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Note : Email sent to you from employers and unicon capacity, recruiters will pass through our Spam Prevention filters and be available in the Resume Rabbit Jobmail System. Copyright 2017 eDirectPublishing, Inc. All rights reserved. Resume Rabbit is a trademark of eDirect Publishing, Inc. Contents are protected by international copyright laws. Unauthorized copying or duplication in any form is strictly prohibited without prior written consent. I signed up with Resume Rabbit two months ago, and today I accepted a position with a company that is located less than 2 miles from research papers, my home. My resume got into unicon capacity my new employers hands as a direct result of one the career site postings performed by your great service.
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Contents are protected by international copyright laws. Unauthorized copying or duplication in any form is strictly prohibited without prior written consent. This page outlines the Terms of story, Service (hereafter the Agreement) under which the Services provided by capacity eDirect Publishing, Inc. in research association with Resume Rabbit (hereafter the Services) and the Resume Rabbit Resume Promotion Web Site (hereafter the Site) are provided to capacity essay, you. Please read this page carefully. By using the essay 350 words, Site and/or paying for unicon capacity essay the Services, you are indicating your acceptance to be bound by this Agreement.
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Job Agents are automated search engines at Career Sites that search for job openings matching criteria given them and paper, then email leads of matching jobs to the email address provided to the Career Site. For Non-Paid Customers. Resume Rabbit may set up Job Agents, also known as Job Alerts, as a courtesy to unicon, customers who create accounts on Resume Rabbit but do not pay for Resume Posting Services. These Job Agents can be edited, modified or deleted at any time. For Paid Customers. Resume Rabbit has selected some Career Sites with Job Agent services and has set up Job Agents to automatically be part of the Resume Posting Service. Resume Rabbit does not setup Job Agents at every Career Site that has Job Agents or related services. Resume Rabbit uses its best efforts to match the information given us via its Forms to make sure that the product research, Job Agents setup match the unicon essay, type of position(s) desired.
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American Military Strategy in the Vietnam War, 1965–1973. For nearly a decade, American combat soldiers fought in South Vietnam to help sustain an independent, noncommunist nation in Southeast Asia. After U.S. Capacity. troops departed in 1973, the collapse of South Vietnam in persuasive 1975 prompted a lasting search to explain the United States’ first lost war. Historians of the conflict and capacity essay, participants alike have since critiqued the ways in paper which civilian policymakers and uniformed leaders applied—some argued misapplied—military power that led to such an undesirable political outcome. While some claimed U.S. politicians failed to commit their nation’s full military might to a limited war, others contended that most officers fundamentally misunderstood the nature of the war they were fighting.
Still others argued “winning” was essentially impossible given the true nature of a struggle over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era. On their own, none of these arguments fully satisfy. Contemporary policymakers clearly understood the unicon capacity essay, difficulties of waging a war in Southeast Asia against an enemy committed to essay 350 words national liberation. Yet the faith of these Americans in their power to resolve deep-seated local and regional sociopolitical problems eclipsed the possibility there might be limits to that power. By asking military strategists to simultaneously fight a war and build a nation, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of those crafting military strategy to deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. In the end, the Vietnam War exposed the limits of what American military power could achieve in capacity the Cold War era. By mid-June 1951, the Korean War had settled into an uneasy, yet conspicuous stalemate. Having blunted North Korean and Chinese offensives that killed thousands of paper, soldiers and civilians, the United Nations forces, now under command of General Matthew B. Ridgway, dug in as both sides agreed to open negotiations. Though the enemy had suffered heavily under the unicon, weight of allied ground and essay my life story, air power, Washington and its partners had little stomach to press northward. Unicon Essay. As the U.S.
Joint Chiefs of Staff declared, the objective was to effect “an end to persuasive speech on stereotypes essay the fighting . . . and a return to the status quo.” 1 Thus, President Harry Truman’s decision in April to unicon essay relieve General Douglas MacArthur—who in Ridgway’s words “envisaged no less than the leo lionni paper, global defeat of communism”—suggested that political limitations were now an intrinsic part of capacity essay, developing and implementing strategy in a time of war. Yet what was the purpose of war and strategy if not the complete destruction of enemy forces? In a time when men had “control of essay 350 words, machines capable of laying a world to waste,” Ridgway believed escalation without restraint would lead to disaster. Capacity. Civilian and military authorities had to essay 350 words set attainable goals and work closely in selecting the means to achieve them. 2. Ridgway’s admonitions forecast inherent problems in a Cold War period increasingly dubbed an era of “limited war.” In short, the capacity essay, very definition of wartime victory seemed in twins research flux. An uncertain end to the fighting in Korea implied there were, in unicon capacity essay fact, substitutes to winning outright on the field of persuasive speech on stereotypes essay, battle. Even if Korea demonstrated the successful application of communist containment, at least one student of strategy lamented that limited war connoted “a deliberate hobbling of tremendous power.” 3 A Manichean view of the Cold War, however, presented knotty problems for unicon capacity, those seeking to confront seemingly expansion-minded communists without unintentionally escalating beyond some nuclear threshold. How could one fight a national war for essay 350 words, survival against communism yet agree to negotiate an end to a stalemated war? Political scientist Robert Osgood, writing in 1957, judged there were few alternatives to contesting communists who themselves were limiting military force to “minimize the risk of precipitating total war.” For Osgood, the challenge was to think about contemporary war as more than simply a physical contest between opposing armies. Essay. “The problem of limited war is not just a problem of military strategy but is, more broadly, the problem of combining military power with diplomacy and with the speech, economic and psychological instruments of power within a coherent national strategy that is capable of supporting the United States’ political objectives abroad.” 4. If Osgood was correct in capacity suggesting that war required more than just an application of military power, then strategy—as a problem to be solved—entailed more than just battlefield expertise. Thus, the post–World War II generation of U.S.
Army officers was forced to think about war more broadly. And they did. Product Design Paper. Far from being slaves to conventional operations, officers ascending the ranks in the 1950s to command in Vietnam understood the rising importance of local insurgency movements. As Andrew Birtle has persuasively argued, by essay 1965 the army had “succeeded in integrating counterinsurgency and counterguerrilla warfare in substantive ways into its doctrinal, educational, and training systems.” 5 An examination of contemporary professional journals such as Military Review reveals a military establishment wrestling with the problems of local economic and social development, the importance of community politics, and essay 350 words, the role played by indigenous security forces. Unicon Capacity Essay. In truth, officers of the day, echoing the recommendations of Harvard professor Henry Kissinger, did not define limited wars in purely military terms. Rather, they perceived strategic problems as those involving changes in technologies, societies, and, perhaps most importantly, political ideas. 6. Colleen Tessay. These same officers labored to devise a coherent strategy for a limited contest in Southeast Asia within the larger construct of the Cold War. In an important sense, the development of strategy for all combatants necessitated attention to multiple layers, all interlaced. As Lyndon Johnson recalled of Vietnam in his 1971 memoir, “It was a political war, an economic war, and essay, a fighting war—all at the same time.” 7 Moreover, American political and military leaders found that Cold War calculations mattered just as much as the essay 350 words, fighting inside South Vietnam. Fears of unicon capacity, appearing weak against communism compelled the Johnson White House to escalate in product research paper 1965 when it looked like Hanoi was making its final bid for Indochinese domination. As Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara told a journalist in April, if the United States withdrew from Vietnam “there would be a complete shift of world power.
Asia goes Red, our prestige and integrity damaged, allies everywhere shaken.” Thus, paraphrasing military theorist Basil Liddell Hart, policy imperatives at capacity essay, the level of grand strategy would set the foundations for—and later circumscribe—the application of leo lionni paper, military strategy on a lower plane. 8. Liddell Hart’s council that strategy involved more than “fighting power” would lead American officers in Vietnam into capacity, a near insolvable dilemma. Story. Clearly, the civil war inside Vietnam was more than just a military problem. Yet in the quest to broaden their conception of war, to consider political and social issues as much as military ones, senior leaders developed a strategy that was so wide-ranging as to be unmanageable. Rather than a narrow focus on enemy attrition, sheer comprehensiveness proved to be a crucial factor undermining American strategy in Vietnam. In attempting to both destroy an adversary and unicon, build a nation, uniformed leaders overestimated their capacity to research manage a conflict that had long preceded American involvement. A near unquestioning faith in the capacity to do everything overshadowed any unease with entanglement in a civil war rooted in unicon capacity essay competing notions of national liberation and identity. 9 In the end, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of those crafting military strategy to my life story deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. Devising Strategy for a New Kind of War. By June 1965, General William C. Westmoreland had been serving in the Republic of Vietnam for eighteen months.
As the newly appointed commander of the capacity, U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), the former West Point superintendent was heir to a legacy of varied strategic initiatives aimed at sustaining an independent, noncommunist foothold in Southeast Asia. Since the division of product design research, Vietnam along the seventeenth parallel in 1954, an American military assistance and advisory group (MAAG) had been training local forces for a threat both externally military and internally political. 10 The image of North Korean forces streaming across an international boundary in 1950 surely weighed heavily on U.S. officers. Essay. Yet these same men understood the importance of a steady economy and colleen tessay, secure social structure in combating the unicon, growing insurgent threat inside South Vietnam. Consequently, the U.S. advisory group focused on term, more than just advising the Army of the unicon essay, Republic of South Vietnam (ARVN) for persuasive on stereotypes, conventional operations against the North Vietnam Army (NVA). Unicon Capacity. 11. As advisers, however, the leo lionni term paper, Americans could not dictate strategy to their Vietnamese allies. President Ngo Dinh Diem, struggling to gain popular support for essay, his own social revolution, equally sought ways to essay 350 words secure the population—through programs like agrovilles and unicon, strategic hamlets—from a rising communist insurgency. Yet achieving consensus with (and between) Americans proved difficult. Staff officers debated how best to research balance economic and political development with population security and the training of South Vietnamese forces.
12 Was the threat more military or political, more external or internal? Were local paramilitary forces or the capacity essay, conventional army better suited to dealing with these threats? All the leo lionni term, while, a shadow government competed for influence within the countryside. When MACV was established in February 1962, its chief, Paul D. Harkins, received the mission to “assist and support the Government of South Vietnam in its efforts to provide for its internal security, defeat Communist insurgency, and resist overt aggression.” 13 Here was a tall order. Moreover, as military operations required a solid political footing for capacity essay, ultimate success, an unstable Saigon government further complicated American strategic planning. Following Diem’s overthrow and death in November 1963, the foundations on paper, which the essay, U.S. presence in research South Vietnam rested appeared shaky at essay, best. Hanoi’s own escalation in 1964 did little to paper assuage concern. Capacity Essay. 14. Though cognizant of the difficulties ahead, American leaders felt they had little choice but to persevere in South Vietnam. By early 1965, with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution authorizing him to “take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force” to assist South Vietnam, President Johnson believed he had little alternative but to escalate. He was in a difficult position.
Hoping to preserve his domestic agenda but stand strong against communist aggression, Johnson initially hesitated on committing ground troops. Instead, he turned to persuasive essay airpower. Operation Rolling Thunder, launched in early March 1965, aimed at eliminating Hanoi’s support of the southern insurgency. Concurrently, Johnson hoped, in Michael Hunt’s words, to “bring a better life to the people of Vietnam—on American terms.” 15 The president would be disappointed on both counts. The punitive bombing of capacity, North Vietnam did little to interfere with Hanoi’s support of the term paper, insurgents and nothing to resolve the unicon, internal political problems of South Vietnam. Moreover, military leaders complained that the president’s gradual response, of limiting the tempo and ferocity of the air campaign, unduly limited American military might. (Few worried as restlessly as Johnson about full-blown Chinese or Soviet intervention.) By the spring, it became clear the president’s policies in South Vietnam were failing. Essay 350 Words. In June, Westmoreland officially requested additional troops “as a stop-gap measure to save the ARVN from defeat.” 16.
The decision to unicon escalate in Vietnam persists as one of the most controversial in story twentieth-century American foreign policy. Competing interpretations revolve around the question of purpose. Was escalation chosen as a matter of policy, of containing communism abroad? Was it used as a way to test American capacity in nation-building, of expanding democracy overseas? Or did escalation flow from concerns about capacity essay, prestige and credibility, both national and political? Clearly Johnson considered all these matters in the critical months of early 1965, and it is colleen tessay plausible to argue that the president believed he had few alternatives given reports of South Vietnam being on essay, the verge of collapse. Yet ultimately intervention was a matter of choice. 17 Johnson feared the political ramifications and personal consequences of “losing” Vietnam just as Truman had “lost” China. Product. Thus, when Westmoreland sent a cable to the Pentagon in early June requesting 40,000 combat troops immediately and more than 50,000 later, hasty deliberations in the White House led to support for MACV’s appeal. Capacity Essay. As McNamara later recalled, “South Vietnam seemed to essay my life be crumbling, with the only apparent antidote a massive injection of US troops.” 18. The task now fell to capacity essay Westmoreland to design paper devise an offensive strategy to use these troops.
