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Essay on “Girl” by Jamaica Kincaid | EduCheer!
book essay review D ownload a complete PDF version of this module. Download a complete Word version of this module. An academic book review is essay on girl by jamaica a formal paper that works to describe, analyze, and evaluate a particular source as well as to provide detailed evidence to support this analysis and evaluation. Further, a review often explains how the book compares to other works on similar topics or illuminates the esl essay assignment contribution the book makes to our understanding of a historical topic. What is the Difference Between a Book Review and by jamaica kincaid, a Book Report? It is causes of drunk driving essential to distinguish between a university-level book review assignment and kincaid, a book report assignment that you may have completed in high school. Driving Essays! Book reports tend to focus on summarizing the essay on girl work that you read; your goal is to explain what it says and show that you read the book with care. In contrast, a book review asks you to analyze a book; your goal is to identify the key arguments of the book and how the author supports these arguments as well as to evaluate the book’s strengths and write, weaknesses. Kincaid! This evaluation of strengths and weaknesses is essay on puerto central to kincaid another key difference between book reviews and book reports. Book reports often ask you to help matlab provide a personal opinion as to whether or not you liked a book.
A book review asks you to move beyond your personal likes or dislikes and on girl by jamaica kincaid, provide a reasoned argument as to homework sipser the merits or problems contained in the book. In a book review, it is not enough to say that a particular book was “bad” or “excellent.” You need to provide detailed analysis as to what factors, such as scope, theoretical perspective, or use of evidence made it so. Preparing to Write a Book Review. On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid! As with other essays, the steps toward writing an effective book review begin well before you turn on your computer and begin to type. Successful book reviews depend on esl essay assignment a careful and critical reading of essay on girl your book. Module 2 contains excellent suggestions on how to read critically, and it may be helpful to review these insights as you begin your book review assignment.
As you read, make sure to take notes on the book. Taking notes, especially when they are in your own words, helps to rtl essay put distance between you and the book and thus to avoid simply regurgitating its details in your review. It will also help you to on girl by jamaica see patterns within the book and thus work toward a thesis. As you read, make sure to consider the following questions: What is the central question or issue that the writing assignment book is addressing? What is the book’s argument or thesis? How is the book organized to support this thesis? How are the essay on girl chapters ordered? Chronologically? Thematically? As mentioned earlier, in order to write a successful book review, you will need to move beyond summary to evaluate the book. Many students find it difficult to make such an evaluation.
After all, the essay penasco author has considerable expertise and training; it is essay on girl natural to feel daunted by critiquing his or her work. It is important to distinguish between simply criticizing a work and analyzing and thinking critically about it. Thinking critically does not mean that you have to your papers disagree with a work. It means that you need to analyze it and consider it in a reasoned manner. Your review should present an evaluation of what the book’s key arguments are, how effectively they are presented and supported, and how they help or fail to essay kincaid help readers to understand a given topic.
As you read the book and review your notes on it, consider the following questions: How and what does this work help us to understand about a time period or issue? What types of essay on puerto evidence does the author draw on essay on girl kincaid to support his or her argument? Does the book do what the author claims that it will do? Are there other types of evidence that the penasco author fails to acknowledge or ignores? What theoretical perspective does the author work from? How does this shape or affect his/her argument?
How is this book similar to or different from other books on the topic? Why are they similar or different? Are you convinced by by jamaica, the book? Why or why not? Structure of a Book Review. We Write Your Papers! An introduction to a book review is generally short and direct. However, it must provide two key elements: background and thesis . Essay By Jamaica Kincaid! Background: First, your introduction should identify the book and author under review along with any essential historical or historiographical background: What time period and region are discussed? What is the historical question or topic that the book addresses? Thesis: Somewhere in your introduction (generally toward the end) you must provide a succinct, clear evaluation of the book.
This evaluation is the thesis for your book review. Your thesis should encompass three main components: What the main argument of the book is. Your evaluation of the book such as its strengths and contributions or weaknesses and shortcomings. Why and/or in format, what ways you think the work demonstrates these strengths and essay, weaknesses. As you will see from the examples below, there are many different ways to write a thesis for a book review. However, all of the thesis statements have the assignment three qualities mentioned above. Essay! Please note that the authors mentioned below are fictitious. Example A: In her work, Jones successfully argues that slave women in the American South had a different experience than did male slaves, an experience that opened up some unique freedoms for women but also created gender-specific hardships; while her book is essay well supported through her creative use of slave narratives and essay on girl kincaid, provides a crucial examination of a little-studied group, her failure to esl essay writing acknowledge the importance of religion to slave culture leads her to miss a crucial area of gender difference within the slave experience.
Example B: Smith argues that Indigenous peoples during the nineteenth century faced insurmountable cultural and physical losses through both warfare and assimilationist practices. Kincaid! His argument is supported with detailed evidence. Writing Assignment! However, his work fails to on girl by jamaica recognize the limited agency that Indigenous peoples maintained throughout their experience and thus does not illustrate how Indigenous people met the challenges of their new surroundings; ultimately, the book does not explain the cultural continuity that some Indigenous peoples were able to maintain. Example C: Mankad argues that the Black Death affected cities far more than it did the countryside; while one might question whether his work ignores the secondary effects of the Black Death on essay penasco rural populations, his innovative use of artistic and literary sources makes his argument convincing and a significant contribution to a field that has been dominated by demographic and statistical evidence. II.
Summary of essay on girl by jamaica kincaid Key Arguments. After your introduction, you should generally provide a brief summary or overview of the book. Take great care not to simply repeat or mirror everything in the book. Rtl Essay Format! Step back and identify what its essential arguments are and on girl by jamaica kincaid, briefly summarize them. You may want to comment on: What is the book’s thesis? How is it similar to or different from other historians’ work on a similar topic? How is it organized?
What are the major arguments? What types of evidence are presented? This section should constitute the bulk of rtl essay your review. In it, you need to explain and develop the evaluation made in your thesis. Make sure to use examples and quotations (if your professor allows quotations) from the book to illustrate and essay on girl, prove your assessment of the work. For example, if your thesis argues that the work provides a careful and detailed examination of a topic, you should point toward places in we write papers, the book where it does so. Similarly, if you argue that the work fails to by jamaica recognize a particular perspective, give examples of esl essay writing places in by jamaica, the text that you think would have benefited from attention to that perspective. Your conclusion should provide a succinct summation of your review. Overall, what does this work contribute to its field? What limitations does it possess? Does it suggest interesting avenues for future research?
How does your analysis of the book help readers to understand the time period being studied or how historians have understood that period? Common Problems in Book Reviews. Book reviews are a different form of penasco writing than other types of essays, and on girl by jamaica, writing successful reviews takes time, preparation, and practice. Below we list some of the common problems that bedevil students as they write their first book reviews. Summarizing rather than analyzing a work. Some students are so concerned about summarizing everything that the book says that they fail to provide analysis and evaluation. Try to step back and write help, see the big picture of the work. Only discuss its main arguments and supporting evidence. Writing a research paper rather than a book review . Some students forget that their goal is to on girl review how the author of a particular book has interpreted an event and instead begin to write a research report on the event itself.
Stay focused on the book. If, for example, you are reviewing Raj Mankad’s book on the Black Death, keep in mind that your topic is her book not the Black Death itself. Writing a paper that does not reflect a thorough reading of the book. Some students begin to write before they have spent time reading and evaluating a book with care. The result is your often a paper that lacks detailed examples or only provides examples and ideas from one section of the book. Put time and thought into essay, reading and reflecting on your book; it really is key to writing a successful review. Not having a clear method of organization . Essay Penasco! Like any paper, a book review needs a clear, logical structure that the reader can follow. Your reader should be able to predict what topic you will discuss next from your thesis and topic sentences.
Relying on on girl by jamaica personal opinions rather than reasoned judgments. Homework Sipser! Some students write reviews based on their personal feelings toward a book deeming it “boring” or “exciting,” “bad” or “good.” These feelings may be the first step toward a good evaluation of the book, but you need to kincaid dig deeper. What is it that makes the book “bad” or “good”? What specific evidence can you provide to illustrate the causes and effects essays book’s strengths and weaknesses? It is important to have opinions about the book, but it is also essential to base your opinions on a reasoned and on girl, careful assessment of the work.
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Jamaica Kincaid- Girl Essay - 1090 Words
How Betsy DeVos Used God and Amway to Take Over Michigan Politics. With her nomination as education secretary, a powerful political clan will bring its overtly Christian agenda to essay by jamaica, Washington. January 15, 2017. On election night 2006, Dick DeVos, the bronzed, starched 51-year-old scion of Michigan’s wealthiest family, paced to a lectern in the dim ballroom of the Sheraton Hotel in Lansing to deliver the speech that every candidate dreads. The Michigan gubernatorial race that year had been a dogfight of personal attacks between DeVos, the Republican nominee, and Democratic Governor Jennifer Granholm. Gloomy, bleached-out b-roll of shuttered factories in anti-Granholm ads made the governor’s sunny economic promise that “You’re gonna be blown away” sound less like an aspiration than a threat. Anti-DeVos ads cut closer to the bone, with one depicting a cartoon DeVos cheering a freighter hauling Michigan jobs to China. It was an unsubtle reference to DeVos’ time as president of Amway, the homework sipser, direct-sales behemoth his family co-founded and on girl by jamaica kincaid co-owns, when he eliminated jobs in rtl essay format, Michigan while expanding dramatically in Asia.
DeVos ended up personally spending $35 million on by jamaica kincaid, the race—the most expensive campaign in penasco, Michigan history—and when the essay on girl by jamaica, votes came in, lost by a crushing 14 points. Story Continued Below. At the Lansing Sheraton, the mood was grim. “If we aren’t going to be able to serve in this way, I look forward to the ways we can,” DeVos told his glum supporters. Behind him on the ballroom risers stood his family; closest to him was his wife, Betsy, choking back tears. Though dressed in a blue skirt-suit, the uniform of a first ladyship that was not to be, Betsy DeVos was never a political accessory. Anyone who understood Michigan politics knew she had long been the essay, more political animal of the pair. It was Betsy, not Dick, who had chaired the Michigan Republican Party; Betsy, who had served as a member of the Republican National Committee; Betsy, whose name was once floated to succeed Haley Barbour as head of the RNC; Betsy, who had directed a statewide ballot campaign to legalize public funding of religious schools; Betsy, who, as a college freshman, traveled to Ohio and Indiana to volunteer for Gerald Ford’s presidential campaign. She was a skilled and seasoned operator, but as her husband conceded in an overwhelming defeat, she was utterly helpless. At the essay on girl, time, it seemed like a dead end for driving a neophyte political candidate. In reality, it was the opening of a new avenue the DeVoses followed to far greater political influence, reshaping Michigan politics and the national Republican scene. “I think that loss really solidified the idea in the DeVoses’ minds that the kincaid, real way to get what you want is to be behind the scenes,” says Susan Demas, publisher of Inside Michigan Politics.
In the decade since that loss, the DeVos family, with Dick and causes and effects essays Betsy at essay on girl by jamaica kincaid the helm, has emerged as a political force without comparison in Michigan. Their politics are profoundly Christian and conservative—“God, America, Free Enterprise,” to borrow the subtitle of esl essay assignment family patriarch Richard DeVos’ 1975 book, Believe! —and their vast resources (the family’s cumulative net worth is estimated at well over $5 billion) assure that they can steamroll their way to on girl, victory on issues ranging from homework sipser, education reform to on girl, workers’ rights. Esl Essay. “At the federal level, when GOP candidates are looking for big donors to back them, they have options,” says Craig Mauger, executive director of the Michigan Campaign Finance Network. “If you don’t get Sheldon Adelson, you can go to the Koch brothers, and so on. On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid. In Michigan, the DeVos family is a class of donor all by themselves.” Top: Gubernatorial candidate Dick DeVos shakes hands while campaigning with wife Betsy and Arizona Senator John McCain. Bottom left: Betsy DeVos and rtl essay President George H.W. Bush at a 2000 campaign fundraiser for George W. Bush. By Jamaica Kincaid. Bottom right: In 2004, Betsy DeVos campaigns with Representatives Mike Rogers and Candice Miller. Help Matlab. | Regina H. Boone/TNS/ZUMAPRESS.com; AP Photos. Thanks to the DeVoses, Michigan’s charter schools enjoy a virtually unregulated existence. Thanks to essay on girl by jamaica, them, too, the center of the American automotive industry and birthplace of the modern labor movement is now a right-to-work state.
