decide which are viable and should be included or addressed in their own writing. Blogs exist on every topic, even topics that may not be recognizably controversial. This is another reason why blogging to general papers, teach persuasive writing is beneficial to students.

Blogs are less intimidating because they are short bits of menagerie, information and the reader has preference over which ones to give more attention to homework, and which to ignore. I would imagine blogging would lead to critical thinking because you are concisely trying to make your point. No one wants to read a long blog post. That#8217;s part of why people blog in glass essay the first place. Blogging is also able to reach far more people and general essays cause action than an academic essay whose audience is far less accessible. essays have absolutely no plagiarism whatsoever! Our team of professional writers are not only menagerie essay dependable but provide plagiarism-free papers. To put you at questions ease, we attach a plagiarism report to menagerie essay, each and every order.

Therefore, once you place an essay order with us, rest assured that you will receive a creative, well-researched and documented essay, term paper, coursework or dissertation. We are 100% genuine! Hey Shelly, I think this is an excellent blog, I really enjoy your outlook on education and your core beliefs that teachers need to menagerie, move forward with the 21st century. I#8217;m a Grade 10 English teacher in the Middle East and papers model essays I was wondering if you had any suggestions for websites that would be ideal for getting my students excited about blogging? I think it#8217;s really important when students first start blogging that they research and write about things that really matter to glass essay, them. It might be one way to infuse student choice into the classroom. Here are some resources that you might find helpful to get started: And this link has pretty much everything you could ever need! Hope this helps! Thank you so much for your blog post it was a gift that Carol Mayne sent me as I have had a huge investment in blogging with my classes.

I#8217;m constantly learning and revising the process, but love how it has transformed my class and the writing (and reading) my kids are doing. I look forward to more posts by you! Pamela Hunnisett (Calgary) I just wanted to research on community, let you know that this post inspired me in the beginning of the year, and my students are now blogging on an (almost) weekly basis. It#8217;s transforming their writing and my classroom. Thank you!

That#8217;s terrific to hear! Thanks for sharing your success it helps to propel me forward in my own journey #128578; Can I just say what a comfort to find a person that truly knows what they#8217;re talking about over the internet. Glass. You definitely realize how to bring a problem to light and make it important. Internet Questions. A lot more people must look at this and understand this side of the story. It#8217;s surprising you#8217;re not more popular given that you definitely possess the gift.

Shelly, I enjoyed reading your thoughts and too agree that it is never too early to glass essay, start teaching our students how to research paper, be productive digital citizens. In the age of IM and text messaging I was afraid writing in menagerie essay complete sentences with thought was going to increasingly become a lost art. Internet Essay. Children at an early age are thirst for knowledge and glass just as they are able to more readily learn another language, digital literacy should be considered one of importance. The skills that you develop in writing essays should be evident in your blog posts. In fact, these skills should be evident in all of internet essay, your writing exercises. Beautifully structured paragraphs and concise sentences are always a joy to read. My brother suggested I may like this blog. He was entirely right. Essay. This publish actually made my day. You can not imagine simply how so much time I had spent for this information!

Thanks for the post. It clarifies my thoughts on the matter, as I sooo agree with your points. (Grammar police on the #8216;so#8217;). previous comments are great I just say that you defined fabulously. This is radio, fact writing can be very helpful just like essay writing which is glass menagerie essay, something more factor by writing an essay is variation use of research paper, punctuation. Glass Essay. The fact about essay writing is that it really give your english a better role model for student and provide non copy content. Blogging has greater potential for being a life-long skill. Shelley!

Thank you for internet essay, writing this. Essay. We#8217;ve started a new project-based academy at radio The American School of Lima and students are constantly blogging. Best of all, they#8217;re loving it and glass menagerie enjoying writing again. Here#8217;s one of many great examples: Through their blogs, the research, Innovation Academy students get to reflect on their learning, find their voice as writers, experiment with organization, play with words, and begin to think more clearly and critically. Glass Essay. You#8217;ve put into words what I#8217;ve been discovering through this whole year. THANK YOU! If you know about newspaper, Best Essay Writing Services. Glass. I am now a huge fan of blogging and purchase see the real value of sharing ideas and essay resources as a professional and hope to develop my writing skills through new and interesting blogs I create myself. General Papers Model. To teach students to blog effectively I think we need to learn how to create interesting blogs ourselves.

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Pisciculture Essays and Research Papers. In 1950-51, India's fish production was 7.5 lakh tonne (5.34 lakh tonne marine and 2.16 lakh tonne inland). In 2006-07, the Indian fish production zoomed up . to glass a level of around 6.61 million tonne (considering 3.21 million tonne of marine and 3.4 million tonne of inland fishes), which help the louisiana, country to occupy the coveted 3rd position in overall fish production in the world. This works out to an increase of around 800 per cent in over 56 years or an average increase of 14 per glass menagerie, cent per annum. India. Aquaculture , Carp , Commercial fish 399 Words | 2 Pages. email: [email protected] ABSTRACT Temporal variations in zooplankton community structure were studied in wastewater-fed pisciculture . ponds at the East Calcutta Wetland.

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Impact of Fdi to Farmers in India. entrepreneurs. 2. FDI IN AGRICULTURE The FDI inflows to Agriculture services are allowed up to 100% and allowed through the . automatic route covering horticulture, floriculture, development of seeds, animal husbandry, pisciculture , aqua culture, cultivation of vegetables, mushroom and services related to agro and glass, allied sectors. Agriculture is the internet essay, main stay of the glass essay, Indian economy as it form the backbone of rural India which inhabitants more than 70%. Agriculture , Economics , Economy 2143 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction to Aquaculture. MCQS. 1. The science of the awakening raising aquatic plants or animals is: (a) Apiculture (B) Sericulture (c) . Aquaculture (d) Pisciculture 2. Aquaculture is totally dependent on the: (a) Quality of H2O (b) Quantity of H2O (c) Both quality quantity of glass essay H2O (d) None of above 3. The newest kind of aquaculture in which cleaning reusing of questions H2O occurs is: (a) Pens (b) Ponds (c) River (d) Recirculating. Aquaculture , Carbon dioxide , Carp 2190 Words | 10 Pages. services in menagerie, order to newspaper research reports make profit.

Mr. Ali Rayhan has earned business income from export, pisciculture , and dairy firm. Following is the . calculation of his income from business and profession. Calculation of income from glass menagerie business and profession Export income | Tk. 300,000 | | Less: Exemption (300,000*50%) | Tk. 150,000 | | Taxable income from general model export business | | Tk.

150,000 | Income from pisciculture | | Tk. 200,000 | Revenue Income out of Capital receipts | | Tk. 480,000 | Net assessable. Corporate tax , Income , Income tax 2393 Words | 9 Pages. | | | | | | | | | | | | | F Word and Part of speech | Meaning | 4 Synonyms | Visual or Pictorial Cue | FishVerb | Limbless, . Menagerie Essay. cold-blooded vertebrate animal with gills and fins and living in purchase, wholly water | Ichthyology Pisciculture ichthyophobia | | Four-wheel driveNoun | a transmission system that provides power directly to essay all four wheels of a vehicle. Louisiana. | | | Four- stroke Adjective | Denoting an glass essay internal combustion engine having a cycle of four strokes | | | . Automobile , Cattle , Motor vehicle 1419 Words | 11 Pages. Livelihood vs. Promised Livelihood: The current local economy yields incomes to louisiana purchase essay different classes of people differentially – those who . Essay. own land vs. those who don’t, those involved in betel vine vs. Homework. those involved in pisciculture , etc.

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office, residence, school college, play ground, children’s park and research reports, other establishments. The remaining 29.50 hectares has been earmarked for demonstration . Glass. farm for undertaking research in farming, horticulture, floriculture, tissue culture, pisciculture , livestock, Poultry etc. The campus has almost all the modern amenities of urban life. The Academy is an autonomous body officiated with the Rural Development and homework tn, Co-operatives Division of the Ministry of glass essay Local Government, Rural Development Co-operatives. Drinking water , Groundwater , Irrigation 3338 Words | 21 Pages. “Competitiveness in the awakening by kate chopin, the Private Sector Higher Education in Bangladesh: the Winning Strategies for Higher Education in the Next Decade” people happy, brisk development activities are planned. Bangladesh is agricultural based country, so the glass menagerie, people have to knowledgeable about the agriculature, . and it is only can be done through spreading the knowledge . To development of agriculture, pisciculture and questions, plantation the modern scientific and technical know-how is essential.

Development of our country will be difficult if there is no control on the “population explosion’s .The illiterate mass are still indifferent to essay these problems. It is education. College , Education , Higher education 6029 Words | 21 Pages. primary produce can participate in the ownership. The members have necessarily to be `primary producers.' Primary produce has been defined as a produce of . farmers arising from agriculture including animal husbandry, horticulture, floriculture, pisciculture , viticulture, forestry, forest products, re-vegetation, bee raising and paper radio, farming plantation products: produce of persons engaged in glass essay, handloom, handicraft and other cottage industries: by - products of such products; and products arising out of ancillary. Agriculture , Company , Cooperative 4785 Words | 14 Pages.

common carp and this helps contribute to the efficiency of the system which in optimal conditions will produce 3000–6000 kg of fish per hectare per year. . Integrated recycling systems One of the largest problems with freshwater pisciculture is that it can use a million gallons of water per acre (about 1 m? of water per m?) each year. Extended water purification systems allow for papers model essays the reuse (recycling) of local water. The largest-scale pure fish farms use a system. Aquaculture , Aquaponics , Carp 4013 Words | 11 Pages. Route for the following sectors: ? Retail Trading ? Atomic Energy ? Lottery Business ? Gambling and Betting ? Housing and Real Estate business ? . Agriculture (excluding Floriculture, Horticulture, Development of essay Seeds, Animal Husbandry, Pisciculture and Cultivation of Vegetables, Mushrooms etc. under controlled conditions and services related to agro and tn, allied sectors). ? Plantations (Other than Tea plantations). 4. Essay. What should be done after investment is made under the Automatic. Bond , Finance , Financial services 4509 Words | 19 Pages. Application of Sustainable Tourism: a Case Study of Khajuraho.

practices, nurseries for forest and fruit trees, desilting of research ponds and tanks, seepage control measures and soil and water conservation systems. . A range of livelihood options, including leaf cup production, ber churan production, pisciculture , papad and badi production, biomass energy briquette production and vegetable farming are also profiled. Local crafts like basket-making, carpentry and pottery that can be revived are also outlined. Measures to improve the. Biodiversity , Cultural heritage , Natural environment 5309 Words | 16 Pages. number of overlapping and duplicating activities being taken up by ASTEC.

Such activities include provision of drinking water to the villages in the vicinity . of the Beel, providing funding support for glass menagerie digging fish ponds for aquaculture, training on pisciculture , development of eco-tourism activities, etc., which normally are to be taken up as the activities of the fisheries department through Fish Farmers’ Development Agencies set up in each district of Assam and the Tourism Department. It is therefore. Assam , Government of Assam , Guwahati 4601 Words | 15 Pages. I 21 30 03 Law Officer in JMGS I 21 30 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION Degree in homework, Agriculture or Allied specializations such as . Menagerie. Horticulture/Animal Husbandry/Veterinary Science/ Dairy Science/ Agri.Engineering/Fishery Science/ Pisciculture /Agri Marketing Cooperation etc. from recognized University Post Graduate Degree in papers essays, Hindi with English as a subject at the degree level OR a Post Graduate Degree in Sanskrit with English and Hindi as subjects at essay the degree level. Bachelor. Candidate , Disability , Government of India 4892 Words | 28 Pages. and the Arakan Ranges with a wide range of elevation. The rainfall ranges from 200 to 400 cm.

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E-learning in a developing country like Bangladesh: Philosophy and reality. in Arabic Language Proficiency) BELT (Bachelor in English Language Teaching) BA (Bachelor of Arts) BSS (Bachelor of Social Science) BAgEd (Bachelor of . Agricultural Education) CLP (Certificate in glass menagerie essay, Poultry and Livestock) CPLP (Certificate in Pisciculture and Fish Processing) DYD (Diploma in Youth Development) • Bank Services and Marketing management • Irrigation • Water Management • Horticulture • Animal Nutrition • Pest Management • Use of Aquatic Weeds and Preparation and general papers model essays, Preservation. Curriculum , Distance education , Education 3849 Words | 27 Pages. and feeding of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, with special reference to juveniles and their importance in fish culture. Glass Menagerie Essay. Arch.

Hydrobiol., 87 . (4): 453-482. C.T.F.T, 1972. Premieres directives pour l'introduction de Clarias lazera en pisciculture . SF/RAF/66/054: Annexe 8. Newspaper Research. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, 16 pp. David, L., 1935. Die entwicklung der clariiden und ihre Verbreitung. revue Zool. Bot. Afr., 28: 77-147.

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The optimum dissolved oxygen level (in mg/litre). American films , Orders of magnitude 6941 Words | 22 Pages. • L. calbasu (calbasu) and • Cirrhina mrigala (mrigla) EXOTIC FRESH WATER BREEDS • Common carp, Mirror carp, Chinese carp, Silver carp, and paper on community radio, Crass carp . Glass Essay. etc. SALT WATER DISHES WHICH CAN LIVE IN SEAWATER • Chanos, mullets. MAIN OPERATIONS IN PISCICULTURE Fish culture involves the purchase, following main operations: 1. Collection, transport and sowing of fish seeds. 2. Tending the hatchlings. 3. Nursing the fry.

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preparation/producing tobacco as raw materials, tapping of toddy for sale. b) Any industry/business connected with cultivation of crops/ plantation . Horticulture, like Tea, Coffee, Rubber etc. sericulture (Cocoon rearing), Floriculture, Animal Husbandry like Pisciculture , Piggery, Poultry, Harvester machines etc. c) Manufacturing of glass essay Polythene carry bags of reports less than 20 microns thickness and glass menagerie, manufacture of carry bags or containers made of recycled plastic for storing, carrying, dispensing or packaging of food. Bank , Central bank , Khadi and research paper on community radio, Village Industries Commission 8748 Words | 31 Pages. Paper-XII Developmental Biology Immunology Paper-XIII Biotechnology Microbiology Bio Statistics Computer Applications ELECTIVIES – I/II/III . Bio-Informatics Computer Application in Life Science Medical Lab Technique and Bio instrumentation Pisciculture and glass essay, Aquarium Fish Keeping Sericulture and Apiculture Economic Entomology and Pest Management SAA4A SAA5A SAA5B SAA5C SAA5D/ SAA6D SAA6A SAA6B SAA6C SAA6D/ SAA5D SEAAA SEAAB SEAAC SEAAD SEAAE SEAAG SAA3A SAA2B SAA1A 3 20-11-2012 FN 20-11-2012. Biochemistry , Chemistry , Computer 6052 Words | 21 Pages. females. The reasons for general essays higher work participation rate of both males and glass essay, females in rural areas than in essay, urban areas are larger concentration of glass population . in rural areas and newspaper research reports, diversification of agriculture related activities like horticulture, pisciculture , dairy and poultry farming, etc. Moreover, both men and women are engaged in productive activities in rural areas, whereas only men work and the majority of women remain at home in menagerie essay, urban areas. The work participation rate in radio, India is much. Demography , Overpopulation , Population 20454 Words | 63 Pages.

31/2, Senpara Parbatta, Mirpur-10, Dhaka. Glass Menagerie Essay. Phone: 8061693, Fax: 9005638 0549 23-Oct-91 23-Oct-11 23-Oct-16 Dhaka . Bangladesh 111 Antar Society for Development House-14(1st Fl.), Road-12, Block- 1740 Kha, Pisciculture Housing society, Shekhertek, Adabor, Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207 Phone: 9144502, Fax: 9144502 112 Anuvab Thana Para Road, Boda, Panchagar 1473 Phone: 05653-56180, 01712-676857 19-Sep-02 19-Sep-12 19-Sep-17 Dhaka Bangladesh . Bangladesh , Bengal , Bengali language 59237 Words | 817 Pages. white sand beach, is entirely different from the other beaches. It is newspaper reports, pristine pure and holds the essay, charms of a beach unspoilt. It can be accessed from general model essays . Calcutta, and is a three hours drive. The destination is glass, also famous for the migratory birds and pisciculture . Gateway to research on community the Sunderbans situated on the banks of river Piyali. A beautiful resting place. The nesting place of the Olive Ridley Turtles.

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following sectors: * Retail Trading * Atomic Energy * Lottery Business * Gambling and Betting * Housing and essay, Real Estate business . * Agriculture (excluding Floriculture, Horticulture, Development of Seeds, Animal Husbandry, Pisciculture and Cultivation of Vegetables, Mushrooms etc. under controlled conditions and research, services related to essay agro and allied sectors). * Plantations (Other than Tea plantations). FDI IN REAL ESTATE NRI investments in real estate have been simplified. Capital , Capital accumulation , Economics 12192 Words | 38 Pages. familiar and big shop. Now our family has become selfsufficient family. BRAC has not finished its facilities programmes. Newspaper Research Reports. It also supply’s the glass menagerie essay, seeds of . hybride paddy. My father takes it from BRAC office with a low cost. BRAC has already started pisciculture in which there is a support of tn BRAC programme.

BRAC has opened the door of the development of our family. Menagerie. My education, my fathers business and to become selfsufficient of our family, there is a great contribution of BRAC. I hope that its programmes. Essay , Essay mill , Essays 14861 Words | 42 Pages. |100% |Automatic | | |1. Chopin Essays. Floriculture, Horticulture, Development of Seeds, Animal Husbandry, . | | | | | Pisciculture , Aquaculture, Cultivation of vegetables mushrooms and services | | | | |related to agro and allied sectors. | . Development , Economic growth , Economics 11828 Words | 48 Pages. the achievements of GAP is in terms of the development of appropriate technologies of glass menagerie essay sewage treatment as Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB), improved . Louisiana. oxidation ponds, sewage treatment through plantation, aquaculture using duck weeds and pisciculture etc. These technologies are cost effective in menagerie, terms of purchase essay operation maintenance (OM) and essay, as such will reduce the burden on the State Governments on this account. These developments will facilitate to make GAP and research paper, future programs sustainable.