Realizing Hanoi had committed regular army regiments and battalions to South Vietnam, the unicon, MACV commander believed he had no choice but to contest this conventional threat. But he also had to provide security “from the guerrilla, the assassin, the leo lionni paper, terrorist and unicon capacity, the informer.” 19 MACV’s chief intelligence officer drew attention to these diverse undertakings. As Phillip B. Twins Research Papers. Davidson recalled, Westmoreland “had not one battle, but three to fight: first, to contain a growing enemy conventional threat; second, to develop the capacity, Republic of Vietnam’s Armed Forces (RVNAF); and third, to pacify and protect the peasants in the South Vietnamese countryside. Each was a monumental task.” 20 Far from being wedded to my life story a battle-centric strategy aimed at racking up high body counts, Westmoreland developed a comprehensive campaign plan for unicon capacity essay, employing his forces that factored in more than just killing the enemy. Stabilization and security of South Vietnam formed the colleen tessay, bedrock of Westmoreland’s “three-phase sustained campaign.” Phase I visualized the commitment of essay, U.S. and allied forces “necessary to essay my life halt the unicon capacity essay, losing trend by colleen tessay 1965.” Tasks included securing allied military bases, defending major political and population centers, and strengthening the RVNAF. In Phase II, Westmoreland sought to resume the unicon essay, offensive to “destroy enemy forces” and reinstitute “rural construction activities.” In this phase, aimed to begin in 1966, American forces would “participate in clearing, securing, reserve reaction and offensive operations as required to support and sustain the resumption of pacification.” Finally, in Phase III, MACV would oversee the “defeat and destruction of the twins, remaining enemy forces and base areas.” It is important to note that Westmoreland’s plan included the term “sustained campaign.” 21 The general was under no illusions that U.S. forces were engaged in a war of annihilation aimed at the rapid destruction of the enemy. Unicon Essay. Attrition suggested that a stable South Vietnam, capable of resisting the military and political pressures of both internal and external aggressors, would not arise in a matter of months or even a few years. Hanoi’s political and military leaders equally debated the strategic concerns of time, resources, and capabilities. Persuasive Speech. Johnson’s decision to commit U.S. Unicon Capacity. combat troops forced Politburo members to reconsider not only the political-military balance inside South Vietnam, but also Hanoi’s relationship with its more powerful allies.
To be sure, national communists like Vo Nguyen Giap had discussed the role of a “long-term revolutionary war” strategy and the importance of political education in military training. 22 By 1965, however, the design research paper, massive American buildup complicated strategic deliberations. In December, Hanoi’s leadership, increasingly under the unicon capacity essay, sway of First Secretary Le Duan, promulgated Lao Dong Party Resolution 12, which outlined a basic strategy to defeat the Americans “under any circumstances.” The resolution placed greater emphasis on the military struggle as domestic priorities in papers the North receded into the background. As a result, Le Duan battled with senior military officials like Giap over unicon capacity essay the pace of military operations and the building of forces for a general offensive against the southern “puppets.” Escalation proved challenging for both sides. Colleen Tessay. 23.
The strategic decision making leading to American intervention in Vietnam illustrates the difficulties of capacity essay, developing and implementing strategy for a postcolonial conflict in the nuclear era. Persuasive. Even from Hanoi’s perspective, strategy was not a straightforward process. A sense of contingency, of choices, and capacity essay, of action and reaction permeate the critical years leading to 1965. Why Johnson chose war, and the restrictions he imposed on the conduct of that war, remain contentious questions. So too do inquiries into the nature of the threat that both Americans and their South Vietnamese allies faced. Finally, the relationship between political objectives and the strategy devised to accomplish those objectives offers valuable instruction to those researching the colleen tessay, faith in, and limitations of, American power abroad during the Cold War. 24. From Escalation to Stalemate. In March 1965, the first contingent of U.S. Marines landed at Da Nang in unicon Quang Nam province. Their mission, to leo lionni paper defend American airbases supporting the bombing campaign against North Vietnam, called for setting up three defensive “enclaves” at Phu Bai, Da Nang, and Chu Lai.
As the summer progressed and additional army units arrived in country, Westmoreland sought authorization to expand beyond his airfield security mission. If South Vietnam was to survive, the general needed to have “a substantial and hard-hitting offensive capability . . . with troops that could be maneuvered freely.” 25 With the growing recognition that Rolling Thunder was not achieving desired results, the Pentagon gave Westmoreland the green light. The MACV commander’s desires stemmed largely from unicon capacity, his perception of the enemy. Speech On Stereotypes Essay. To the general, the greatest threat to South Vietnam came not from the National Liberation Front (NLF) insurgency but rather from main force units, both NLF and NVA. Westmoreland appreciated the unicon essay, long-term threat insurgents posed to Saigon, but he worried that since the enemy had committed larger combat units to paper battle, he ignored them at his peril. 26. The Americans thus undertook offensive operations to provide a shield for unicon capacity, the population, one behind which ARVN could promote pacification in the countryside.
By early October, the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division had expanded its operations into the Central Highlands, hoping to defeat the enemy and reestablish governmental control in the NLF-dominated countryside. Essay 350 Words. Hanoi, however, had continued its own buildup and three North Vietnam Army regiments had joined local forces in unicon capacity essay Pleiku province near the colleen tessay, Cambodian border. Capacity Essay. In mid-November, the product design paper, cavalry’s lead battalion, using new techniques of helicopter insertion onto the battlefield, collided with the NVA. Capacity. For two days the persuasive, battle raged. Only the employment of capacity, B-52 strategic bombers, called in for close air support, staved off defeat.
The battle of my life story, Ia Drang clearly demonstrated the unicon, necessity of conventional operations—Westmoreland could not risk NVA regiments controlling the critical Highway 19 and thus cutting South Vietnam in two. But the clash raised important questions as well. Was Ia Drang an American victory? Would such battles truly impact Hanoi’s will? And how could MACV help secure South Vietnam if its borders remained so porous? 27.
Despite the attention Ia Drang drew—Westmoreland publicly called it an “unprecedented victory”—revolutionary development and essay, nonmilitary programs never strayed far from unicon, MACV’s sights. Westmoreland continued to stress psychological operations and civic action, even in the aftermath of Ia Drang. In December, he wrote the 1st Infantry Division’s commander detailing how the buildup of forces should allow for an increased emphasis on pacification: “I am inviting this matter to your personal attention since I feel that an effective rural construction program is essential to the success of our mission.” 28 Unfortunately, these early pacification efforts seemed to essay story be making little progress as Hanoi continued infiltrating troops into South Vietnam and desertions from the South Vietnamese armed forces rose sharply. 29 Accordingly, Westmoreland requested an additional 41,500 troops. Further deployments might be necessary.
The request staggered the secretary of defense, who now realized there would be no rapid conclusion to the war. “The U.S. presence rested on a bowl of jelly,” McNamara recalled. His doubts, however, were not forceful enough to derail the president’s commitment to a secure, stable, and noncommunist South Vietnam. 30. When American and unicon capacity essay, South Vietnamese leaders met at Honolulu in early February 1966, Johnson publicly reaffirmed that commitment. While Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky and Chief of paper, State Nguyen Van Thieu pledged a “social revolution” in unicon Vietnam, Johnson urged an essay 350 words, expansion of the “other war,” a term increasingly used to describe allied pacification efforts. Unicon Capacity. 31 Concurrently, McNamara and Secretary of State Dean Rusk defined Westmoreland’s goals for the coming year. MACV would increase the South Vietnamese population living in secure areas by 10 percent, multiply critical roads and railroads by 20 percent, and increase the destruction of NLF and NVA base areas by 30 percent. Twins. To make sure the president’s directives were not ignored, Westmoreland was to unicon essay augment the pacified population by 235,000 and ensure the product research paper, defense of political and population centers under government control. The final goal directed MACV to “attrite, by year’s end, VC/PAVN forces at a rate as high as their capability to put men in the field.” 32. The Honolulu conference is unicon capacity a critical episode for understanding American military strategy in leo lionni Vietnam.
The comprehensive list of unicon capacity essay, strategic objectives presented by Rusk and McNamara forced American commanders to consider the war as an effort in both construction and essay 350 words, destruction. The conference also reinforced the necessity of thinking about strategy in broader terms than simply battle. Attrition of enemy forces was only part of a much larger whole. In one sense, pacification of the countryside was a process of trying to create political space so the government of South Vietnam (GVN) could stabilize. Essay. (The New York Times reported in essay 350 words April that a “crisis in capacity essay Saigon” was snagging U.S. efforts.) Yet MACV’s own definition of my life, pacification—“the military, political, economic, and social process of establishing or re-establishing local government responsive to capacity essay and involving the participation of the essay my life, people”—seemed problematic. 33 Critics wondered how foreigners could build a local government responsive to its people. Furthermore, the expansive nature of unicon, pacification meant U.S. troops would be asked to fight an elusive enemy while implementing a whole host of nonmilitary programs. Thus, while Westmoreland and senior commanders emphasized the importance of winning both control over and support of the Vietnamese people, American soldiers wrestled with building a political community in a land long ravaged by war.
That they themselves too often brought devastation to persuasive speech the countryside hardly furthered the unicon capacity, goals of leo lionni term, pacification. 34. In important ways, waging battle—a necessity given Le Duan’s commitment to a general offensive in South Vietnam—undermined U.S. nation-building efforts in 1966 and underscored the difficulties of coordinating so many strategic actors. This management problem long had been a concern of counterinsurgency theorists. Unicon. British adviser Sir Robert Thompson, a veteran of the Malayan campaign, articulated the colleen tessay, need to find a “proper balance between the military and unicon, the civil effort, with complete coordination in all fields. Otherwise a situation will arise in which military operations produce no lasting results because they are unsupported by civil follow-up action.” 35 The reality of South Vietnam bore out Thompson’s claims. Worried about Saigon’s political collapse, American war managers too often focused on essay 350 words, short-term, military results. Unicon. The decentralized nature of leo lionni term, strategic implementation equally made it difficult to weave provincial franchises into a larger national effort. 36. Unicon. This lack of coordination led to pressures for leo lionni, a “single-manager” to coordinate the increasingly vast American enterprise in unicon capacity South Vietnam. (By the end of research, 1966, more than 385,000 U.S. military personnel alone were serving in country.) In May, Westmoreland incorporated a new directorate into his headquarters—Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support.
While ostensibly a South Vietnamese program, CORDS redefined the capacity essay, allied pacification mission. 37 The directorate’s head, Ambassador Robert W. Komer, threw himself into the management problem and assigned each senior U.S. military adviser a civilian deputy for revolutionary development. MACV now provided oversight for all of the allied pacification-related programs: “territorial security forces, the twins, whole RD effort, care and unicon, resettlement of product research paper, refugees, the Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms,” or amnesty) program to capacity bring VC [Vietcong] to the GVN side, the police program, the attempts to stimulate rural economic revival, hamlet schools, and so on.” 38 In short, CORDS assumed full responsibility for leo lionni term, pacification. If CORDS could be viewed as a microcosm of Westmoreland’s comprehensive strategy, it also underscored the difficulties of implementing so many programs at once. Physically controlling the population did not guarantee allied forces were making inroads against the insurgency’s political infrastructure.
Improved security conditions did not necessarily win civilian “hearts and minds.” Revolutionary development tasks competed with other urgent operational commitments, further straining American commanders and their staffs. More importantly, pacification required a deeper appreciation of Vietnamese culture than most Americans possessed. 39 Senior officers labored to balance the unicon, competing requirements of attacking enemy units and performing civic action in the hamlets and villages. Product Design Paper. On the ground, many American soldiers made few distinctions between friend and foe when operating in the countryside. The army’s personnel rotation policy, under which individual soldiers served for twelve months before returning home, only exacerbated these problems. With some units experiencing a 90 percent personnel turnover within a three-month period, the essay, pacification process was erratic at best. 40. As 1967 wore on, American journalists increasingly used words like “stalemate” and term, “quagmire” to describe the war in Vietnam. Early-year operations like Cedar Falls and Junction City, though inflicting heavy damage on unicon capacity, the enemy, failed to break Hanoi’s will. At most, pacification was yielding modest results. Political instability in Saigon continued to worry U.S. embassy officials.
Both the White House and my life, MACV thus found it ever more difficult to convince Americans at home that their sacrifices were generating results. 41 Even Westmoreland struggled to assess how well his war was advancing. Body counts told only a fraction of the story. A lack of fighting in capacity essay a certain district could either mean the area was pacified or the enemy was in such control that battle was unnecessary. Two years into the war, American soldiers remained unsure of their progress. (MACV and the CIA even debated the number of soldiers within the enemy’s ranks.) President Johnson, however, watched the growing domestic dissent with concern and, given the war’s ambiguities, called Westmoreland and Ambassador Bunker home in support of a public relations campaign. In three appearances in 1967 MACV’s commander reported to national audiences his views on the ongoing war. Though guarded in his commentary, Westmoreland’s tone nonetheless was optimistic given the president’s desires to colleen tessay disprove claims of unicon essay, a stalemated war. Colleen Tessay. 42. Hanoi’s political and military leaders similarly deliberated their own progress in 1967. Because of the unicon essay, American imperialists’ “aggressive nature,” the Politburo acknowledged the product research paper, southern insurgency campaign had stalemated in unicon capacity essay the countryside.
Still, to Le Duan in particular, an persuasive on stereotypes essay, opportunity existed. A strategic offensive might break the impasse by instigating a popular uprising in the South, thus weakening the South Vietnamese–American alliance and forcing the enemy to the negotiating table. A southern uprising might well convince the international community that the capacity, United States was unjustly fighting against an internally led popular revolution. More importantly, a military defeat of the Americans, real or perceived, might change the product research, political context of the entire conflict. 43. During the plan’s first phase, to be executed in late 1967, NVA units would conduct conventional operations along South Vietnam’s borders to draw American forces away from urban areas and to facilitate NLF infiltration into the cities. Le Duan planned the second phase for early 1968, a coordinated offensive by unicon capacity essay insurgent and regular forces to story attack allied troops and support popular uprisings in the cities and surrounding areas.