They’ve funded campaigns to elect state legislators, established advocacy organizations to lobby them, buttressed their allies and primaried those they disagree with, spending at least $100 million on political campaigns and causes over the past 20 years. “The DeVos family has been far more successful not having the governor’s seat than if they had won it,” says Richard Czuba, the owner of the your, Glengariff Group, a bipartisan polling firm in Michigan. “They have, to some degree, created a shadow state party. And it’s been pretty darn effective.” Buoyed by the success in by jamaica, Michigan, the writing assignment, DeVoses have exported a scaled-down version of that template into other states, funding an archipelago of local political action committees and advocacy organizations to ease the proliferation of charter schools in Indiana, New Jersey, Ohio, Iowa, Virginia and Louisiana, among others. At the same time, DeVos-backed PACs have transformed the nature of American political campaigns. Essay. By showing the success of independent PACs that answered to homework sipser, a few deep-pocketed donors rather than a broad number of stakeholders associated with a union or chamber of commerce, for essay by jamaica kincaid instance, the esl essay writing assignment, DeVoses precipitated the monsoon of independent expenditures that has rained down upon politicians for kincaid the past decade. In the process, they’ve reshaped political campaigns as well as the policies that result from we write, them. Ten years after she watched her husband give a concession speech, Betsy DeVos was unveiled as President-elect Donald Trump’s pick for secretary of education. Across the country, public-school advocates and teachers’ unions expressed almost unanimous horror: One of the most effective advocates for breaking down the rules and essay by jamaica kincaid protections for write help public schools and teachers would soon be the on girl by jamaica kincaid, nation’s most powerful education policymaker.
But people who’ve been watching the on puerto penasco, DeVoses closely knew they were seeing something else as well: One of the nation’s most ambitious, disruptive and downright unusual political families finally had a seat in Washington. To understand the essay on girl kincaid, DeVos family , it helps to understand West Michigan. A sweeping landscape of flat, rolling farmland freckled with small towns, it sits on matlab, the opposite side of the state—in more than one way—from the big, diverse, reliably Democratic Detroit metropolitan area. Broadly speaking, it’s a region where people are deeply religious, politically conservative, entrepreneurial and unfailingly polite—think Utah, if it were settled not by Mormons but by Dutch Calvinists. “There’s an old expression here,” chuckles Gleaves Whitney, director of the Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies at essay Grand Valley State University in Grand Rapids. “‘If you ain’t Dutch, you ain’t much.’” The DeVos family is Dutch, thoroughly so. All four of Richard DeVos’ grandparents emigrated from the Netherlands, and today, the homework sipser, family continues to observe the tenets of the essay kincaid, Christian Reformed Church, a Calvinist denomination.
Calvinism believes in predestination—that God has decided whether our souls are saved before we are born—and emphasizes an “inner worldly asceticism” in its practitioners. Write Help. Historically, in avoiding ostentatious displays of wealth, Calvinist Protestants have instead turned their economic gains into savings and by jamaica kincaid investments. One of the bedrock texts of sociology, Max Weber’s 1905 Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , is expressly about the links between Calvinism and help economic success. By Jamaica. (“In the place of the humble sinners to whom Luther promises grace if they trust themselves to God in penitent faith,” Weber wrote, “are bred those self-confident saints whom we can rediscover in the hard Puritan merchants of the heroic age of essay on puerto penasco capitalism.”) In this, Dick and Betsy DeVos’ familial roots serve as an object example. Dick is the by jamaica, eldest son of homework sipser Richard DeVos, who co-founded Amway in 1959, and grew it from a meager soap factory into a multinational colossus with $9.5 billion in annual sales, enlisting his children to manage and expand the company. Betsy hails from a dynasty of her own.
In 1965, her father, Edgar Prince, founded a small manufacturing company that came to be worth more than $1 billion on the strength of Prince’s automotive innovations, which include the on girl kincaid, pull-down sun visor with a built-in light-up vanity mirror. When Betsy Prince and homework sipser Dick DeVos married in 1979, it brought together two powerful Dutch families with perfectly compatible values. “There’s a close-knit atmosphere of the aristocracy of West Michigan,” Demas says. “It almost brings to essay by jamaica kincaid, mind the old monarchies of Europe where they would intermarry.” There’s a close-knit atmosphere of the aristocracy of causes and effects of drunk West Michigan,” Demas says. “It almost brings to essay, mind the old monarchies of Europe where they would intermarry.” Amway, the machine that built the DeVos fortune, is homework sipser among the best-known multilevel-marketing companies in the world, relying on independent salespeople to start their own businesses selling Amway-produced goods and to recruit other independent salespeople to work underneath them. Over the past half-century, the company has attracted a healthy dose of criticism. In 1969, the Federal Trade Commission alleged that Amway was a pyramid scheme, launching a six-year investigation that failed to essay on girl kincaid, prove the charges.
In 1982, the government of Canada filed criminal charges against the company, alleging that Amway had defrauded the country out of $28 million in customs duties and forged fake receipts to cover its tracks; in November 1983, Amway pled guilty to fraud and Canadian prosecutors dropped the criminal charges against Richard DeVos and other company executives. Amway’s direct-sales model—which it has exported to more than 100 countries—has become a ubiquitous part of the essay on puerto, modern economy. (Among those who've experimented with the approach is the on girl kincaid, president-elect, whose Trump Network in 2009 used an Amway-esque sales pitch to recruit sellers of homework sipser nutritional supplements, snack foods and skin-care products.) In Western Michigan, what matters isn’t how Amway is run, but what the DeVoses have done for on girl the community. Drive through downtown Grand Rapids, Michigan’s second-largest metropolis, and the family’s contributions are omnipresent. There’s the esl essay, Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital. A few blocks west, hugging the Grand River that bisects the by jamaica, city, you’ll find the sleek DeVos Place Convention Center, the DeVos Performance Hall and the Amway Grand Plaza Hotel. Assignment. Across the essay kincaid, water, the campus of format Grand Valley State University is by jamaica kincaid anchored by the spacious Richard M. DeVos Center. Homework Sipser. A few blocks north is the DeVos Learning Center, housed at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum. (You would be forgiven if you assumed that DeVos, not Ford, had been president.) Today, the kincaid, DeVoses’ charitable giving and local boosterism mean that people in West Michigan have a different view of them than Michiganders elsewhere in the state. Esl Essay. “The political narrative that has grown around [the family] is on girl by jamaica unfair,” says Whitney, whose Hauenstein Center has received grant funding from the DeVos Family Foundation. “They have made life better for a lot of people, and I can’t say that loudly enough.” The first and second generations of the DeVos family.
Left–right: Dick Betsy, Cheri, Helen Richard, Daniel Pamella and Doug Maria. | Credit: Orlando Magic Media Guide. The DeVos family’s charitable giving and of drunk essays political activism sprawls across three generations. Essay On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid. It’s not just Dick and Betsy, but Richard and Helen’s other children, too. There’s Daniel DeVos, who chairs the Orlando Magic, an NBA franchise the family owns, and his wife, Pamella. Write Help. There’s Doug DeVos, Amway’s current president and the chair of the executive committee of the National Constitution Center, and his wife, Maria. There’s Cheri DeVos, who sits on the board at Alticor, Amway’s parent company.
And there’s their children, a generation of young adults ready to carry the baton. Over time, the DeVos clan has evolved an unusual and highly structured internal governance system. Family patriarch Richard DeVos, now 90 and essay by jamaica retired from an active role in Amway, explained the formal structure of this family government in write matlab, his 2014 book, Simply Rich : “We formed the DeVos Family Council, which is made up of our children and essay on girl by jamaica kincaid their spouses and meets four times a year. The Family Council just approved a family constitution that essentially captures our family mission and we write papers values. … The Family Council also articulates how the essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, family will work together in managing our shared financial interests and our philanthropy. “We also have the Family Assembly …. When grandchildren turn 16, they are inducted … in a formal ceremony that everyone attends.
An aunt or uncle makes a presentation of their achievements, reminds them of their responsibility as they go forward, and homework sipser affirms them as a member of the Family Assembly. … They are able to on girl by jamaica kincaid, vote in the meetings at esl essay age 25, after they have met additional qualifications for taking on this added responsibility.” This collective approach is how the family runs their home lives, too. The DeVoses’ myriad properties are managed through a single private company, RDV Corporation, which both manages the family’s investments and operates as a home office, paying the family’s employees, maintaining the DeVoses’ residences and essay by jamaica assuring them as frictionless a life as possible. Rtl Essay Format. (The duties outlined by one recent property-manager job with RDV Corporation include “ensur[ing] doors are well-oiled to avoid squeaking” and by jamaica that “broken toys [are] repaired or disposed of.”) This family-government approach has so far enabled the DeVos family to avoid the public schisms and disagreements that have plagued other multigenerational dynasties. Any dissent is hashed out in private, and we write your that enables the family to focus its collective efforts with the on girl by jamaica, precision of a scalpel and the power of a chainsaw. If you’re a politician who wins the family’s support, you’ll receive several maxed-out checks from multiple family members, all in esl essay writing, a bundle. Across those efforts, one constant is the DeVos family’s devout Christian beliefs, and the indivisibility they see between Christian and Calvinistic notions and their conservative politics. “The real strength of America is its religious tradition,” Richard DeVos wrote in Believe! . “Too many people today are willing to act as if God had nothing whatsoever to do with it. … This country was built on a religious heritage, and essay we’d better get back to it. We had better start telling people that faith in God is the help matlab, real strength of America!” In the mid-1970s, DeVos made major donations to the Christian Freedom Foundation and Third Century Publishers, an outlet that printed books and pamphlets designed to strengthen the essay by jamaica, ties between Christianity and free-market conservatism; among those products was a guidebook instructing conservative Christians how to win elections and help America become “as it was when first founded—a ‘Christian Republic.’” Clockwise, from we write your papers, upper left: Amway cofounders Jay Van Andel (left) and Richard DeVos (center) meet in by jamaica kincaid, the Oval Office with President Gerald Ford, who is holding a copy of causes and effects of drunk driving Richard’s book, “Believe!”; former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and Richard DeVos during a 2009 event at the Scripps Research Institute; an on girl by jamaica kincaid, aerial shot of Dick Betsy DeVos’s primary residence in rtl essay, Ada, Michigan; Dick Betsy enjoy their courtside seats at by jamaica kincaid an Orlando Magic game—an NBA team owned by the DeVos family. | National Archives; AP; Getty Images.
Though they aren’t quite as large or wealthy as the DeVoses, the Prince family—even further west, in rtl essay, Holland, Michigan—shares one big trait in common with their in-laws: the idea that patriotism and on girl politics are inseparable from Christianity. Matlab. Elsa Prince Broekhuizen, Betsy’s mother, donated $75,000 to the successful 2004 ballot measure to ban same-sex marriage in Michigan; four years later, she gave $450,000 to an identical initiative in by jamaica kincaid, California. Betsy’s brother, Erik Prince, founded Blackwater, the military contractor that gained notoriety in 2007, when its employees fired into a crowd of Iraqi civilians, killing 17. (In 2009, two former Blackwater employees alleged in federal court that Prince “views himself as a Christian crusader.”) Throughout his adult life, Betsy’s father, Ed, donated handsomely to two religious colleges in Michigan, Hope and Calvin, the latter being his wife’s beloved alma mater in Grand Rapids. But his most important contribution—one that has shaped much of the homework sipser, past three decades of conservative politics—came in 1988, when Prince donated millions in seed funding to launch the Family Research Council, the conservative Christian group that became one of the most potent political forces on the religious right. “Ed Prince was not an empire builder,” Family Research Council President Gary Bauer wrote to supporters after Prince’s sudden death in on girl by jamaica, 1995. “He was a Kingdom builder.” In the 1960s and ’70s, Ed and Elsa Prince advanced God’s Kingdom from the end of a cul-de-sac just a few miles from esl essay writing, Lake Michigan. There, they taught their four children—Elisabeth (Betsy), Eileen, Emilie and Erik—a deeply religious, conservative, free-market view of the world, emphasizing the importance of self-reliance and sending them to private schools that would reinforce the values they celebrated at home, small-government conservatism chief among them. Ed Prince was not an empire builder,” Family Research Council President Gary Bauer wrote after Prince’s death in essay by jamaica kincaid, 1995. “He was a Kingdom builder.” In a breakfast speech to write, volunteers at by jamaica kincaid Holland Christian Schools on May 12, 1975, Ed Prince warned that lazy and neglectful U.S. citizens were not doing their fair share, forcing the rtl essay format, government to, as a Holland Sentinel article described it, “play an increasingly larger role in our daily and personal lives.” (You don’t have to listen too hard to on girl by jamaica, hear an echo of Ed Prince in his daughter, Betsy. “[For welfare recipients] to sit and be handed money from the government because they think a job like that is beneath them,” the heiress sighed to the Detroit Free Press in we write your papers, 1992. “If I had to by jamaica kincaid, work on a line in a factory, I would do that before I would stand in homework sipser, line for a welfare check.”) From an on girl by jamaica, early age, Betsy was pushed to compete.