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The Actual Astronomy of 2012 and the. Sacred Triple Rebirth of the Sun. Copyright 2008 by Thomas Razzeto. This is my longest and most detailed astronomy essay. It is 28 pages! Let's immediately get right to the point by taking a look at what will be in the sky over the Maya at midday on December 21, 2012. Here it is: The sun will be in the middle of the dark rift, the glass menagerie, Maya birth canal, on the solstice. The sacred tree will be above the Maya with the sun exactly between Mars and Venus. The astronomy that will unfold in the sky directly over the Maya on the winter solstice of 2012 is the key to general understanding why the Maya restarted their calendar on essay that exact day.

Almost all calendars are based on astronomy and it appears that this is also true for the Maya calendar, although in a rather spectacular way! In the above screenshot, we see that the sun will be in the middle of the newspaper, dark rift, the glass menagerie essay, Maya birth canal, on the day of the winter solstice. Later in this essay, I will go over newspaper reports why this day can be said to contain the triple rebirth of the sun. We also see that there are four planets forming the horizontal crossbar of the sacred tree and the sun is menagerie essay virtually exactly in the middle of these planets. This is also quite significant as to why the research paper radio, Maya picked this exact day to essay restart their calendar. (The fastest and easiest way to understand this is to read my essay: Why the Maya Picked 2012 . For more complete astronomical details, continue reading below.) We will be using the viewpoint of Izapa, Mexico, the birthplace of the Maya Long Count calendar. I think that it is research on community radio crucial to investigate 2012 from the viewpoint of the Maya themselves but this point is often overlooked by other researchers.

Yes, the actual location of the Maya on the surface of the earth is important when examining the astronomy and in addition to essay that, their cultural viewpoint is also very important. Both the calendar and the Maya's timeless metaphorical stories about transformation and the awakening chopin, rebirth have an astronomical basis to menagerie them and paper, this is why understanding the astronomy can be so helpful. While the above screenshot shows what is most important to the Maya, most 2012 researchers talk about something called the “galactic equator” rather than the dark rift. Because of this, I will develop this essay along the lines of understanding the shape of the galaxy, the plane of the galaxy and the galactic equator. Once you understand these things, it is only a very small shift from the galactic equator to the dark rift, which is essay something that the Maya could actually see with the naked eye at certain times of the homework tn, year. As we will soon find out, focusing on the galactic equator leads us to 1998; focusing on the dark rift leads us to 2012. Do the glass essay, following two facts pique your interest in 2012? 1) If the Maya intentionally pinpointed the exact day of the winter solstice in 2012 from over 2,000 years ago, they would have needed to know the length of the year to within 45 seconds! (Learn more here) 2) Five cycles of their Long Count calendar add up to the length of the earth's precessional cycle to within one-half of one percent and the Maya often talk about all five cycles!

The first fact comes from a very simple calculation, as we shall soon see. As far as I know, I am the only 2012 researcher that has carried out this calculation. The second fact is well known to all good 2012 researchers but it is still important to model essays state it right up front. Menagerie! As profoundly significant as these two facts are to me, hard-nosed skeptics reduce their significance to absolutely nothing with a shrug of the shoulders and a quick, “So what?” To them, it's all just a big coincidence. Internet! But what if this was planned?

It seems pretty clear to me that astronomy is at the heart of both the Maya calendar and their metaphorical stories. Because of this, it can be very helpful to learn about this astronomy and this is fun and fairly easy to do as long as we take it a little bit at glass, a time. Even still, you may find yourself pondering this subject more deeply for quite awhile. For me personally, the research paper on community, more I dug into the actual astronomy of 2012, the more mind-blowing it all became! Perhaps you will have a similar experience. I intentionally have my title reflecting both the solid science of 2012 and also its metaphorical aspects in order to let you know that I am not going to “squeeze the wonder and menagerie essay, awe out of the event” by “explaining it” with science. While I address the metaphorical and mystical aspects of 2012 much further in general my essay Mystical 2012 , here I focus on the details of the actual mainstream astronomy. I include some of my own original research so this essay is glass essay not a rehash of reports what you might have read elsewhere. I also utilize unique presentation tools that I created to help you easily understand the material. These tools include pictures, diagrams and also a simple but very important 3-dimensional model that we will build out of a single sheet of paper and a pencil.

When we put this model into motion, you will see the basic astronomy of 2012 right before your eyes. It is helpful to note that in order to understand the astronomy of 2012, you only need to be concerned with the motion of the earth. This makes understanding the glass essay, astronomy a lot easier than you might expect. The three motions of the earth that create the special event of 2012 are as follows: It spins on its axis once a day, it orbits the sun once a year and it slowly wobbles on its axis like a top that is reports not standing straight up once every 26,000 years. These three motions combine to create what I call “the sacred triple rebirth of the menagerie, sun” and we will soon learn much more about this. I also want to mention that all the astronomy that I present here is in complete agreement with mainstream science. I am not going to introduce or support any unproven theories. While I don't believe that today's mainstream science has all the answers for all subjects, when it comes to the astronomy of 2012, it looks to me like the truth is known. And one of the strongest points that I want to make is that as far as mainstream astronomy goes, the earth is in no danger whatsoever. We are not going to fall into a black hole or be inundated with a high level of cosmic rays.

The slow change of the angle of the by kate, axis of the earth with respect to the center of the galaxy will have no ill effects. As far as Mother Nature goes, it will be business as usual. The sun will continue to glass menagerie essay shine, the earth will continue to spin and the four seasons will continue to transform from one into another. And yet the astronomy of 2012 is internet essay still quite remarkable. In this essay, we will learn about it in two steps. The first step focuses on a unique galactic alignment that already occurred in 1998.

Yes, this much talked about but seldom understood alignment has already happened! We will use our 3-dimensional model along with our pictures and diagrams to glass menagerie essay create a clear understanding of this event. In the second step, I will present some screenshots from my astronomy software program that depict what will actually happen on internet the day of the glass menagerie essay, winter solstice of 2012 to the awakening by kate chopin help you see why the Maya picked 2012. By the way, many people are surprised to learn that galactic alignments happen once a year. Menagerie! Yes, they happen simply because the earth orbits the research paper on community, sun as we can see in the diagram below. We will study this diagram in glass more detail very soon but for right now, let's just take a quick glance. The annual galactic alignment between the earth, the sun and the plane of the galaxy.

Here we see that once a year, the earth orbits up into a position where we can draw a line from the homework, earth through the glass, sun and into the plane of the galaxy, almost directly towards the center of the paper on community, galaxy. In the 2012 community, this is commonly called a “galactic alignment,” although that is not a formal astronomical term, and as I just mentioned, it happens once a year. But once every 26,000 years, the alignment happens at virtually the same time as the winter solstice and this is what makes the galactic alignment of 1998 so special. Incidentally, the galactic alignment is sometimes loosely described as the sun lining up with the center of the galaxy. But two points always make a line. When this phrase is used, the glass menagerie essay, earth is implied as the additional third point required for the alignment.

But more importantly, the alignment happens with the plane of the galaxy, not the center of the galaxy, although the center of the chopin, galaxy is close, as we see in our diagram above. We will soon learn more about the parts of our galaxy and see more clearly why we need to make a distinction between the glass menagerie, center of the galaxy and louisiana purchase essay, the plane of the galaxy. We will also clearly see the almost exactly simultaneous occurrence of the winter solstice and the galactic alignment when we build our 3-dimensional model. Since our model only has three parts and glass menagerie essay, since the axis of the earth is the only thing in our model that moves, you will easily understand the basic astronomy in just a few minutes. With all this in mind, let's begin by learning about the model essays, three parts of our 3-dimensional model starting with the glass menagerie essay, plane of the earth-sun orbit and the earth's axis of rotation. Our 3-dimensional model of the astronomy of 2012. Click to see the video. (1) (Click any footnote number to read it. Return by clicking your Back button.) If you want to be picky, the plane of the galaxy should actually be labeled “angle. of the plane of the galaxy” or “a plane parallel to the plane of the research radio, galaxy” since.

the plane of the galaxy does not go exactly through the center of the earth. But. this does not change the validity of our model since we are interested in the. angles. Glass Menagerie! Because of this, we are not even introducing an approximation. Part 1: The Actual Astronomy and Our 3-Dimensional Model. The Plane of the Earth-Sun Orbit and hotline, the Earth's Axis of Rotation. Here is an edge view of the plane of the earth-sun orbit, the ecliptic. The wobble of the menagerie, axis. The first thing we want to look at is the orbit of the earth around the sun. Imagine the by kate essays, sun in the middle of a big tabletop with the earth always staying on glass menagerie this tabletop as it travels around the louisiana purchase essay, sun in its yearly orbit.

This tabletop is called “the plane of the menagerie, earth-sun orbit” or “the plane of the ecliptic” or more simply, “the ecliptic.” The earth does not bob up and down; its orbit around the sun is perfectly flat. General Papers Essays! At all times, the earth and the sun can be found on glass menagerie essay this tabletop, on research paper on community the plane of the ecliptic. As you may know, the earth's axis of rotation is always tilted about 23.5 degrees shy of vertical from this plane and glass menagerie, it's this tilt that creates the seasons. When the axis is leaning away from the sun as much as possible, we have the winter solstice and essay questions, our shortest day. Glass! As the earth continues in its orbit, the axis will no longer point away from the sun as much as possible and the seasons change. When it is leaning towards the sun as much as possible, we have the summer solstice and our longest day. (2) The Precession of the hotline tn, Earth's Axis of Rotation. In addition to its motion around the sun, the earth is slowly wobbling much like a spinning top that is not standing straight up.

This is the glass essay, action of precession and it's what makes the event of 2012 unfold as it does. Since the earth is research floating in space, this wobble is centered around the center of the earth. In other words, both the north and south pole make circles while the center of the earth remains still relative to these circles. Menagerie! As the axis makes these circles, the tilt remains fixed at 23.5 degrees. From the side, it looks like two cones, one right side up and the other upside down with the tips of the two cones touching one another at the center of the earth. We will soon see diagrams of the on community, top cone since we will focus on the northern hemisphere where the Maya live. Our 3-D model is also focused on the top cone. Glass Menagerie! It does not show the bottom cone. It takes about 26,000 years for the axis to make one circle and this long cycle has several names. One of them is “the great year.” (3)

Natural Cycles of the awakening by kate chopin essays Rebirth: The Day, the Year and the Great Year. Before we go on, let's review some very familiar natural cycles. As you know, the day is the fastest astronomical cycle and there are four distinct points that naturally divide the day: sunrise, high-noon, sunset and midnight. There are significant physical changes at glass menagerie, each of these points and the sunrise can be seen metaphorically as the rebirth of the sun on a daily time frame. The year is similarly divided into internet essay, the four seasons by its two solstices and two equinoxes. Something physically significant happens at each point as we travel in our orbit around the sun. We can look at the winter solstice as the rebirth of the sun on a yearly time frame since the days will start to grow longer. It turns out that the great year also has four naturally occurring points of distinction and menagerie essay, we will clearly see them all in just a few minutes. Is one of them related to the rebirth of the great year itself? We will look more into internet, this very soon.

I want to again emphasize that these three natural cycles are divided into their four parts in a purely natural manner. In other words, the dividing points are not created by glass menagerie, the mind of man; they are shifts in actual astronomical layouts. Now let's learn about the last part of our 3-dimensional model, the plane of the galaxy. Imagine that you step outside one clear night and you see the stars that make up the brightest section of the Milky Way. As you know, this part of the sky is filled with so many stars that it looks like a bright cloudy area with many distinct stars shining here and there. Why does it appear like this? Here we are looking towards the bright center region of our Milky Way galaxy. The dark rift is easily visible. It turns out that our Milky Way galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars and it's shaped like a huge, flat disk with spiral arms that spin around a bulge in the center. It's like a big pancake with a bump in the middle and tn, our entire solar system is an extremely small dot that is in this pancake, just over half way out from the center. Top view of our galaxy.

Edge view: Telescopic near-infrared image of the center of our galaxy from just outside our atmosphere. The dark rift is not visible in this spectrum. Because we are in the pancake, it makes a ring that goes all the way around us. At any time of the glass menagerie, year, given good viewing conditions, we can always see a section of the Milky Way. When we look towards the center of our galaxy, we are looking into the thickest part of the Milky Way and the event of 2012 is concerned with this section of the sky, the brightest section of the Milky Way. Interstellar dust blocks some of the newspaper research, light from essay, certain parts of this region and this creates an interesting pattern in the Milky Way called “the dark rift.” This dust is not in our atmosphere; it is scattered throughout deep space between us and the center of the galaxy and the Maya metaphorical stories speak specifically about this area of the sky. From the northern hemisphere, the summer midnight sky offers the best view of the center of the galaxy. On the internet essay, other hand, during the glass, winter, the purchase essay, sun is constantly near the center of the galaxy and the sun obscures the brightest section of the Milky Way with its brightness. In other words, during the glass menagerie essay, winter, the essay questions, center of the galaxy is always in the sky during the essay, day. (By the way, since the on community radio, Maya live in the northern hemisphere, I will often make statements based on that viewpoint.) I bring this up because on December 21, 2012, the sun will travel along its regular path and everything will appear to be perfectly normal yet if we could push a magic button and make it so that we could see both the sun and the stars around it, we would clearly see the sun moving near the brightest section of the glass essay, Milky Way, right across the middle of the dark rift. Internet Questions! We'll learn more about essay, that very soon.

Now, if you can imagine our galaxy, our pancake, being flattened all the way, you'd be left with something called “the mid-plane of the galaxy.” This is also known as the plane of the galaxy or the on community radio, galactic plane. From our viewpoint on earth, we are always looking into the edge of this plane so we “see” it as a line. This line is called the galactic equator since it simply divides the Milky Way into two equal halves. In this way, we can picture the glass essay, galactic equator as a line in the sky drawn through the middle of the stars of the Milky Way, very near the essay, middle of the dark rift. Astronomers have precisely defined the position of the galactic equator and menagerie essay, you can see it marked on many star charts because it is part of the essay, fixed background of the stars. Since the dark rift is irregularly shaped, it has no precisely defined midline.

If we focus on the part of the dark rift that the sun travels across and glass menagerie essay, pick the mid-point of that crossing, that mid-point would be within about a quarter of a degree from the galactic equator. Since the newspaper, sun's diameter is about a half of glass menagerie a degree, we see that the galactic equator is fairly close to the middle of the dark rift. This is the approximate location of the galactic equator. As the night unfolds and. the earth rotates, the angle it makes with the horizon will change significantly.

I am using the word “see” a little loosely. It's like seeing the equator of the earth. Obviously, there isn't a line painted on homework tn the ground at essay, the equator of the earth but the nature of the earth's equator does gives rise to internet essay questions a precisely located imaginary reference line. So it is with the galactic equator; it can't be seen yet it is precisely located. As I mentioned earlier, in essay order to understand the hotline tn, astronomy of 2012, you only need to be concerned with the glass, motion of the earth. Now of general model essays course, everything in the galaxy is flying through space in different directions and at tremendous speeds but the glass essay, distances are so vast that the relative motion is too slow to make any difference at all with regards to what we see happening around 2012. While the Big Dipper is not specifically a part of 2012, let's use it as an example of things appearing to be fixed from our viewpoint on hotline earth. In reality, the stars that make up the Big Dipper are moving rapidly in different directions. But it will take many thousands of glass essay years for the shape to change significantly. The same can be said about all the background stars. While it is true that in by kate chopin the very distant future, all the stars will be in new locations and all the constellations will have new shapes, for menagerie our purposes, they can be considered fixed in essay their locations.

This means that for our study of glass menagerie 2012, we can focus our attention strictly on the motion of the earth. Before we move on papers model to our next topic, I want to mention that our entire solar system orbits the center of the galaxy approximately once every 250 million years but this has nothing to do with the event of 2012. Yet I often hear people say that as our entire solar system moves around the center of the galaxy, it will move through the mid-plane of the galaxy in 2012. While the entire solar system does indeed bob up and down across the mid-plane of the galaxy as it orbits the center, the time frame for this is glass extremely long and it is not going to happen again for about 30 million years. This real crossing of the galactic mid-plane is being confused with an apparent crossing that will indeed be seen from earth in essay 2012.

But the essay, crossing in 2012 is papers model essays only a visual illusion and we will learn more about menagerie, that very soon. (4) The Fixed Background Stars of the Zodiac. The zodiac is a band of stars surrounding the solar system. It's in the plane of the research, earth-sun. orbit, the ecliptic. The earth is the only thing in this diagram that moves.

In order to understand 2012, it is helpful to understand the glass menagerie, zodiac, so here's a little information. Throughout the year, as the earth orbits the sun, you can draw a line from the the awakening by kate, earth through the glass, sun and out into the background stars that surround the solar system. All these stars are on our big tabletop, the plane of the ecliptic, and can be considered fixed in their positions. As the year unfolds, we change our point of view, and, looking away from the sun at the awakening chopin essays, night, we eventually get to see all the stars that lie in this big circle. Glass Menagerie Essay! This circular band of stars is essays known as the zodiac and it's divided into twelve regions. The most distinct constellation in glass each region has a name, such as Leo, Virgo, Libra and so forth. Of course you recognize them as the by kate chopin, signs of the zodiac.

As you look down on our tabletop, the plane of the ecliptic, you can imagine this huge circle of the zodiac surrounding our solar system with the twelve signs in their fixed positions. Essay! The circle of the zodiac is much larger than the circle of the earth's orbit since the stars are so far away. By the way, the solar system is pretty flat. In other words, the orbits of almost all the planets are close to the orbital plane of the earth around the sun. (5) Additionally, the louisiana purchase, moon's orbit around the earth is also near the plane of the earth's orbit. This means that you can draw a line from the earth through Jupiter, for example, and glass menagerie essay, then out to one of the constellations of the zodiac.

This is why you hear people say that Jupiter is in Gemini, for example. You can do this with the sun, the moon or any of the other planets. In the internet essay questions, picture above, the sun is in Leo. One month later, the menagerie, earth will move around in its orbit and the sun will be seen in Virgo. But it is the earth that has moved, not the sun! As I mentioned before, the plane of the galaxy, which includes the center of the galaxy, is part of the background stars and therefore fixed in its position. As it turns out, the direction towards the center of the galaxy is always towards Sagittarius. This does not change as the earth changes it's position in its orbit around the sun since the center of the galaxy is extremely far away.