Additional NVA units would reinforce the uprising in the plan’s final phase by assaulting American forces and capacity, wearing down U.S. military strength in design research South Vietnam. 44. Though Le Duan’s desired popular uprising failed to essay materialize, the general offensive launched in late January 1968 shocked most Americans, especially those watching the war at home. Product. Commencing during the Tet holiday, communist forces attacked more than 200 cities, towns, and unicon capacity, villages across South Vietnam. Though not completely surprised, Westmoreland had not anticipated the ability of Hanoi to coordinate an offensive of such size and scope. The allies, however, reacted quickly and the communists suffered mightily under the twins research papers, weight of American and South Vietnamese firepower. Yet the damage to the U.S. position in Vietnam, some argued irreparable, had been done.
Even in the offensive’s first hours, senior CIA analyst George Carver predicted that “the degree of success already achieved in Saigon and around the country will adversely affect the image of the GVN (and its powerful American allies as well) in the eyes of the unicon essay, people.” 45 Indeed, Tet had taken a heavy psychological toll on the population. After years of U.S. assistance, the Saigon government appeared incapable of securing the country against a large-scale enemy attack. Any claims of progress seemed artificial at best, intentionally deceitful at worst. News reports about Westmoreland’s late-February request for an additional 206,000 men, followed soon after by the president’s decision not to run for product research, reelection, only reinforced perceptions of stalemate. Unicon Capacity Essay. Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford, who replaced McNamara in early March, wondered aloud how MACV was winning the war yet needed more troops. Public opinion mirrored growing doubts within Johnson’s inner circle. A 10 March Gallup poll found only 33 percent of term, Americans believed the United States was making progress in essay the war. Thus, Johnson approved only 10,500 additional troops for Westmoreland and in late March suspended all air attacks over North Vietnam in hopes of opening talks with Hanoi. If the 1968 Tet offensive was not an outright turning point of the war—many historians still consider it to be—Hanoi’s assault and Washington’s response brought about a shift in American policy and strategic goals. Westmoreland, hoping for essay 350 words, a change in unicon essay strategy that would expand operations into the Cambodian and research, Laotian sanctuaries and capacity essay, thus shorten the war, instead received word in late spring that he would be leaving Vietnam to become the Chief of Staff of the Army.
The best the general had been able to achieve was a long and bloody stalemate. Persuasive Speech Essay. 46. Historians have seized upon the Tet offensive and mid-1968 impasse as proof of unicon, a misguided military strategy crafted by paper a narrow-minded general who cared only for piling up high body counts. Such arguments should be considered with care. Far from being focused only on military operations against unicon capacity, enemy main force units, Westmoreland instead crafted a strategy that took into account the issues of pacification, civic action, land reform, and colleen tessay, the training of unicon capacity, South Vietnamese units.
If Tet illustrated anything, it was that battlefield successes—both military and nonmilitary—did not translate automatically into larger political outcomes. Despite the wealth of manpower and resources Americans brought to South Vietnam, they could not solve Saigon’s underlying political, economic, and social problems. Moreover, Westmoreland’s military strategy could not answer the basic questions over colleen tessay which the war was fought. In a contest over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era, the U.S. mission in South Vietnam could only keep Saigon from capacity essay, falling to the communists. It could not convince the people a better future lay with an ally, rather than an enemy, of the United States. Leo Lionni Term. From Stalemate to Withdrawal. In June 1968, Creighton W. Capacity Essay. Abrams, a West Point classmate of Westmoreland, assumed command of MACV. Only a month before, the enemy launched a series of new attacks in twins South Vietnam.
Dubbed “mini-Tet,” the offensive sputtered out quickly but produced 125,000 new refugees inside a society already heavily dislocated by years of fighting. Reporters were quick to highlight the differences between the capacity, outgoing and incoming commanders. But Abrams, in Andrew Birtle’s words, differed from Westmoreland “more in emphasis than in substance.” Stressing a “one war” concept that viewed the enemy as a political-military whole, the new commander confronted familiar problems. As one officer recalled, “By the essay 350 words, time Abrams arrived on the scene, there were few options left for changing the character of the war.” 47 Certainly, Abrams concerned himself more with pacification and ARVN training. These programs rose in importance, though, not because of some new strategic concept, but rather because the American phase of the war had largely run its course.
From this point forward, the war’s outcome would increasingly rest on the actions of the Vietnamese, both North and capacity essay, South. While U.S. My Life. officials remained committed to an independent, noncommunist Vietnam, peace had replaced military victory as Americans’ principal national objective. 48. The inauguration of Richard M. Nixon in unicon capacity essay January 1969 underscored the diminishing role of product design research paper, South Vietnam in American foreign policy. The new president hoped to concentrate on his larger aim of improving relations with China and the Soviet Union. Such foreign policy designs hinged on unicon, reversing the “Americanization” of the war in Southeast Asia while fortifying South Vietnam to withstand future communist aggression. As Nixon’s national security advisor Henry Kissinger recalled, the challenge was to withdraw American forces “as an term, expression of policy and unicon capacity essay, not as a collapse.” 49 Of course, Nixon, still the Cold War warrior, remained committed to opposing the expansion of communism. Withdrawal from Vietnam thus required maintaining an image of research, strength during peace negotiations if the United States was to essay retain credibility as a world power and a deterrent to communist expansion. Nixon’s goal of twins research, “peace with honor” thus would hold crucial implications for unicon capacity, military strategists inside Vietnam.
50. In truth, Nixon’s larger policy goals complicated the process of de-Americanizing the war, soon dubbed “Vietnamization” by Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird. Paper. In shifting more of the war’s burden to the South Vietnamese, the capacity essay, president was quietly redefining success. Realizing, in Nixon’s words, that “total military victory was no longer possible,” the new administration sought a “fair negotiated settlement that would preserve the independence of South Vietnam.” 51 (Both Nixon and Laird believed flagging domestic support was limiting their options, long a concern of senior policymakers.) Abrams would preside over an American war effort increasingly concerned with reducing casualties while arranging for U.S. troop withdrawals. Moreover, the impending American departure did little to settle unresolved questions over the most pressing threat to South Vietnam. In preparing to twins research hand over the war, should Americans be training the ARVN to unicon capacity essay defeat conventional North Vietnamese forces or a battered yet resilient insurgency?
52. Essay My Life Story. After a detailed examination of the war led by Kissinger, Nixon formulated a five-point strategy “to end the war and win the peace.” The new policy depended first on pacification, redefined as “meaningful continuing security for the Vietnamese people.” Nixon also sought diplomatic isolation of North Vietnam and placed increasing weight on negotiations in unicon essay Paris. Gradual withdrawal of U.S. forces was the fourth aspect of Nixon’s strategy. As the design research paper, president recalled, “Americans needed tangible evidence that we were winding down the war, and the South Vietnamese needed to be given more responsibility for unicon capacity essay, their defense.” (Some ARVN officers balked at the insinuation that they hadn’t been responsible for their nation’s security.) The final element, Vietnamization, aimed at training and equipping South Vietnam’s armed forces so they could defend the country on essay my life story, their own. Of note, political reform in Saigon, largely a task for Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, accompanied the military side of capacity, Vietnamization. Leo Lionni Paper. “Our whole strategy,” Nixon declared, “depended on whether this program succeeded.” 53. For Abrams, the capacity, problem now became one of leo lionni paper, synchronizing all facets of his “one war” approach.
Back in August 1968, MACV had to unicon fend off another enemy offensive, the third of the year. Without retreating from the conventional threat, Abrams turned increasing attention to leo lionni paper pacification. Unicon. Under the influence of the new CORDS chief William Colby, the GVN initiated an Accelerated Pacification Campaign at colleen tessay, year’s end. The campaign endeavored to upgrade 1,000 contested hamlets to relatively secure ratings by the end of January 1969. To provide political space for the Saigon government, U.S. military operations increased dramatically to keep the enemy off balance, further depopulating the countryside and creating more refugees. 54 In truth, the war under Abrams was no less violent than under Westmoreland. Still, the new MACV chief hoped to unicon capacity essay cut into the NLF infrastructure by boosting the number of those who would rally to story Saigon’s side under the Chieu Hoi amnesty program, reinvigorating local defense forces, and neutralizing the insurgency’s political cadre. Unicon Essay. 55 This last goal fell largely to “Phoenix,” an intelligence coordination program that targeted the NLF political organization for destruction by police and local militia forces.
MACV believed the defeat of the enemy infrastructure “essential to preclude re-establishment of an operational or support base to which the VC can return.” 56. While media attention often focused on battles like the costly engagement at “Hamburger Hill” in May 1969, conventional combat operations overshadowed MACV’s larger efforts to improve and modernize South Vietnam’s armed forces. Product. For Abrams, any successful American withdrawal was predicated on improvements in this key area of Vietnamization. In the field, U.S. Capacity. advisers trained their counterparts on essay, small-unit patrolling and unicon essay, coordinating artillery support with infantry and armor operations. In garrison, the Americans concentrated on improving the ARVN promotion system and building an effective maintenance program. Moreover, ARVN leadership and morale needed attention to help reduce desertion rates.
So too did intelligence, logistic, and essay, operational planning programs. Capacity Essay. Abrams also had to propose an optimal force structure and help develop an operational approach best suited to my life story ARVN capabilities. 57. Fundamental problems, though, faced Abrams in building up South Vietnam’s military forces. After Nguyen Van Thieu, South Vietnam’s president since the September 1967 election, announced a national mobilization in capacity essay mid-1968, the size of the regular army and colleen tessay, popular and regional forces increased substantially.
In two years, the total armed forces grew by 40 percent. Essay. Finding competent officers during this rapid expansion proved nearly impossible. Additionally, capable ARVN leaders, of which there were many, too often found themselves and their units still relegated to secondary roles during allied maneuvers. Leo Lionni Term. 58 These officers consequently lacked experience in coordinating multifaceted operations required for effective counterinsurgency. Problems within the enlisted ranks rivaled those among ARVN’s leadership. Newsweek offered a harsh appraisal of the typical South Vietnamese trooper who was “often dragooned into an army where he is poorly trained, badly paid, insufficiently indoctrinated about why he is fighting—and, for the most part, led by incompetent officers.” 59 Simply increasing the number of soldiers and supplying them with better weapons would not achieve the larger goals of Vietnamization. Moreover, the ultimate success of Vietnamization depended on resolving perennial problems. Hanoi continued to send men and material into South Vietnam via the Ho Chi Minh Trail. North Vietnamese units still found refuge in essay sanctuaries along the essay 350 words, Cambodian and Laotian borders. Thus, expanding the war into Cambodia offered an opportunity to give the GVN the breathing space it needed. From his first day in office, Nixon sought to “quarantine” Cambodia. Unicon Capacity. (Hanoi had taken advantage of the nominally neutral country by building base areas from persuasive, which NVA units could infiltrate into unicon essay, South Vietnam.) To Nixon and Kissinger, improvements in ARVN readiness and persuasive speech essay, pacification mattered only unicon capacity essay, if South Vietnam’s borders were secure.
On April 30, 1970, the president announced that U.S. troops were fighting in Cambodia. Design Research. By expanding the war, Nixon was hoping to unicon capacity essay shorten it. Essay My Life Story. While officials in Saigon and Washington heralded the operation’s accomplishments—Nixon stated that the “performance of the ARVN had demonstrated that Vietnamization was working”—the incursion into Cambodia left a mixed record. NVA units, though beaten, returned to their original base camp areas when American troops departed. By early June, the allies had searched only 5 percent of the 7,000 square miles of borderland despite having aimed to disrupt the enemy’s logistical bases.
Additionally, the ARVN’s reliance on American firepower did not augur well for a future without U.S. air and artillery backing. 60. Worse, the Cambodian incursion set off a firestorm of political protest at home. After Ohio National Guardsmen fired into a demonstration at Kent State University on May 4, leaving four students dead, a wave of antiwar rallies swept the nation, closing nearly 450 colleges and universities. Less than four months earlier, the capacity essay, New York Times reported on essay 350 words, the My Lai massacre. In March 1968, with the Tet offensive still raging, American soldiers on a search and unicon capacity essay, destroy mission had summarily executed more than 300 unarmed civilians. Claims of civilian casualties prompted an informal inquiry, but army investigators covered up the story for nearly eighteen months. Term Paper. 61 While most congressional leaders still supported Nixon, many began openly questioning the war’s conduct. In early November, Mike Mansfield (D-MT) publically called Vietnam a “cancer.” “It’s a tragedy,” argued the Montana senator. “It’s eating out the capacity essay, heart of colleen tessay, America. It’s doing us no good.” Senator George McGovern (D-SD) joined the chorus of dissenters, imploring Nixon to “stop our participation in the horrible destruction of unicon essay, this tiny country and its people.” The loss of support incensed the president. Nixon insisted that the pace of colleen tessay, Vietnamization, not the unicon essay, level of dissent, determine U.S. Essay 350 Words. troop withdrawals.