In 1965, she was one of write matlab two second-graders to by jamaica kincaid, make entries in on puerto, Holland’s annual tulip festival (a citywide valentine to essay on girl kincaid, the area’s Dutch heritage). Writing. In middle school, she entered a poster and essay by jamaica essay contest about crime prevention. In her teenage years, she was a member of the homework sipser, Holland City Recreation Swim Team. Betsy excelled at the breaststroke. In August 1972, she won the Mid-Michigan Conference Championship, a contest in which younger siblings Emilie and Eileen Prince placed third and fifth, respectively). After graduating from high school in 1975, Betsy enrolled at Calvin College, her mother’s alma mater. Calvin’s mission, as stated in the 1975–1976 course catalog, was “to prepare students to essay by jamaica, live productive lives of esl essay faith to the glory of essay God in contemporary society—not merely lives that have a place for religion … but lives which in every part, in every manifestation, in their very essence, are Christian.” On campus, Betsy became politically active, volunteering for the presidential campaign of hometown hero President Gerald Ford, who was facing off against movie star-cum-California Governor Ronald Reagan. She joined a pro-Ford group called “Friends of the First Family,” and along with her compatriots, took trips to Indiana and esl essay assignment Ohio to participate in the Ford campaign’s “scatter blitzes.” Betsy’s campaigning earned the attention of the Ford team, which tapped her to attend that year's Republican National Convention in Kansas City as a participant in on girl by jamaica kincaid, the “Presidentials” program for young Republicans. The budding politicos attended training on campaign strategy and rtl essay format political techniques, and were divided into groups based on geography so that they could get acquainted with potential allies from their home states.
There were also more practical desires for a squadron of young volunteers at a contested convention: “Anywhere there needed to be noise, there were always kids,” Betsy Prince told a reporter for essay the Holland Sentinel in 1976 (“Betsy Helps Cheer Ford Through in Kansas City,” read the headline, beside a photo of a T-shirt-clad Betsy sporting a feathered, Farrah Fawcett-lite hairdo). Around this time, Betsy Prince met the two men with whom she would form the most important political relationships of rtl essay her adult life. One became her husband; the other became her governor. If there’s one law of physics that defined how Michigan politics moved in the 1990s, it’s that Governor John Engler was a master of the state Legislature. His political acumen—honed over a 20-year run in the Legislature, during which the 22-year-old boy wonder grew into his sturdy tree-stump physique and Ben Franklin hairline—was legendary even before he won a stunning upset in the 1990 governor’s race. Never was that mastery more evident than on essay on girl, July 19, 1993, a date that set into motion every battle over education the state has seen since—a day that led to rtl essay format, Betsy DeVos becoming Donald Trump’s pick for secretary of education.
Deep into his first term, Engler wanted to show progress in his signature proposal to reduce the state’s onerous property taxes by essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, 20 percent. Property taxes being the funding source for Michigan’s public school system, Democrats ruled out any plan that did not include a replacement for homework sipser the lost revenue, and essay kincaid since any new revenue would require legislators to write help matlab, vote for new taxes or fees, that option had little appeal heading into the 1994 campaign. On July 19, 1993, Democratic state Senator Debbie Stabenow proposed an amendment that was interpreted as an attempt to essay by jamaica kincaid, point out the absurdity of Engler’s plan: Why not cut them by 100 percent without having any replacement revenue source? Democrats were dumbstruck by what happened next: Engler whipped the on puerto penasco, state Legislature into action, and in the course of a 24-hour period, the Senate and House eradicated property taxes—in the process completely defunding Michigan’s $6.5 billion public-education system. In the by jamaica, ensuing crisis, Engler legalized charter schools. Throughout the 1990s, Republican Governor John Engler was a force without parallel in Michigan politics. | AP Photos. By that point, Betsy DeVos was already a major Engler backer—she had served as the GOP chair in powerful Kent County, and in 1992, won one of the state’s seats on the RNC, ousting Ronna Romney (sister-in-law of Mitt Romney and mother of homework sipser Ronna Romney McDaniel, whom Trump has chosen to helm the RNC).
But education reform had long been a passion, and now she had an opportunity to help the governor who was enacting the changes she so badly wanted. In May 1996, the by jamaica, chair of the Michigan Republican Party stepped down to run for Congress. John Engler had just the person for the job. Betsy DeVos accepted, and the following year, decided to run for a full term as party chair. If Engler thought he had anointed a rubber stamp, he quickly learned otherwise.
In January 1997, DeVos cleared house, unilaterally firing all of the party’s top directors and pausing all contracts with vendors, blaming them for the party’s losses months earlier. “Betsy regarded the we write papers, governor’s input as good advice, not an order,” Greg McNeilly, a close associate of on girl by jamaica Betsy DeVos, told an Engler biographer years later. “That’s when the problems started.” After an enormously successful 1998 campaign wherein Engler won a third and final term in a landslide, the governor encouraged Betsy DeVos to write help matlab, run for chair of the RNC. Essay On Girl Kincaid. DeVos had a different battle in mind: a statewide campaign to legalize school vouchers. The Michigan state constitution expressly forbids public funds from being used to assignment, pay for private, religious schools. Betsy DeVos aimed to change that via a constitutional amendment—Proposal 1 on the November 2000 ballots. Engler was opposed to the idea—the timing was off. “I was pretty certain that it was premature to go to the ballot in 2000,” Engler says, “because if you’re going to go to the ballot, you want to essay kincaid, win.” The DeVoses had counted on his support, and esl essay when it didn’t materialize, things soured. (“[John Engler] would have a hard time being a first mate even on the largest ship in the world,” Betsy DeVos later wrote. “I think he’d sooner be captain of essay a smaller boat than the writing assignment, first mate on a much bigger ship.”) DeVos quickly realized that the situation was unsustainable. Essay On Girl Kincaid. So she hatched a plan designed to surprise Engler just as his opposition had surprised her: She would resign as state GOP chair without notifying him in advance. Rtl Essay. She chose a date in on girl by jamaica kincaid, February 2000 when she knew Engler would be in Washington.
Around 9 a.m., she left a message on his phone, informing him that she would announce her resignation at an early-afternoon news conference. Penasco. Engler quickly changed his itinerary and booked a flight home for his own news conference that evening. Essay By Jamaica Kincaid. Publicly, Engler saved face, but the message from the DeVoses was unmistakable: We are a political force with our own agenda, like it or not. The message from the help matlab, DeVoses was unmistakable: We are a political force with our own agenda, like it or not. Now, however, the essay by jamaica, DeVoses were on their own, pushing Prop 1 with minimal support from the state’s Republican establishment. Among the broader public, the opposition was fierce and widespread. “That was one of the best campaigns I was ever on,” says Julie Matuzak, who was, at the time, the American Federation of Teachers’ top political hand in the state. While the DeVoses campaigned on expanding educational choices for parents and homework sipser students, their opponents reframed the issue. “When you really looked at on girl by jamaica kincaid it, the parents weren’t the ones with the choices; the parochial schools were the rtl essay, ones with the essay kincaid, choices,” Matuzak remembers. “If all you do is transfer the money, you don't transfer any of the your, other requirements that are put on public schools. Public schools are required to take everyone who comes through the door.
But private schools, parochial schools, get to pick and choose. … It’s not really the parents who have the choice, it’s the essay kincaid, schools. And people ultimately understood that.” When Election Day came, the result was overwhelming: Proposal 1 failed with 69 percent of matlab voters opposed. Across the spectrum, political observers viewed the initiative as a debacle that drove up Democratic turnout and essay on girl kincaid likely cost Republicans a U.S. Esl Essay Writing. Senate seat, as Debbie Stabenow defeated incumbent Senator Spencer Abraham by 67,000 votes. There was a silver lining for the DeVoses, albeit one not immediately apparent. They had established a purity test for fellow Republicans: Had they supported Prop 1? And in unintentionally contributing to Senator Abraham’s loss, they had created a scenario in which, once Engler was term-limited in January 2003, the state GOP would be without any marquee statewide officeholders. No governor. Neither U.S. senator.
An attorney general and secretary of state without any previous statewide experience. There was a power vacuum in on girl kincaid, the Republican Party, and the DeVoses were the format, only ones who could fill it. Which they did, with lots and lots of essay on girl by jamaica kincaid money. When Dick and Betsy DeVos are asked why they’ve chosen to mount a personal crusade for education reform, they often cite their family’s charitable giving, which puts them into contact with scholarship applicants. For years, the DeVoses read reams of personal essays filled with wrenching stories of dire finances and an abiding hope in the transformative impact of education.
Those stories, the DeVoses have said, made it clear that something had to change. But there’s another reason why Dick and Betsy DeVos want to change America’s schools. They see it as the literal battleground for making a more Christian, God-centered society. In 2001, Betsy DeVos spoke at homework sipser “The Gathering,” an annual meeting of some of America’s wealthiest Christians. There, she told her fellow believers about the by jamaica, animating force behind her education-reform campaigning, referencing the biblical battlefield where the Israelites fought the Philistines: “It goes back to what I mentioned, the of drunk, concept of really being active in essay by jamaica, the Shephelah of our culture—to impact our culture in ways that are not the traditional funding-the-Christian-organization route, but that really may have greater Kingdom gain in write, the long run by changing the way we approach things—in this case, the system of education in essay by jamaica kincaid, the country.” Dick DeVos, on stage with his wife, echoed her sentiments with a lament of his own. “The church—which ought to be, in our view, far more central to esl essay assignment, the life of the on girl by jamaica, community—has been displaced by the public school,” Dick DeVos said. “We just can think of no better way to rebuild our families and our communities than to have that circle of church and school and family much more tightly focused and built on a consistent worldview.”
For the DeVoses, an your papers, electoral loss—even an embarrassing one—is but a small skirmish on that Shephelah. Prop 1’s failure was evidence that they needed to redraw their battle plans for a much larger war. Betsy DeVos stressed that Christians need to focus on “greater Kingdom gain” by “changing … the system of on girl kincaid education in format, the country. Dick DeVos echoed that: As the center of the by jamaica kincaid, community, “The church … has been displaced by the public school.” They unveiled the new strategy in 2001, the same year they spoke at The Gathering: Instead of direct appeals to voters, the DeVoses would devote their resources to PACs and nonprofit organizations to push legislators to writing assignment, enact the changes they desired. Thus, the Great Lakes Education Project, or GLEP, was founded.
Initially, few in Michigan knew quite what to make of GLEP. At the time, most PACs were affiliated with membership organizations, like a labor union or chamber of commerce, and focused on issues important to those members. On Girl By Jamaica. GLEP wasn’t anything like that. Homework Sipser. It was a largely family-funded effort with a singular focus on on girl by jamaica, education reform; a multipronged structure gave GLEP great latitude to advocate, from lobbying legislators to purchasing attack ads on TV. In the years since the DeVoses debuted GLEP, we’ve witnessed the nationwide rise of single-issue PACs funded by a small number of extraordinarily wealthy donors, especially since the Citizens United ruling uncorked the causes of drunk essays, dam of by jamaica corporate money. On Puerto Penasco. “The [DeVos] family has been forward-thinking in their use of on girl by jamaica kincaid money to influence politics,” says Craig Mauger of the Michigan Campaign Finance Network. “And what’s happening with them in Michigan seems to be an example of where we’re going as a country with the esl essay writing assignment, concentration of power in our politics.” Betsy DeVos has pushed a drastic transformation of Michigan’s education system, with mixed and controversial results. In 2002, the first election of GLEP’s existence, its PAC had more money than the Michigan Education Association, United Auto Workers, or any Democratic-affiliated PAC in the state.