In other words, the diameter of the earth's orbit is internet questions microscopic compared to the distance to the center of the essay, galaxy. (6) All this leads us to the subject of the annual galactic alignment, which, as you might expect, always happens when the sun is in Sagittarius. Louisiana Purchase Essay! In our picture of the glass, zodiac above, this will happen in homework tn about four months. Now let's take a closer look at this alignment. The annual galactic alignment between the earth, the sun and the galactic plane. First, let's consider our two planes: the plane of the galaxy and the plane of the earth-sun orbit. It turns out that they are not parallel planes; they intersect each other at an angle of 60 degrees. Essay! This angle never changes. (7) In our model, as we shall soon see, this intersection is the crease in our folded paper and in newspaper reports our diagram above, we see it as the blue dotted line. The diameter of the earth's orbit around the sun is greatly exaggerated so that you can see this important layout. You quickly see that once a year the earth orbits up into a position where you can draw a line from the earth, along the crease, through the sun and into the plane of the menagerie, galaxy, almost directly towards the center of the galaxy.

This is the questions, annual galactic alignment and you can see from the layout why it repeats itself every year. For our purposes, it's helpful to remember that the earth is the only thing in this picture that moves since the orbit of the solar system around the center of the galaxy is too slow to matter. Notice what happens 6 months after the alignment. At that time, the earth will have the center of the galaxy behind it as you draw a line from the earth, through the sun, along the essay, crease and out the other edge of the plane of the galaxy, the shorter edge that faces away from the center. Internet Essay! While this alignment is also with the glass, galactic equator, it's not near the center of the galaxy and on community, therefore has nothing to do with the special event of 2012. The important point is that once a year, the earth orbits into the special position that creates the galactic alignment and once every 26,000 years, this happens at virtually the same moment as the winter solstice. This was the case in 1998 as shown by the work of Belgium astronomer Jean Meeus. Now let's examine another diagram that shows the view looking right along the intersection of the two planes at the time of the alignment. Again, the diameter of the earth's orbit around the sun, shown as the yellow dashed line, is greatly exaggerated. Our model in the sky at the time of the annual galactic alignment.

The crease is. always pointing about six degrees away from the center of the galaxy. Here we see that when we look exactly along the essay, crease, we see the galactic equator, not the center of the galaxy, although the center of the galaxy is somewhat nearby. It is only about the awakening, six degrees away from being aligned with the earth and the sun and this angle never changes. (Note: The path of the sun crossing the galactic equator looks the glass menagerie, same every year. In other words, there will not be a year when the sun travels closer to the center of the galaxy, as some people seem to suggest. This confusion arises because on questions the day of the essay, winter solstice in 2219, the sun will be closer to the center of the galaxy than any other winter solstice date since the sun will be higher on the dashed yellow line in the above diagram. On the day of the winter solstice in 2219, the line you draw from the by kate chopin, sun towards the glass essay, center of the galaxy will be perpendicular to the dashed yellow line hence the shortest distance. But on the day of the winter solstice in newspaper research 2219, there will not be a galactic alignment for glass essay precisely the newspaper research reports, same reason: the menagerie essay, sun will be higher on the dashed yellow line away from the galactic equator.) So we see that the the awakening, galactic alignment is correctly stated as being between the earth, the sun and the galactic equator rather than the center of the galaxy.

Nevertheless, when we look in the general direction of the crease, we will always see the Milky Way and the region of the menagerie essay, sky around the center of the galaxy if we have good viewing conditions and the awakening chopin essays, the sun is not obscuring them with its brightness. The Annual Galactic Alignment - The Pancake and the Coin. The annual galactic alignment is so central to 2012 that I want to go over it again with two other ways of visualizing it. Glass! The first way will look very much like our previous diagram, the one titled, “The Annual Galactic Alignment.” Let's use a coin to represent the plane of the questions, earth-sun orbit. The sun is at the center of the coin and the earth orbits around the glass menagerie essay, edge of the coin. First, pretend that the plane of the earth-sun orbit is not tilted and that the coin and the plane of the galaxy, our pancake, are both flat and level with the coin inside the pancake. Put the the awakening by kate chopin essays, center of the coin, our sun, a little more than half way out from the center of the pancake. Now tilt one edge of the coin up 60 degrees, 30 degrees shy of straight up, while tilting the opposite edge of the coin down 60 degrees. Notice that this causes the coin and the pancake to intersect and that that intersection is a line.

Make sure that you have the center of the coin a little more than half way out from the center of the pancake and the line of intersection pointing approximately towards the center of the pancake, about six degrees to the left of the center of the pancake. Again, this direction never changes. Now let's imagine that the earth is at the bottom of the coin. If we draw a line from the earth through the sun, it will continue out the top of the pancake and into glass menagerie essay, deep space. Research Reports! There's not much of interest at this time. Three months later, however, the earth will orbit up and out into a position where we can draw a line from the earth, through the sun and into the pancake, through the edge of the pancake, almost directly towards the menagerie, center of the pancake. Notice that this line will be exactly along the crease, the intersection of our coin and our pancake and that we again have a galactic alignment.

The Annual Galactic Alignment - The Big Room and research paper on community radio, the Zodiac. Now let's go through this annual galactic alignment again but on glass essay a bigger scale and with our tabletop, the plane of the earth-sun orbit, flat and level rather than having the pancake flat and level. It doesn't matter which plane we have flat and level as long as we keep the angle between them at 60 degrees. So let's imagine our tabletop in the middle of a big room with the sun in the center and the earth going around it flat and level. Viewed from above, looking down on the north pole, the earth is traveling counterclockwise and the sun is staying in its fixed position. As before, the earth is the only thing in this picture that will move. Imagine that the room does not have four walls but instead is radio surrounded by one circular wall with the glass menagerie essay, constellations of the zodiac painted in their fixed positions.

Now, paint a somewhat vertical line on chopin essays the wall. This line is the plane of the galaxy seen on its edge, the galactic equator. To get the correct angle for this line, move the top part to the left so that the galactic equator is 30 degrees shy of glass straight up. This line should be near the constellation of Sagittarius but you don't really need to general model essays concern yourself with its precise location, you only need to realize that it is present and fixed in its position. Now examine the situation as the earth orbits the glass, sun.

Let's draw a line from the earth through the sun and into the background stars of the zodiac. Let's call this line “the line of conjunction.” You will notice that the line of conjunction sweeps around the room such that once a year, it points right at the galactic equator, our painted line on the wall. So we again see that at this time, the line of conjunction goes from the earth, through the research reports, sun, right along the crease, the menagerie essay, intersection of our two planes, and into the plane of the galaxy. As this line of conjunction sweeps across the plane of the galaxy, the disk of the sun appears to move from one side of the plane of the galaxy to the other, as seen from the earth. Due to purchase the size of the disk and the speed of the orbit of the earth, this crossing takes just about 15 hours. Glass Essay! As you might imagine, the model, alignment happens at the middle of this crossing. By the way, six months after this crossing, the sun crosses back to the other side of the galactic plane but this crossing takes place with the shorter part of the plane of the galaxy, the part that faces away from the center of the galaxy, so it is not involved in 2012. I want to again point out menagerie that the center of the galaxy is on the line made by chopin essays, the plane of the galaxy. It's below the point of intersection by about six degrees. So again, when we look along the crease, we see the plane of the galaxy, not the center of the galaxy.

The Key: Our 3-Dimensional Model in Action. Now that we have covered the basics, it is time for us to build our 3-dimensional model. (Technically speaking, the plane of the glass, galaxy is research paper on community should actually be labeled “angle. of the plane of the galaxy” but this does not change the validity of our model.) Take a sheet of paper and fold it in half. Then place it on the table and open it up a little more than half way. The half that's lying on the table represents the plane of the earth-sun orbit. The other half represents the plane of the galaxy. Glass Essay! Again, the crease in the paper points almost directly towards the center of the the awakening, galaxy. Note that we have rotated the previous two diagrams clockwise 60 degrees to make the plane of the earth-sun orbit flat and level, which makes the plane of the galaxy come in at a 60 degree angle, 30 degrees shy of straight up.

We will be focusing on the precession of the earth's axis of rotation and this is a better view for that. Again, it doesn't matter which plane we consider flat and glass menagerie essay, level as long as we keep the angle between them at 60 degrees. I should point out that the neither the sun nor the earth is exactly on the plane of the galaxy, they are both a little bit above it. Some people think that this invalidates our model but when we look more closely, we can see why our model is still perfectly valid. Technically speaking, the plane of the galaxy is should actually be labeled “angle of the plane of the galaxy” rather than just the “plane of the galaxy.” Or it could be labeled “a plane that is internet questions parallel to the plane of the galaxy.” But a parallel plane does not change any of the angles at all. And since we are only interested in the angles, we are not even introducing an approximation. This can be seen in the diagram below. Just imagine a line parallel to the plane of the galaxy and notice that the angle between this line and glass menagerie essay, the axis of the earth is unchanged.

Because of this, I will continue to use the simpler term “plane of the galaxy” rather than “a plane that is parallel to the plane of the newspaper reports, galaxy” or “the angle of the plane of the galaxy.” As you have seen, we are going to use a pencil to represent the glass essay, earth's axis of rotation. Take the pencil and put one end in the middle of the crease and keep it there. This point is the hotline tn, center of the glass menagerie, earth. Stand the pencil up about 23 degrees shy of vertical and make the top of the pencil go around in a circle while maintaining the purchase essay, 23-degree tilt.

By the way, as you look down on our model from above, you should make the pencil go around in a clockwise direction. Again, imagine that one time around takes 26,000 years. I encourage you to actually build this simple model and examine it closely as you move the top of the pencil around in a circle. Now let's consider what this looks like from the front. Looking directly at glass menagerie essay, the front of our model, we see the cone of precession. This diagram looks at the front of essay our 3-dimensional model and allows you to see the cone of essay precession. By Kate Chopin Essays! The tip of the cone is the glass menagerie, center of the earth and it is always on essay questions the crease. Menagerie! You are looking directly along the crease in such a way that it only appears as a dot: the intersection of the plane of the general papers, galaxy and the plane of the essay, earth-sun orbit. (The crease is not the vertical dashed line.

That line just helps you see the tilt of the earth's axis.) You can see that since the earth's axis is tn tilted 23 degrees shy of essay straight up and the awakening by kate essays, since the galactic plane is 30 degrees shy of straight up, there is a time during the precessional cycle when the axis of the earth is almost directly aligned with the plane of the galaxy. It only misses by 7 degrees. This is when the pencil is closest to the folded half of the paper and will happen in 6,500 years. You can also see that there is glass a time when the pencil is reports pointing away from the plane of the galaxy as much as possible. At this time it misses by glass menagerie, 53 degrees, which is 7+23+23. (Note that here we are talking about the plane of the chopin, galaxy and not the center of the glass essay, galaxy.) This occurred 6,500 years ago and this is where the chopin essays, pencil is in the above photograph of our 3-dimensional model. Next, let's consider the most important view: what it looks like from above. Looking down on our model, we see the circle of precession and the four parts of the great year.

This diagram looks down on our 3-dimensional model from above and menagerie essay, allows you to see the circle of precession. Basically we see that twice during the cycle of precession, the axis is directly over the crease and twice the axis is exactly perpendicular to the crease. These positions are marked by the four points of distinction as shown by the small orange circles. They naturally and equally divide the great year into four periods of approximately 6,500 years. These points are not artificially created by the mind of man. They are as natural as sunrise, high-noon, sunset and midnight or the points that divide the year into the four seasons. To get a feel for how slowly precession unfolds, imagine that the paper radio, circle is made out of 26,000 equally spaced dots and imagine that each year the top of the glass menagerie, pencil moves to purchase essay the next dot. Now, let's take a closer look at the position of the axis in glass menagerie mid-1998. Since the axis moves so slowly, let's start by imagining that the axis will be virtually directly over the crease during the entire year.

While the research paper radio, year unfolds, the winter solstice will occur and menagerie essay, this means that the axis will also be pointing away from the on community radio, sun as much as possible since this is what makes the winter solstice. This means that on this day the sun will also be on essay the crease and that you will be able to draw a line from the center of the research paper radio, earth, which is the center of the circle, up along the crease through the center of the sun and then out through the plane of the galaxy! This is why the moment of the winter solstice and the moment of the galactic alignment come together near the menagerie essay, time when the research paper on community radio, axis is over the crease. When we take into account that the axis was over the crease in mid-1998 and not during the entire year, we see that both 1997 and 1998 had these two events happening very near each other. It turns out that they happened within about 9 minutes of each other for both 1997 and 1998.

Upon very close inspection, it turns out that 1998 is the year that these two events are the closest but 1997 only differs by less than approximately one minute. (8) It is important to essay note that without the galactic plane, which makes the crease, each and every point on the entire circle of precession would look basically the same. There would be no naturally occurring points of distinction. But when we add the galactic plane to our model, we see that this gives rise to the four naturally occurring points that we are talking about. Several Ways to Think About the paper on community, Special Alignment of 1998. Our paper and pencil model gives us a great way to clearly see the axis in its position over the crease. I think this is the best way to understand the alignment of 1998 but there are others.

A common way, as we will soon see, is to look behind the sun every winter solstice. Menagerie! For each year as 1998 approached, the center of the questions, sun moved closer to the galactic equator at the moment of the glass, winter solstice. For 1999 and each year thereafter, the center of the sun has moved farther away from the galactic equator at the exact moment of the winter solstice. In the next 13,000 years, the “solstice sun” will continue to move farther away from the galactic equator. Homework Hotline! In the 13,000 years after that, the conditions will shift and it again will move closer. Yet another way to look at menagerie, this event is to stay focused on the yearly conjunction of the earth, the sun and the plane of the galaxy and examine the direction of the tilt of the earth's axis. You only internet, examine the angle once a year during the conjunction. Once every 26,000 years, the angle of the glass essay, axis will create the winter solstice and we again have this special event. If you understand why all three ways are equivalent, you really do understand the basic astronomy very well. For many of you, this solid astronomical foundation will be sufficient and you may choose not to dig any deeper.

Dwelling on the simple beauty of just this can be quite fulfilling. Yet in my opinion, some of the more detailed aspects of the special event of 2012 are quite amazing. Newspaper Reports! If you are inspired, I invite you to continue. Glass Menagerie Essay! You won't be disappointed! A Deeper Understanding of the Sacred Triple Rebirth of the Sun. Five cycles of the Maya calendar add up to the great year.

As you may know, the Maya used several different calendars for business, social, scientific, and religious purposes. It is their Long Count calendar, which is over five thousand years long, that is restarting on on community December 21, 2012. I want to point out menagerie that many researchers say that the Long Count calendar ends on that date, rather than restarts on it. Yet after careful analysis, it is papers clear to me that that date marks the birth of a new calendar cycle. In other words, December 20, 2012 is the last day of the cycle that we are currently in and December 21, 2012 is the first day of the next cycle since the calendar is continuous and just starts again the next day. So the glass, Maya are linking that particular winter solstice with the start of a new calendar cycle. Michael Coe and others traced the origin of the Long Count calendar back over paper on community radio 2,000 years to the little-known pre-Maya site of glass Izapa in internet the southernmost tip of Mexico, near the Pacific Ocean, south of present day Chiapas. (Don't confuse Izapa, pronounced es-AH-pa, with Ixtapa, pronounced eeks-TAH-pa, which is glass essay up the Pacific coast.) In Izapa, we find more than sixty carved stone monuments that display ancient esoteric cosmology. Even though it appears most likely that the Olmec, rather than the Maya, created the Long Count calendar, I will be like everyone else and continue to call it the research on community radio, Maya calendar. (9)

In Izapa, we also find a supremely important ball court. It is long and narrow and it points towards the glass, location on the horizon where the sun will rise on the day of the winter solstice and it has been doing this like clockwork for thousands of years. As you may know, the sun does not rise from the same location everyday. On the summer solstice, it rises from its northernmost point and on the winter solstice, it rises from the southernmost point. During the year, it swings back and forth between these two points. So we see that the ball court marks the location of the essay questions, southernmost sunrise. At one end of the ballcourt, there is a throne, which gives the king the glass essay, best view of this special sunrise.

On the front of this throne is a carving of a large round ball, symbolic of the sun in the birth canal coming forth into our world. This is chopin just one of the many examples that demonstrate the importance of the winter solstice and the fact that the Maya saw it as a rebirth. In addition to that, there are many non-astronomical metaphors in Izapa that also point to transformation and rebirth but since this essay focuses on the astronomy so I will just continue. It certainly is not a coincidence that the ball court points towards the winter solstice sunrise. Likewise, I don't think that it's just a coincidence that the calendar also restarts exactly on a winter solstice. The Long Count calendar is 5,125 years long. Five cycles of the Long Count calendar add up to glass menagerie essay the great year to within one-half of one percent and the Maya show all five cycles in their artwork and talk about them in research paper on community radio their folklore. (See the five-pointed star above.) Notice that the Maya have gone through less than one Long Count. What is most interesting is menagerie that they did not start using it as if they were on questions the first day. It appears that it was shifted intentionally in glass menagerie essay order to place its restart date exactly on the winter solstice of 2012.

In other words, the essay, error of one-half of one percent did not come into play at all and they are pointing to the exact day that they want. Menagerie Essay! Yes, the homework hotline, exact day! So this brings us back to December 21, 2012, which is the winter solstice. To correctly pinpoint a winter solstice from several thousand years away shows a precise understanding of the length of the glass menagerie essay, year. And again, the length of the Long Count calendar clearly demonstrates knowledge of the length of the internet essay, great year. So it seems to me that the Maya are saying, “Yes, we understand the year and yes, we understand the great year.

We have extremely precise values for both.” But it even goes beyond that. Glass Essay! By picking the year 2012, they also show that they knew where they were in the precessional cycle. It is this complete understanding of the rhythms of nature that allowed the Maya to create their calendar. At it's heart is the sacred triple rebirth of the sun. Paper On Community! Let's take a closer look. The Sacred Triple Rebirth of the Sun. It is my opinion that the special event of glass 2012 is the sacred triple rebirth of the sun. Let's go over these rebirths one at a time.

Everyday when the sun sets, it goes below the horizon, seemingly under the ground of the earth, and we are left to general essays endure a dark, cold night. Metaphorically, it can be said that the sun leaves our world and travels into the underworld, where it is said to be dead for the duration of the night. Menagerie! Yet at dawn, it rises above the ground and is reborn into our world bringing forth the light and heat we all need to stay alive. Obviously, if the sun would no longer rise, all of life would perish and because of newspaper reports this, the sun has been used for thousands of years by cultures all around the essay, world as a symbol of the Creator's sustaining love. Since the newspaper research reports, sunrise is glass menagerie so frequent, it is louisiana purchase essay often taken for granted, but all of us of course know that this rebirth is truly vital. In addition to glass essay that, sunrises are often quite beautiful.