Still, domestic events clearly were circumscribing Nixon’s strategic options abroad. 62. The discord at home seemed matched by unicon capacity essay discontent within the ranks of U.S. troops remaining in South Vietnam. Though contemporary views of a disintegrating army now appear overblown, clearly the strategic withdrawal was taking its toll on American soldiers. Essay My Life. By early 1970, with the first units already departed Vietnam and more scheduled to leave, officers worried how the withdrawal was affecting their soldiers’ capacity to fight. One journalist recounted how “talk of fragging, of hard drugs, of unicon capacity essay, racial conflict, seems bitter, desperate, often dangerous.” 63 A company commander operating along the Cambodian border with the 1st Cavalry Division found declining motivation among his troops disrupting unit effectiveness. Essay. “The colonel wants to make contact with the enemy and so do I,” reported the young captain, “but the men flat don’t.” 64 Few draftees wanted to be fighting in Vietnam in the first place and even fewer wanted to capacity essay risk being killed in a war clearly that was winding down. In addition, Abrams increasingly had to concern himself with racial polarization inside his army. Politically conscious African-American soldiers not only mistrusted their often discriminatory chains of command, but also questioned the war’s rationale. Many blacks denounced the ideal of bringing democracy to South Vietnam when they were denied many freedoms at home. Leo Lionni Term Paper. In short, the U.S.
Army in Vietnam seemed to be unraveling. 65. By the end of 1970, U.S. strength dropped to unicon capacity essay some 254,800 soldiers remaining in country. Kissinger warned that unilateral withdrawals were weakening the bargaining position of the leo lionni term paper, United States in Paris, but Nixon continued with the redeployments to prove Vietnamization was on track. 66 With the new year, however, came the realization that NVA logistical bases remained intact. While the Cambodian operation had denied Hanoi the unicon essay, use of the persuasive, Sihanoukville port, the Ho Chi Minh Trail continued to serve as a major infiltration route into South Vietnam. Unicon. “An invasion of the Laos Panhandle,” one ARVN officer recalled, thus “became an attractive idea.” Such an operation would “retain the initiative for the RVNAF, disrupt the flow of enemy personnel and supplies to South Vietnam, and greatly reduce the enemy’s capability to launch an twins research, offensive in 1971.” 67 The ARVN’s spotty performance in the ensuing operation, Lam Son 719, further fueled speculations that Vietnamization might not be working as reported. Though Nixon declared the essay, campaign had “assured” the next round of U.S. troop withdrawals, Kissinger worried that Lam Son had exposed “lingering deficiencies” that raised questions over South Vietnam’s ability to bear the full burden of the ongoing war. 68. If Kissinger agonized over the need to balance negotiations with troop withdrawals and offensive operations to keep the term, enemy off balance, he was not alone.
Inside Hanoi’s Politburo, Le Duan equally pondered strategic alternatives in the aftermath of capacity essay, Lam Son 719. Essay My Life Story. Though only sixteen U.S. maneuver battalions remained in essay South Vietnam by early 1972, on all fronts the war appeared deadlocked. Le Duan hoped a new invasion would “defeat the design, American ‘Vietnamization’ policy, gain a decisive victory in 1972, and force the U.S. imperialists to negotiate an end to the war from a position of defeat.” 69 Abrams remained unclear regarding enemy intentions. Was a large-scale invasion an act of desperation, as Nixon believed, or a way to gain leverage in negotiations by controlling South Vietnamese territory? North Vietnamese strategists certainly were taking risks but not out of desperation.
The 1972 Nguyen-Hue campaign aimed for a collapse of South Vietnam’s armed forces, Thieu’s ouster, and the formation of a coalition government. Failing these ambitious goals, Le Duan envisioned the struggle continuing against a weakened ARVN. In either case, the Politburo believed its “actions would totally change the character of the war in South Vietnam.” 70. The subsequent “Easter Offensive,” begun on March 30, 1972, unleashed three separate NVA thrusts into capacity, South Vietnam. In some areas, the ARVN fought bravely; in others, soldiers broke and ran.
Abrams responded by throwing B-52 bombers into essay 350 words, the battle as Nixon ordered resumption of bombing in the North and the mining of Haiphong harbor. Gradually, yet perceptibly, the offensive’s momentum began to slow. Unicon Capacity. Although North Vietnam’s spring offensive had ended with no dramatic battlefield victory, it had met its goal of changing the character of the war. 71 U.S. officials proclaimed Vietnamization a final success given that the ARVN had successfully blunted the enemy’s assault. Overwhelming U.S. air support, however, quite literally saved many units from being overrun and, more intangibly, helped sustain morale during hard months of fighting. Equally important, North Vietnamese leaders made several errors during the campaign. Essay 350 Words. The separate offensives into South Vietnam dissipated combat strength while placing overwhelming strain on logistical support capabilities.
Moreover, tactical commanders lacked experience in employing tanks and squandered infantry units in suicidal assaults. 72. By the end of June, only 49,000 U.S. troops remained in South Vietnam. Like his predecessor, Abrams was pulled to become the army’s chief of unicon capacity, staff before the guns had fallen silent. My Life. Throughout the summer and fall, stalemated discussions in Paris mirrored the capacity essay, military standoff inside South Vietnam. Design Research Paper. In October, Kissinger reported to Nixon a breakthrough with the capacity essay, North Vietnamese delegation and announced an impending cease-fire. President Thieu fumed that Kissinger had conceded too much, allowing NVA units to remain in South Vietnam and refused to sign any agreement. The resulting diplomatic impasse, fueled by Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence, infuriated Nixon. By December, the president had reached his limits and essay 350 words, ordered a massive air campaign against North Vietnam to break the deadlock.
Nixon intended the bombing assault, codenamed Linebacker II, to induce both Hanoi and Saigon to return to the negotiating table. On December 26, the Politburo agreed to resume talks while Nixon pressed Thieu to support the armistice. The final settlement changed little from the principles outlined in unicon capacity essay October. One month later, on twins papers, January 27, 1973, the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the Provisional Revolutionary Government signed the capacity, Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam. 73. Essay 350 Words. In large sense, Nixon’s use of unicon essay, B-52 bombers during Linebacker II illustrated the limits of American military power in persuasive on stereotypes Vietnam. The press reacted strongly, referring to capacity the bombing of urban targets in North Vietnam as “war by tantrum” and an act of “senseless terror.” 74 But by late 1972, B-52s were the only tools left in Nixon’s arsenal. Despite years of effort and essay 350 words, sacrifice, the capacity, best the Americans could achieve was a stalemate only temporarily broken by colleen tessay strategic bombing. Capacity. Many senior military officers, perhaps unsurprisingly, would point to product research Linebacker II as proof of a mismanaged war. They argued that if only civilian policymakers had been less restrictive in setting unnecessary boundaries, those in uniform could have won much earlier and at essay, much less cost.
Such arguments, however, tended to persuasive speech on stereotypes essay discount the capacity, larger political concerns of design research, presidents and their advisers hoping to limit a war that had become the centerpiece of American foreign policy and one that had divided the nation. 75. Capacity. Others advanced a different “if only” argument regarding U.S. Leo Lionni Term. military strategy for unicon capacity essay, Vietnam. They posited that upon taking command of MACV, Abrams, deviating almost immediately from my life, Westmoreland’s conventional methods, had changed the American approach to, and thus nature of, the war. This “better war” thesis found acceptance among many officers in whom a conviction endured that a better application of unicon, strategy could have yielded better political results. Yet senior American commanders, even before Westmoreland’s tenure at MACV, tended to see the war as a comprehensive whole and devised their strategy accordingly. Despite frequent heavy-handedness in applying military power inside South Vietnam, almost all officers recognized that the war ultimately was a contest for political power. Comprehending the colleen tessay, complexities of strategy and effectively implementing it, however, were not one and the same. Officers serving in Vietnam quickly found that strategy included much more than simply drafting a plan of unicon capacity, political-military action.
The complexity of the essay my life, threat, both political and military, confounded U.S. analysts and staff officers. Unicon Capacity Essay. Westmoreland understood the story, important role played by southern insurgent forces but argued he could not stamp out these irregular “termites” without substantially eliminating the enemy’s main force units. Even ascertaining enemy motives proved difficult. Not long after Abrams took command, MACV still faced a “real problem, following the Tet offensive, trying to figure out” the unicon essay, enemy’s overall military strategy. 76. Perhaps most importantly, senior U.S. policymakers were asking too much of their military strategists. In the end, the war was a struggle between and research papers, among Vietnamese.
For the United States, the foundation on which American forces waged a struggle—one that involved both construction of an unicon essay, effective host government and essay 350 words, destruction of a committed communist-nationalist enemy—proved too fragile. Officers like Westmoreland and Abrams found that nation-building in a time of war was one of the most difficult tasks to ask of a military force. Yet American faith in the power to reconstruct, if not create, a South Vietnamese political community led to unicon policies that did not address a fundamental issue—the internal contest to define and my life story, come to a consensus on Vietnamese nationalism and identity in the modern age. More than any other conflict during the unicon capacity, Cold War era, Vietnam exposed the limits of American military power overseas. It was a reality that many U.S. Essay My Life. citizens found, and continue to find, discomforting. Yet if a perspective is to be gained from the long American experience in Southeast Asia, it lies here. Not all problems can be solved by military force, even when that force is combined with political, economic, and social efforts. The capacity of Americans to reshape new political and social communities may not, in fact, be limitless. Writing of his own experiences in the Korean War, Matthew Ridgway offered an important conclusion while the war in essay Vietnam was still raging.
In setting foreign policy objectives, the general advised that policymakers look “to define them with care and to make sure they lie within the range of our vital national interests and product research paper, that their accomplishment is within our capabilities.” 77 For those seeking to understand the disappointments of capacity essay, American military strategy during the Vietnam War, Ridgway’s counsel seems a useful starting point. Discussion of the Literature. The historiography on colleen tessay, the American experience in Vietnam remains a contentious topic. Unicon Capacity Essay. For a starting point, the essay 350 words, best surveys are , which is more a diplomatic and essay, political history, and , which places the war in an international perspective. Research. A solid textbook is An excellent collection of essays can be found in both ) and. Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and unicon essay, the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995) Larry Berman has two very good works on LBJ: Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam (New York: W. Research Paper. W. Capacity Essay. Norton, 1982 Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in product paper Vietnam (New York: W. W. Essay. Norton, 1989). Brian VanDeMark’s Into the Quagmire: Lyndon Johnson and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991) Robert Dallek, Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) The escalation of the war under Johnson is essay 350 words well covered. Among the unicon, most important works are ), and . Colleen Tessay. ), and is also useful. , provides a balanced overview of the president’s struggles with the war.
Gregory A. Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in capacity essay the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) Andrew F. Paper. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) Harry G. Summers Jr., On Strategy: A Critical Appraisal of the Vietnam War (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1982) Jeffrey Record, The Wrong War: Why We Lost in Vietnam (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998). Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006). Lewis Sorley, a staunch admirer of the general, provides insights in Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004) Mark Clodfelter takes on unicon capacity essay, the air war in The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989). My Life Story. Thomas L. Ahern Jr. looks at capacity, the CIA in Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010). Robert Buzzanco, Masters of story, War: Military Dissent and unicon capacity, Politics in the Vietnam Era (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996). The topic of U.S. military strategy is hotly debated. , offers a reinterpretation of those works in suggesting Americans were blind to the realities of the war. Samples of on stereotypes, these latter works include: ; ; and More persuasive is Though Abrams left behind no written work on the war, . Finally, an often overlooked yet important work on senior military leaders is. Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998) Ronald H. Spector, After Tet: The Bloodiest Year in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1993) James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004) Lewis Sorley’s A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of essay, America’s Last Years in essay 350 words Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999) On the war’s final years, see ; ; and . takes an unicon capacity essay, overly sympathetic view of the Abrams’s years. James McCargar, Lost Victory: A Firsthand Account of persuasive, America’s Sixteen-Year Involvement in unicon capacity Vietnam (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971) Henry Kissinger, Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America’s Involvement in and Extrication from the Vietnam War (New York: Simon Schuster, 2003) Robert W Komer, Bureaucracy at War: U.S.
Performance in the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) Robert S. Product Design. McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of unicon capacity essay, Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978) Bruce, Palmer Jr., The 25-Year War: America’s Military Role in Vietnam (New York: Simon Schuster, 1984) William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976). Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1977) David Donovan, Once a Warrior King (New York: Ballantine, 1986) Stuart A. Herrington, Stalking the Vietcong: Inside Operation Phoenix: A Personal Account (Navato, CA: Presidio, 2004) Harold G. Moore and persuasive speech on stereotypes essay, Joseph L. Galloway. We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993). Christian G. Appy, Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993) For memoirs from senior leaders, students should consult William Colby with ; ; ; ; ; ; ; and Among the best memoirs from junior officers and unicon capacity, soldiers are: ; ; ; and paper, Less a memoir than an excellent collective biography of the unicon essay, enlisted soldier serving in essay 350 words Vietnam is. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random House, 1969) David Halberstam, The Making of a Quagmire: America and Vietnam during the Kennedy Era (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964, 1988) Michael Herr, Dispatches (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968) Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (New York: Doubleday, 1971) Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and unicon, America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988). Peter Braestrup, Big Story: How the American Press and Television Reported and Interpreted the Crisis of Tet 1968 in Vietnam and Washington (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1977). Journalists’ accounts were important in on stereotypes covering the American experience and in setting a foundation for how the war has been outlined in popular memory. Among the most indispensable of this genre are ; ; ; ; and unicon essay, Also useful is. Mark P. Bradley’s Vietnam at War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and essay 350 words, Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008 Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and unicon capacity, Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) Eric M. Bergerud, The Dynamics of Defeat: The Vietnam War in Hau Nghia Province (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991) Jeffrey Race, War Comes to Long An: Revolutionary Conflict in design paper a Vietnamese Province (Berkeley: University of essay, California Press, 1972) James Walker Trullinger Jr., Village at speech on stereotypes, War: An Account of Revolution in capacity Vietnam (New York: Longman, 1980).
Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). Research Paper. The South Vietnamese perspective often gets lost in American-centric works on essay, the war but should not be disregarded. is an excellent one-volume history of the war written from the Vietnamese viewpoint. Both ) and essay 350 words, , make an important contribution for understanding the U.S. Army’s most important allies. Three provincial studies also delve into the war inside South Vietnam’s villages: ; ; and unicon essay, For an persuasive on stereotypes essay, argument on the cultural divide between allies, see. Unicon Essay. Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s’ Road to the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012) Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the twins papers, Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002 Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of unicon capacity essay, Vietnam, 1954–1975 , translated by Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002) William J. Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996) Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011).
If the South Vietnamese perspective often is overlooked, the North Vietnamese also tends to get short shrift in American works. Relying on new research, the best among this group are ; ; ) and Ending the Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004); ; ; and. Bao Ninh, The Sorrow of War: A Novel of research, North Vietnam (New York: Riverhead, 1996) Josiah Bunting, The Lionheads (New York: George Braziller, 1972) Karl Marlantes, Matterhorn: A Novel of the Vietnam War (New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2010) Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990) Robert Roth, Sand in essay the Wind (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973). Research. Finally, students should not overlook the value of novels in unicon capacity understanding the on stereotypes, war from the capacity, soldiers’ viewpoint. Among the best are ; ; ; ; and. Among the best documentary collections are ), and Also useful is For encyclopedias on the war, see ), and.
Researchers should also consult two still useful collections of documents: The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decision making on Vietnam, ed. Mike Gravel , 5 vols. (Boston: Beacon, 1971–1972), and twins research, William Conrad Gibbons, The U.S. Capacity. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships , 4 vols. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986–1995). The U.S. Department of persuasive speech essay, State has collected a wonderful array of documents in the Foreign Relations of the United States ( FRUS ) series. These resources can be found online at http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments. For researchers delving into primary sources, the best place to begin is the Virtual Vietnam Archive run by Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas.
This online archive houses more than four million pages of materials and is located at http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/virtualarchive/. The physical archive has much more additional material for researchers. Unicon. For higher level strategic insights, the presidential libraries in product research paper Boston, Massachusetts (Kennedy), Austin, Texas (Johnson), and Yorba Linda, California (Nixon) have important archival holdings. Those seeking insights into capacity, the U.S. Essay 350 Words. Army will find excellent resources at the U.S. Army Military History Institute in Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and the U.S.
Army Center of Military History at Fort McNair, Washington, DC. Unicon Capacity. The National Archives in College Park, Maryland, offers a vast amount of resources as well. Finally, for those wishing to focus on cultural issues within the research, region, researchers may wish to essay consult the John M. Echols Collection on Southeast Asia at Cornell University in colleen tessay Ithaca, New York. Researcher information can be found at http://asia.library.cornell.edu/ac/Echols/index. Anderson, David L., ed. Unicon. The Columbia History of the Vietnam War . New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. Find this resource: Cosmas, Graham A. Persuasive Speech On Stereotypes Essay. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967. Unicon Essay. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006. Find this resource:
Cosmas, Graham A. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of persuasive speech essay, Withdrawal, 1968–1973 . Unicon Essay. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2007. Find this resource: Daddis, Gregory A. Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Find this resource: Elliott, David W. P. The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975. Armonk, NY: M. E. Paper. Sharpe, 2002. Find this resource: Herring, George C. America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975 . Unicon Capacity Essay. 4th ed.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Find this resource: Hess, Gary R. Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War . Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. Find this resource: Hunt, Richard A. Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds . Term Paper. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995. Unicon. Find this resource: Kimball, Jeffrey. Nixon’s Vietnam War . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Find this resource: Lawrence, Mark Atwood. The Vietnam War: A Concise International History . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Find this resource: Nguyen, Lien-Hang T. Hanoi’s War: An International History of the colleen tessay, War for Peace in Vietnam . Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.
Find this resource: (1.) JCS quoted in Max Hastings, The Korean War (New York: Simon Schuster, 1987), 229. Hastings argued that the unicon essay, “Korean War occupies a unique place in history, as the first superpower essay of the nuclear age in the employment of limited force to achieve limited objectives,” p. 338. On the relationship of Korea to Europe, see Stanley Sandler, The Korean War: No Victors, No Vanquished (Lexington: University Press of on stereotypes, Kentucky, 1999), 144. Unicon. (2.) Matthew B. Term. Ridgway, The Korean War (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967 ; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1986), 145, 232. (3.) Bernard Brodie, Strategy in the Missile Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959), 311 . For a broader context of this period, see Jonathan M. House, A Military History of the Cold War, 1944–1962 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012) . (4.) Robert E. Osgood, Limited War: The Challenge to American Security (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 5, 7 . (5.) Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 278. See also Douglas Porch, Counterinsurgency: Exposing the Myths of the New Way of War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2103), 217 . For a counterargument on how U.S. Army officers shunned learning and thus lost the war in capacity Vietnam, see John Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). Research Papers. (6.) Henry A. Kissinger, Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (New York: Harper Brothers, 1957), 139 . David Fitzgerald argues that senior MACV leaders “made a strong effort to understand the type of war [they] confronted.” Learning to Forget: US Army Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Practice from Vietnam to Iraq (Stanford, CA: Stanford Security Studies, 2013), 38 . Unicon. On multiple dimensions of my life, strategy, see Colin S. Gray, “Why strategy is capacity essay difficult,” in Strategic Studies: A Reader , 2d ed., ed. Thomas G. Mahnken and Joseph A. Maiolo (New York: Routledge, 2014), 43. (7.) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971), 241 . Essay 350 Words. On larger Cold War issues, see John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 240 . (8.) McNamara quoted in Gerard J. DeGroot, A Noble Cause? America and the Vietnam War (Harlow, UK: Longman, 2000), 135 . On enemy escalation and its impact, see David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of unicon essay, Harvard University Press, 2000), 346 . B. H. Liddell Hart, Strategy , 2d rev. ed. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1954), 335–336. (9.) Neil L. Jamieson argues that “Vietnamese clung to term and fought over capacity their own competing and incompatible visions of what Vietnam was and what it might and should become.” In Neil L. Colleen Tessay. Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), x . (10.) Ronald H. Spector, Advice and Support: The Early Years, 1941–1960 (Washington, DC: Center of unicon capacity essay, Military History, 1983), 336 . Colleen Tessay. While early MAAG commanders realized the importance of economic development as part of an overall approach to strategy, Lieutenant General Lionel McGarr, who took over capacity essay MAAG in August 1960, elevated the importance of counterinsurgency training within the ARVN ranks. Spector, Advice and Support , 365. See also Alexander S. Cochran Jr., “American Planning for Ground Combat in Vietnam: 1952–1965,” Parameters 14.2 (Summer 1984): 65 . (11.) Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 65, 72–73 . While sympathetic to Ngo Dinh Diem, Mark Moyar covers the American participation during the essay 350 words, advisory years in Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) . (12.) Agrovilles were supposedly secure communities to which rural civilians were relocated in hopes of separating them from NLF insurgents.
On Diem, development, and unicon capacity, engineering a social revolution, see Edward Miller, Misalliance: Ngo Dinh Diem, the leo lionni term, United States, and the Fate of South Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013) . For a competing interpretation, see James M. Carter, Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building, 1954–1968 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008). On training of South Vietnam forces, James Lawton Collins Jr., The Development and capacity essay, Training of the persuasive speech on stereotypes, South Vietnamese Army, 1950–1972 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975) . (13.) Graham A. Unicon Capacity Essay. Cosmas, MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967 (Washington, DC: Center of colleen tessay, Military History, 2006), 35 . (14.) For the North Vietnamese perspective, especially in the years preceding full American intervention, see Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to capacity the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) , and design research, William J. Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview , 1996) . For a perspective of Diem somewhat at odds with Miller, and especially Moyar, see Seth Jacobs, Cold War Mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the Origins of America’s War in Vietnam, 1950–1963 (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2006) . (15.) Michael H. Hunt, Lyndon Johnson’s War: America’s Cold War Crusade in Vietnam, 1945–1968 (New York: Hill Wang, 1996), 94 . On the air campaign, see Mark Clodfelter, The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989) , and Lloyd C. Gardner, “Lyndon Johnson and unicon capacity, the Bombing of Vietnam: Politics and Military Choices,” in The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , ed. David L. Anderson (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011). (16.) Westmoreland quoted in essay my life story Larry Berman, Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1982), 71 . For an unicon essay, example of senior officers blaming civilians for limiting military means to achieve political ends, see U.S. Grant Sharp, Strategy for Defeat: Vietnam in Retrospect (San Rafael, CA: Presidio, 1978) . (17.) On the essay 350 words, contentious topic of escalation, see Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and capacity, the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999) , and Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Leo Lionni Term Paper. Dee, 1995). Unicon. David L. Di Leo offers a treatment of a key dissenter inside the Johnson White House in George Ball, Vietnam, and the Rethinking of Containment (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). (18.) Robert S. McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and my life, Lessons of unicon, Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995), 188. (19.) Westmoreland’s assessment in twins papers The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decisionmaking in Vietnam, vol.
4, ed. Mike Gravel. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971–1972), 606. See also chapter 7, “Evolution of Strategy,” in William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976) . Unicon Capacity. (20.) Phillip B. Davidson, Vietnam at War: The History: 1946–1975 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988), 354 . On MACV guidance in implementing this broad strategy, see John M. Essay 350 Words. Carland, “Winning the capacity, Vietnam War: Westmoreland’s Approach in Two Documents,” Journal of Military History 68.2 (April 2004): 553–574 . (21.) U. S. Grant Sharp and William C. Persuasive Speech On Stereotypes. Westmoreland, Report on the War in Vietnam (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969), 100 . The Pentagon Papers , Vol. 4, 296. (22.) Vo Nguyen Giap, People’s War, People’s Army: The Viet Cong Insurrection Manual for unicon capacity, Underdeveloped Countries (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962), 46, 61 . On the evolution of Hanoi’s strategic thinking, see David W. P. Essay. Elliott, “Hanoi’s Strategy in the Second Indochina War,” in The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American Perspectives , ed. Jayne S. Werner and Luu Doan Huynh (Armonk, NY: M. Capacity. E. Sharpe, 1993) . (23.) The strategic debate is essay 350 words best outlined in Lien-Hang T. Essay. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of essay 350 words, North Carolina Press, 2012), 71 . See also Nguyen Vu Tung, “Coping with the unicon, United States: Hanoi’s Search for an Effective Strategy,” in The Vietnam War , ed. Peter Lowe (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 46–48 ; and Hanoi Assessment of my life, Guerrilla War in South, November 1966, Folder 17, Box 06, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 01-Assessment and unicon essay, Strategy, The Vietnam Archive, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas (hereafter cited as TTUVA). Resolution 12 in Communist Strategy as Reflected in research Lao Dong Party and COSVN Resolutions, Folder 26, Box 07, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 06-Democratic Republic of Vietnam, TTUVA, p. 3. (24.) For a useful historiographical sketch on the debates over intervention and American strategy, see Gary R. Hess, Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2009) , chapters 3 and 4. Unicon Capacity. (25.) Westmoreland quoted in colleen tessay Davidson, Vietnam at War , 313.
On early U.S. Army actions in capacity Vietnam, see John M. Carland, Stemming the Tide: May 1965 to October 1966 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2000) , and Shelby L. Stanton, The Rise and paper, Fall of an American Army: U.S. Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1965–1973 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1985) . (26.) Westmoreland explained his rationale for focusing on main force units in unicon capacity essay A Soldier Reports , 180. For a counterargument against this approach, see Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) . (27.) The best monograph on the Ia Drang battles remains Harold G. Persuasive Speech. Moore and Joseph L. Galloway, We Were Soldiers Once . Capacity. . Essay My Life Story. . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993) . For a perspective from the enemy side, see Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against unicon capacity essay, the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011) , especially chapter 6. (28.) COMUSMACV memorandum, “Increased Emphasis on Rural Construction,” 8 December 1965, Correspondence, 1965–1966, Box 35, Jonathan O. Seaman Papers, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania (hereafter cited as MHI). (29.) Westmoreland highlighted Hanoi’s continuing infiltration of forces into South Vietnam at colleen tessay, the end of 1965.
An evaluation of U.S. operations in early December underscored his concerns that “our attrition of unicon capacity essay, their forces in South Vietnam is insufficient to offset this buildup.” In Carland, “Winning the Vietnam War,” 570. On the media’s take on these early battles, see “G.I.’s Found Rising to Vietnam Test,” New York Times , December 26, 1965. (30.) Memorandum to President Lyndon B. Leo Lionni Term. Johnson from Robert S. McNamara: Events between November 3–29, 1965, November 30, 1964, Folder 9, Box 3, Larry Berman Collection, TTUVA. On McNamara being “shaken” by the meeting, see Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988), 579–580 . McNamara, In Retrospect , 221–222. (31.) “Presidential Decisions: The Honolulu Conference, February 6–8, 1966,” Folder 2, Box 4, Larry Berman Collection (Presidential Archives Research), TTUVA. John T. Wheeler, “Only a Fourth of South Viet Nam Is Under Control of Saigon Regime,” Washington Star , January 25, 1966. (32.) “1966 Program to Increase the Effectiveness of Military Operations and Anticipated Results Thereof,” February 8, 1966, in The War in Vietnam: The Papers of unicon capacity essay, William C. Westmoreland , ed. Robert E. Lester (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1993) , Incl. My Life. 6, Folder 4, Reel 6. Unicon Essay. See also U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States , vol. 5, Vietnam, 1967 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002), 216–219 (hereafter cited as FRUS ). Westmoreland took to heart the importance of rural construction. Product Research Paper. See MACV Commander’s Conference, February 20, 1966, Counter VCI Folder, Historian’s Files, U.S.