And if they lacked the influence and statewide presence of kincaid those groups, it was only a matter of time. “They take a very long-term view,” says Matuzak. “If you pick up a few new Republican legislators every two years, and throw a fair amount of money at legislators who are already there, you can create coalitions of folks who can tackle what seem to be impossibly large issues.” It was the lesson of John Engler’s governorship: If you want to get things done, control the state Legislature. But you can’t get that without inspiring some degree of fear. One Republican who caught the DeVos family’s ire was Paul Muxlow, a realtor and former educator elected to the state house in 2010, representing a mostly rural district in southeast Michigan. Esl Essay Assignment. Muxlow was a dependable conservative, but disliked the idea of eliminating the cap on the number of charter schools. While he was fine with charter schools in underserved communities, he said he couldn’t support them in rural areas—“It would kill those districts,” he explained to the Detroit Free Press in 2014. When the cap elimination came before the essay by jamaica kincaid, state Legislature in 2011, it passed with Muxlow voting against it. The following year, when he ran for reelection, he faced a blitz of attacks from homework sipser, GLEP, which didn’t even need his district, but spent just under $185,000 to on girl kincaid, take him out in the primary.
Muxlow won by matlab, just 132 votes. Privately, many Michigan Republicans are afraid of getting on the DeVoses’ bad side. “At the American Federation of Teachers, there were always Republicans we’d endorse,” recalls Matuzak, who retired from the on girl by jamaica, union in 2014. “And it got to the point where … the Republicans would say, ‘Please don’t endorse me because it will hurt me with the rtl essay format, DeVoses.’ They’d send back money because the essay, DeVoses would punish them.” (In an email to POLITICO, the chief of papers staff to one Republican state senator declined comment for essay by jamaica this story, saying it would “not be productive” before linking to two anti-DeVos columns in the Detroit Free Press . The articles “speak for themselves,” he wrote.) “The Republicans would say, ‘Please don’t endorse me because it will hurt me with the DeVoses.’ They’d send back money because the DeVoses would punish them.” “There’s a general awareness if they’re not supporting you,” says John Truscott, a longtime Republican operative in Michigan and the president of Truscott-Rossman, a powerhouse bipartisan PR firm that represents the DeVos family on certain matters. “If you’re always getting along with everybody, you’re probably not making a difference.” Year by year, cycle by cycle, the DeVoses built a state Legislature in esl essay writing assignment, their own image. By the time Democrat Jennifer Granholm was term-limited in 2010 and Republican Rick Snyder was elected governor without any political experience, it was the DeVoses, not Snyder, who knew how to on girl, get things done. Unlike the writing assignment, Engler years, this time, they had more sway than the by jamaica, governor. Today, 16 years after the DeVoses’ failed constitutional amendment, this constant push has totally remade Michigan education. The cap on the number of charter schools eliminated and attempts to provide public oversight have been defeated, making Michigan’s charters among the most-plentiful and least-regulated in the nation.
About 80 percent of Michigan’s 300 publicly funded charters are operated by for-profit companies, more than any other state. This means that taxpayer dollars that would otherwise go to traditional public schools are instead used to buy supplies such as textbooks and desks that become private property. Matlab. It is, essentially, a giant experiment in what happens when you shift resources away from public schools. And while a state constitutional amendment legalizing public funding for religious schools is unlikely to win public support anytime soon, charters have had much the same impact. While a charter school cannot be religiously affiliated, many walk a fine line, appointing, for instance, a preacher as head of the essay by jamaica kincaid, school board or renting school space from a church. “They have a couple ways of getting around it,” says Gary Miron, a professor of write help education at essay by jamaica Western Michigan University who specializes in essay on puerto penasco, charter school evaluation and research. “I’ve been in charter schools where I’ve seen religious prayers to Jesus Christ—they mention Christ by essay on girl, name—and prayer circles with students, teachers and parents.” For students, the results of the Michigan charter boom have been mixed.
Most charters perform below the state’s averages on tests, even while their enrollment has grown to include more than 110,000 students, nearly half of rtl essay format whom live in on girl kincaid, the Detroit area. Help Matlab. A 2013 Stanford study that compared Detroit’s charters with its traditional public schools found that the charter students gained the equivalent of more than three months’ learning per kincaid, year more than their counterparts at traditional public schools. But that doesn’t mean they’re performing at a high level, simply that by some measures, certain charters marginally outperform the causes driving, historically challenged Detroit public schools. Whatever the on girl by jamaica, quality outcome, the political lesson isn’t lost. The DeVoses have transplanted their organizational model to other states—New Jersey, Ohio, Louisiana, Virginia, Wisconsin, among them. They have done this by marshaling forces under the umbrella of their American Federation for Children, a nationwide campaign for school reform that has attracted high-profile speakers to its conferences, including New Jersey Senator Cory Booker, former Governor Bobby Jindal, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and former D.C. school czar Michelle Rhee. In the transformation of Michigan from a blue-collar Rust Belt Democratic stronghold to a free-market, Republican conquest, no issue may be more symbolic than the enactment of right-to-work legislation.
On its face, the rtl essay, debate over right-to-work is about an arcane bit of labor law—whether workers under a contract that was collectively negotiated by a union should have to pay dues to that union, regardless of on girl kincaid whether they’re members. But that debate is a proxy for a larger battle that is less about employment law than political jockeying: Unions tends to align with Democrats, and as a result, if it becomes more difficult for unions to penasco, collect dues, they’ll be weakened and less able to advocate for the political causes of their choosing. Days after the 2012 election, Dick DeVos picked up the phone and rallied Republican lawmakers to pass right-to-work in lame duck while they still had the votes, reportedly promising financial support to by jamaica, those members who would find themselves facing tough reelections and suggesting he would back primary campaigns against those who didn’t step in format, line. “There’s one family who gets these people elected, and essay kincaid consequently, you can assume they can get them unelected, too,” says Gretchen Whitmer, who was the state Senate’s Democratic leader at the time. “There’s one family who gets these people elected, and consequently, you can assume they can get them unelected, too,” says Gretchen Whitmer, the we write, former Democratic leader of the state senate. To opponents, right to work ran counter to every story Michigan told itself about on girl by jamaica, who it was, a repudiation of generations of hard-won gains. In metro Detroit, labor’s historic triumphs are retold like folklore by men with thick, calloused hands, lest future generations forget the Battle of the Overpass or the Flint Sit-Down Strike.
Right-to-work, labor feared, would undo much of that. Though anxious, labor officials had reason to feel confident. On November 26, 2012, the Monday after Thanksgiving, Republican Governor Rick Snyder had reassured them that right-to-work was “not on my agenda.” “The impression we had from the rtl essay, beginning was the governor wanted to essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, keep this thing off his desk,” Steven Cook, president of the Michigan Education Association, said at the time. Over the course of a few days in homework sipser, late November and on girl early December, everything changed. Perhaps it had something to do with the $1.8 million blitz of essay on puerto penasco TV and radio ads promoting right-to-work the DeVoses bankrolled. On December 6, eight days after Snyder met with labor leaders, the essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, governor flipped on the issue, announcing his intent to sign right-to-work into law. Assignment. “The day it became apparent, he wasn’t returning phone calls from any of us,” remembers Whitmer. Protesters in and around the state capitol in essay, Lansing on December 11, 2012. Governor 4 Sale,” read one sign. “Call 1-800-Dick-DeVos.” | AP Photo/Paul Sancya.
The next five days saw large protests on the Capitol grounds, culminating with an help, estimated 12,500 demonstrators on December 11, the day the House voted on essay kincaid, the legislation. Penasco. Two-thousand demonstrators flooded into essay the Capitol, sitting in the hallways and laying down in the rotunda. Write Help. They stomped their feet, chanted familiar slogans, sang “Solidarity Forever”—a cacophony that some in the House chamber one story up initially confused for thunder. Right-to-work passed by a handful of votes, including an Engler-esque flourish: The legislation was amended to include a small appropriation, which meant that once signed, it would be impossible for voters to repeal by public referendum. Outside the Capitol, state police donned riot gear while officers on horseback pushed protesters away from the building. Essay On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid. Loudspeakers blared Tom Petty’s “I Won’t Back Down,” and as the write help, wind picked up, four 20-foot-tall inflatable rat balloons skittered from side to side.
Each rat represented one of the key players protesters blamed for right-to-work’s hasty adoption: the governor, the House speaker, the Senate majority leader, and—the only by jamaica unelected member of the rat pack—Dick DeVos. It isn’t known what, if anything, the DeVoses said to causes of drunk essays, Governor Snyder to change his mind and on girl by jamaica detonate this atomic bomb in Michigan politics. But Snyder would’ve been under no illusions about the assignment, possible consequences of inaction. “There was all kinds of scuttlebutt that if Snyder didn't sign up for right-to-work in 2012, he would’ve bought himself a primary in 2014,” says Demas of Inside Michigan Politics . “I think Snyder understands the by jamaica kincaid, powerful place the DeVoses have in Michigan, and we write that it’s often more trouble than it’s worth to by jamaica, tangle with them.” In the weeks since Donald Trump announced that he would nominate DeVos for on puerto secretary of education, Michigan’s political circles have been abuzz. As ever, the by jamaica kincaid, DeVoses are loved and we write papers hated, with little in between. By Jamaica. “She is a strong supporter of public education and of quality education for every child,” says Engler. On Puerto Penasco. “It’s horrifying. It’s a slap in the face,” says Whitmer. “The only people who have anything to worry about are those running failing schools,” says Truscott. Essay By Jamaica Kincaid. “It is papers as if you were to appoint some radical pacifist as secretary of on girl by jamaica kincaid defense,” says Jack Lessenberry, a senior political analyst for Michigan Public Radio. After years operating behind the scenes, Betsy DeVos is set to homework sipser, become the by jamaica kincaid, public face of education policy in America—an advocate of private Christian education helming the largest public-education agency in the country.
Most education policymaking happens at the state and local level; the Education Department administers financial aid and collects and essay on puerto analyzes educational data, but doesn’t set state standards or school curricula. Essay On Girl By Jamaica. Even so, the homework sipser, position is a considerable bully pulpit, one with the ability to define the national discussion on essay kincaid, education. Donald Trump applauds as Betsy DeVos speaks at Trump’s “Thank You USA” rally in Grand Rapids, December 9, 2016. | Reuters/Mike Segar. As secretary, it’s likely DeVos will pursue a national expansion of we write papers school choice and charters. In this, DeVos has an essay, ally in President-elect Trump. “There's no failed policy more in need of urgent change than our government-run education monopoly,” Trump said in a September 8 speech. Esl Essay Writing. “It is time to break up that monopoly.” In that speech, Trump proposed a $20-billion block grant program to fund national vouchers administered at the state level. “Parents will be able to send their kids to essay on girl, the desired public, private or religious school of their choice,” Trump said.
It’s what Betsy DeVos has wanted all along. Barring a surprise at confirmation hearings, the DeVos family will soon have a seat in Washington. But a question lingers: Will they continue as activists? While there’s a long history of Cabinet members donating to campaigns prior to assuming their roles atop the government, it would be fairly unprecedented for a Cabinet secretary to push policy within the government while her family simultaneously funnels millions to lobby and campaign for those same policies. But the DeVos family isn’t shy about homework sipser, using its clout. Some donors couch their push for influence in the anodyne language of “improvement” and essay on girl by jamaica “empowerment.” Betsy DeVos is more upfront. “My family is the largest single contributor of soft money to the national Republican party,” she wrote in a 1997 editorial for Roll Call . “I have decided, however, to stop taking offense at the suggestion that we are buying influence. Now I simply concede the essay, point. They are right. We do expect some things in return.” ““I have decided … to on girl by jamaica, stop taking offense at the suggestion that we are buying influence,” Betsy DeVos wrote in a 1997 editorial for Roll Call. “Now I simply concede the point. They are right. Essay On Puerto Penasco. We do expect some things in return.”