In fact, this astronomical shift can be one of nature's most dramatic display of beauty with its blaze of red and pink, yellow and gold. This is the shift that naturally awakens us from our slumber. Next is the winter solstice, which can be seen as the rebirth of the sun in the time frame of the year since the length of the newspaper research, day will now start to grow longer. If the days were to continue to grow shorter, the cold winter would only menagerie, tighten its grip and we would all perish. So this rebirth is also vital. Our comfortable homes insulate us from the long, harsh winter nights but when you think of both the daily and yearly rebirths from the perspective of the awakening by kate chopin essays cultures with significantly less physical comfort, you can appreciate that these rebirths of the sun would be experienced in a very tactile way. Add to that the rhythm of the menagerie, harvest and you can certainly understand the strong motivation to the awakening by kate chopin celebrate these turning points in the cycles of time. With excellent viewing conditions, which the glass menagerie, Maya certainly had, it is questions possible to easily see the glass essay, bright section near the center of the internet essay, galaxy without a telescope, although the glass menagerie essay, dark rift intrudes into it. For the Maya, the massive ball of bright lights at the center of the model, galaxy was seen as the pregnant belly of the mother of creation and the dark rift was seen as the galactic birth canal. In this way, the third rebirth occurs when the glass, sun moves into the middle of the dark rift and this can be referred to as the galactic rebirth and it happens once a year.

So the three rebirths of the sun can be referred to by kate essays as the daily rebirth, the solstice rebirth and the galactic rebirth. A triple rebirth of the glass essay, sun occurs in purchase essay the years around 2012 when all three rebirths happen on the same calendar day. By the way, the solstice rebirth happens once every tropical year and the galactic rebirth happens once every sidereal year. Menagerie! A sidereal year is about 20 minutes longer than a tropical year and this difference is on community caused by the slow wobble of the earth's axis. This is what causes these two rebirths to menagerie come together in the years around 2012. I will go into this more in just a minute but for right now, let's just continue. Now let's take a look at what I call the galactic crossing of 2012.

On December 21, 2012, the sun will appear to cross both the middle of the dark rift and the galactic equator. While I think that the Maya focused on the middle of the dark rift for their rebirth metaphor, the following section will focus on the galactic equator but bear in mind that it is only a slight shift from the galactic equator to by kate essays the middle of the dark rift. Menagerie! Again, the reason that I am covering this material by focusing on the galactic equator is because almost all other 2012 researchers focus on the galactic equator so by understanding the following material, you will be able to understand these other researchers. Throughout the year, due to the orbit of the earth around the newspaper, sun, from the viewpoint of earth, the sun appears to be continuously moving slowly against the background stars and it is this apparent motion that creates a visual illusion of the sun crossing the galactic equator since the galactic equator is part of the fixed background of the stars. As I already mentioned, this crossing takes about 15 hours and the midpoint of the glass, crossing is a perfect alignment of the earth, the paper on community, sun and the galactic equator. Again, if we could push a button and make it so that we could see both the sun and menagerie essay, the stars during this time, we would see the sun appear to the awakening cross the galactic equator very near the middle of the dark rift of the Milky Way.

Please note that from the viewpoint of the Maya, both the background stars containing the galactic equator and the sun appear to move in menagerie the sky from left to right due to the spinning of the earth. But the apparent motion of the sun is not as fast as the background stars due to the counteracting effect of the orbit of the earth around the sun. This results in the sun moving from right to left against the background stars and research, this makes the sun appear to cross the galactic equator. Let's take a look. The following simple exercise will help you correctly understand this crossing. Hold your left arm straight out essay with your thumb straight up. Your thumb will be like the galactic equator.

Imagine it to be very far away. Now, close one eye and hold your right index finger straight up about halfway between your thumb and by kate chopin essays, your open eye. Make it so that your finger appears just to the right of your thumb. Your finger will be like the sun. Now, without moving either your thumb or your finger, move your eye from your left to your right.

Your eye is like the earth orbiting the sun. You will see your finger appear to move from the right side of glass menagerie your thumb to the left side of general papers model essays your thumb. This is just like the glass menagerie essay, sun crossing the galactic equator. At the peak of the crossing, your eye is perfectly lined up with your finger and your thumb. While the alignment is real, it is an illusion that your finger moves across your thumb; only your eye is moving, not your finger. So it is chopin essays with the sun crossing the galactic equator; only the earth is moving, not the sun. Since this point is glass menagerie essay so important and the awakening chopin essays, so often misunderstood, I want to be perfectly clear: the sun does not actually cross the galactic equator, it only appears to glass menagerie do so from the awakening by kate chopin, our viewpoint on earth. The sun crossing through this region of the Milky Way was seen by the Maya as father sun mating with the galactic mother. In 2012, this special lovemaking results in the birth of what the Maya called “a new world age,” which is represented by a new cycle of the Long Count calendar. Essay! Yes indeed, lovemaking and creation is at the core of 2012, not death and destruction.

Now let's take a look at what will actually unfold in the sky above the Maya in Izapa, Mexico, which is in Central Time. What Will Actually Happen on December 21, 2012. Venus will start things off by rising above the the awakening by kate, horizon at 4:46 AM. It will be extremely easy to see in the black predawn sky and it will lead the sacred tree on menagerie its journey across the sky throughout this special day. The fact that Venus will rise before the sun should not be taken lightly with regards to the question of why the Maya picked 2012. Jim Reed, editor of the Institute of the awakening essays Maya Studies’s newsletter, said: I think it is important that they chose a date of glass menagerie essay a winter solstice and a. winter solstice when Venus would rise up before the sun. Venus is there.

to witness the rebirth. Yes, of course the Maya would have had a vision that included the planets, especially Venus, which they tracked with a very precise calendar. The Awakening By Kate Essays! The Maya were so concerned about Venus that they could even predict when it would pass as a black dot across the glass menagerie essay, face of the tn, sun. This is essay called a Venus transit and there will be one in June 2012. Now, let's get back to the unfolding of the day. At 5:11 AM, the moment of the winter solstice will arrive and the sun will be reborn with the days becoming longer. Mercury will rise at 5:23 AM and the awakening by kate chopin essays, it will be visible even with dawn's increasing light. It will be the second object on the sacred tree. Next, the sun will enter our world with a blaze of color at 6:29 AM to become the most important object on the sacred tree. Essay! Obviously, by this time, the sky will be so bright that both Mercury and Venus will be obscured from view but nonetheless, they will continue their journey across the sky. Pluto, which is never visible to the naked eye, will rise at the awakening, 7:03 AM and finally Mars will rise at 8:24 AM, making it the last object on the sacred tree.

Notice that the sun will rise 103 minutes after Venus and that Mars will rise 115 minutes after the sun. This means that the sun will be close to the middle of these two planets! (10) A few hours later, at 10:05 AM, the center of the sun will be exactly on the galactic equator. This is the glass menagerie essay, galactic alignment of 2012 and the peak of the celestial love making! This is the moment of cosmic orgasms! Screenshot showing the center of the model, sun exactly on the galactic equator. [ Note to astronomers : I used The Sky version 6 for this screenshot BUT this version has a bug regarding the location of the galactic equator. While there is glass essay no doubt that The Sky locates the galactic equator incorrectly, I can only speculate what the problem is. In this regard, it seems to me as if The Sky is locating the galactic equator with B1950 coordinates rather than the correct J2000 coordinates since the error amounts to what one would see if that were the the awakening essays, case. It is important to note that since the glass essay, galactic equator is a precisely located imaginary reference line and not a visible object, this error has gone undetected.

No one could ever look into their telescope and noticed that it was incorrectly located. To determine the precise time that the center of the sun will be on the galactic equator, I used the NASA JPL Ephemeris online calculator called “Horizons” and reports, looked for a galactic latitude (GlxLat) of zero degrees. At some point in the future, I may post all my work showing the exact details but for right now, I will just give the results as shown. Horizons is an excellent tool but its results are in table format with cryptic labels and menagerie, this is not ideal for the general public. Research Radio! That is why I use the Horizons data but the essay, screenshot from research radio, The Sky. The screenshot is glass menagerie essay valid as an image but if I were to show the date and time, the time would be inaccurate. So I just show the hotline, image and omit the date and time.] The next moment that I want to present is the moment when sacred tree is at its highest point of the menagerie, day. Purchase! It is at this time that the glass essay, sacred tree is properly oriented in the sky over research on community the Maya. The sun and the four planets are virtually exactly horizontal.

This is what we saw at the very beginning of this essay. Let's take another look. The sun will be in the middle of the dark rift, the Maya birth canal, on glass menagerie essay the solstice. The sacred tree will be above the Maya with the on community, sun exactly between Mars and Venus. While I have already mentioned the sacred tree several times, let's go into it a bit more right now. The sacred tree is in the Maya folklore and other cultures around the world also concern themselves with it. It has several names such as “the sacred cross,” “the tree of life,” “the sacred tree of life,” and “the world tree.” The Maya sacred tree has been shown to be an astronomical reference to the cross made by the galactic equator and the ecliptic near the center of the galaxy. (The ecliptic is the path of the sun, as seen from earth.) It is important to note that the sacred tree is part of the fixed background of the stars; its shape and location with respect to the other stars never change.

Yet in the eyes of the Maya, things might have been slightly different. As we have already seen, it looks like the galactic equator goes very near the middle of the menagerie essay, dark rift. This creates some uncertainty with regards to what the Maya were really talking about. When you take into consideration that you can actually see the dark rift and that you cannot see the galactic equator as such since it is an imaginary line, it makes sense that the Maya were referring specifically to the dark rift rather than the galactic equator. Likewise, the other part of the internet, sacred tree might not be restricted to the razor thin line of the ecliptic. While the essay, sun always moves exactly along the ecliptic, the planets also move along the ecliptic, although not necessarily exactly on it. Because of this, the Maya might instead have been referring to the “road” that the sun and all the planets travel on since this is what the Maya actually witnessed. This slightly broader path would be quite useful for their metaphor. In this way, the sacred tree might be better stated as the cross made by the dark rift and the path made by the sun and the planets rather than the galactic equator and the awakening essays, the ecliptic, although these two phrases amount to very nearly the same thing.

By the menagerie essay, way, notice that the tree of hotline tn life is made up of one crossbar of darkness and one crossbar of light since the light of the sun and the planets can only be found along the ecliptic. Thus we see that the tree of life represents the yin-yang quality of duality exhibited by all of creation. And right on the intersection of these two crossbars on this special day, we have the sun, which bring us the glass menagerie, light and warmth of the day when it rises and paper, the darkness and menagerie essay, coolness of the night when it sets. So in this way, the sun can be seen as the most powerful creator of the duality that we witness in our world. It even bringing us life itself and invites us to inquire about the most mysterious duality that we all face: our very own life and death.

We should also consider the location of the research on community, center of the glass essay, galaxy, the Maya womb of creation. On this day, at this time, it is at the bottom acting as the source, the root system, of the essays, sacred tree. So everything comes forth from the glass menagerie essay, source into our world of duality! What a beautiful metaphor! This makes much more sense than the false yet often repeated statement that the sun will be on top of the center of the essay questions, galaxy on this special day.

When we look at the configuration at mid-day - the moment of the sun’s greatest strength - we have the sacred tree being exhibited in an extremely interesting way. When we consider the sun's presence in the middle of the dark rift while it is also in the middle of these four planets, I think we have found something that is quite remarkable! Now let's continue with the unfolding of this special day. What Will Actually Happen on December 21, 2012 - Continued. For the rest of the afternoon, the sacred tree will travel across the sky, sinking slowly towards the horizon. As it does so, the sun will continue to shift slowly against the background stars. As I mentioned earlier, it looks like the sun will be virtually exactly in the middle of the Maya birth canal at menagerie essay, about 4:30 PM. Questions! Let's zoom in for a closer look. The sun will be in the middle of the dark rift in the late afternoon on Dec 21, 2012.

This is it! The position of the essay, sun is the main reason why the Maya picked this exact day. We will have the sun in the middle of the dark rift, the birth canal, on the same day as the winter solstice! This will create the triple rebirth of the sun! In addition to that, the sun will be virtually exactly in the middle of four planets on the sacred tree with Venus leading the parade across the sky! This combination is why the Maya picked 2012! About 70 minutes later, at about 5:44 PM, the sun will set and Mother Nature herself may provide another spectacular scene of glorious colors.

Finally, at 7:37 PM, Mars will be visible against the night sky as it sinks below the horizon, marking the end of the sacred tree's journey across the sky on on community this fantastic day! I can only glass essay, imagine that the Maya celebration will continue throughout most of the night! The Driving Question Behind the Creation of the Long Count Calendar. Now let's go way back in time and imagine being a Maya sky watcher several thousand years ago. In the summer time, you would clearly see the spectacular section of the sky containing the center of the homework, galaxy and the dark rift.

There is glass essay nothing else in the night sky that looks even remotely like this. It is model essays quite stunning and very intriguing. You would be drawn to it and stories would be created about it. Throughout the year, you would also frequently see planets traveling on or near the menagerie essay, ecliptic and at certain times, you would see them travel right across the dark rift. Planets stand out louisiana purchase essay because they are free to menagerie essay wander against the fixed background of the stars - that is the paper radio, origin of the word, wandering star - but they cannot go just anywhere; they can only travel along the special road near the ecliptic. Eventually we would also learn that the sun travels across the dark rift - the birth canal - as winter approached and each year it would do this a little bit closer to the day of the winter solstice. Glass Essay! This would lead us to ask what year in the distant future will the sun be in the middle of the dark rift on the day of the hotline, winter solstice.

In other words, when will there be the triple rebirth of the sun? In my opinion, this was the driving motivation behind the creation of the Long Count calendar, not a psychic prediction of any kind concerning the conditions of mankind or the world we live in. Now let's add a little more to our desired scenario. The Maya would most certainly want to celebrate the sun's presence in the middle of the birth canal at a time when this is actually happening in the sky above them - in menagerie essay other words, during the day. Since the sun is considered to be dead at general papers model essays, night, if this astronomical event happened at night, it would not be very useful for their metaphor or very interesting for glass menagerie the purpose of their festivities; they would want the research reports, sun to essay be alive during the rebirth celebration! So the question now becomes: When will the sun be in the middle of the essays, dark rift on the day of the winter solstice while in the sky over the Maya? If there is more than one year that fits these qualifications, what year will also include an interesting planetary configuration, preferably one that has Venus rising before the sun so that we can easily see Venus rise and it can witness the rebirth of the sun? Remember that Venus is known as both the evening star and the morning star because these are the only times when it can be seen even though it is one of the brightest objects in the sky. In my opinion, it is important to note that these are all very natural questions; I don't think that they are contrived at all. And there is glass menagerie essay absolutely no doubt that the sacred tree of by kate essays 2012 offers us an excellent solution to these questions.

While the moment of the glass, winter solstice and the moment of the galactic alignment do happen near each other in the years around 2012, only 2012 has this stunning collection of events. As interesting as this is, it will be helpful for us to learn just a little bit more about it. Exactly how often does the sun travels across the dark rift? Once a year, right? Yes, but let's go deeper.

The Difference Between a Tropical Year and a Sidereal Year. Most people don't know that there are two different types of years that differ only by about 20 minutes, on average. Yet we all know that basically the year is the chopin essays, amount of time it takes the earth to make one complete orbit around the sun. Astronomers call this a sidereal year and the background stars are used to determine when the glass essay, orbit has been completed. In addition to that, we also think of the year as the amount of time from one winter solstice to the next winter solstice, for example. Paper On Community! While the earth is making its journey around the sun, its axis of rotation is precessing very slightly. Menagerie Essay! Since it is the direction of the axis that determines the winter solstice, the solstice line-up occurs about homework, 20 minutes before the earth completes the full orbit. This type of year is called a tropical year or a solar year and it's what we commonly call a year. Astronomers themselves usually mean this type of year unless they make the distinction of a sidereal year. (11)

So we see that the winter solstice happens once every tropical year and that the alignment with the middle of the menagerie, dark rift happens once every sidereal year. Or to use our rebirth metaphors, there is a rebirth of the sun once every tropical year due to the winter solstice and there is a rebirth of the sun once every sidereal year due to the alignment with the middle of the dark rift. Precession is what causes the relative occurrence of these two rebirths to purchase shift. Precession is what slowly brings these two rebirths together in 2012 and glass menagerie, later drives them apart. In about research paper on community, 13,000 years from now, they will be as far apart as possible with the rebirth in the dark rift happening six months after the winter solstice. The following 13,000 years will bring them back together again. So on the day that the calendar itself is reborn, we have the sacred triple rebirth of the menagerie essay, sun! How fantastic!

A Bigger Idea: The Rebirth of the essay questions, Great Year. I find the triple rebirth of the sun to be fascinating. But perhaps the Maya are actually using it to glass point to something even bigger: the rebirth of the great year. Let's revisit our diagram of the paper on community, top view of the circle of precession for some more insights. Looking down on essay our model, we see the essay, circle of precession and the four parts of the glass essay, great year. The fact that the great year is naturally divided into four parts leads directly to this question: Is it reasonable to metaphorically view the great year as having four seasons, just like the regular year?

When we look closer at our diagram, we notice that the four points of distinction have an interesting correlation with the essay, solstices and equinoxes of the regular year. At each of the four points, the galactic alignment takes place at glass menagerie, the same time as one of the solstices or equinoxes of the regular year. Remember, at tn, the moment of the galactic alignment, the glass menagerie essay, sun is on the crease, above the center of our circle, which is the purchase essay, center of the earth. Also remember that from above, the glass menagerie essay, earth orbits the sun counterclockwise. Here is what we find from the perspective of the northern hemisphere where the Maya live: So an analogy that uses these points in a way that is similar to the solstices and equinoxes of the regular year is perfectly reasonable.

Notice that we have the same order of the reports, seasons for the great year as we do for the regular year. With this in mind, we can easily make the glass menagerie, analogy that the great year is now being reborn during its own winter solstice! How interesting! And let's consider the following. Newspaper! Everything in menagerie essay the galaxy slowly orbits the center of the newspaper research reports, galaxy. So the galaxy is analogous to the solar system with the glass essay, center of the galaxy playing the role of the the awakening by kate essays, sun.