Army Center of unicon essay, Military History, Fort McNair, Washington, DC (hereafter cited as CMH). (33.) Pacification defined in “Handbook for essay 350 words, Military Support of Pacification,” February 1968, Folder 14, Box 5, United States Armed Forces Manual Collection, TTUVA. Seymour Topping, “Crisis in Saigon Snags U.S. Effort,” New York Times , April 5, 1966 . Martin G. Clemis, “Competing and unicon, Incompatible Visions: Revolution, Pacification, and the Political Organization of Space during the Second Indochina War,” paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for Military History, April 2014, Kansas City, MO. Story. (34.) On Westmoreland’s approach to unicon capacity essay pacification, see Gregory A. Colleen Tessay. Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) , chapter 5. For a counterargument that dismisses allied pacification efforts, see Nick Turse, Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013). Essay. (35.) Sir Robert Thompson, Defeating Communist Insurgency: The Lessons of Malaya and Vietnam (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 55 . Leo Lionni Paper. For a contemporary argument of Malaya not being relevant to Vietnam, see Bernard B. Fall, Viet-Nam Witness: 1953–66 (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 272 . (36.) Thomas L. Unicon Capacity. Ahern Jr., Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010), 171–175 . (37.) The best monograph on pacification remains Richard A. Persuasive On Stereotypes Essay. Hunt, Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995) . For a balanced treatment of Komer, see Frank L. Capacity. Jones, Blowtorch: Robert Komer, Vietnam, and American Cold War Strategy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2013) . See also Robert W. Komer, Bureaucracy at War: U.S. Design Research Paper. Performance in unicon capacity essay the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) . A partial impetus for an increased emphasis on pacification stemmed from a March 1966 report known as PROVN, shorthand for “A Program for the Pacification and Long-Term Development of product design, South Vietnam.” PROVN stressed nonmilitary means and argued that “victory” could be achieved only by “bringing the individual Vietnamese, typically a rural peasant, to support willingly the Government of South Vietnam (GVN).” Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, “A Program for the Pacification and Long-Term Development of unicon capacity essay, South Vietnam (Department of the Army, March 1966), 1, 3. The best review of this still hotly debated document is Andrew J. Research Papers. Birtle, “PROVN, Westmoreland, and the Historians: A Reappraisal,” Journal of Military History 72.4 (October 2008): 1213–1247 . (38.) Robert W. Komer, “Clear, Hold and Rebuild,” Army 20.5 5 (May 1970): 19 . Capacity Essay. On CORDS establishment, see National Security Action Memorandum No. 362, FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. 5, 398–399. My Life. Though revolutionary development remained, at least nominally, a South Vietnamese program, many observers believed the inability of the ARVN to take over pacification in the countryside helped spur the establishment of CORDS.
Robert Shaplen, The Road from War: Vietnam, 1965–1970 (New York: Harper Row, 1970), 122 . As of unicon capacity essay, March 31, 1967, 53 ARVN infantry battalions were performing missions in direct support of pacification. MACV Monthly Evaluation Report, March 1967, MHI, 13. (39.) For a contemporary discussion on essay 350 words, the cultural divide between Americans and essay, Vietnamese and how this impacted both military operations and the pacification program, see Frances FitzGerald, Fire in colleen tessay the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). Fitzgerald maintained that the “political and economic design of the Vietnamese revolution” remained “invisible” to almost all Americans, (p. Unicon. 143). Essay. (40.) For competing tasks within CORDS, see Chester L. Cooper, et al., “The American Experience with Pacification in unicon capacity Vietnam, Volume III: History of Pacification,” March 1972, Folder 65, U.S. Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA, 271. Essay My Life Story. Journalist Ward Just reported that the real yardsticks of pacification’s progress were “the Vietnamese view of events, the Vietnamese mood, the Vietnamese will and the Vietnamese capability.” See “Another Measure of Vietnam’s War,” Washington Post , October 15, 1967. On personnel turbulence, see Mark DePu, “Vietnam War: The Individual Rotation Policy,” http://www.historynet.com/vietnam-war-the-individual-rotation-policy.htm . (41.) As a sampling of contemporary journalist critiques of the war in 1967, see: Joseph Kraft, “The True Failure in Saigon—South Vietnam’s Fighting Force,” Los Angeles Times , May 3, 1967 ; Ward Just, “This War May Be Unwinnable,” Washington Post, June 4, 1967 ; and R. W. Apple, “Vietnam: The Signs of Stalemate,” New York Times , August 7, 1967. On the war in 1967 being perceived as a stalemate, see Sir Robert Thompson, No Exit from unicon capacity, Vietnam (New York: David McKay, 1969), 67 ; and Anthony James Joes, The War for South Viet Nam, 1954–1975, rev. ed. Research Papers. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001), 96 . On military operations early in 1967, see Bernard W. Essay. Rogers, Cedar Falls–Junction City: A Turning Point (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974, 2004) . (42.) On Johnson’s salesmanship campaign, see Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1989) , especially chapters 5–7. On the MACV-CIA debate, see James J. Wirtz, “Intelligence to Please? The Order of Battle Controversy during the Vietnam War,” Political Science Quarterly 106.2 (Summer 1991): 239–263 . Product Design Research Paper. (43.) On Hanoi’s views and its policy for a decisive victory, see Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 , trans.
Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002), 206–207 . On overriding political goals of Tet, see: Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002),116–126 ; James J. Wirtz, The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991), 10, 20–21 ; Ronnie E. Ford, Tet 1968: Understanding the Surprise (London: Frank Cass, 1995), 70–71 ; and unicon essay, Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the United States, and the Modern Historical Experience (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 303 . (44.) If successful, Hanoi’s leaders also would be in a more advantageous position if forced into a “fighting while negotiating” phase of the war. Ford, Tet 1968 , 93. See also Merle L. Pribbenow II, “General Vo Nguyen Giap and the Mysterious Evolution of the Plan for the 1968 T?t Offensive,” Journal of Vietnamese Studies 3 (Summer 2008): 1–33 . (45.) Carver quoted in Robert J. Design. McMahon, “Turning Point: The Vietnam War’s Pivotal Year, November 1967–November 1968,” in Anderson, The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , 198. For a journalist’s account, see Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971) . For an accessible reference book, see William T. Allison, The Tet Offensive: A Brief History with Documents (New York: Routledge, 2008) . (46.) Gallup poll results in the aftermath of Tet in Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War , 185. Background on LBJ’s March 31 speech in Robert Mann, A Grand Delusion: America’s Descent into Vietnam (New York: Basic Books, 2001), 600–602 ; A. Capacity. J. Langguth, Our Vietnam: The War, 1954–1975 (New York: Simon Schuster, 2000), 492–493 ; and Kolko, Anatomy of a War , 320–321. Decision on troop levels in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 576. (47.) Zeb B. Bradford, “With Creighton Abrams during Tet,” Vietnam (February 1998): 45 . Media reports in James Landers, The Weekly War: Newsmagazines and Vietnam (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004), 145–146 . Research. As examples arguing for a change in strategy, see A. J. Langguth, “General Abrams Listens to a Different Drum,” New York Times , May 5, 1968 , and unicon capacity, “A ‘Different’ War Now, With Abrams in Command,” U.S.
News World Report , August 26, 1968, 12. On Abrams’s “one-war” concept, see Lewis Sorley, A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 18 . The Westmoreland-Abrams strategy debate remains contentious. In his admiration of Abrams, Lewis Sorley is most vocal in supporting a change in strategic concept. See as an example, Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004), xix . Others are less certain. Phillip Davidson served under both commanders, as did Robert W. Komer—neither subscribed to a change in strategy under Abrams. Davidson, Vietnam at leo lionni term, War , 512, and unicon capacity essay, Komer in The Lessons of Vietnam, ed. W. Scott Thompson and Donaldson D. Frizzell (New York: Crane, Russak, 1977), 79 . Andrew Birtle’s argument on the change being “more in emphasis than in essay 350 words substance” seems most compelling. “As MACV admitted in 1970, ‘the basic concept and objectives of pacification, to defeat the VC/NVA and to provide the people with economic and social benefits, have changed little since the first comprehensive GVN plan was published in capacity essay 1964.’” In U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine , 367. (48.) Andrew J. Goodpaster, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, May 1976, MHI, p. 40. On peace replacing military victory, see Daniel C. Hallin, The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 178 . (49.) On goals, see Richard Nixon, The Real War (New York: Warner Books 1980), 106 , and No More Vietnams (New York: Arbor House: 1985), 98.
Henry Kissinger, The White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 298 . See also Larry Berman, No Peace, No Honor: Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 2001), 50 . Jeffrey Kimball argues that de-Americanization “was a course made politically necessary by paper the American public’s desire to wind down the war and doubts among key segments of the foreign-policy establishment about the capacity, possibility of winning the war.” The Vietnam War Files: Uncovering the Secret History of Nixon-Era Strategy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 12. (50.) On withdrawal not representing a defeat, see “Now: A Shift in Goals, Methods,” U.S. News World Report , January 6, 1969, 16. On global perspective, see Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of persuasive speech essay, Kansas, 1998), 62 . Michael Lind argues that Nixon had to withdraw “in a manner that preserved domestic support for the Cold War in other theaters.” Vietnam: The Necessary War (New York: Free Press, 1999), 106 . (51.) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978), 349 . On realizing limits to U.S. power, see Lawrence W. Capacity. Serewicz, America at the Brink of Empire: Rusk, Kissinger, and the Vietnam War (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007), 10 . Product Research. On containing communism, see U.S. Embassy Statement, “Objectives and unicon capacity essay, Courses of product paper, Action of the unicon capacity, United States in South Viet-Nam,” FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. 7, 719 . See also Lloyd Gardner, “The Last Casualty? Richard Nixon and the End of the Vietnam War, 1969–75,” in A Companion to the Vietnam War , ed.
Marilyn B. Young and Robert Buzzanco (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002), 230 . (52.) On problems of different types of threats, see Viet-Nam Info Series 20: “The Armed Forces of the Republic of Viet Nam,” from Vietnam Bulletin, 1969, Folder 09, Box 13, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, ps. 8, 25. My Life Story. See also Richard Shultz Jr., “The Vietnamization-Pacification Strategy of 1969–1972: A Quantitative and Qualitative Reassessment,” in Lessons from an Unconventional War: Reassessing U.S. Strategies for Future Conflicts, ed. Essay. Richard A. Hunt and Richard H. Shultz Jr. (New York: Pergamon, 1982), 55–56 . Loren Baritz argues that the product paper, “Nixon administration abandoned counterinsurgency” since it realized the NLF no longer was a significant threat. Backfire: A History of How American Culture Led Us into Vietnam and Made Us Fight the Way We Did (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), 279 . (53.) Nixon, No More Vietnams , 104–107. Definition of pacification on capacity essay, p. 132. (54.) Pacification Priority Area Summary, September 3, 1968, prepared by CORDS, Folder 65, US Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA. Countryside depopulation in Charles Mohr, “Saigon Tries to product research paper Recover from the Blows,” New York Times , May 10, 1968 ; and David W. P. Unicon. Elliott, The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975, concise ed. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2007), 331, 336 . On problems of measuring pacification security, see Gregory A. Daddis, No Sure Victory: Measuring U.S. Army Effectiveness and Progress in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 118–122 . (55.) The Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms”) program, begun in 1963, aimed to “rally” Vietcong defectors to the GVN side as part of a larger national reconciliation effort. Colleen Tessay. The plan sought to give former insurgents “opportunities for defection, an alternative to the hardships and deprivations of guerrilla life, political pardon, and in some measure, though vocational training, a means of unicon essay, earning a livelihood.” Jeanette A. Koch, The Chieu Hoi Program in South Vietnam, 1963–1971 (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1973), v . Essay 350 Words. (56.) Vietnam Lessons Learned No.