It’s one thing to be an advocate and quite another to be a policymaker in a realm where you have little professional training or personal experience—a charge that DeVos’ opponents are quick to essay on girl kincaid, lob. If confirmed by the Senate, DeVos would be the first secretary of education in at least 30 years without any experience as a government official, school administrator or teacher. Rtl Essay Format. “She’s not someone with an education background—she never went to on girl kincaid, a public school, never sent a child to a public school,” says Whitmer, who recently announced her candidacy for essay Michigan governor. “It’s just stunning that they’d want to essay on girl by jamaica, export the ugliness [the DeVoses] have brought to the education debate in homework sipser, Michigan and send it to the rest of the nation.” Even so, among the DeVoses’ skeptics, there are those who strike a hopeful, if cautious, tone. “I think Mrs. On Girl. DeVos could potentially be a really good secretary of homework sipser education if she allowed parents and school districts to make policy at the local level,” says Daniel Quinn, executive director of the Great Lakes Center for Education Research and Practice, a nonprofit that receives a portion of its funding from the National Education Association. “But at the same time, I’m concerned.” Julie Matuzak, the by jamaica kincaid, DeVoses’ foe from the 2000 voucher fight, disagrees strongly with DeVos’ appointment but concedes the couple has good intentions. We Write Papers. “I do believe they have a deep-seated belief in quality education for by jamaica all children,” says Matuzak. “They see it as a continuum of rtl essay format public education that includes everything—private schools, parochial schools, charters, public schools. But they believe in the market force as the rule of the essay, universe.” CLARIFICATION: An earlier version of this piece imprecisely described Calvinism and Max Weber’s study of it.
The article has been updated with a more accurate description. Zack Stanton is digital editor of Politico Magazine. Follow him on Twitter: @zackstanton .
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Literary Anaylsis on Girl by Jamaica Kincaid Essay
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As you go through it, please see the comments and ideas in red so you can get a fair understanding of what goes into all great bride speeches. ''I want to papers thank you all for coming to support us. To my dad, my mom and my friends. To my in-laws and to everyone whose name wasn’t mentioned, we are extremely honored to have you here.'' (Comment: Every bride speech (including yours) should start by first telling the on girl, guests once again who you are, expressing gratitude to essay penasco your own parents and on girl by jamaica in-laws as well as the matlab, entire wedding guests for by jamaica kincaid their support and we write gifts) #0160;''It is essay on girl by jamaica, often said that no man(in my case no woman) is an island. Well, I didn’t really in writing, that saying until a few years back. I had gone through lots of by jamaica, ups and homework sipser downs in my life and I thought I might never ever find a guy who really loved me and kincaid cared for me.
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With Bella I feel like I have my joy back. Essay By Jamaica. My peace of mind back. My hope back. I always thought that there was this one perfect person for everybody in the world, you know, and when I found you, all my fears and worries faded away. Every moment spent with you is a moment I treasure. Whenever I'm alone with you. You make me feel like I am home again.
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It ensures that you don't carry a paper with you even if your memory is like a gold fish--this technique was used by Abraham Lincoln and you need to get it. So, you can relax and homework sipser let us sweat it out at our expense! Bride Speeches- Short Bride Speech Examples. Amazing Story Of How An Extremely Nervous (Probably More Nervous Than You Are) Bride Gave The Best Speech Ever…Got A Standing Ovation Even… Though He Didn’t Have The Skills To Write A Beautiful Speech…And Had Never Given A Speech Before! I am Marilyn from The United States. I know how you feel at this time because I was once like you. On Girl Kincaid. I know that you have a lot of things on help matlab, your mind yet you still want to give a great bride wedding speech that will make your family and essay on girl kincaid friends proud! What Would You Have Done If You Were The One? I envy you because I didn’t find things easy right from the start.
I suffered three heartbreaks after meeting different guys whom I thought would take me to the altar. But they left me at format the altar when we were about to get married. Well, I had the looks of a beautiful woman and I had family values, so I wondered why I had to go through many heartbreaks. So, when Mike proposed to me, I didn’t accept his proposal right away as I feared I might suffer another heartache. A Vacuum Needed To Be Filled. After I had done my P.H.D, I felt this void in essay on girl kincaid, my life. Though I had bought a new home and lots of esl essay assignment, automobiles in the garage, I lived like a nun.
I wondered why Janet, my best friend was so happy all the time. Essay On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid. I doubted her when she told me that her loving husband was the source of her joy and pride. My past experience made very cynical. But something deep down inside my heart urged me to give another man the chance. Despite my skepticism, I knew that my neighbor and of drunk driving her husband were a great couple even though they had been married for 15 years. On my 30th birthday, I invited friends and family for dinner and Mike came in the company of one of my friends. He was looking cute and my heart missed a beat when I saw him. When everything was over, he came over to on girl kincaid hug me and told me again of his deep affection for me. A Nice Surprise On My Birthday. This time I consented but deep down I decided not to love him wholeheartedly. I didn’t want to homework sipser experience heartache for the fourth time.
Two years passed and my mind changed about our ‘’relationship’’. I realized that Mike was not only kind but very committed, loyal and he changed my thoughts and perceptions about men. I had fallen in love with him more than he had. I agreed to meet his parents and they were so happy when we met. It turned out that Mike and I had a similar story.
He too had gone through two heartbreaks before but he felt I would be a good wife. When we went to see my parents, they were very impressed with his looks, politeness and conduct. He even asked my dad for his permission to essay on girl take my hand in rtl essay format, marriage and he gave him his blessings. They loved him so much! Two years after we met, our wedding preparations got underway and I loved every bit of it. It was a dream come true and I just couldn’t wait to start life with my handsome prince. In less than a month to on girl kincaid my big day, I asked my mom about write what she thought would make our day memorable and essay she suggested I consider giving a great bride wedding speech as that would be what the wedding guests would remember most. I had asked Mike to give his speech while I do just the toast before asking my mom for her opinions. I knew my mom was right after watching a video of how a beautiful bride delighted the rtl essay, wedding guests with a great speech.
So, I decided to give it a try even though I was extremely nervous. So, I went online and essay by jamaica all the examples I found were rather uninspiring. I also thought that a lot of brides might have borrowed the examples I had seen and using those same ideas might not make my speech very unique. So, my dad asked Jimmy, his best friend to help me out and trust me something remarkable happened on my wedding day. On the we write your, day of the on girl by jamaica kincaid, wedding, I was nervous when called up to speak. My heart missed a lot of beats when I was called to deliver my speech. But. I kept my composure. I quivered when I began to greet the audience.
Afterwards, I breathed out loudly and homework sipser I felt my heart thump as if I had won a marathon in record time. Turns out breathing out loudly helped calm me down and I began with these lines. ''I want to thank you all for coming to support us. To my dad, My mom and my friends. To my in-laws and to essay on girl by jamaica kincaid everyone whose name wasn’t mentioned, we are extremely honored to have you here.'' As I those words, people cast surprising glances at each other and that made everyone sit up.
People who knew me very well-especially my friends- didn’t expect much from me. People who knew me very well-especially my friends- didn’t expect much from writing assignment me. #0160; Then I continued. #0160;'' It is often said that no man(in my case no woman) is an essay on girl kincaid, island. Well, I didn’t really in that saying until a few years back. I had gone through lots of ups and causes of drunk downs in my life and I thought I might never ever find a guy who really loved me and cared for me.
After pursuing my P.H.D I found a good job and had everything I ever need to give me that personal comfort and satisfaction. As the years rolled by with no one to hold on on girl, in hard times, I felt this void in my heart and I lived like a nun. And so, when Mike came into we write my life, I experienced a deep sense of essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, joy that flowed through my heart and veins like a never flowing stream. Well, Mike has been a friend for almost 5 years now but I must admit that I just wanted to homework sipser know if he was the essay by jamaica, right guy for your papers me. And I was the essay on girl, right lady for him. I am someone who believes in the sanctity of we write papers, marriage and I just didn’t want anything or anyone to toy with my heart. After he had left college, he told me he loved but I turned this great guy down. Essay By Jamaica. Wanting to impress me, he sent me a flower on Valentine’s Day but I was still not convinced that he could feel the your papers, void in my life. Besides, I wanted to test the strength of his heart and character. But my Mike would never give up. On my last birthday, he arrived looking cute.
I guess he wanted to impress me. To cut a long story short, we wined and dined and he came over when everyone had left and we talked for essay kincaid like 2 hours. At a point, he was drenched in sweat and his voice grew rather hoarse as he held my hands. He got down on rtl essay format, one knee and told me that he still wanted to by jamaica be my best friend. Suddenly I felt a bit faint-smiled and accepted his proposal. After, he breathed a big sigh of relief and essay on puerto the mood as if he had won a marathon in record time in essay on girl, an empty stadium. Today, the story is esl essay writing assignment, different. He’s relaxed but I am drenched in essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, sweat as I give my speech.
Kidding aside, I feel like a princess on of drunk driving, this beautiful day. Mike thanks for agreeing to marry me. Your proposal took my breadth and my brains away. Far away…'' It’s an extraordinary thing to on girl by jamaica meet someone who you can bare your soul to and accept you for what you are. I’ve been waiting, for what seems like a very long time, to homework sipser get beyond what I am. With Bella I feel like I have my joy back.
My peace of mind back. My hope back. I always thought that there was this one perfect person for everybody in on girl by jamaica, the world, you know, and when I found you, all my fears and worries faded away. Every moment spent with you is essay penasco, a moment I treasure. You make me feel like I am home again.
You make me feel like I am whole again. Now, we are best friends eternally and we will have to cross so many rivers and climb hills to on girl by jamaica get to causes and effects of drunk essays where we want to essay by jamaica be. But, I know we will get there. Because You are the light that's leading me to the place. And I am your light that’s leading me to the place. Love like ours require sacrifice, but I promise to writing love you no matter what and #0160;I know you will have my back till we return to dust. Mike, I love you more than words can describe. Wow! said someone in the audience and essay on girl by jamaica tears filled my eyes. My parents were filled with tears of joy and the guests leaped onto their feet when I ended with these words:
#0160; They just couldn’t believe how I did that. Though a few lines made people smile many had tears in their eyes. Can You Write A Speech Like That? Let me ask you once again: Can you really craft a short bride speech like I did? Yes, you can. Rtl Essay Format. Wondering how?
My dad asked the wedding speech specialists at Standing Ovation Wedding Speeches to help me do justice to on girl by jamaica my speech and they didn’t disappoint at all. The Cat Is Out Of The Bag Now. I enrolled in their easy to follow, not time-consuming wedding speech program designed to give you a standing ovation after your speech is homework sipser, over. You’ll agree with me that most of the speeches you often hear at most weddings are just as boring as impatiently watching a snail hunt for worms in the wood. Your wedding is a very special event that you will forever live to by jamaica remember and so you can’t afford to let your friends and family and even your husband down with a not so good speech. So, you better get on board now. Here’s what the program entails and here’s how it’s designed to help you become the best wedding speaker ever.
Option 1: A speech written by our wedding speech consultants that reflects exactly what you really want to say and see in your speech. Option 2: You can still put down your own speech and let’s coach you to achieve the kind of success you're dreaming about. We even show you how to make your speech totally unique even if you thought you could write it. • We coach you on how to use your voice to make your speech very exciting. Very important: Most great speeches still are uninspiring because it’s in the wrong voice and we will show you how to make your unique instead. • We also show you a simple but effective way to rehearse. We Write Your Papers. Most people rehearse their speeches the by jamaica kincaid, wrong way just as is write help matlab, usually done and we show you a technique great speakers like Abraham Lincoln, Obama, Martin Luther King and others use to get every word into on girl by jamaica kincaid their head without losing their train of thought.(guaranteed to help you even if you have a poor memory and it ensures that you don’t carry a paper with you) • Ways to include your beliefs into your speech without offending anyone plus a we share a technique a man from The United States used to give a speech that amazed the audience and write help that lead to the M.C to essay by jamaica say it was one of the inspirational wedding speeches he’s ever heard. • Simple ways to get the audience laughing even if you’re not a funny person plus the two words to your use that connect you to essay by jamaica the guests on an emotional level. • We even critique your speech rehearsals and on puerto show you how and by jamaica kincaid when to make the desired impact so you can be successful. • Why you shouldn’t always start with ‘’ thank yous’’ and where to place it in penasco, your wedding speech instead (Do this and on girl by jamaica you will wow the audience)
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anderson ucla essays First-time applicants are required to respond to one 750-word response; they can also submit a brief 250-words optional essay, but no preference is essay by jamaica, given to essay, candidates who submit an optional essay. Essay By Jamaica! The re-applicants are required to writing, address a separate question detailing improvements in their candidacies. First-Time Applicants (Required Essay): We believe that the best results are achieved when you share success, think fearlessly and essay kincaid drive change. With this in mind, what are your goals at UCLA Anderson and in your short-term and causes of drunk essays long-term career? (750 words maximum) This essay is an opportunity to showcase your 'fit' with the school. Essay! Often applicants make the rtl essay, mistake of approaching it like a regular goals essay. True, they are asked to provide information about their short term career plans and long term career plans as well as their plans to achieve them at Anderson, but they also have to demonstrate their ‘fit’ with the three core values of essay on girl, UCLA. “At UCLA Anderson, we are a community defined by write three core qualities - we share success, think fearlessly and drive change- so the by jamaica, Admissions Committee is looking for these same qualities in prospective applicants.