And furthermore, the center of the galaxy is, in fact, millions of glass menagerie suns all grouped closely together. The center of our Milk Way galaxy. I bring this up because I want us to consider the orientation of the axis of the earth with respect to the center of the galaxy, similar to on community how its orientation towards our own sun determines our regular seasons. I know that this analogy is flawed since the crease of our 3-D model does not point exactly towards the center of the galaxy but it is menagerie only off by just over six degrees. So for the purpose of an analogy, I feel that this is acceptable. In this way, we see that when the axis is at the bottom point of distinction, it is leaning away from the galactic center, a posture that is akin to that of the winter solstice of the regular year.

So we have another configuration supporting the view that we are now in the time of the rebirth of the great year. Very interesting. And have you been wondering about this: Since the day, the the awakening essays, year and the great year are naturally divided into four pieces, why didn't the glass menagerie essay, Maya setup the length of the Long Count calendar to be one-quarter the length of the great year, rather than one-fifth, and use a square or some other four-stroke symbol to denote the great year, rather than the star? I wondered about research, that, too. Glass Menagerie! If they had set the calendar to one-fourth the great year, each of the four restart points would correspond with one of the points of newspaper research distinction.

All four points of distinction would be highlighted, but they would be highlighted equally. With the approach that they took, only the approaching restart point in menagerie essay 2012 corresponds to the point of distinction of mid-1998. In other words, this particular point of distinction is held forth as more important than the others. And there is something else that happens in 2012 that might have contributed to its selection by the Maya - a Venus transit! On June 6, 2012, Venus will visibly cross in front of the disk of the sun. When using the proper safety precautions, you can actually see the the awakening, small dot made by Venus as it slowly moves across the sun. Venus transits have an unusual rhythm to them. They alternate between happening 8 years apart and then either 105 or 122 years apart, approximately, and the Maya have a calendar to track this rhythm. (That is to say: 8, 105, 8 122, 8, 105, 8, 122 and so forth.) The connection between the Venus transit in 2012 and the restart of the glass menagerie essay, Long Count calendar is perhaps circumstantial but I still think that it did play a factor. Few people ever get to by kate see even one Venus transit in glass menagerie essay their entire lifetime so with so many other factors pointing to tn 2012 as an excellent restart date, I think that this event also made the designers of the Long Count calendar smile. You can read all about the Venus transit that we had in 2004 and essay, see some fabulous pictures here.

Now we see that from the viewpoint of the Maya, December 21, 2012 is more than just another winter solstice; it is the most important winter solstice of all the winter solstices throughout the entire great year. This therefore makes this day the single most important day in the entire great year! There are over 9.4 million days in the great year and the Maya have picked this day as the day the great year restarts! The concept of precession is in the Maya mythology and also in their calendar. The calendar's restart date undeniably contains all this amazing astronomy that is keyed to homework hotline precession and the position of the planets. The poetic beauty is glass menagerie breathtaking; the general essays, actual astronomy is profoundly precise! How can all this be a coincidence? I find it to be completely mind-blowing! To my knowledge, I am the only researcher who describes the glass menagerie, special event of 2012 exactly like this with consideration for the position of the planets, and the Venus transit. Some researchers focus on 1998 and essay questions, the years surrounding it.

But I don't think that that is what the Maya were trying to glass essay pinpoint with their calendar, though missing it by louisiana purchase, 14 years. I think that they successfully hit exactly what they were aiming at: the sacred triple rebirth of the menagerie essay, sun as a marker for the rebirth of the great year! How difficult was it for research on community radio the Maya to pinpoint the winter solstice? What level of precision is required to hit the exact day of the winter solstice from over 2,000 years away? Let's approach this problem by focusing on the length of the tropical year, which is the amount of menagerie essay time from one winter solstice to homework tn the next. Astronomers record this value as 365.24219 days, on average. Let's see how accurately the Maya would need to know this number in order to make their calendar. As a starting point, let's say that we want a calendar that restarts on the winter solstice 10 years from now. We would multiply the above number by 10 to get 3,652.4219 days from our current winter solstice to essay the one 10 years later.

If we were using only a 365.0-day year, our results would be 3,650 days, which is about 2 and a half days short. Now suppose we want to restart our calendar in 100 years. We would just move the decimal point two places to get 36,524.219 days. Again, if we were using a 365.00-day year, we would be short, this time by about 24 days. So of course you see that if we wanted our calendar to paper restart in 1,000 years, we would have 365,242.19 days and, just for glass menagerie essay completeness, let's note that for 2,000 years, we would have 730,484.38 days.

Note that I will talk about this 0.38-day fraction in just a minute. I stepped you through this slowly so that you could easily see how the numbers after the model essays, decimal point are so important. Menagerie! As the time frame gets longer, the precision required increases. You can see that if the homework hotline, Maya intentionally restarted their calendar on menagerie essay the exact day of December 21, 2012 because it is a winter solstice, they needed to homework hotline know the value of the tropical year to menagerie essay within at least 3 decimal places. Let's look at this in even more detail. Basically, what we have is a tolerance of one day over a period of by kate chopin 2,000 years.

To calculate this as a percentage, we multiply this one day by 100 and divide by the total number of days in glass menagerie essay this period. This results in a tolerance of 0.0001369 percent, which means that the Maya needed to know the length of the tropical year to a level of 99.9998631 percent correct or better! Wow! This works out to knowing the value of the year to within about 45 seconds, which can be stated as plus or minus 22 seconds. In other words, even a small error would build up as we add together all 2,000 years and the resultant total error needs to be such that we still land on the correct calendar date of the internet essay questions, winter solstice. If you multiply 45 seconds by 2,000, you see that it is just under one day so we are on the right track. To help you get a better feel for glass menagerie what this level of precision is like, consider measuring the width of the United States to within 20 feet or the distance from Los Angeles to Tokyo to within 40 feet.

Good luck! But there is research paper on community radio even more to this. If the essay, winter solstice for 2012 was at newspaper reports, noon, then our evenly split tolerance would be fine. But since the solstice is at 5:11 AM central time for the Maya, calculations that are just 5 hours and 12 minutes too early would result in the wrong calendar date. So the level of precision required is even higher. And you probably already realize that the 0.38 day fraction from the glass, total number of hotline days in the 2,000 year period also needs to be considered since it amounts to over 9 hours and this can easily push the time of the winter solstice across the boundary of a calendar date. Indeed, if this factor were ignored, the winter solstice for 2012 would be calculated as being at about 8 PM on December 20th central time, which is the wrong calendar date. So you see that great care must taken in order to glass correctly calculate the exact date of the winter solstice several thousand years in the future.

In addition to an accurate value for the length of the year, the Maya also need to know an accurate value for the rate of precession and newspaper, an accurate value for menagerie essay the number of papers essays degrees the sky needed to shift during the 2,000 year period in order for glass essay the sun to be in the middle of the dark rift on internet questions the day of the essay, winter solstice. I should further point out that the value of precession is reports not a constant. It is getting shorter by glass essay, about 36 days every year. General Papers Model Essays! But even this rate will change! When I take all this into consideration, it is hard to believe that the Maya used naked-eye astronomy to build their calendar; the level of precision required is glass menagerie essay just too demanding to internet be achieved without sophisticated measuring equipment. It seems to me that it is either absolutely astounding that their calendar restarts when it does or it is a meaningless coincidence. It is so difficult to glass menagerie essay believe that the Maya could have had this level of precision that it is easy to understand why mainstream science denies them this knowledge and attributes the restart date to mere coincidence.

But is this justified? Is the restart date landing on the winter solstice a coincidence? If the the awakening, Maya were Christian and the restart date was Christmas, would we be justified in stating that it was just a coincidence? Of course not! It would be obvious that it was intentional. And yet the winter solstice plays the role of Christmas for the Maya. It is their most important day of the year. It is too much for me to think of this as just a coincidence.

As a side note, consider that in about 130 B.C., the same time frame as the creation of the Maya calendar, the Greek astronomer Hipparchus estimated precession to be 36,000 years or less. He was off by essay, 10,000 years! Even so, Hipparchus is very famous for his work on precession and he wrote two books on the subject. He is considered by some people to be the greatest astronomer of antiquity. I can only on community radio, add that it's a good thing he was not in charge of glass menagerie creating the Maya calendar! (12) By the the awakening essays, way, some researchers argue that the Long Count calendar does not restart on December 21, 2012 but on menagerie various other dates. Internet Essay! While most researchers agree with the winter solstice date, the next most popular end date is only two days later and essay, a very small number of researchers have picked dates that are years away. A change of two day would hardly affect the calculations above; we would now have a tolerance of two minutes. Furthermore, no matter which date we choose to use, or even if the restart date really is coincidentally the solstice, it still seems undeniable that the Maya knew a fairly precise value for the length of the great year. Remember, five cycles of the Long Count calendar add up to the great year to within one-half of essay questions one percent or 140 years. (Or is this just a coincidence, too?) So they knew the number to at least that degree of glass accuracy.

I feel that we should at least give them credit for this. But was their astronomical understanding vastly superior to even this? Can anyone prove that it wasn't? The structure of the Long Count calendar demonstrates to me beyond a reasonable doubt that the Maya knew a lot about astronomy. It is purchase not a lucky guess or a coincidence that the calendar works the way that it does. In my view, there is no getting around this, no matter how uncomfortable modern mainstream researchers are with attributing this sophisticated knowledge to them. It required great ingenuity and scientific understanding to create this calendar. The two most important aspects of it are that it accurately reflects the glass menagerie essay, underlying astronomy while being easy to manage on a daily basis. The Maya accomplished this beautifully. Pinpointing the Winter Solstice and 2012 Separately.

The Maya hit the day of the tn, winter solstice exactly. It might seem that if they hit the day they wanted, they must have also hit the year they wanted since the year is a bigger target. While I do think that 2012 is indeed the exact year that they wanted, let's see why it is possible that they hit the menagerie essay, day exactly, but only came close with the year. As we have seen, in louisiana order to hit the day that contains the moment of the winter solstice, you need to know the length of the year with a certain degree of accuracy. But to correctly pinpoint the year that the sun will be in the middle of the dark rift on the day of the winter solstice involves knowledge of the rate of precession, which, obviously, is a different astronomical phenomenon than the length of the glass, year. So we see that the pinpointing of the day and the pinpointing of the year are really two different problems.

First the Maya would have had to find out how many years until the event that they were interested in. Then they would have had to calculate how many days until the homework hotline, day of the winter solstice for the year that they had picked. Under certain circumstances, they could have made an error picking the year but once they had selected that particular year, they could have exactly calculated the number of days until its winter solstice. 2,000 years ago, the sun was about 30 degrees away from being in the dark rift on the day of the winter solstice. Glass Essay! To find the research radio, correct year to restart the calendar, they would have needed to accurately measure this angle and also accurately measure how much this angle changes from one year to the next. Once you know both the menagerie, angle and the rate of change, it is trivial to calculate when the angle will become zero. While it is hotline tn easier to measure the angle than it is to measure the rate of change, you still need to measure both with a high degree of precision. But even if the results are off by 50 years, just to pick a number, this could still be considered reasonably accurate since the total amount of time is so large. Even if we are only considering the 2,000 years since the calendar has been in use rather than the entire precessional period, being 50 years off is still only about 2.5 percent incorrect. But I think that the Maya did better than that. Essay! When I consider the extremely high degree of accuracy that they demonstrated for the length of the year, I can't help but think that they might have also had a very precise value for internet questions both the angle and the rate of change for that angle.

Their length of the menagerie, year is 99.9999 percent correct or better. If they brought that level of accuracy to the angle and the rate of change, the year 2012 is also exactly what they wanted. The Maya's Timeless Message of Transformation and Rebirth. It is research paper on community radio my view that the astronomy of 2012 will not cause anything unusual to happen to glass menagerie essay us, physically or spiritual. Remember that the triple rebirth of the sun is research paper on community radio caused by the earth going through three different motions: it spins on its axis once a day, it travels around the sun once a year, and it wobbles on menagerie essay its axis once every 26,000 years. The triple rebirth of the sun does not come about due to anything happening to the sun itself; it comes about due to the shifts in our relationship with the sun.

These three motions have been repeating for billions of the awakening chopin essays years and there is no reason to expect that the astronomy will suddenly cause something unusual to happen to us in 2012. I think that the Maya knew this, too, and this is why it made perfect sense for them to use the astronomy as a timeless rebirth metaphor rather than as an alarm for danger or a time marker for world peace. In my opinion, this is an extremely important point that is completely misunderstood by glass menagerie essay, many people. If you think that the astronomy might cause some effect - either physically or spiritually - I invite you to consider that the homework tn, time of change connected with 2012 would be a long period of transformation, rather than a sudden shift. Menagerie Essay! Astronomically, there is radio very little difference between the position of the earth's axis now and where it will be in 2012. In fact, it is 99.986 percent in that position today (Spring 2009). Add to this the fact that the galactic alignment happens every year and glass, we should completely remove people's fear of imminent global disaster due to some astronomical driving force. Since the precessional cycle is so slow, I think that it is safe to say that not only would this period of transformation be happening now, it would have been happening for hundreds of years and it would continue for the next several hundred years. But again, I don't think there is any effect whatsoever due to the astronomy of 2012.

While I do acknowledge that our world today is by kate chopin essays most certainly heading for tremendous change, I believe it is due to the unsustainable nature of our behavior, not the astronomy of 2012. But if this astronomy is not going to cause anything unusual to happen to us, why did the Maya bother with all of this? I think that it is important to keep in mind the magnitude of the efforts the Maya put forth with regards to all of glass menagerie essay this. They were highly motivated. Paper On Community! The work required to learn the glass menagerie, astronomy, create the calendar, build the papers, monuments, write the metaphorical stories, and create the menagerie essay, artwork is absolutely immense. Why did they do all this work when the apparent focal point was over purchase two thousand years in their future? What could have possibly provided that much motivation? Did they make the calendar simply because they could even though it was difficult? Was it a way of boasting or did they want to give us something, perhaps an invaluable treasure? The calendar clearly points to the rhythms of nature. Menagerie Essay! What could they possibly want us to think or do in response to pondering the cycles of the day, the year and the great year?

Their metaphor involves lovemaking and birth. Do they want us to internet questions contemplate the question of life itself? Do they want us to menagerie contemplate who we are at the deepest level? Do they want us to ponder the process of creation and the source of our very being? Without providing answers, perhaps they simply wanted to inspire us into being in a state of wonder and awe. Life can be difficult. It takes hard work to maintain our existence on the physical plane. This daily burden can wear people down and even break their spirit. In addition to that, it seems that some people lose their sense of wonder when people explain things with science.

Indeed, in today's world, many people believe that science has explained what life itself actually is. But has science really explained the mystery of life? Do you personally feel like you know what life really is? And in my opinion, the Maya want us to do more than just wonder. They want us to actually find answers. However the essay, Maya do not give us the answers. Why? Perhaps they simply did not have them. Or perhaps it is because answers to questions like this are not appreciated as much when they are simply given to you.

Furthermore, these answers are often resisted or even rejected if they are pushed upon you from an menagerie essay, apparent authority. Answers to questions this deep really begin to mean something only if you find them for yourself. The Maya personified the sun because you are like the sun. From our perspective on earth, the sun is born when it rises and it dies when it sets. By Kate Chopin! But from a perspective out in space, we see that the sun is essay never born and it never dies; it is essentially eternal. Is there a different perspective, a larger framework, that reveals that our true self, our fundamental unconstructed self is indeed also without birth or death? Are we also eternal? In my opinion, the purchase, calendar is not being used to menagerie predict a good or bad event. For me, 2012 is about holding each and every new moment in wonder and papers model essays, awe as the eternal now is continually born anew. For me, 2012 is about being born into glass essay, our eternal awareness.

(For those who are inspired by these comments, I talk much more about this in my essay, Mystical 2012.) John Major Jenkins's Alignment Zone. First and foremost, I have the utmost respect for John Major Jenkins as a person, as a researcher and as a scholar. Without John's brilliant groundbreaking work linking the restart of the homework tn, Maya calendar to glass a certain time in louisiana purchase the earth's precessional cycle, millions of people would be completely unaware of this extremely intriguing information and I would not have dug into the question of glass why the Maya picked 2012. While there is reports virtually no difference between how John and I understand the actual astronomy of 2012, our difference lies in what we think is important. As you will see, he emphasizes a multi-year period of glass menagerie time while I focus on what happens in the sky over the Maya on that one special day. By the newspaper, way, John clearly gives credit to the authors that helped him become aware of the ancient cultures that knew about glass, precession and created metaphorical stories based on the shifts they saw in the sky. Two important books are Hamlet's Mill (1968) (13) and Maya Cosmos (1995). These books, along with others, are what made John look for something in purchase essay our precessional cycle that might be happening in or around 2012, the restart date of the Maya Long Count calendar. This is how he found what he calls “the galactic alignment” or “the solstice-galaxy alignment.” In his book The Center of glass Mayan Time (1995), John discussed “the astronomical fact that the alignment of the solstice meridian with the galactic equator - the alignment the Maya were trying to indicate with their 2012 end-date - in fact occurs sometime between 1997 and 1999.” (14)

John zeroed in on research paper on community 1998 for glass essay several reasons and one of the most important reasons was the the awakening, excellent work of a Belgian astronomer, Jean Meeus, whom I greatly respect. Meeus published material in 1997 that stated that this special event (the axis over the crease of our 3-D model) would occur in May of 1998. John noted that the center of the disk of the sun would be almost exactly on menagerie the galactic equator at the awakening chopin, the precise moment of the winter solstice in the year 1998. He also noticed that this alignment would occur repeatedly in the years around 1998 with only a slight variation from one year to the next. Because of this, he decided to pick a range of glass menagerie 36 years that he centered around 1998 as the intended target of the Long Count calendar and he refers to these years as the “alignment zone” or era-2012. During these years, the disk of the sun will be touching the galactic equator at the moment of the research reports, winter solstice. Here is the way I like to explain it. At the glass menagerie, moment of the winter solstice of internet essay questions each year, imagine that you take one picture of the glass essay, sun and mark the position of the galactic equator. (Remember, since the galactic equator is invisible, you have to mark it rather than photograph it.) I call these pictures “time slices.” If you play all these time slices like a movie, you will “see” the sun move across the galactic equator over this 36-year period. But notice that this collection of time slices is not something that you would actually see unfold in the sky above you. It is an unnatural way of “seeing” since you are only “watching” one moment per year. Research! This is an glass essay, artificially created scenario that seems to indicate motion but it does not really represent what happens in the sky.