73, “Defeat of capacity, VC Infrastructure,” November 20, 1968, MACV Lessons Learned, Box 1, RG 472, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland. See also Dale Andrade, Ashes to Ashes: The Phoenix Program and the Vietnam War (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990) ; and Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey: Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism in Vietnam (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997, 2007) . Persuasive On Stereotypes. (57.) For an unicon, example of the hard fighting still continuing during the Abrams years, see Samuel Zaffiri, Hamburger Hill: May 11–20, 1969 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988). Colleen Tessay. On what U.S. Capacity Essay. advisers were doing as part of Vietnamization, see Jeffrey J. Clarke, Advice and term paper, Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1988), 342–343 . Capacity Essay. (58.) On ARVN increases, see in Larry A. Niksch, “Vietnamization: The Program and Its Problems,” Congressional Record Service, January 5, 1972, Folder 01, Box 19, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, p. CRS-21. The best work on the South Vietnamese Army is Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in essay 350 words the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) . (59.) “The Laird Plan,” Newsweek , June 2, 1969, 44. On ARVN lacking experience, see James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 51 ; and Samuel Zaffiri, Westmoreland: A Biography of General William C. Westmoreland (New York: William Morrow, 1994), 211 . (60.) Vietnamization working in capacity essay Nixon, RN , 467. On enemy infiltration, see John Prados, The Blood Road: The Ho Chi Minh Trail and the Vietnam War (New York: John Wiley Sons, 1999) . On the incursion, see John M. Shaw, The Cambodian Campaign: The 1970 Offensive and research, America’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005) , and Keith William Nolan, Into Cambodia: Spring Campaign, Summer Offensive, 1970 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1990) . (61.) On My Lai, see Michael Bilton and unicon essay, Kevin Sim, Four Hours in My Lai (New York: Viking, 1992) , and essay 350 words, William Thomas Allison, My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012) . (62.) Mansfield and capacity essay, McGovern (both Democrats) quoted in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 645, 649. See also Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 76. For an introduction to the antiwar movement and its impact on Nixon, see Melvin Small, Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and the Battle for America’s Hearts and Minds (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002). (63.) Donald Kirk, “Who Wants to Be the Last American Killed in Vietnam?” New York Times , September 19, 1971 . See also “As Fighting Slows in product design paper Vietnam: Breakdown in GI Discipline” U.S. News World Report , June 7, 1971, and capacity essay, George Lepre, Fragging: Why U.S. Soldiers Assaulted Their Officers in Vietnam (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2011) . “Fragging,” derived from fragmentation grenade, was the essay 350 words, act of fratricide, usually against an officer in a soldier’s chain of command. For counterarguments to the claims of army dysfunctionality, see William J. Shkurti, Soldiering on in a Dying War: The True Story of the Firebase Pace Incidents and unicon capacity essay, the Vietnam Drawdown (Lawrence: University Press of leo lionni paper, Kansas, 2011 ), and Jeremy Kuzmarov, The Myth of the essay, Addicted Army: Vietnam and the Modern War on Drugs (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009) . (64.) Captain Brian Utermahlen, company commander, quoted in John Saar, “You Can’t Just Hand Out Orders,” Life , October 23, 1970, 32 . (65.) “The Troubled U.S.
Army in Vietnam,” Newsweek , January 11, 1971, 30, 34. Essay My Life Story. On avoiding risks in a withdrawing army, see Saar, 31. James E. Unicon Essay. Westheider, The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2008) . (66.) Troop strengths in Shelby L. Stanton, Vietnam Order of essay 350 words, Battle: A Complete Illustrated Reference to U.S. Army Combat and Support Forces in capacity Vietnam, 1961–1973 (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2003), 334 . Kissinger’s concerns in The White House Years , 971. (67.) Nguyen Duy Hinh, Lam Son 719 (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1979), 8 . On Lam Son 719 being linked to colleen tessay continuing withdrawals, see Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008), 199 . (68.) Two new works cover the Lam Son 719 operation: James H. Willbanks, A Raid Too Far: Operation Lam Son 719 and Vietnamization in unicon essay Laos (College Station: Texas AM University Press, 2014) , and essay my life story, Robert D. Sander, Invasion of Laos, 1971: Lam Son 719 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014) . Unicon. (69.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On Hanoi’s strategic motives, see Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 324; Stephen P. Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons: Nixon, Kissinger, and the Easter Offensive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 28–29 ; and Ngo Quang Truong, The Easter Offensive of 1972 (Washington, DC: U.S.
Army Center of Military History, 1980), 157–158 . (70.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On uncertainty over Hanoi’s intentions, see Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 124; Allan E. Speech On Stereotypes Essay. Goodman, The Lost Peace: America’s Search for a Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 117–118 ; and Anthony T. Bouscaren, ed., All Quiet on the Eastern Front: The Death of South Vietnam (Old Greenwich, CT: Devin-Adair, 1977), 44 . Nixon viewed the invasion “as a sign of desperation.” In RN , 587. (71.) The bombing campaign during mid-1972 was codenamed Operation Linebacker. On debates between the White House and MACV over the best use of B-52s, see Randolph, Powerful and unicon, Brutal Weapons , 119–120; Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 314–315; and H. R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (New York: G. P. Putnam’s, 1994), 435 . On the campaign ending with “no culminating battles and mass retreats, just the gradual erosion of NVA strength and twins research, the release of pressure against defending ARVN troops,” see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 270. (72.) James H. Willbanks argues that “the fact U.S. tactical leadership and firepower were the key ingredients . . . was either lost in the mutual euphoria of victory or ignored by Nixon administration officials.” In The Battle of unicon, An Loc (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005), 166. (73.) Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence in Robert Dalleck, Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in term Power (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 443 . Paris agreement in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 366–368. See also Kimball, The Vietnam War Files , 276–277. (74.) Linebacker II goals in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 364–365. Press quoted in ibid., 366 . (75.) Ronald B. Frankum Jr., “‘Swatting Flies with a Sledgehammer’: The Air War,” in unicon essay Rolling Thunder in a Gentle Land: The Vietnam War Revisited , ed. Andrew Wiest (New York: Osprey, 2006), 221–222. (76.) Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports , 180–181.
MACV staff in Sorley, Vietnam Chronicles , 9. (77.) Ridgway, The Korean War , 247. Department of History, United States Military Academy West Point.
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essay what is man Pope wrote his Essay on Man in rhyming verse. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is unicon capacity, one who is a bit odd, to paper say the least. Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards. The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in prose itself.
I here make comments about the expressions and unicon capacity thoughts of Pope in his essay. I have quoted at length from his essay. Certainly there is much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and His great domain. Such references in speech on stereotypes the writings out of the eighteenth century are not strange. Unicon Capacity! The livelihood of writers, by and large -- as was with the essay my life, case of capacity all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of essay my life story church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to religious authority. Believing that if Pope were looking over my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out religious epaulets. Within the first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life. Unicon Capacity Essay! We have no choice: we come to it, look out and then die. What we see as we look out on the scene of man is term, a mighty maze!
But Pope does not think this complex of existence is without a plan. Unicon Essay! Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of reason; man can determine the nature of the world in which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and strong connections and nice dependencies. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the colleen tessay, whole? Is the great chain that draws all to agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee? In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out capacity essay all of the mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the other parts, he then continues: As of persuasive speech on stereotypes thy mother Earth, why oaks are made.
Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in unicon capacity due degree; Then, in the sale of twins reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and capacity essay now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in essay 350 words fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space.
Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in saying Heav'n from capacity, all creatures hides the book of colleen tessay fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to capacity essay the last he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the research papers, hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Then giving way to essay his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast;
Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul uneasy and confin'd from home, Rest and expatiates in a life to come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the persuasive on stereotypes essay, world, and capacity essay how they do not get hung up on such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n,
Behind the leo lionni, cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n; Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire:
But things, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to essay develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is essay 350 words, part of a larger setting, a part of nature. Unicon Essay! Man depends on nature for his very substance, and product yet, treats her roughly. Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust, Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the unicon capacity essay, heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine!
For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is ruled from within, by his reason and by his passion. Better for us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the essay 350 words, mind. But all subsists by elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life.
The gen'ral Order since the whole began. Is kept in Nature, and is kept in essay Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the sole guide of animals. Instinct is all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Research! Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force: All in exact proportion to capacity the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to abate.
Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to essay 350 words Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and essay many of its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and lives along the term, line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true.
From pois'nous herbs extracts the unicon essay, healing dew? In nature, we find life in research papers a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. The point, I think, is that there is a fearful balance of nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of unicon capacity essay nature for fear of destroying the whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for essay 350 words, thee? Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety!
In the unicon capacity essay, last line of Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the importance of the ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to us to be absurd, it is part of the colleen tessay, general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole. This whole body of capacity essay nature is through all life and product design research extends throughout all of the universe and operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is capacity, but Art, unknown to speech thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood, All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is unicon capacity essay, clear, whatever is, is right.
Pope opens his second Epistle much the papers, same as he opened his first. What is the function of man, positioned as he is somewhere between a god and a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of thought and essay passion, all confus'd. He finds on earth the Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all. Man's function, Pope concludes, is to make a proper study of mankind ; man is to know himself. What man will come to know is that he is ruled by passion; passion is the ruler and essay story reason it's counsellor. Alas what wonder! Man's superior part. Uncheck'd may rise and climb from art to art; But when his own great work is but begun,
What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone. It is in the nature of man to first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to do so with the long range in view. Two Principles in essay human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to essay 350 words restrain; Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh;
Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie: A person is driven by passion, driven by his desire for unicon capacity, pleasure; temptation is strong and passion is thicker than arguments. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and Reason to one end aspire,
Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good. Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail,
Reason the card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd, Make and maintain the balance of the mind: Pope's theme is again repeated: the two driving forces of man are his reason and his passion. Leo Lionni! However, passion is the king and reason but a weak queen. What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to mend.
A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill) is not a guide but a guard. Passion is the essay, mightier pow'r. Envy, Pope points out as an aside, is something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave. Ambition: can destroy or save, and makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in colleen tessay themselves wrong. Unicon Capacity! They are moving forces in a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well.
As, in essay 350 words some well-wrought picture, light and shade. And oft so mix, the diff'rence is too nice, Where ends the essay, virtue, or begins the vice. And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is twins research papers, driven by self-love, but on the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on unicon essay, other for essay 350 words, assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of those achievements.
Whate'er the capacity, passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf, Not one will change is neighbour with himself. The learn'd is happy nature to twins research explore, The fool is happy that he knows no more; The rich is happy in unicon the plenty given, The poor contents him with the persuasive, care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing.
The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views. Supremely bless'd, the poet in his Muse. None of us should be critical of another person's choice in life, who is to know it is right. Behold the child, by nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw: Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the unicon essay, toys of age:
Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and essay my life life's poor play is unicon, o'er. Pope returns, in colleen tessay his third Epistle, to his ever present theme, all is unicon capacity essay, natural in nature and man is a part of essay my life nature. Unicon! He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on one and the other, is attracted to papers one and the other, down even to capacity essay single atoms. Everything it's neighbour to twins papers embrace. Unicon Capacity Essay! (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in nature repel one another, equally so. Research Papers! All things, in the final analysis, are held in essay the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the two great forces of attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to research that sea return.
Nothing is foreign; parts relate to unicon capacity essay whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and passion. Here in his third Epistle, he refers to my life story instinct as the capacity, unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to speech o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to wide or short is human wit; Sure by quick nature happiness to gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Instinct can be seen at work throughout nature, for example, Who make the spider parallels design . without rule or line?
Not just the spider does things by unicon capacity essay instinct, man does. The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about essay 350 words many of the capacity essay, daily things that are done, automatically it seems. What, exactly, is it that prompts us to do things. Who calls the council, states the certain day,
Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way? Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in essay 350 words his essay, when he deals with family units in the animal kingdom versus human beings. The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at any rate, not for long. However, family connections for unicon capacity essay, human beings extend over a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. I would observe that it is an evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into adulthood. These family feelings are important for the development and cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to the larger group, society as a whole (this is leo lionni term, a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to capacity essay put up on the 'net.). Thus beast and bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend: The young dismiss'd to essay my life story wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and unicon capacity essay there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace,
Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the term paper, ties improve, At one extend the interest, and the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn;
Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those: The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man, Saw helpless from unicon, him whom their life began: Memory and forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on essay 350 words, to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined,
Still spread the capacity, interest, and preserved the kind. Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to his principle and colleen tessay the power of nature. Nature is a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in the voice of nature and which we can learn from the essay, birds and my life the beasts. It was the essay, power of nature that built the ant's republic and the realm of bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion. Their separate cells and properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in her net of law;
And right, too rigid, harden into persuasive speech wrong, Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong. Yet go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway; Thus let the capacity essay, wiser make the rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of term nature by which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made.
That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about unicon civilization. Men came to essay 350 words new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the name of king unknown, Till common interest placed the unicon, sway in one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms, So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known, Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the development of government and on stereotypes essay of laws.
So drives self-love, through just and through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in all, becomes the cause. Of what restrains him, government and capacity essay laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain:
All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and leo lionni term benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. 'Twas then, the essay, studious head or generous mind, Follower of God or friend of human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to restore. The faith and my life story moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew;
Taught power's due use to people and to kings; Taught not to slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the other too; Till jarring int'rests of capacity themselves create. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the term, world's great harmony, that springs.
From order, union, full consent of things: Where small and great, where weak and mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, And in proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to unicon one point, and to one centre bring.
Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is of less importance, what is important, is a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for oneself and his family has to be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the gen'ral frame and essay 350 words bade self-love and social be the same. In his last Epistle on unicon capacity, the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the product design research, subject of happiness. It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. That happiness as a plant of unicon capacity essay celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the twins research, soil, but rather the way one tends the soil. Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only be found in nature.
Man should avoid extremes. He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. Essay! Take Nature's path, and made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and essay 350 words meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is capacity, common sense, and colleen tessay common ease.
To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink. Unicon Capacity! To each person comes his or her share and who would more obtain, Shall find the product paper, pleasure pays not half the pain. To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to find others who have riches and wisdom in unicon varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. It is essay my life, not clear to capacity me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone. It is in the nature of man to attempt to change things; he is never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the world about him. We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in human terms.
Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not. A better shall we have? A kingdom of the just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree. The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed.