While there may be evidence of these qualities throughout your application, this essay question is an excellent opportunity to communicate how you fit into rtl essay, our Anderson community.” When brainstorming ideas for this essay, you will need to essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, reflect on what you have done in the past (stories/ examples) to show that Anderson’s values-(‘share success’, ‘think fearlessly’, and ‘drive change’- are your values, too. The first half of the essay should discuss how your pre- MBA career (stories from academic, professional and assignment community area) demonstrate some alignment with these principles. You will need to highlight the ways your career objectives are aligned with the on girl by jamaica kincaid, Anderson’s defining principles of collaboration ('share success'), bold and rtl essay format analytical thinking ('think fearlessly') and essay innovation and thinking outside the box ('drive ') The second half should explain how UCLA’s principles and the environment they create will help you fulfill your career goals as well as interests. Your! Please note that in addition to demonstrating how UCLA’s various offerings and essay by jamaica resources will help you realize your career goals, you also need to we write papers, show how their offerings will provide you an opportunity to pursue your interests and essay hobbies. This will help round out write help matlab your candidacy to by jamaica, the ad Com. Therefore, I would highly recommend that you do your homework of essay penasco, Anderson’s offerings (curriculum, faculty, clubs, and essay by jamaica kincaid organizations) attend information sessions, and connect with students and papers alumni to gain their insights about the program.
You may wrap up your essay by explaining how you plan to contribute to the Anderson community by immersing in its culture of sharing success, thinking fearlessly, and driving positive change. By Jamaica Kincaid! Lastly, don’t forget to of drunk essays, go through the excellent guidelines that UCLA Anderson provided in their admissions blog l ast year. The following essay is optional. No preference is given in the evaluation process to applicants who submit an optional essay. Please note that we only accept written essays. Are there any extenuating circumstances in your profile about which the Admissions Committee should be aware? Please use your best judgment. (250 words maximum) As directed in the essay prompt, applicants should use this essay to essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, address a weakness in their profile (low GPA, choice of recommender, employment gap etc.) Explain your situation in a clear and concise way without making excuses. You may not use this essay to provide additional information. Please note that the admission committee asks you to submit this essay only causes of drunk essays, if you need to. Re-applicants who applied for the MBA program starting in 2016 or 2017 are required to complete the following essay: Please describe your career progress since you last applied and ways in which you have enhanced your candidacy. Include updates on essay on girl short-term and long-term career goals, as well as your continued interest in UCLA Anderson. Writing Assignment! (750 words maximum) This is a straightforward reapplicant essay.
Through this question, the Ad Com would like to know that your need of UCLA is as strong as it was last time. Hence you should demonstrate your continued interest in UCLA by explaining how you have enhanced your application since you applied last time. You may answer this by focusing on the areas you have improved upon since you applied last. Whether you have taken extra classes, boosted your GMAT score , received a promotion, led a new and exciting project, increased your community involvement, or taken on on girl a personal challenge, the key here is to demonstrate that you are now a better and a stronger candidate since your last application. Your conscious efforts to strengthen your profile and to work on your weak areas will prove how determined you are about your UCLA MBA. The school also asks reapplicants to write, comment on ways they have refined their career goals, and to highlight the additional research they have done into the UCLA MBA program over the past one year. You may mention any meetings you have had with alumni/ professors/ad com, or any information session you have attended. Since you are allowed 750 words, you can provide a detailed account of by jamaica, enhancements in your resume and additional steps you have taken to we write your, learn more about the school and your 'fit' with the school’s culture. Lastly, and most importantly, you should use the essay on girl, feedback you received from the school on your previous application and penasco focus specifically on those areas e.g. clarity of goals and kincaid improved essays with clarity of message.
For more MBA articles, visit myEssayReview blog. The following essay is optional. No preference is given in the evaluation process to applicants who submit an on puerto penasco, optional essay. Essay On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid! Please note that we only accept written essays. Are there any extenuating circumstances in your profile about which the Admissions Committee should be aware? Please use your best judgment. We Write Your! (250 words maximum) Re-applicants who applied for the MBA program starting in 2016 or 2017 are required to complete the following essay: Please describe your career progress since you last applied and ways in essay on girl kincaid which you have enhanced your candidacy. Include updates on short-term and long-term career goals, as well as your continued interest in UCLA Anderson. (750 words maximum) Your essays are the primary way for you to share your perspectives and plans with the admissions committee. The best essays are introspective, genuine and succinct in directly answering our questions and responding to rtl essay, our topics. The online application will be available starting August 1, 2017. For more information about applying, please visit the UCLA Anderson MBA admissions website.
Your essays are the primary way for you to share your perspectives and plans with the admissions committee. The best essays are introspective, genuine and succinct in directly answering our questions and responding to our topics. » You should try to distinguish yourself by showing what makes you different from others who share similar profiles. » Personal expression is essay on girl kincaid, what we are looking for, not platitudes. » Making a strong case for your future plans requires you to rtl essay, first do research on career paths and find one that resonates. Even if this target will change during business school, your application essays should lay out essay on girl by jamaica a clear trajectory for short-term and long-term goals. Do this by demonstrating how you expect to build on rtl essay format skills from your past, and kincaid those you expect to gain from the MBA. » Essays are more compelling if they include specific courses, programs, groups, opportunities, activities, etc. from essay which you would benefit, if admitted to UCLA Anderson. These references are best found through website research, personal discussions and a campus visit (if possible). » Content and clarity are key elements, as we seek superior communication skills. » Style is a consideration, too, although we understand that those who speak other languages may have different manners of expression in English. We do check your essays for plagiarism, so make sure you always submit your own work. » Length does not equal strength. A well-written short essay can have even more impact than a longer essay.
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Essay on "Girl" by Jamaica Kincaid - Essay on The
formal essay meaning Formal semantics and its recent developments. [This paper is in Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai), 119:1 (January 1999), 2-20.] Michigan State University. Like Spanish moss on on girl by jamaica kincaid a live oak tree, the scientific study of meaning in language has expanded in the last 100 years, and continues to expand steadily. In this essay I want to chart some central themes in that expansion, including their histories and their important figures. Our attention will be directed toward what is called 'formal semantics', which is the adaptation to natural language of analytical techniques from logic. The first, background, section of the paper will survey the changing attitudes of linguists toward semantics into the last third of the century. The second and third sections will examine current formal approaches to meaning. Assignment! In the essay on girl kincaid, final section I will summarize some of the common assumptions of the approaches examined in the middle sections of the paper, sketch a few alternatives, and make some daring predictions. 'Meaning' is a broad term that can encompass any aspect of the potential for cognitive or emotive impact of speech on interlocutors.
However in homework sipser, linguistic semantics these days the cognitive aspects are the center of focus. On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid! On the other hand the traditional distinction between semantics, as the study of the relation between linguistic expressions and what they are used to talk about (people and matlab things, events and situations, etc.) and pragmatics, as the study of anything involving the use of language, has become less certain and is in fact lost in several different current approaches. 1.1 The Bloomfieldian era . Linguistics in the first half of the twentieth century was a newly developing discipline, with close connections to another developing social science, psychology. In the United States (and elsewhere) dominant figures in psychology were striving to implement the principles of British empiricist philosophy, and especially logical positivism, which stressed attention to on girl by jamaica, objective observable data in formulating scientific theories. Behaviorist psychologists at the time were also reacting against the excesses of the mentalistic introspective approach which had dominated the field at the end of the nineteenth century. Leonard Bloomfield, who was the most influential figure in linguistics in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century, was strongly influenced by behaviorism. The beginning of the chapter of write matlab his classic text Language which is titled 'Meaning' reveals this influence: We have defined the meaning of a linguistic form as the situation in which the speaker utters it and the response which it calls forth in by jamaica kincaid, the hearer. . In order to give a scientifically accurate definition of homework sipser meaning for every form of a language, we should have to have a scientifically accurate knowledge of everything in the speakers' world. The actual extent of human knowledge is very small compared to this. . The statement of meanings is therefore the essay kincaid, weak point in language-study, and will remain so until human knowledge advances very far beyond its present state. (Bloomfield 1933, 139-140) Bloomfield's 'stimulus-response' model of homework sipser meaning was as impractical as it was suited to his theoretical orientation. As Bar-Hillel described it, Bloomfield 'deplored the mentalistic mud into which the study of meanings had fallen, and tried to kincaid, reconstruct [the field of help matlab linguistics] on on girl kincaid a purely formal-structural basis' (Bar-Hillel 1954, 234-235). Bloomfield did not end his chapter on we write its second page, in despair, with the above quote.
He did find a way to talk, however briefly and informally, about the arbitrariness of meaning, polysemy and homonymy, semantic features, narrowing and broadening of word meaning, connotations of style and slang, and essay taboo words, though not always using these terms. (It is significant that Bloomfield had nothing at all to say about sentence meaning.) However the constraints of the crude behaviorist view of meaning he shared with other linguists of the time did prove to be a strong barrier to the development of linguistic semantics, a barrier which continued into the Chomskyan era. 1.2 The Chomskyan revolution . In 1957 a little book named Syntactic Structures was published by an obscure Dutch press, but was reviewed glowingly and at great length (33 pages, to be exact) by rtl essay format, Robert B. By Jamaica Kincaid! Lees in Language -- the journal of the Linguistic Society of America. Noam Chomsky's revolution in linguistics had begun. Probably Chomsky's most important contribution, from the write, perspective of the future development of linguistic semantics, was the institution of the on girl kincaid, generative conception of grammar, on which the goal of the grammarian was not to simply catalog elements from a corpus, or fixed quantity, of rtl essay format observed utterances, but rather to construct a completely explicit formula that would generate, or characterize exactly, all, and most importantly only, the infinitude of sentences of the language. Essay On Girl Kincaid! Besides the notable consequence of putting syntax at the center of help matlab linguistics, where formerly it had stood quietly at the back door, this change in goals would eventually help to draw the attention of semanticists toward the problem of describing explicitly how the meanings of sentences are derived from the meanings of the essay on girl kincaid, words that make them up. However that development would have to wait for a few years, since the scientific study of we write your semantics was still in the vexed state it had been in in Bloomfield's day. The primary issue about meaning at essay on girl by jamaica kincaid the time was whether or not intuitions about meaning should play any role in determining grammatical (= syntactic, morphological, or phonological) analysis. The worry was that if they were allowed to play a role, they would contaminate the analyses with 'mentalistic mud' (as Bar-Hillel put it). In the final chapter of Syntactic Structures Chomsky argued that semantic intuitions should not play a role, concluding that '[t]here is. little evidence that intuition about meaning is at all useful in the actual investigation of linguistic form' (Chomsky 1957, 94).
In the decades following, linguists found themselves unable to resist looking at meaning. Already in causes of drunk driving essays, the review article mentioned above, Lees had speculated about essay on girl by jamaica kincaid whether 'it could be shown that all or most of what is write help matlab, meant by a sentence is contained in the kernel sentences from which it is derived' (Lees 1957, 394). A couple of developments in syntactic analysis made possible the main tenet of the school of thought called generative semantics: that the deep structure of a sentence constitutes a representation of its meaning. On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid! Following the work of rtl essay format linguists such as Fillmore, Postal, McCawley, Ross, and G. and R. Lakoff, deep structures took on some of the aspects of a representation in first order predicate logic, though in tree form. Negation, quantifiers, and adverbs were analyzed as sentence operators ('higher predicates'), in order to represent ambiguities such as those in (1)-(3): (1) Every woman loves one man. a. There is essay, one man that every woman loves. b. Every woman loves some man or other. (2) Everyone didn't enjoy the play. a. At least one person did not enjoy the esl essay assignment, play. b. On Girl By Jamaica! No one enjoyed the play.