Again, I have tremendous respect for John personally and I like much of his work. While he most certainly discovered that the calendar is linked to the astronomy, I do not find this zone approach to be very satisfying. With so much precision being demonstrated by research paper radio, the creators of the calendar, I seriously doubted that they missed their intended target by 14 years, even though that is still a very small error. I felt there must be something special about the exact day of the winter solstice of 2012 as seen from the specific location of the Maya. This is why I went further with my own original research and thinking and I came to the conclusion that both the triple rebirth of the sun and the unique configuration of the glass essay, sacred tree flying through the research on community, sky over the Maya on that special day was the target of the calendar. Both the restart date and the place where the essay, calendar was created are important.

We cannot ignore that this is a Maya calendar, not an Egyptian calendar or a global calendar. While the sun will be exactly in the middle of the dark rift during the day for the Maya, this event will happen during the louisiana purchase, night for people on the other side of the world. So the triple rebirth metaphor will not play out very well for those locations. But this is not a problem since the Maya were only concerned with what will be over menagerie essay them during that day, not what will be over others elsewhere. In this way, we see that the Maya hit the exact day that they were aiming at! Completely mind-blowing! My view focuses on the center of the dark rift, not the galactic equator, although again, these two things are very close to each other. But more importantly, my view focuses on what will happen on that day over the Maya, not what will happen over a long period of time. Please consider the fact that no one can ever look up into the sky and see the homework tn, galactic equator for it is as invisible as the equator of the earth. Both are precisely located by scientists yet both are imaginary lines.

It is important to note that the Maya could look up into the sky at certain times and actually see the dark rift with their naked eye and this makes the astronomy useful for their metaphorical folklore. Glass Essay! I think this is an essential point in understanding 2012. The idea that the Maya restarted their calendar because of the combination of the triple rebirth of the sun and purchase, this unique configuration of the sacred tree is to the best of my knowledge, original with me. While other people are aware of the solar rebirths and the sacred tree in general, to my knowledge no one has connected them to 2012 like I have. John is well aware of the glass menagerie essay, Maya's metaphor of the dark rift as the birth canal and he clearly sees the sun’s presence in the awakening by kate essays the dark rift as a rebirth but, as we have seen, he emphisizes the galactic equator rather than the dark rift. This is menagerie not surprising since, again, the galactic equator has a precisely defined location while the purchase essay, dark rift is an irregularly shaped image in the sky without a precisely defined midline. Glass Menagerie! Strictly speaking, the louisiana essay, dark rift is glass not even an astronomical object, it is a visual image due to interstellar dust blocking the light from the center of the galaxy. Newspaper! Because of all these reasons, astronomers pay little attention to the dark rift while the galactic equator becomes the main focus. Why I Believe My View Is Unique and glass essay, Original. Just to papers model essays be very clear, it is the work of John Major Jenkins that linked the Maya calendar and the cycle of menagerie precession.

He was the first one to point out that the sun will be in the middle of the dark rift on the day of the winter solstice in papers essays 2012. Yet I find the time slice approach unsatisfying since a full year passes between each slice and glass, the alignment swings through about 360 degrees as the earth orbits the sun. The time slice approach is simply an unnatural way of “watching” the sun cross the plane of the galaxy. In fact, it is not watching at all. My approach of watching what unfolds is completely natural. It is not an artificial reconstruction. Again, I cannot overemphasize the importance of John Major Jenkins' work. He has focused on internet questions this subject since the 1986 and has written over seven books. He is extremely knowledgeable in glass areas that I know virtually nothing.

And again, it is John's brilliant groundbreaking work that linked the restart of the Maya calendar to a certain time in the earth's precessional cycle. It is almost as if John discovered a huge pyramid deep in the jungles of southern Mexico, a pyramid that was completely hidden and totally overgrown. Then over the course of several decades, he virtually single-handedly removed all the essay, overgrowth so that we all could see this fabulous monument. Yet I do not want to understate the potential significance of my work. The Maya did not simply miss 1998 by 14 years, they hit exactly what they wanted and perhaps I am correctly pointing out the actual capstone to John's pyramid. Could the Maya be focusing on another event?

While my research gives me a high degree of confidence that the glass menagerie essay, Maya were indeed using their Long Count calendar to precisely pinpoint the sacred triple rebirth of the sun and the rebirth of the great year as presented in this essay, there are numerous scholars and popular writers who maintain that the general model essays, Maya had something else in mind. This opens up a complex debate that is beyond the scope of this essay but the solid astronomical understanding that you have gained will give you an excellent foundation to explore those other possibilities. While we presently have no absolute proof as to what the target is exactly, the event of glass 2012 is immensely fascinating for millions of purchase essay people. How exciting for us all to see it unfold for ourselves right now! That's the end of glass essay this essay but I invite you to explore the comments and links in internet the endnotes section. And don't miss my 10-minute video of our 3-dimensional model in action! (Click here for the video.) By the way, I have several 2012 essays and essay, I may write even more.

In one essay, I ask how the Maya acquired this astronomical knowledge and in papers essays another essay, I present my own views of what all this might mean for us. Will consciousness shift from “the me” to essay “the we”? Will we shift from competition to cooperation? And will you experience your own personal triple rebirth? If you are inspired, please check these essays out soon! Thanks for reading my essay!

Written: May 2, 2008. Revised: October 24, 2009. All my 2012 essays are here. (1) This is a simple 3-dimensional model that you can build yourself with just a pencil a sheet of paper. It demonstrates the actual astronomy we are concerned with. As you move the top of the pencil around in a circle, you can see the 26,000-year precessional cycle unfold. Don't miss my 10-minute video of this model in action:

The Actual Astronomy of 2012 - Absolutely Amazing! (2) The following excellent website gives a simple yet thorough explanation of the seasons: (3) A more exact figure is 25,765 years but for this essay I use the approximate number of 26,000 because it is close enough and research reports, easier to remember. You can find more information here: This next link shows an animation of a top precessing. There is an important difference between what is shown here and what the earth does. In the animation, we see that the glass menagerie essay, bottom tip of the axis of the the awakening by kate essays, top stays still while the rest of the top wobbles. For the earth, it is best to imagine the glass, center of the earth staying still while both the research reports, top and essay, bottom tips of the axis of rotation make circles. In other words, the earth still wobbles but there are two cones of precession, one above the other.

One is up-side-down and the two are touching at the center of the earth. When we build our 3-dimensional model, we put the tip of the essay questions, pencil in the crease. This is the center of the earth, not the bottom of the earth. (4) The following website discusses the menagerie essay, topic of the entire solar system bobbing up and down across the plane of the galaxy. Tn! It states that we last crossed the plane of the galaxy 2 million years ago and that we are currently about 50 light-years above the mid-plane of the galaxy. We will continue to get further away for another 14 million years and then we will start moving closer again. While some other researchers have come up with slightly different numbers such as a current distance of 70 light-years, you can clearly see why I don't consider this topic to be relevant to our study of the astronomy of 2012. By the way, the center of the glass, galaxy is estimated to be just over by kate chopin essays 25,000 light years away and it is estimated that it takes 240 million years for our entire solar system to make one orbit around the center of the galaxy. Also notice that since the distance above the galactic mid-plane is very small compared with the distance to the center of the galaxy, our model is still an excellent representation of what is going on in the sky with regards to the annual galactic alignments even though our solar system is not exactly on glass menagerie the mid-plane of the galaxy. The following forum brings forth a few more points about this topic.

(5) While it is true that the orbits of almost all the planets are close to the orbital plane of the earth, the two exceptions are Mercury, whose orbit is tilted at 7 degrees, and Pluto at general, 17 degrees. (6) Let's look closer at glass, why the internet, direction to the center of the galaxy basically stays the same. Imaging that you are in menagerie Los Angeles and papers essays, you are pointing to the center of New York City. If you then move 500 miles north and point to glass New York, you will have to point more south than before since you are now further north. But if instead of moving 500 miles north, you only homework hotline, move 50 feet, the direction to New York will basically be the same. Technically, it is a slightly different direction but the glass essay, difference is extremely small. Research! So even though the earth is moving around in its orbit, the change in position is not enough to affect the glass essay, direction to the center of the galaxy.

(7) The angle between the plane of the galaxy and the plane of the earth-sun orbit (the ecliptic) is about 60 degrees. Astronomy magazine tells us where to look in paper on community radio the summer sky to see it for menagerie essay ourselves here: Here is further discussion: And here is clarification of the confusion between 60 degrees and 63 degrees: (8) Technically speaking, we have three independent events, each of which occur at different times: the moment the axis is over the cease, the moment of the winter solstice and the moment of the alignment of the essay, earth, the menagerie essay, sun and the galactic equator. Newspaper Research Reports! Indeed, these events really are independent from each other since one does not cause either or both of the other two.

Yet the menagerie, time when the axis is over the crease is key. Whichever December solstice is louisiana purchase closest to this time will have the other two events occurring almost simultaneously and this will be the case in 1998. The following webpage, written by John Major Jenkins, provides the scientific reference that mentions the calculations of the menagerie essay, Nautical Observatory: That webpage contains some material that I will comment on later, after you have read more of my essay and have a more complete understanding of some of the issues raised on chopin that webpage. (9) I consider John Major Jenkins one of the most important voices on the subject of 2012. Here are John's brief comments on Izapa as the origin of the Long Count calendar. Glass Essay! You can learn much more from his DVD, Izapa - 2012. Here is John's main website: (10) The brightness of stars and planets is newspaper research reports reported as their magnitude and this is measured on a logarithmic scale.

The brighter an object appears, the lower the value of its magnitude. Very bright objects have negative magnitudes. On this day, Venus's magnitude will be -3.9 and it will look fantastic against the black, pre-dawn sky. Mercury's magnitude will be -0.5 and this will be bright enough to see for essay a short while even though the sky will be starting to general model essays become light at glass menagerie essay, the time Mercury rises. (11) Detailed information about the the awakening by kate, sidereal year is here: Detailed information about the tropical year is menagerie here: (12) More on Hipparchus can be found here: (13) John Major Jenkins' comments about Hamlet's Mill can be found here: (14) Here I again make reference to John Major Jenkins' short essay, The True Alignment Zone (1999):

John uses a phrase that I would like to clarify. Here it is: the alignment of the solstice meridian with the galactic equator. This is just another way of stating that the homework hotline, axis is over the crease in our 3-D model. Initially I found this phrase difficult to understand and glass menagerie essay, visualize. Perhaps the following will help you. First, here is a definition of the solstice meridian.

Imagine a circle or hoop around the homework tn, earth that goes through the north and south poles. As you know, there are an infinite number of such hoops and they are all called “meridians.” Pick the hoop that is also perpendicular to the plane of the earth-sun orbit, the glass menagerie, plane of the ecliptic. General Papers! There is only one such hoop. Now project this hoop into the sky. This makes a line that is shown on essay some star charts and this line is called the “solstice meridian.” When the sun is on this line, we have the moment of the winter or summer solstice depending on which way the the awakening by kate chopin, axis is tilting, towards or away from the sun. The solstice meridian moves with respect to the background stars at the rate of precession. This line intersects both the line made by the path of the sun (the ecliptic) and the line made by the plane of the galaxy (the galactic equator).

When the axis is over the crease, the solstice meridain, the menagerie essay, galactic equator and general essays, the the ecliptic all intersect at the same point. This is the point that you see in menagerie my diagrams when you look down the crease of the 3-D model. Perhaps the research on community radio, phrase could have been more clearly stated as the menagerie essay, solstice meridian intersecting the galactic equator at reports, the level of the glass menagerie essay, ecliptic. By the way, I also want to correct a very minor point regarding the topic of water spinning down a drain since John mentions it in his essay. My opinion is that John is very bright and research reports, well informed on menagerie a wide variety of subjects yet on the topic of water spinning down a drain, he has slipped into the commonly held false belief that it spins one way north of the equator and the other way south of the equator due to the coriolis effect.

This is simply not the case yet John's mistake does not affect the louisiana purchase, core issues presented in the essay. Essay! Here is homework hotline more information: (*) This site mentions that the winter solstice sun will be closest to glass menagerie the center of the galaxy in research paper the year 2219: (*) Here is glass a 3-D animated movie of the event of 2012. They have it spinning around in an unnatural way so that might add some confusion.

Yet it is still helpful for internet essay questions those looking for more ways to understand the actual astronomy: (*) Here are other interesting links: Thanks for reading my essay! Have a magical and mystical day! If you enjoyed this essay, then you might like some of my other work:

• Infinitely Mystical, my main website, is here: • My completely free ESP board game for glass essay 2 or more people of all ages is here: Copyright 2008 Thomas Razzeto - All rights reserved.

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an essay about peace Two Essays on Peace. Please support the mission of. the Dominican Friars. INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PEACE – A CALL TO CONTINUE OUR JOURNEY AS PEACEMAKERS. By Sr. Brenda Walsh, Racine Dominican. Glass Essay? This year, 2013, September 21 st is designated as International Day of Peace. Each year, the United Nations invites all people and nations around the world, to hear and respond to the call to create a peaceful world.

This Day of Peace was established in 1981 by the UN General Assembly. It was “designed to create a specific time each year, to concentrate the efforts of the UN and its Member States as well as the whole human race, to promote the ideals of peace and to give positive evidence of their commitment to peace in all viable ways.” This year there is a specific call to address and eliminate bullying and to practice civil discourse in homes, schools, churches, communities and louisiana government, or wherever it is menagerie practiced. The call to practice and live peace is for all human beings, regardless of age, color, creed, class or place of origin. All are invited to participate. Peace is badly needed all over the world at this time. We must believe that peace is research reports indeed possible and the Spirit will show us the way to live in peace and harmony wherever we are. Essay? What are some of the ways that groups can be engaged in creating a just, peaceful and inclusive society? The first and most important thing is to pray and reflect on the meaning of peace and tn ways to be involved. Invite God to remove all the menagerie essay obstacles in our minds and hearts and allow God’s peace to fill them with light, hope and peace.

Include all people in this endeavor. General Papers Model? Each has something to offer to make peace a reality in our time and glass place. Gather in small groups and chopin essays choose some way they can be involved. Educators have an important part to play in essay working for peace. Ban Ki Moon, Secretary General of the United Nations, said:”It is not enough to teach children to read, write and converse. Hotline? We must teach them to have respect for themselves, for glass essay others and for the world in which we live.” Children need to learn ways to be respectful to each other wherever they are.

They can create posters and share their plans for peace-making. Reach out across lines of color, class and creed and demonstrate that peace is possible. Teach children ways to be civil and respectful in their relationships. Plan activities to learn about and share their efforts at peace-making. Plan a celebration to share how they are working for peace and harmony. (Do a Google Search for World Peace Day 2013.) What can Faith Communities and other organizations do to work for peace? Mahatma Gandhi once said that “We must be the change we want to see happen.” We can learn about ways to address anger and resentment and participate creatively and peacefully in our interactions. Conflict Resolutions Skills are available for children and adults to learn about ways to have peaceful interactions and to resolve conflicts. Commentaries on the need to work for peace can be sent to media at a local, state or national level. Writing to legislators at all levels about justice and peace issues is very important. Encourage them to choose peace and not war to solve problems.

Explain to them that violence only begets more violence. The money used for wars is needed to help those struggling with life issues and ways to live with human dignity and have needed resources. Margaret Mead once reminded us, “Never doubt that a small group of committed, thoughtful people can change the world. In fact it is the only thing that ever has.” All of us need to confront continuing and expanding poverty, dependency, hostility towards immigrants and refugees. Purchase Essay? How can we resist a culture of glass menagerie essay, growing violence at every level of research paper on community radio, society? We as a nation continue to use violence as a means of solving problems.

By looking at the underlying causes of violence, we can help stop using bandaid solutions in solving problems. We need to work to identify what caused the problems in menagerie the first place, and then to choose a different path. Model Essays? Diverse groups can come together and share ideas and plans and design life so that no one is excluded from it. Glass Essay? Create communities where people can live in harmony and research paper on community radio use their diverse gifts to bring new life to our world. Think of the common good.

What kind of world do we want to leave to future generations? People anywhere can celebrate the International Day of Peace. It can be as simple as lighting a peace candle, engaging in prayer and meditation on peace, working with children and families to create peaceful ways of living and menagerie relating. This is the work of a lifetime. Take this opportunity to bring peace to research reports our relationships, our nation and our world. Imagine a world that is peaceful, and have children and other groups express it in words and glass essay actions.

Npo effort is too small to make a difference. A RENEWED CALL TO CREATE A CULTURE OF PEACE. by Sr. Brenda Walsh, Racine Dominican. In recent times, there is an increase in violence at local, state and papers national levels. All kinds of violence plagues many communities, leaving some people wallowing in darkness and despair. The solution belongs to the entire community . Each one of us, regardless of age, condition, class, culture or religious affiliation must be part of the menagerie solution.

As we prepare for the International Day of the awakening, Peace, it is a good time to reflect on the issue and plan to do our part to create a peaceful community, nation and world. Menagerie Essay? To accomplish this task successfully, we must spend time each day in prayer and contemplation and newspaper invite God to direct our path, show us how to remove the obstacles, and allow Divine Light to replace the darkness. The United Nations Education Program – UNESCO- provides excellent ideas to help us to create a culture of peace and non-violence.( For the full report go to . We are reminded that wars begin in glass the minds and hearts of people. It is in the same place that the defense of peace must be constructed. The Awakening Chopin Essays? The peace we build must be built on a secure foundation, not just on political and economic arrangements , but upon an intellectual and glass moral solidarity with all of mankind. This has been a long-time endeavor of UNESCO – o promoter of mutual understanding while working to eliminate discrimination, intolerance and violence.

We are called to learn to general model live together by fully participating in the infinite wealth of the cultures of the world and by averting the fear reflex when confronted with “otherness.” This calls for a genuine and lasting dialogue, to rethink the values of menagerie, cultural diversity and to bridge cultural and religious barriers as well as to break stereotypes and to turn people away from by kate chopin essays, violence . We must also rethink our relationship to the economy , to glass menagerie society, and the environment, because the purchase essay future challenges of humankind do require collective response. This kind of solidarity can result in a culture of peace and non-violence. Sustainable development will help people live their lives with dignity, peace and hope. What can we do to create a culture of peace? Adults must model for children and youth what it means to live in peace. Show them there are other ways to solve disputes besides engaging in glass violence. They can be taught peace -making skills, and conflict resolution can be taught in schools and other groups to essay questions help people create peace in hearts, homes and communities. Often our nation uses war and glass menagerie essay conflict as a way of solving problems.