One might wish for research papers, man to be a God and for earth to unicon be a heaven, both God and heaven coming from the imaginations of man. But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Of fame, Pope says, it is persuasive speech, but a fancied life in others' breath . All that we feel of it begins and unicon capacity ends in the small circle of our foes and friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of colleen tessay stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Unicon Capacity Essay! Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out design research how often the wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man. In parts superior what advantage lies! Tell, for you can, what is it to be wise? 'Tis but to know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land?
All fear, none aid you, and few understand. And so we arrive at the last of Pope's lines. Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the same . 1 The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope which includes Dr.
Johnson's 65 page biography on Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on unicon, Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the speech on stereotypes essay, Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.). My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857). 2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to the analogy of the sailing ship on the sea finding its way only unicon with compass (card) for direction and product research the wind in the sails to drive the vessel along.
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‘A Country Doctor’ by Franz Kafka, translated by Michael Hofmann · 2603 words. Michael Hofmann’s supple translation of Franz Kafka’s ‘A Country Doctor’, and unicon his subtle and penetrating analysis of Kafka’s German prose in his introduction to Metamorphosis and Other Stories, were the initial inspiration- together with a reading of Paul Fussell’s The Great War and Modern Memory – for Will Self’s essay. The entire text of Hofmann’s translation is essay 350 words, reproduced here. I was in a quandary: my presence was urgently required; a gravely ill man was waiting for me in a village ten miles distant; a blizzard filled the space between me and my goal; I had a carriage, light, high-wheeled, eminently suited to our country roads; wrapped in my fur, with my Gladstone bag in my hand, I stood in the courtyard all ready to go; but the horse was missing, there was no horse. My own horse had died the previous night, on account of its over-exertions in the current icy winter; now my maid was running from pillar to post to look for a replacement; but it was hopeless, I knew it, and, with the snow falling on me, I stood there increasingly rooted to the spot, and more and more aware of the pointlessness of it.
The girl appeared in the gateway, alone, waving a lantern; of course, who would lend out unicon capacity essay, his horse for speech on stereotypes, such a ride? I strode across the yard once more; I could see no possibility; distracted, tormented, I kicked at the rickety door of a pig-sty unused for many years. The lock gave, and the door swung back and forth on its hinges. Warm air and capacity essay a horsey smell greeted me. A dim stable lantern dangled on a rope. A man, hunkered down in the low-ceilinged sty, showed his open-featured, blue-eyed face. ‘Would you like me to essay 350 words, put them to?’ he asked, crawling out on essay, his hands and knees. Essay 350 Words? I didn’t know what to say, and unicon capacity essay bent down to get a sight of whatever else there might be in colleen tessay the sty. Unicon Capacity? Beside me stood the maid. ‘You never know what you have in your own house,’ she said, whereupon we both laughed. ‘Ho, brother, ho, sister!’ called the stable lad, and two horses, mighty, powerful-flanked creatures crept out one after another, legs tucked in close to their bodies, bending their shapely heads in the manner of camels, only barely managing to twist their way through the essay story, doorway which their rumps completely filled. But then, once outside, they immediately drew themselves up to unicon capacity, their full height, with long legs and solid steaming bodies. ‘Help him,’ I said, and twins research papers right away the capacity essay, willing girl ran up to hand the harness to the groom. But no sooner has she reached him than the groom throws his arms around her, and thrusts his face against colleen tessay hers.
She screams and runs to me; there are the red marks of two rows of teeth on unicon essay, the girl’s cheek. ‘You animal!’ I scream in my rage, ‘do you want a taste of my whip?’ but I straightaway calm down, reminding myself I’m talking to a stranger, that I don’t know where he comes from and that he has agreed to help me when everyone else has let me down. Product Research Paper? As if he could read my mind, he is not offended by unicon essay my outburst, but, still busy with the horses, turns only once in my direction. Persuasive Speech? ‘Get in,’ he says finally, and indeed, everything is unicon essay, ready. I can see I have never had such a good team of horses before, and I climb happily aboard. ‘I’ll take the reins, though, you don’t know the way,’ I say. ‘Of course,’ he says, ‘I’m not even going with you, I’m staying with Rosa.’ ‘No,’ screams Rosa, and runs into the house with a presentiment of her inevitable fate; I hear the rattle of the chain on the door, as she pulls it across; I hear the click of the leo lionni, lock; I see her turning out the lights in the hall, and then running on through the house, to essay, make it impossible for him to find her. Colleen Tessay? ‘You’re coming with me,’ I say to the groom, ‘or I’m not going, however urgent my mission is. It wouldn’t occur to me to pay with the girl for my ride.’ ‘Ho!’ he calls; claps his hands; the carriage is unicon, swept away, like a treetrunk in essay a flood; I can still hear my front door cracking and splintering under the assault of the capacity, groom, and then my eyes and product design research paper ears are filled with a penetrating hissing that seems to fill all my senses. Unicon Essay? But all is only for an instant, then, as if the colleen tessay, yard of the patient were just the other side of unicon capacity, my front gate, I am there already; the horses are standing quietly; the snow has stopped; moonlight on all sides; the speech on stereotypes essay, patient’s parents come running out of the house, his sister behind them; I am lifted almost bodily out of the carriage; I can make no sense of their confused reports; the air in the sick man’s room is barely breathable; the neglected stove is unicon capacity, smoking; I want to leo lionni, throw open the window; but first of all I want to unicon capacity essay, see my patient.
Lean, neither feverish nor cold nor warm, with vacant eyes and no shirt, the lad pulls himself up in his bed, drapes his arms round my neck and speech whispers into my ear: ‘Doctor, let me die.’ I turn round; no one else heard him; his parents are standing there hunched forward, silently awaiting my verdict; his sister has brought in capacity a chair for me on speech essay, which to set down my bag. I open it, and survey my instruments; the lad is still gesturing in unicon capacity my direction from his bed, to remind me of his plea; I pick up a pair of pincers, check them in research the candlelight, and set them down again. ‘Yes,’ I think blasphemously, ‘it’s in these sorts of cases that the gods send their help, they supply a horse, throw in another because time is short, even contribute a groom – ’ and now I remember Rosa; what shall I do, how can I rescue her, how can I pull her out from under that groom, ten miles away, and unicon essay with ungovernable horses pulling my carriage? Those horses, apropos, that seem now to have loosened their traces; are nudging open the design, window from outside, don’t ask me how; pushing their heads through the opening, and, unimpressed by the screams of the family, are contemplating the patient. ‘I’ll go back right away,’ I think, as if the horses were summoning me to return, but I allow the sister, who must think I’ve got heatstroke, to help me off with my fur coat. A glass of rum is poured for me, the old man pats me on the back, the offering of his treasure entitling him to such a familiarity. I shake my head; I feel sick in the narrow confines of the old man’s thoughts; that is the unicon capacity essay, only reason I turn down the persuasive on stereotypes essay, drink. The mother stands by the bed waving me to her; I follow, and while one of the horses is whinnying loudly somewhere under the ceiling, I lay my head against the chest of the boy, who shivers from the touch of my wet beard.
I am confirmed in what I thought already: the boy is perfectly healthy, his circulation a little sluggish, plied with coffee by his anxious mother, but basically healthy and needing nothing more than a good kick to get him out of unicon essay, bed. I am employed by the parish, and do my duty to the point where it is almost too much for one man. Though badly paid, I am generous and helpful to essay 350 words, the poor. I should like to see Rosa provided for, and then the boy may have his way as far as I’m concerned, and unicon I shall be ready to die as well. What am I doing in this endless winter! My horse has died, and there is no one in product design paper the village prepared to lend me his. I have to extricate my new team from a pig-sty; if there hadn’t happened to unicon, be horses in it, I should have had to make do with pigs, I suppose. That’s the way of it.
And I nod to the family. They don’t know anything about it, and, if they did, they wouldn’t believe it. Filling prescriptions is easy, but getting on with people is essay 350 words, much harder. Well, my visit here is about over, once again I’ve been called out for nothing, I’m used to that, the whole parish uses my night bell to torture me with, but the fact that this time I had to sacrifice Rosa as well, that lovely girl who has been living for unicon capacity, years in my own house, most of the time stupidly overlooked by me – that loss is simply too great, and papers I must work hard to shrink it in my own head so as not to take it out on this family here, which with the unicon essay, best will in the world is not going to be able to restore Rosa to me. But when I close my bag and leo lionni wave for capacity essay, my fur coat, the family is assembled, the father sniffing at the rum glass in his hand, the mother, presumably disappointed in me – but what do these people expect? – biting her lips and sobbing, and the sister waving around a blood-soaked handkerchief, I am somehow ready to story, admit under the circumstances that the boy may after all be ill. I go over to unicon, him, he smiles at me, as though I were bringing him some beef-tea – oh dear, and then both the horses start whinnying; I suppose the essay 350 words, noise has been called for essay, from above somewhere, to twins papers, make the inspection of the patient easier – and now I find: the unicon capacity, boy is sick. In his right flank, at research, around hip-height, he has a fresh wound as big as my hand.
Pink, in many shades, a deep carmine at the centre, lightening towards the periphery, with a soft granular texture, the bleeding at irregular points, and the whole thing as gapingly obvious as a mine-shaft. From a distance, at any rate. Closer to, there’s a further complication. Who could take in such a thing without whistling softly? Worms, the length and thickness of my little finger, roseate and also coated with blood, are writhing against the inside of the wound, with little white heads, and capacity essay many many little legs. Poor boy, it’s not going to be possible to on stereotypes, help you. I have found your great wound; that flower in your side is going to capacity essay, finish you.
The family are happy, they watch me going about my job; the sister tells the mother, the essay 350 words, mother tells the unicon essay, father, the father tells some of the visitors who are tiptoeing in through the persuasive essay, door in the bright moonlight, arms extended for unicon capacity, balance. ‘Will you save me?’ the boy whimpers, dazzled by research the life in his wound. Capacity? That’s the way people are in this parish. Always demanding the impossible from their doctor. They have lost their old faith; the priest sits around at home, ripping up his altar garments one after another; but the doctor is expected to perform miracles with his delicate surgeon’s fingers. Well, whatever: I never put myself forward; if you use me for your sacred purposes, I’ll see what I can do; what better thing is there for essay, me, old country doctor that I am, robbed of my maid! And here they come, the family and the village elders, and they start to undress me; a school choir with the teacher at the front stands outside the house and unicon essay sings to an extremely plain melody the words: Undress him, and he will heal you,
If he doesn’ t heal you, kill him! He’ s just a doctor, a doctor! Then I am undressed, and, with head bent and fingers twining in my beard, I look calmly at all those present. I am perfectly braced and a match for them all and will remain so, even though it won’t help me, because now they take me by essay story the head and the feet and unicon capacity essay carry me to research paper, the bed. Then everyone leaves the room; the door is unicon, closed; the singing dies down; clouds cover the research papers, face of the moon; I am lying in the warm bedclothes; the horses’ heads sway shadowily in capacity essay the open windows. ‘You know,’ I hear a voice in my ear, ‘I have very little faith in you. You’ve just snowed in persuasive speech on stereotypes essay from somewhere yourself, it’s not as though you got here under your own steam. Unicon? Instead of helping, you make free with my deathbed. I’d like to scratch your eyes out.’ ‘You’re right,’ I say, ‘it is a disgrace. But I happen to be the doctor. What am I supposed to essay my life, do? Believe me, it’s not easy for me either.’ ‘Am I supposed to be happy with that as an apology?
I suppose it’s all I’m going to get. I always have to take what I’m given. Essay? I came into the world with a lovely wound; that was my entire outfitting.’ ‘My young friend,’ I say, ‘your mistake is this: you lack perspective. I, who have been in sickrooms far and wide, tell you: your wound isn’t so bad as all that. A couple of glancing blows with an axe. There are many who offer their flanks, and barely hear the axe in the forest, never mind it deigning to come any nearer to them.’ ‘Is that really true, or are you taking advantage of my fever to deceive me?’ ‘It really is true, accept the word of honour of an official doctor.’ And he accepted it, and paper was quiet. Unicon Capacity? But now it was time to think about essay my life, my own salvation.
The horses were still standing faithfully in their places. I quickly managed to grab my clothes, fur coat and bag; I didn’t want to capacity, waste time dressing; if the horses made as much haste as on the way here, then I would be jumping from that bed straight into my own. One horse obediently drew back from the window; I tossed the bundle of my things into the carriage; the fur coat flew too far, but luckily one of story, its sleeves caught on a hook. Just as well. I jumped on to the horse. The bridle trailing loosely, the horses barely made fast one to another, the carriage careering around behind, and the fur dragging across the unicon capacity essay, snow at the end. ‘Now go like blazes!’ I said, but it was anything but; slowly as old men we trailed through the snowy waste; for a long time we heard the story, new, but mistaken song of the children’s choir: Rejoice, you patients, The doctor has lain down with you in your bed!
I’m never going to make it home at this rate; my flourishing practice is lost; my successor will rob me, but it won’t help him much, he’ll never be able to supplant me; the nasty groom is rampaging through my house; Rosa is his victim; I don’t want to contemplate it. Naked, exposed to unicon capacity, the frost of this most miserable epoch, with an earthly carriage and unearthly horses, what am I but an design, old man adrift. My fur coat is hanging off the unicon capacity essay, back of design paper, my carriage, but I am unable to reach it, and not one of my fleet-footed scoundrels of patients will lift a finger to help. I’ve been swindled! Swindled!
Once follow the misleading ring of the night bell – and unicon it will never be made good.