(3) Mary isn't working in the garden because it's sunny. a. Because it's sunny, Mary isn't working in the garden. b. It is not because it's sunny that Mary is working in the garden (but for some other reason). Thus (1), for example, would be assigned two deep structures, roughly as in (4). (4) a. [[one man]y [[every woman]x [x loves y]]] b. [[every woman]x [[one man]y [x loves y]]] However generative semanticists at write help matlab the time did not worry about the task of assigning explicit truth conditions to deep structures. Rather the devising and justification of particular deep structures was seen as the end of the kincaid, job of assignment semantics. Linguists at this time were working largely independently of essay on girl by jamaica philosophers of language and logicians. This may have been one of the less happy consequences of and effects of drunk driving Chomsky's influence.
In the on girl by jamaica, article cited above, Bar-Hillel suggested that linguists pay attention to developments in logic and try to incorporate a formal account of semantics into their grammar, but Chomsky's rather sharp reply the following year asserted that 'the relevance of logical syntax and semantics' to the study of natural languages 'is very dubious' (Chomsky 1955, 36). Write Help Matlab! This reaction of essay on girl by jamaica Chomsky's was explicitly based on the not uncommon idea that natural languages and formal languages are fundamentally different from each other, but it was also very much in tune with his larger project of overthrowing empiricist philosophy of language and mind in favor of a return to Cartesian rationalism, as well as his personal style of esl essay writing publicly expressed arrogance and disdain for the work of essay by jamaica kincaid others. Chomsky's first crops of linguistics Ph.D.'s began to we write, appear in the mid 1960's, and on girl by jamaica thereafter increasing numbers of American linguists were taught by rtl essay format, linguists who had been taught by Chomsky himself. These students, and their students, tended to inherit the essay on girl by jamaica, idea that little of substantial value had been said about language in the centuries immediately prior to we write your, Chomsky. By Jamaica Kincaid! In the your papers, late 1960's and early 1970's several developments altered this picture.
1.3. Montague and formal semantics . The just mentioned assumption that natural languages like English and Chinese are fundamentally different from the formal languages devised by logicians was a cornerstone of a twentieth century dispute within British empiricist philosophy between formalists, who held that natural languages were too riddled with vagueness and ambiguity to be useful philosophical tools, and ordinary language philosophers, who held that natural languages not only could be excellent tools if used carefully, but also were rich repositories of the on girl, wisdom of generations of speakers. In the late 1960's two philosophers, one a well-known British ordinary language philosopher and the other a young American logician, effectively challenged this common assumption that natural languages and formal languages are very different from each other. H. Paul Grice, in rtl essay, his William James lecture series delivered at Harvard University in essay by jamaica kincaid, 1967, presented a systematic account of what he argued were only apparent divergences between a number of logical expressions and their natural language counterparts. At roughly the essay on puerto, same time Richard Montague, in a series of papers with titles like 'English as a formal language' and 'Universal grammar', was making good on the following bold statement: 'There is in on girl kincaid, my opinion no important theoretical difference between natural languages and the artificial languages of logicians; indeed, I consider it possible to comprehend the syntax and semantics of both kinds of languages within a single natural and mathematically precise theory' (Montague 1970b, 222). Montague's papers are highly formal and condensed, very difficult for ordinary humans (even logicians!) to read with comprehension. Fortunately it happened that a young linguist named Barbara Partee, an exceptionally intelligent and clear-thinking as well as personable individual who was in homework sipser, Chomsky's first (1965) class of kincaid Linguistics Ph.D.'s from MIT, took a job at UCLA, met Montague there, and developed an interest in we write, his approach to natural language and its contrast with Chomskyan transformational grammar.
In lectures in the early 1970's, especially following Montague's untimely death early in on girl by jamaica kincaid, 1971, Partee presented his work in such a way as to make it both comprehensible and appealing. 1974 was the penasco, fiftieth anniversary of the Linguistic Society of America and that summer a special Golden Anniversary Linguistic Institute was held at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, where Partee was now on the faculty. Partee's class on essay on girl by jamaica Montague Grammar was one of the highlights of this stellar Institute, and was attended by many prominent linguists. On Puerto Penasco! Her 100 page article 'Montague Grammar and Transformational Grammar', which contained a kind of 'do it yourself' kit for learning formal semantics, appeared in Linguistic Inquiry in 1975, and essay on girl kincaid served as a kind of introductory text until the excellent volume by Dowty, Wall Peters appeared in causes and effects driving essays, 1981. Linguists were not entirely ignorant of on girl kincaid relevant work in logic and format philosophy of language at this time, but there was not the kind of interaction that there is today. Essay On Girl Kincaid! One reason noted above may have been the insular precedent set by Chomsky. Another may have been the personalities of the generative semanticists, who would have been expected to be the linguists most interested in developments in logic and philosophy of help matlab language. In August of 1969 the philosophers Donald Davidson and Gilbert Harman organized a small colloquium of logicians and linguists in an effort to promote more fruitful interactions, but Quine (one of the on girl, participants) remarked in his condensed autobiography that '[t]he colloquium was a fiasco at bridge building' (Quine 1986, 38), and suggested that the personalities involved were the cause. However the volume that resulted from this small conference, Davidson Harman 1972, contained many classic articles (including contributions from both Partee and Montague) which were widely read by and effects of drunk driving essays, linguists as well as philosophers, and ultimately the work of Montague and Partee along with linguistically inclined philosophers like David Lewis and Robert Stalnaker had and continue to have a tremendous impact on the field.
Probably the most important byproduct of this interaction was that linguists became very aware of the essay by jamaica, fact that simply to represent meaning is not to give an analysis of it. This point was made most effectively by David Lewis, who criticized Katz and Postal's system of semantic representation in write matlab, terms of semantic features which they called 'markers' (Katz Postal 1964). Lewis pointed out that Katz and essay on girl kincaid Postal were merely giving rules for translating English into an artificial language that might be called 'Markerese', and he said: we can know the Markerese translation of an English sentence without knowing the first thing about the meaning of the English sentence: namely, the conditions under which it would be true. Semantics with no treatment of truth conditions is not semantics. (Lewis 1972, 169.) By studying ordinary predicate logic as well as Montague's more specialized work linguists became familiar with truth conditional model-theoretic semantics, in penasco, which interpretations for expressions, including truth conditions for sentences, are assigned relative to essay kincaid, a model. From the early 1970's to the present time, linguists and causes and effects driving essays philosophers have worked closely and fruitfully together, attending and presenting papers at each other's conferences and publishing in each other's journals, and work in semantics, and especially formal semantics, has flourished in the United States. The journal Linguistics and Philosophy , which describes itself as focusing 'on issues related to structure and essay by jamaica kincaid meaning in papers, natural language as addressed in essay on girl, the philosophy of language, linguistic semantics, syntax and related disciplines', published its first issue in 1977 and homework sipser is now in essay on girl, its 21st volume. Other journals devoted to semantics have also begun to write, appear -- Journal of Semantics (which started in 1984), Natural Language Semantics (1993) -- as well as the prestigious conference series Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT), which publishes the proceedings of its annual meetings and is now (1998) in its eighth year.
A number of linguists and essay on girl by jamaica philosophers have joint academic appointments in Linguistics and Philosophy (among them Richmond Thomason, Barbara Partee, and myself) and the linguistics program at MIT is housed in causes and effects driving essays, the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, though it should be noted that Chomsky's resistance to formal semantics has continued unabated. 2. Current formal semantics: quantification . We will begin our investigation of the current scene in American linguistic semantics with a closer work at Montague's work, including some of the problems he was able to formalize solutions to. In this work interpretation of by jamaica kincaid noun phrases takes center stage, and that will continue when we look at matlab other analyses of quantification in essay on girl, natural language. Then we will turn our attention to format, some other aspects of sentence meaning. 2.1. Montague Grammar . The papers of Montague's cited above deal with 'fragments' of English. Montague's aim was not to construct a grammar for the whole language, but rather to give a complete (and completely explicit) syntax and semantics for an infinite subpart of the language which contained some constructions which pose interesting challenges for essay on girl kincaid the semantician.
Chief among these are 'referentially opaque' or 'intensional' constructions. 'Referential opacity' is the term coined by help, Quine 1953 for the failure of substitution of essay by jamaica coreferential expressions (expressions which refer to the same thing) to preserve truth in certain contexts. (See also Quine 1956 for an excellent introduction to this problem.) One major group of referentially opaque contexts consists of sentences about propositional attitudes, or people's psychological attitudes (such as belief, desire, hope, fear, knowledge) towards situations or states of affairs. Rtl Essay! (5a) below can be true and (5c) false, despite the fact that the truth of (5b) means that the NPs Jocasta and Oedipus's mother are coreferential. (5) a. Oedipus wanted to marry Jocasta. b. Jocasta was Oedipus's mother. c. Oedipus wanted to marry his mother. Frege 1892 had argued that associated with expressions is a sense ( Sinn ) as well as a reference or denotation ( Bedeutung ), and that in referentially opaque contexts expressions denote their sense instead of their customary reference. Although Jocasta and Oedipus's mother have the same denotation they differ in sense, and this explains why they cannot be freely substituted for one another in propositional attitude contexts. Montague's semantics formalized Frege's solution using the on girl by jamaica kincaid, notion 'intension', which is a formal analysis of the Fregean concept of sense developed by Carnap, Kripke, Montague and others. Intensions are functions from possible worlds, or possible states of affairs, to denotations or referents (the latter also known as extensions). ' Montague Grammar' came to denote the write help matlab, style of grammar presented in Montague 1973, which has three components: a syntax generating a fragment of English (which in Montague 1973 included sentences about propositional attitudes), a complete syntax and model-theoretic semantics for a tensed intensional logic, and a set of translation rules mapping parsed English expressions to expressions of the intensional logic. In this way the logic serves to kincaid, provide interpretations for homework sipser the English fragment. The intensional logic was included in this paper for perspicuity; in 'English as a formal language', Montague interpreted an English fragment directly. 2.2.
Generalized quantifiers . Chomsky has impressed linguists with the importance of essay on girl by jamaica accounting for what he calls the essay, 'creative' aspect of human language -- the fact that we are able to produce and comprehend an essay unlimited number of novel utterances, sentences that we have never heard before. Compositionality is the semantic property of linguistic expressions that we assume is an essential part of the explanation for this miraculous ability. The meaning of a phrase is compositional if it is determined by the meanings of its constituent expressions plus the way they are put together syntactically. Idioms are, by definition, phrases whose meanings are not compositional. If all of language were idiomatic in this sense, then language would have no creative aspect in Chomsky's sense. The formal languages of logic are strongly compositional, which means that expressions of a given syntactic category all receive the same type of your papers interpretation and contribute in the same way to essay on girl kincaid, the interpretation of format larger expressions of which they form a part. One striking way in which natural languages have seemed not to essay, be strongly compositional is in the interpretation of noun phrases (NPs). NPs that are proper names, like Mary , have the same distributional properties as quantified NPs like every student , and sentences like those in (6) share their syntactic structure: b. Every student talks. However, while it is natural to say of (6a) that it is true just in case the individual denoted by the name Mary belongs to the set of entities that talk, a parallel analysis is not possible for (6b), and causes of drunk traditionally sentences like (6a) have received very different translations into first order predicate logic from sentences like (6b), as seen in (7).
b. x [Student(x) - Talks(x)] Probably the most impressive and far-reaching innovation in Montague's semantics came about essay by jamaica kincaid because of his need to solve this problem, and that was the write help matlab, introduction of the generalized quantifier analysis of NPs. A generalized quantifier (GQ) is (an expression denoting) a set of subsets of some domain; on this view the traditional existential quantifier would be interpreted as the set of all non-empty subsets of the domain of discourse. Taking NPs to denote GQs, Mary would be interpreted as the by jamaica kincaid, set containing all and only those sets which have the person Mary as a member, and Every student would denote the set containing all and homework sipser only supersets of the by jamaica, set of students. Homework Sipser! In this way the subject NPs of (6a) and (6b) can both be seen as taking the predicate as an argument, and kincaid each sentence is true if and essay only if the set of entities that talk belongs to the GQ denoted by the subject NP. Besides enabling Montague to solve the on girl by jamaica, strong compositionality problem, the writing, GQ analysis of NPs allows a number of other improvements. Essay By Jamaica Kincaid! Some of homework sipser these were observed and made use of by Montague; for example the generalization of conjunction and disjunction, which in essay, ordinary predicate logic are strictly sentence operators, to apply also to NPs (as well as verb phrases). Following Montague's death other linguists and philosophers, beginning with the seminal work of Barwise Cooper 1981, explored other avenues opened by homework sipser, the GQ approach and essay by jamaica many papers and books have appeared detailing the results (see e.g.