Write to legislators and urge them to find peaceful ways of solving problems and diverting some of our resources toward peace-making and justice issues. We need to learn from people of other cultures and respect and use their gifts in our communities. Review and reshape the ways we relate to them. Work toward respect and peace in our homes, in our interactions and relationships with them. May God’s peace fill our hearts, our homes, our nation and our world. General Papers Essays? Faith communities can reach out to menagerie essay people, those standing on street corners or belonging to gangs and give them soul food to meet their needs and help them redirect their lives. Don’t be afraid to research paper on community radio challenge their behavior and show them ways to practice peace. We must believe peace is possible and continue the peace-making endeavor in all its forms.

Involve the whole community in coming up with solutions. Think of a pebble cast into the water. Glass? It will create ripples. Each ripple joined with others can create a force for good and made a big difference. May we continue our journey with peace, faith, hope and love. Research? No effort is too small to make a difference.

With God’s help we can transform our communities and world from one of glass menagerie essay, violence and war to one of peace and dignity for all.

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Excel Tips for Improving Productivity Using Excel. Microsoft Excel is a program developed by Microsoft and it offers a spreadsheet application for users. Glass Menagerie Essay? This spreadsheet application is designed for use in Windows and Mac OS computers and devices. This application has been widely used in all its components or platforms right from when version 5 was released in 1993. This spreadsheet application has replaced other software products like the Lotus 1-2-3. It is purchase, part of the Microsoft Office program. The main components of menagerie essay Microsoft Excel are;

Calculation functions Pivot tables Graphic tools And Visual Basic for Applications, a macro programming language. Top features and benefits of Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Microsoft Excel spreadsheet helps build great charts. This application helps businesses unlock their potential data. Businesses are able to make use of different formulas in a grid of internet essay cells within a table. Menagerie Essay? The required data is homework hotline tn, put into individual cells when it is required in glass essay, rows or columns.

It allows users to sort, filter, and display the rows and columns in questions, visual presentation. Glass Menagerie Essay? Users can use things like graphs, charts, clustered columns to add more meaning to data. Visual presentation has a big impact in chopin, the tabulation and comprehending of data. The visual presentations like graphs can help readers capture the content within a data more easily. Glass Essay? Using the general essays visualization features, it helps put some more emphasis on business reports and menagerie essay business marketing materials. Charts are recommended for the awakening chopin essays, any type of data which needs to be presented in menagerie, either X or Y-axis. With Microsoft Excel, you can use conditional formatting to put more emphasize on certain information.

Users are able to format the spreadsheet with use of features like italics, bolds, color shades, and other functions in order to highlight the most important data. The conditional formatting is helpful in businesses when they present accounting information such as the balance carried forward by a company or a pre-tax profit. Newspaper Reports? This will put emphasize on that information contained in the sheet. Besides, users are able to menagerie essay select a suitable color scheme, which suits their preferences by internet essay going to the “Quick Analysis button” and then selecting the glass menagerie Formatting tab. When using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, it can help businesses identify trends.

With the presentation of data in louisiana essay, graphical form, it helps include aspects such as average lines, which are essential in showing the key trends derived from the essay information presented in that graphic form. This is something, which can be applied to emphasize key points to other users or readers of the information in a straightforward way. Moreover, Microsoft excel allows users to bring their data together. With these spreadsheets, users can put all the information from different documents in one place so that they are maintained within one single location for easy access. The raw data presented in the sheet contains all the content even from homework hotline other spreadsheets meaning that users are able to import texts or images when they want. Besides, users can add objects with use of the glass “Insert tab” or by using the additional spreadsheets. As part of the Microsoft’s Office 365 productivity suite, the Excel spreadsheet is available online and this implies that businesses can have access to the program using their computers or smartphone devices from anywhere. This can help business leaders and research reports employees accomplish data tabulations even when they are out of their offices or at home. Glass Essay? As long as the essays users have an menagerie essay internet connection, they can use their devices whether PCs, smartphones, laptops, or tablets to the awakening by kate access the menagerie Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Newspaper Reports? This makes it easy for remote and mobile working when on the go. What are the glass menagerie disadvantages of Microsoft Excel?

This software when installed in computers requires frequent updating, and this is time consuming. Tn? When the glass menagerie essay software starts updating, it may take a lot of time. Not all computer users have the program which is the awakening chopin essays, compatible to view the menagerie essay documents that have been created using Microsoft Excel. In essence, Microsoft Excel provides users with different formulas, which they can use to ease their calculations, something that saves time and louisiana purchase enables them calculate difficult problems easily. Glass Menagerie Essay? The problem of using this program is that it limits users from essay questions learning or understanding the menagerie knowledge of solving problems manually.

They have to rely on the spreadsheet to solve their calculations and present the data rather than doing it manually. Using Excel formula function helps you create and apply various formulas including sum, count, trim, and homework others. With this Excel formula, it is intended for use by those people with no experience or those who have some little knowledge on how to work with spreadsheet programs including Excel. Formula: = SUM (6,6) or =SUM (A1, B1) or =SUM(A1:B5) Using SUM formula, it helps find the glass total sum of two or more numbers. The SUM formula gives you the total sum of two or more numbers. Louisiana Purchase Essay? The different numbers you are adding together are separated by commas, and the SUM function will add them together. In addition, you can have cell references of the menagerie numbers you want to papers model essays add, and glass essay the SUM formula will add the numbers in those cells.

Besides, the SUM formula can add numbers within a range of cells that are separated by louisiana a colon between the cells. You can use the count formula to count the number of glass menagerie cells which have a numbers in them within a certain range. One thing with the research COUNTA Formula is that it works with different data types. Glass Essay? It can help in counting all numbers of non-empty cells within a certain range. It counts that if there are cells with numbers or other characters in essays, them. Using the glass menagerie essay LEN formula helps you count all the numbers of general papers characters within a given cells range. In this case, spaces may also be counted. Note: You have 10 characters where there is essay, no space between words and 12 characters where there are spaces between the words. This formula is particularly useful in situations where you have to pull data from the databases.

This formula compares with either the use of “VLOOKUP’s”or “IF statement”. Formulas: = RIGHT(text, number of characters), =LEFT(text, number of hotline tn characters), =MID(text, start number, number of characters). The formulae used above returns certain number of characters which are mentioned from a specific text string. RIGHT will give you the number of glass essay characters which are from the right side of the text string. LEFT will give you the number of essays characters which are from the left of the text string. MID will give the number of glass essay characters required from the middle. Formula: =VLOOKUP (lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, range_lookup) This formula will first look up for louisiana purchase essay, a value in table that is in glass menagerie essay, leftmost column, and it then returns the value in the same row, from the essay questions value of a column you specify. If you use any number for the lookup value, the formula makes it easier to ensure that the data you are getting back is a correct match.

Formula: =IF(logical_statement, return this if logical statement is true, return this if logical statement is false) Example: =IF(C3D3, “Met Quota”, “Did Not Meet Quota”) Formulas: =SUMIF (range, criteria, sum range), =COUNTIF(range, criteria), =AVERAGEIF(range, criteria, average range) This is the process of glass menagerie essay merging or combining two different cells to form one cell.To find all the required right Excel formulas for a job, you will discover that there are close to by kate chopin 316 predefined or built in function within Excel. Solutions to Common Print Problem When You Use Microsoft Excel. There are different print problems experienced when you use Microsoft Excel but we will present solutions to some of the problems as outlined below; Microsoft Excel prints only a portion of the glass menagerie essay worksheet I need to newspaper print one page wide or tall of my sheet The footer or header of the printed sheet does not look the glass way in wanted Why is Microsoft excel ignoring page breaks I have set Some columns and rows are printing on the wrong page Excel is not printing multiple print areas on same page I am not able to scale a chart to print to a desired size or I am not able to print multiple charts on one page. Microsoft Excel prints only homework hotline a portion of the worksheet. If Excel is only printing a portion of your worksheet, you need to check whether a print area has already been defined. If there is glass menagerie, a print area already set, then Microsoft Excel will only print the print area.

To check whether a worksheet contains a printing area, you should go to homework hotline tn “Page Break Preview” located on menagerie, the “View” menu. The areas you see of the worksheet in a white background are the general parts that will appear in a print. In order to print the whole sheet, you need to glass menagerie essay clear the print area by homework hotline going to essay the “File” menu, then to the awakening chopin “Print Area” then select “Clear Print Area” You can also adjust the print area by changing its size to include or exclude rows and columns. You do this by going to “View” menu and then clicking “Page Break Preview”, where you then adjust the borders surrounding the print area by dragging them. If you want to include nonadjacent cells to the printable area, you need to select the cells then right click any cell within the selection, then click the menagerie essay “Add to Print Area” button found on the shortcut menu.. I need to print one page wide or tall of my sheet.

If you want your excel sheet to print one page tall or wide, you need to prevent the columns or rows from spilling over hotline, the edges of the page. This is done by shrinking the excel sheet in order to appear in one page tall or wide. To do this, you go to “File” menu and click “Page Setup”, then click “Page” tab. When you are at the “Page” tab, you click “Fit to”, and type in glass menagerie essay, “1? in the pages wide box or tall box. This action deletes the number from the other box.

The footer or header of the printed sheet does not look the way in research, wanted. If the glass essay header or footer you have printed does not look the way you wanted, you can solve this problem by choosing from the various built in footers and headers to create your own. You can go to “View” menu and click “Header and Footer” where you choose black and white only. The footers and headers text will always be black meaning that it cannot be printed in color even when you are using a color printer. In case you want to repeat linked information or graphics on top of every page, you can use print titles instead of using print headers. This feature can be used to print a company log or address at the top part of every page of the sheet. You place the company information on internet questions, the first few rows within the worksheet. Then you go to “File” menu, and click “Page Setup”, then next click the “Sheet” tab, and on the “Rows to repeat at top” box, you enter the glass rows that contain the company log and the address. Why is Microsoft excel ignoring page breaks I have set.

If Microsoft excel ignores the page breaks you set, it means that your workbook has been set in such a way that Excel fits the printed work on a certain number of internet essay pages thus ignoring the manual page breaks you set. This reduces the size of the printed Excel worksheet. To check whether this is the glass essay case, you need to go to “File” menu, and research click “Page Setup”, then the “Page” tab and under “Scaling”, check the “Fit to” option. You use “Adjust to” instead of using “Fit to” in order to glass fit the worksheet. To go to “Adjust to”, you click “Page Setup” in the “File” menu and essay questions then click “Page” tab and you will see the “Adjust to” button. If you find that the “Adjust to” option does not give you the results you want, you can set a print area by selecting each page as a separate range.

Excel prints the worksheet nonadjacent ranges on separate pages. Some columns and rows are printing on the wrong page. If some rows and columns are printing on the wrong page, you need to make some adjustments. The row height, column width, page margins as well as page breaks help determine the number of rows and columns that are printed on a page. You can make the margins smaller. If some columns and rows are printing on the next page, you may try decreasing the margins at the top, bottom, left and right. To adjust the margins, you go to “File” menu, then click “Page Setup”, and go to “Margins” tab and click it. You can also adjust the page breaks by moving them before you print the worksheet. To do this, you go to “View” menu, and click “Page Break Preview” and the manual page breaks are displayed in glass, thick blue lines. Usually automatic page breaks will appear as dashed lines.

The page breaks can be moved through dragging them up, down, right or left. Excel is not printing multiple print areas on same page. If multiple print areas are not being printed on the same page, you can specify that separate parts of the excel worksheet be printed on same page. The nonadjacent areas of an research excel worksheet are printed in separate pages by default. To change this scenario, you need to bring together the columns intend to print. In order to print the nonadjacent columns in the same page, you need to select the columns, which you do not want to menagerie print and hide them.

Once you have selected them, you go to “Format” menu, then click “Column” and then click “Hide”. The same happens with the nonadjacent rows whether below or above the homework tn worksheet, which you do not want to print. You hide the rows by going to “Format” menu, then click “Row” and then click “Hide”. Glass? After that, you can now set the print area containing all the rows and columns including those, which are hidden. I am not able to research paper on community radio scale a chart to menagerie essay print to tn a desired size or I am not able to print multiple charts on one page. If you cannot scale the glass chart to purchase essay print it in the size you want, you can set the print size. The chart on the chart sheet can be scaled when you want to menagerie essay print. To activate the chart sheet, you go to “File” menu, then “Page Setup” and essay next click the “Chart” tab. Under the “Printed chart size”, you click the scaling option you need to print.

For “Custom”, it means that your chart will print in the size that you create when you drag the glass selection handles. If you have embedded charts, you need to drag to resize. On the papers model other hand, if you want to print various charts together on same page, you embed them. It is not possible to essay print multiple chart sheets within one page. If you want to print two or more charts on the same page, you should create embedded charts, which are then resized to homework tn fit into one page. How to Create ‘User Defined Functions” With use of menagerie essay visual basic macros or functions, we are able to design custom functions, which are not built in Excel. The functions we develop can then be used or applied in formulas just like other functions that are currently applicable in Excel.

In order to demonstrate how this works, we will create the “CardOK” function, which will enable us test the eligibility or validity of a credit card number. The aim of the “CardOK” function is to perform a mathematical checking to general help determine the validity of the card number in a specific cell, and this check is known as the essay MOD10 check. However, the mathematical check does not determine the credit worthiness, the credit available in the card, or whether the number of the card is actual one. To start, you go to “Tools” menu and then click “Macro” and select “Macros”. Now type the internet questions Macro name and in menagerie, our example, it is “CardOk”. Then click “create” and homework hotline tn this will show Microsoft Visual Basic Editor Interface.

Once at the Microsoft Visual Basic Editor, delete all the text you see on that page by holding [Ctrl + A], and essay then pressing “delete” at the same time. After that, you need to paper on community radio cut and paste the below text on to that page: Function CardOk(CardNum$) As Boolean. ‘Logic statement by Richard Harris – obtained from Deja News. ‘Implemented by glass menagerie essay Chui Tey – obtained from Deja News. ‘Concatenation and minor correction by internet essay questions Phil Bornemeier. ‘Modified for Excel by glass menagerie Dim tmpCardNum$, OddSum, EvenSum, i, OneLetter$, Digit, CheckSum. ‘Reverse order of essays cardnum drop non-number characters. For i = Len(tmpCardNum$) To 1 Step -1. OneLetter$ = Mid$(tmpCardNum$, i, 1)

If OneLetter$ = “9? And OneLetter$ = “0? Then. CardNum$ = CardNum$ + OneLetter$ ‘Add numbers in odd positions. For i = 1 To Len(CardNum$) Step 2. OddSum = OddSum + Val(Mid$(CardNum$, i, 1)) ‘Double numbers in even positions, add up all digits, accumulate. For i = 2 To Len(CardNum$) Step 2. Digit = Val(Mid$(CardNum$, i, 1)) EvenSum = EvenSum + Digit * 2 + (Digit * 2 = 10) * 9. ‘Add OddSum and EvenSum. CheckSum = OddSum + EvenSum. ‘Check if CheckSum divisible by 10.

If CheckSum Mod 10 = 0 Then. Next you press [Atl + Q], and this action will enable you quit Microsoft Visual Basic Editor and get back to Excel. Our function is now ready for use, and in order to glass menagerie essay test its applicability, we format cell A1 for text. What you do is highlight cell A1 and the press [Ctrl+1], the click “number”, then again click “text” and on community lastly press “ok”. In cell A1, you enter the glass menagerie essay below valid credit card number: Next in cell A2 you type: =CardOk(A1) The value you get in newspaper reports, cell A2 needs to be “TRUE” This function can also be accessed on the “Insert” menu, where you click “Function”, and in the “Function Category” tab or box, you select “User Defined”, and “CardOk” appears in “Function Name” tab or box. You then select “CardOk” and click “ok”. A box will pop up where you will enter “A1? or that cell which contains the credit card number, and lastly you press “OK”. Point to note: Many small e-commerce sites, which are unable to afford online credit card authorization, are using this function(MOD10 check)

If you want to format any selected object, youpress ctrl+1 To insert current date, youpress ctrl+; Inserting current time, you press ctrl+shift+; Editing a cell comment, you pressshift + F2 Repeating last action, you press F4 If you want to autosum selected number of cells, you press alt + = In order to see suggest drop-down in a cell, you press alt + down arrow Inserting a new sheet, youpress shift + F11 Editing an active cell, you press F2 (this action will place the cursor in essay, the end) Entering multiple lines in a one cell, you press alt+enter If you want to hide current row, you press ctrl+9 In order to by kate chopin essays unhide rows within a selected range, you press ctrl+shift+9 To hide current column, youpress ctrl+0 If you want to unhide columns in essay, a selected range, you press ctrl+shift+0 If you want to recalculate formulas, you press F9 Selecting data within a current region, you press ctrl+shift+8 If you want to see formulas in your worksheet, you press ctrl+shift+` (ctrl+ ) If you want to change the the awakening by kate chopin essays reference type from absolute to glass relative and vice versa while editing formulas, you press F4 In formatting a number as currency, you press ctrl+shift+4 (ctrl+$) If you want to use outline border around selected cells, you press ctrl+shift+7 Opening the on community radio macros dialog box, press alt+F8 Copying value from above cell, you press ctrl+ Formatting current cell using comma formats, you press ctrl+shift+1 If you want to switch to the next worksheet, you press ctrl+shift+pg down If you want to glass menagerie switch to the previous worksheet, you press ctrl+shift+pg up.

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latin homework Latin I Syllabus 2017- 2018 We will meet on White days NOT Purp. wk 1 Aug.29- Sept 1 ( 4 days ) NOUN DECLENSIONS-1st Declension nouns, the Differences between English and Latin The Story of Rome. - expectations signed ( 2 pts) -start memorizing vocab. p. 5. - books covered ( 2 pts) - goal sheet filled in ( 2 pts) - Read p. 4, do ex. 1 1-10 , Learn 8 parts of speech ( 2 pts) - Start memorizing the 1st Declension endings p. Glass Essay! 9.

- notebooks prepared and present ( 2 pts) - continue memorizing the 1st Declension endings p. 9. wk 2 Sept. 5-8 ( 2 days, 9 th grade out Fri. 9/8. Noun declension, vocabulary and story.

-do p. 10 ex 4 1-4 and internet essay questions, p. 11 ex 5 1-4. ( have hand out “Parts of glass menagerie, Speech Practice” done) - Do QUIZLET on newspaper research, line vocab. quiz and practice PRINT OUT COPY OF YOUR TEST to hand in. - Have Quis quem edit? sheet done. for Thurs. 9/7 ( White- long)

-Read story p. 2, write out glass menagerie, translation sent. 1-3 ( to Remum) -answer comprehension questions p. 3 ( Be ready to tell where the Latin gives you the answer to the awakening chopin essays, these questions.) No class- field trip. wk 3 Sept. 11-15 Finish ch. 1 start ch. 2 VERBS and glass menagerie, Plautus.

- vocabulary quiz ch. Paper On Community Radio! 1 ( p. 5) - do p. 8 ex 3 3-6 and glass menagerie essay, p. 12 ex. 6 3-6. ch.

1 Test - know 1 st declension endings, story p. Reports! 2, derivatives for some of the vocabulary, parts of speech and glass menagerie essay, grammar we've discussed ( e.g. subjects, direct object, pred. nom.) -study vocab ch. 2 p. 19. and practice vocab.) -p. 20 ex 3 1-4 ( study charts on p. 20 and p. Homework Hotline Tn! 21) wk 4 Sept. 18-22 ch. 2 Verbs of the 1 st and 2 nd conjugation, personal endings. Read p. Menagerie! 16-17 story and papers model essays, intro.

Translate lines 1-4 Answer comprehension questions. -worksheet ch. 2 do ex. 4 2-5 and ex 6 2-6. - Finish handout practice ch. 2 - Verbs. -Study vocabulary ch. Essay! 2 p. Newspaper Research Reports! 19 ( quizlet- optional but recommended) vocabulary quiz ch. 2.

do test format ch. 2. study for test ch. 2 ( Monday 9/25 ) wk 5 Sept. 25-29 ch. 2 Plautus and ch. 3 Terence. study vocab. Glass Essay! ch. 3, p. 33. - p. 33 Do ex. 1 and the awakening, learn 2nd declen.

- p. Essay! 34 do ex. 3 1-3. - read intro and story pp. 30-31. - translate lines 1-5 ( to research paper radio, Syrus saying “Bonum animum”) - answer comp. questions 1-5 p. Glass! 32. do ch. Tn! 3 wksht. Ex 1, ex 2 and ex 3 2-3. Read p. 16-17 story and intro. Translate lines 1-4 Answer comprehension questions.

wk 4 Sept. 19-23 ch. 2 Verbs of the 1 st and glass menagerie, 2 nd conjugation, personal endings. -worksheet ch. 2 do ex. 4 2-5 and ex 6 2-6. - Finish handout practice ch. 2 - Verbs. -Study vocabulary ch. 2 p. 19 ( quizlet- optional but recommended)

vocabulary quiz ch. 2. do test format ch. 2. study for test ch. 2 ( Monday 9/26 ) wk 5 Sept. Research! 26-30 ch. 2 Plautus and ch. 3 Terence. study vocab. ch. 3, p. 33.

- p. Glass! 33 Do ex. 1 and essays, learn 2nd declen. - p. 34 do ex. 3 1-3. for pd 7 Thurs. 9/29. - read intro and story pp. Glass Essay! 30-31. - translate lines 1-5 ( to Syrus saying “Bonum animum”) - answer comp. questions 1-5 p. Hotline Tn! 32.

do ch. 3 wksht. Ex 1, ex 2 and ex 3 2-3. wk.6 Oct. 3-7ch. 3 Terence – About the 2 Brothers and the 2 nd Declension. -Study 2nd declension. wksht 3 ex. 4 and 5. vocab quiz ch. 3.

p. 40 ex 7 1-5 and do content questions on wksht. and review 2nd declen. For Test ch. 3 Tues. 10/11. do test format ch.3 ( test Tues.10/11) have Ch. 3 practice sheet completed ( we've been working on in class)

wk 7 Oct. 11-12 ( 4 days) ch. 4 2 nd declen. Neut. Nouns Cicero- Fabricius, the just Roman consul. - Read pp. Glass! xxx- xxxi- Overview of papers, Roman History and hand out on the Kings of menagerie essay, Rome.

- work on your kings projects. - ch. 4 wksht. do ex. 1 and 2. Kings/Heroes notes due ( typed and sent to louisiana purchase essay, me) wk 8 Oct. 17-21 Kings projects and ( short week- no classes Tues and Wed.) Kings/ Heroes storybook due. for Thurs. 10/20 purple. Kings/ Heroes presentations due.

Wk 9 October 24-28 ch. 4- Cicero on the Traitor. Have ch. 4 story completed- translate to line 4 “Romanorum” Do comprehension question and read introduction.

start studying for menagerie essay, quiz on Wed. Papers Model! 10/26 ( Kings/ Heroes) do content questions on glass menagerie, wksht and review ch. On Community! 4 vocab ( quiz Thurs. 10/27) (finish practice ch. 4- handout)

Kings/ Heroes quiz. ch. 4 vocabulary quiz. do T/F, matching and m.c. 5-25 on ch. 4 Test Packet Practice ( TPP) wk 10 Oct. 31- Nov. 4 ch. Essay! 4 – begin ch. Chopin! 5 end of 1 st qtr.

ch. 4 test format. - Read ch. 5, study vocabulary. -do p. 73 ex. 1 AND TRANSLATE PASSIVE FORM. - read pp.70-71 intro and story ch. 5. - translate sentences 1-3.

- answer comprehension questio ns. Wk 11 Nov.7-10 ch. 5 Cicero writes to his wife and the Passive voice. - wksht ex 2 , ex 3 1-3 and ex 4 1-4. - study vocab. ch. Glass Essay! 5 quiz Thurs. - finish the verb sheet.

- vocabulary quiz ch. 5. Wk 12 Nov.14-18 ch. Chopin Essays! 5 Cicero and glass essay, the Passive voice -continued. wksht 5 ex 6 and content questions ch. 5. test packet m.c.19-40. test format for ch. 5 and study for tomorrow’s test. - read p. 84 and do ex 1 1-7.

- start learning vocab. ch. 6, p. 85. - do p. 87 ex 3 1-2. WK 13. Nov.21-22 ( 2 days only. ) Ch 6 Caesar on the Druids and the present tense of the Verb “to be” Read intro and internet, story for comp and translate lines 1-3 to solent comprehension questions on ch. 6 story pp. Glass Menagerie Essay! 82-82. - study ch. 6 vocabulary. -worksheet ex 2 1-5.

- ex. 5 1-2 active to passive. Do p. 90 ex 5 2-4. vocab. Quiz ch. 6. wksht 6 Content Questions. test packet m.c. 1-25.

Test packet practice – Do short answers 11-20 ( Translation practice) Study for test on Mon.12/5. Week 15 Dec.5-9 ch. 6 ch. 7 Catullus on newspaper reports, love, indirect statements and the 3 rd dec. for Mon.

12/5 purp long. start learning 3 rd declen.p.114 and vocab. do. p. 116 ex 3 and ex 5 1-4. -Read p. 112 story and intro. -answer the menagerie comprehension question p. 113. -translate lines 1-3 to amare. -wksht 7 do ex 2 1-6 and ex 3 1-2. wk 16 Dec. 12- 16 ch. 7 3 rd declension, Indirect statements and Catullus on Love and his girlfriend's bird. +++++Monday Dec.

12 was a snow day so assignments have been revised. vocab. quiz ch. 7. (do ex. 6 on worksheet) bring cookies or something to drink for our party and movie class. start reviewing for the midterm using handout study guide.

review esp. verbs and stories. Wk 17 Jan. 3-6 ch. 7 and ch. 8 3rd conjugation and hotline tn, Themistocles saving the Greeks from the Persians. Content Questions – Worksheet. m.c. 10-29 on ch.

7 Test packet practice. finish test format ch. 7. -study vocab. ch. 8 and p. 126 3 rd conjugation verbs. -do wksht 8 ex 1 and 2. Wk 18 Jan.9-13 ch. 8 3 rd conjugation, Nepos on Themistocles-Review for glass menagerie essay, Midterm. story ch. General Papers Essays! 8- do comprehension questions, translate lines 1-4 to glass essay, “navigat” wksht 8 do ex.

5 and classify the type of homework hotline, ablative used. vocab. quiz ch. 8. Finish midterm review sheets. OMNIA OPTIMA on the Midterm Friday Jan. Glass! 20. Wk 20 Jan. 23-27 NLE prep., ch. 9 and research paper radio, Valentine’s project. SNOW DAY Tues. revised schedule. finish NLE 2016.

do 6-20 on “ 4 tenses” sheet. pick your myth couple and start reading about them ( Card due- 2/8 and project due 2/9 purple) -study ch. 9 vocab, 4 th conjug verbs and glass menagerie, 3 rd declen. Homework! Neut. Nouns.

-do p. 140 ex 3 1-10 and p. Menagerie! 142 ex 5 2-4. wk 21 Jan 30- Feb. 3 Valentine's Project, ch. 9 and NLE ( step up day Thurs. 2/2. -study ch. 9 vocab and forms,/ - Read story ch.

9, p. 136- 137 for comprehension. -translate lines 1-4 to “parat” -Work on newspaper, Valentine’s project (rest of the period, work on your Valentine's project) Do NLE 2015 10-29. Work on Valentine’s project. Study ch. 9 vocab. for Thurs. Glass Essay! 2/2 quiz. Vocabulary Quiz ch.

9. Wk 22 Feb.6-10 ch 9, NLE work and reports, Valentine’s. -do ex 6 on wksht ch 9. - do Short Answers 11-17 on ch. 9 test practice packet ( or on handout) ( - look and start if you are ambitious -ch. Essay! 9 format in prep. for Test ch. 8 Wed.2/15. Assignments changed due to internet essay, SNOW days Wed. 2/8 and glass menagerie essay, Thurs. The Awakening By Kate! 2/9 and Mon.

2/13 and Tues. 2/14. Wk 22 Feb. 13-17 ch. 9 and NLE. Mythological lovers Presentation and cards due. -have study sheets for Myth. Glass Essay! Lovers quiz completed. - finish Verb Practice for tn, NLE sheet ( handed out already and stapled into your packet) quiz on Mythological lovers ( study for menagerie essay, ch.

9 test on Tues.2/28) Wk. 23 Feb. 27- Mar. 3 NLE ch. 9 and homework hotline, Ch. 10 Vergil on the Trojan Horse. (-do 2014 NLE 31-40) Do SA 12-18 on ch. 9 TPP. Study for ch.

9 test on glass, Tues. 2/28. Study perfect tense ( see p. 279) Know perfect personal endings! ( pop quiz?) Do NLE 2013 1-20. Finish NLE 2013. Study NLEs we have reviewed to be ready for NLE PRE TEST on Monday and paper, little pre quiz today.

wk 24 March 6-9 ch. 10 Vergil on the Trojan Horse and NLE prep( NLE is week of March 13 next week) for Mon.3/6 purp. pd 7. keep reviewing material for NLE. especially work on the three new tenses future, imperfect and perfect. ch. 10- study vocab and 3 rd io verb forms. do p 166 ex 1 1-6.

study p. 170- 171 charts 3rd decl. adjectives. do p. 172 ex 4 2-5. WK 25 March 13-17 NLE and ch. 10. NLE the real one. Read ch. Menagerie! 10 story for internet questions, comprehension.

translate lines 1-5 to dare. answer comprehension questions. for Wed. Glass Essay! 3/15 purp. Homework Tn! pd 5 or Thurs. Glass Essay! 3/16 white pd 4. do ex. Homework Tn! 3 and ex. 4. -do 10 ex 5. revised due to snow days and late starts this week.

-do 10 ex 5. ch. Glass Menagerie! 10 vocab. Quiz. do Short answers 11-13 and 16-19 on TPP 10. test format ch. Internet Essay Questions! 10. wk 27 March 27-31 ch.

11 –Imperfect tense and Vergil on Dido and Aeneas. Start studying ch. 11 vocabulary. read pp. 180-182 imperfect tense and pp. 184-185 sum and essay, possum. do p. 182 ex 1 1-8 and. Read ch. Newspaper! 11 story for comprehension. translate lines lines 1-5 to glass essay, “conspiciebantur” wksht.

11 do ex 2 1-10 and ex 3 1-5. study for Voc quiz ch. 11 Mon. Tn! 4/3. Do ex 6 on glass, wksht 11 and content questions. Wk 28 April 3-7 ch. 11 Dido and Aeneas in homework hotline tn, Love and menagerie, the Imperfect tense.

vocabulary quiz ch. Purchase! 11. do ch. Glass Menagerie! 11 short answer translations ( on back of deriv. Sheet) test 11 format/ practice due. Wk. 29 April 10-14 ch. The Awakening By Kate Chopin! 12- personal pronouns, possessive adjectives the Story of Mucius Scaevola. study voc. ch. Glass Menagerie Essay! 12 and internet essay, new forms pp.

194,197. Do wksht ch. 12 ex 1.1 and 1.2 and ex. 2 1-4. read story ch. 12 for comprehension. translate to line 5 ( debes) do comprehension questions. do ex 6 on ch.

12 wksht. do ex 5 on wksht ch. 12. do “ ch. Menagerie! 12 Pronoun Practice” handout 1-8. HAVE A WONDERFUL SPRING BREAK. Wk 30 April 24- 26 ch. Reports! 12- Livy on Mucius Scaevola and glass essay, personal pronouns.

vocabulary quiz ch. 12. ch. 12 test format complete. start ch. Louisiana Purchase Essay! 13- study vocabulary. - do p. Menagerie Essay! 223 ex 1 1-4 and p. The Awakening Chopin! 225 ex 3 1-4. do wksht 13 ex 3 1-4.

Wk 31 May 1-5 ch. 13 Horace on the Boor, imperatives. do story ch. 13- read intro and story in Latin for comprehension. answer comp. Glass! questions. translate lines 1- 5 ( possum) do wksht 13 ex 6. vocab. Louisiana Essay! Quiz ch.

13. Study ch. Glass Menagerie! 14 vocab. Do p. Louisiana! 237 ex 1 1-5. Wk 32 May 8-12 Ch. 14 future tense and Ovid on the Story of Pyramus and Thisbe. read the intro to ch. 14 story. Read story for comprehension, answer questions. relative pronoun sheet. do ex 6 on ch.

14 wksht. ch. 14 vocab. Quiz. Wk. 33 May 15-19 Ch.14 Pyramus and Thisbe and SPRING CONVENTION. quiz relative pronouns. do CH. 14 TPP do short answers 11-13 qnd 16-20. test format ch. 13/14 due.

start learning ch. 15 vocab. Glass Menagerie Essay! p. 250. do p. 250 ex 1 1-8. ch. 15 story – read intro. answer comprehension questions. translate to line 8 “ das” Wk. 34 May 22-26 ch.

15 Seneca on Old Age and future tense for 3 rd , 3 rd io and 4th. on wksht 15 do ex 2 1-6. ch. 15 wksht. Homework! do ex 6. do m.c. on menagerie, TPP ch. 15 1-22 and 29-35. ch. 15 vocabulary quiz. Wk. 35 May 30- June 2 Finishing up and reviewing for Final.

for Wed. 5/31 ( long class) qui, quae, quod quiz – declining and a few in sentence translation. Do study guide to section IX. Study vocab to know – ( handout, stapled to last page of guide) finish study guide to final. Study vocab to know – ( handout, stapled to last page of guide) Finish “review for final ch.

9-15 stories) Wk. 36 June 5-9 Final review and Final. keep studying for final using your papers and book. ch. 10- study vocab and 3 rd io verb forms.

do p 166 ex 1 1-6. study p. 170- 171 charts 3 rd decl. adjectives. do p. 172 ex 4 2-5. review NLEs done so far. Finish NLE 2007 and 2006. wk. 24 ( 25) March 11-15 NATIONAL LATIN EXAM. to prepare do and review all the NLEs you have been given ( 2012-2006) for Thurs. 3/14 ( white)

Read ch. 10 story for comprehension. translate lines lines 1-5 to research paper on community, “dare” on wksht. ch. 10 do ex 5. wk 25 (26) March 18-22. wksht ex 4 2-8 and ex 6 2-5. vocabulary quiz ch.

10. wksht. 10 content questions. Test packet practice- Do Short answers 13-18. wk 26 ( 27) March 25-29 ( end of 3 rd qtr.) wksht. 10 content questions. Test packet practice- Do Short answers 13-18. do p. 182 ex 1 1-8 and. Read ch.

11 story for glass menagerie essay, comprehension. translate lines lines 1-5 to “conspiciebantur” wk 27 ( 28) April 1-5. Wed. 4/3 white long. vocab. Quiz ch. 11. wksht. 11 ex. Model Essays! 6 and content questions.

test packet practice ch. 11 short answers 11-19. wk 28 ( 29) April 8-12. test packet practice ch. Menagerie! 11 m.c. 10-50. study voc. ch. 12 and new forms pp. Paper On Community Radio! 194,197. Do wksht ch.

12 ex 1.1 and 1.2 and ex. 2 1-4. story ch. 12 for comprehension. translate to line 5 ( debes) wk 29 ( 30) April 22-26. study ch. 12 vocabulary. wksht 12 do ex 3 1-4 and ex 4 1-4.

vocabulary quiz ch. 12. review cumulative vocab. List ch. 1-12 test Fri. 5/3. finish ex 5 on wksht. do test guide ( handout) for ch. 12. wk 30 ( 31) April 29-May 3 AP exams start!

Do test packet ch. 12 - matching and m.c. Glass Menagerie! 1-35. for Wed. 5/1 ( white) Library for project. study for test on Thurs. Homework Hotline Tn! ch. 12. work on project with your partner. -study ch. 13 vocab., - do p. Glass Menagerie Essay! 223 ex 1 1-6,

-start reading the story ch. 13 p. 220. - translate to newspaper reports, line 4 ( cupis) Wk 31 ( 32) May 6-10. Tues 5/7 Notes due for Roman Culture project Tues. 5/7 visual due. Wed . 5/8 visuals due. Friday 5/10 (White day) presentations. wk 32 ( 33) May 13-17. Read p. Glass Menagerie Essay! 228 do Wksht 13 ex 3 1-4 and ex 4 1- 2. do wksht 13 ex 5.

Wksht 13 ex. The Awakening By Kate! 6 - Questions about the story Horace and the boor. vocab. Quiz ch. 13. for Fri. 5/17 ( special sched) study vocab. ch. 14. p. 237 do ex 1 1-4 and.

wk 33 ( 34) May 20-24 JCL Spring Convention at Camp Mechuwana May 22- 23.