Gärdenfors 1987 and Bach et al. 1995, and the works cited there). A major thrust of this work is rtl essay format, a change of focus from the essay by jamaica, NP to the determiner, which under the GQ approach can be easily treated categorematically (unlike the traditional logic syncategorematic analysis of quantifier expressions) and analyzed as denoting a function from sets (common noun denotations) to sets of sets (GQs) or, equivalently, as expressing a relation between sets -- the essay penasco, set denoted by the common noun it combines with and the set denoted by the predicate. This shift in focus is very much in tune with current trends in syntax, where increasingly function morphemes have taken center stage, so that clauses are now taken to be complements of by jamaica kincaid complementizers and so part of a CP category, and nominal phrases are complements of determiners and so part of a DP category. A number of formal semantic properties of quantified NPs came to light under the GQ approach. One of the most widely cited concerns 'entailingness' or monotonicity. In general an operator is upward entailing if a sentence containing it entails a sentence where the operator's argument is replaced with superset of essay on puerto penasco its original argument, and downward entailing if the entailment goes in the other direction.
Viewing quantificational determiners as functions from sets to GQs, and GQs as functions from essay, sets to truth values, we have two operators to rtl essay, consider -- the determiner and the GQ. The determiner every is downward entailing, as shown by the fact that (8a) entails (8b): (8) a. Every dog barks. b. Every spotted dog barks. On the other hand the GQ Every dog is upward entailing, as seen by the fact that (9b) entails (9a): (9) a. Every dog barks . b. Every dog barks loudly . Both some and essay on girl kincaid some dog are upward entailing, while no and no dog are both downward entailing, as the reader may confirm by substituting them for every in essay on puerto penasco, the examples in (8) and (9). Negative polarity items are expressions like any and ever that are limited in essay, their occurrence; they occur naturally in negative sentences, and in some other environments, but an exact statement of the constraint has proved elusive. An appealing hypothesis is we write papers, that they occur exactly in downward entailing environments (see Ladusaw 1983), and this is confirmed by the examples in (10) - (12). ( 10) a. *Some dog who ever smiles barks. b. *Some dog barks at anyone. (11) a. No dog who ever smiles barks. b. No dog barks at anyone.
(12) a. Essay Kincaid! Every dog who ever smiles barks. b. *Every dog barks at anyone. Despite the very exciting developments that arose as a result of the generalized quantifier analysis of NPs, there remain some questions about whether it is in fact the correct analysis. One challenge which we will look at in the homework sipser, next subsection has come, in on girl by jamaica, part, from on puerto, one of Partee's own students, and in connection with a new approach which considerably blurs the essay by jamaica, traditional distinction between semantics, as the study of words-world relations abstracting away from contexts of utterance, and pragmatics, as the study of the effects of context on interpretation. 2.3. Discourse representation and file change semantics . In the early 1980s a rather different approach to natural language quantification was proposed independently by Irene Heim, at the time one of essay on puerto Barbara Partee's students at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and by Hans Kamp, a philosopher and logician. (See Heim 1982, 1983, and Kamp 1984.) One problem which Kamp and Heim were concerned with was providing an adequate analysis of what are called 'donkey sentences', as in (13): ( 13) Every farmer who owns a donkey beats it. Such sentences actually present two problems. The first concerns the by jamaica, interpretation of the pronoun it . If we represent a donkey in traditional predicate logic, using the existential quantifier, then the it (represented by the final occurrence of y in causes driving essays, (14) will be outside the scope of that quantifier and will not be appropriately bound: (14) x [[Farmer(x) $ y [Donkey(y) Own(x,y)]] - Beat(x,y)] If, on the other hand, we use a universal quantifier for a donkey as in essay by jamaica kincaid, (15), (15) x y[[Farmer(x) Donkey(y) Own(x,y)] - Beat(x,y)] we get a correct representation of the meaning of (13) but we have to explain how a donkey should sometimes be represented with a universal quantifier, but not other times, e.g. (16): (16) Mary owns a donkey.
Discourse Representation Semantics (DRS) (Kamp) and File Change Semantics (FCS) (Heim) both solved this problem with an approach to semantics which views the meaning of homework sipser a sentence in terms of the impact an essay on girl utterance of it has on the discourse of which it is a part, in other words in terms of causes driving essays its context change potential. This is an approach that had earlier been urged by Stalnaker, in essay on girl, connection with the problem of presuppositions and presupposition projection. (See Stalnaker 1974, 1978.) Under this approach indefinite NPs are treated as introducing a new entity, represented by a free variable, into the discourse. We Write Papers! (Definite NPs must be matched with an entity already introduced into the discourse.) When they occur in simple sentences like (17) they receive an existential interpretation in view of the semantic rule for interpreting the entire discourse -- roughly, the discourse is true if there is by jamaica kincaid, a sequence of individuals meeting all the conditions that have been mentioned. In this way pronominalization relationships which cross sentences, as in (17), can also be accommodated. (17) Mary owns a donkey . It always brays when it wants to be fed. The pronouns in write help matlab, (17) are beyond the capability of traditional formal semantics, which follows traditional logic in providing interpretations sentence by sentence. If an indefinite NP occurs in a context like (13), that is within the scope of a quantificational operator, then it is not necessarily bound by the discourse but instead can be bound by that operator. Lets look more closely to see how this happens.
In the discourse oriented view of semantics, quantification breaks down into a three part, or tripartite, structure. The first element of the structure is the quantificational operator, the second element includes any restriction on the range of essay on girl by jamaica quantification, and homework sipser the third element (often called the 'scope') is the actual assertion associated with the quantifier. If indefinite NPs fall within the restrictive portion of a quantificational structure, they inherit binding by whatever quantificational operator is on girl kincaid, involved. So (13) receives a representation as in esl essay, (18), where Q stands for 'Quantificational operator', R stands for 'Restriction', and S stands for 'Scope': (18) Q[every: x, y] R[Farmer(x), Donkey(y), Owns(x,y)] S[Beats(x,y)] One of the attractive features of this approach is that it can also handle examples of adverbial and adjectival quantification which were pointed out by David Lewis (see Lewis 1975).
Notice that (19) below means the kincaid, same thing as (13), and would also be represented by (18), but this time the universal quantification is expressed by the adverb, and your there are two indefinite NPs -- a farmer and essay a donkey -- to fall within its scope. (19) Invariably, if a farmer owns a donkey he beats it. So what is the relation between the GQ analysis of NPs and homework sipser the DRS/FCS type of by jamaica kincaid analysis? Barbara Partee, ever the assignment, unifier, argued that both are correct, but possibly for different kinds of NPs and different kinds of on girl by jamaica contexts. In Partee 1986 she argued that indefinite NPs in fact need three different types of representations, depending on the context in which they occur. Indefinite NPs with pronominalization effects as explored in DRS/FCS and assignment exemplified in (17) above should be interpreted as denoting simple entities. Indefinites that function as predicate nominals, as in (20), should be analyzed as denoting sets of things, here, the set of essay on girl students. (20) Mary is a student. And the indefinite NP in (21) needs to be regarded as denoting a GQ, since it is conjoined with a quantificational NP: (21) One student and homework sipser all the teachers appeared at the rally. This is not the end of the story, however; see Bach et al. 1995 for more recent papers on the relations between these two approaches.
And we must mention a third approach here, the on girl by jamaica kincaid, dynamic semantics of Groenendijk, Stokhof, and others. (See Groenendijk Stokhof 1991, Groenendijk, Stokhof Veltman 1996.) Expressing a concern about the lack of attention to esl essay, compositionality in the DRS/FCS approaches, Groenendijk and essay on girl Stokhof have explored a modification of traditional predicate logic which will be able to interpret donkey sentences and cross-sentence anaphora. It is possible to equate the interpretation of a sentence in traditional predicate logic with the assignment, set of kincaid assignments of values to variables which will satisfy it. In the on puerto, original formulation of the essay on girl, dynamic semantics approach interpretations are instead ordered pairs of matlab assignments. Successive sentences in a discourse carry over information from previous assignments, so that examples like (17) receive the proper interpretation. In conditional sentences, which donkey sentences are formally, the same property holds between antecedent and consequent, so that in a logical form like (14) the rightmost occurrence of the y variable will be bound by the existential quantifier. This basic approach is modified and elaborated in Groenendijk et al.
1996. This completes our summary of current approaches to formal semantics which focus on the interpretation of NPs, especially quantified NPs. This summary has necessarily left out many details, alternative theories (such as situation semantics -- see Barwise Perry 1983) and particular analyses of constructions. For more information, see the many excellent papers in Lappin 1996. We turn now to look at some other aspects of sentence interpretation.
3. Aspects of eventualities . As noted above, by far the most attention in formal semantics has been paid to the interpretation of NPs. However philosophers and on girl linguists have also been drawn to consider other aspects of sentence interpretation and and effects of drunk driving now we will look at essay on girl by jamaica kincaid some of essay penasco these. We will begin with a problem noticed by Donald Davidson, and that will lead us to consider the nature of by jamaica kincaid different kinds of eventualities as well as some more complexities of on puerto NP interpretation. 3.1. Kincaid! Davidson's 'event' semantics . Davidson (1967) considered the fanciful example in (22): (22) Jones buttered the toast with a knife in the bathroom at midnight. In traditional predicate logic, clauses are wholly represented as a predicate plus its arguments -- one corresponding to each NP of the corresponding English sentence.
There are 5 NPs in (22) ( Jones , the toast , a knife , the bathroom , midnight ); hence to represent this sentence in traditional logic we would have to esl essay writing assignment, have a 5-place predicate, something like Butter-with-in-at , to essay by jamaica, go with five arguments corresponding to esl essay writing, these five NPs. By Jamaica! The sentences in (23a)-(23c) would have to have, respectively, 4-place, 3-place, and 2-place predicates. (23) a. Your! Jones buttered the toast with a knife in the bathroom. b. Jones buttered the toast with a knife. c. Jones buttered the toast.
But intuitively there should not be four different predicates involved in the sentences in (22) and (23), but rather just one predicate -- butter . And all of essay on girl kincaid these sentences could be different ways of describing the essay penasco, very same event. To put the problem in more formal terms (the way Davidson described it), (22) entails each of the sentences in (23) (and they each entail the ones below them), but these semantic relations could not be captured in traditional predicate logic. What Davidson proposed by way of a solution was to recognize events as a kind of entity -- that is, to add events to essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, the other things (people, dogs, chairs, etc.) in the domain of discourse -- and to regard ordinary sentences as implicitly making reference to an event. Assignment! Everything else in the sentence can then be seen as being predicated of this event. So (22) would introduce an event which is kincaid, a 'Jones buttering the toast' type of event, and this very event has other properties -- it occurred with a knife and in papers, the bathroom, etc. The logical form of (22), according to Davidson, is something like (24), where e is a special variable over by jamaica, events: (24) $ e [Butter(Jones, the toast, e ) With(a knife, e ) In(the bathroom, e ) At(midnight, e )] The logical form for (23c) would be (25). (25) is entailed by (24) as well as by help, the Davidsonian logical forms for (23a) and (23b).
Linguists were not aware of Davidson's proposals for a while after they were introduced, but more recently they have received a great deal of attention. However, it is not clear whether all sentences should be seen as making implicit reference to an event, or whether we should take the term 'event' seriously. Not all sentences describe events. The sentences in (26) would all be called 'stative' -- they describe relatively unchanging circumstances which simply are. (26) a. Essay Kincaid! Joyce knows Arabic. b. Four divided by two equals two. c. Dogs make good companions. Notice also that such sentences do not take time, place, and manner adverbials freely, as shown in (27). (27) a. ?Joyce knows Arabic at midnight. b. ?Four divided by two equals two in the bathroom. c. ?Dogs make good companions with a knife.
Kratzer 1996 has argued that sentences with stative predicates, like those in (26), should not be analyzed with a Davidsonian event variable, although other linguists have argued that all sentences should have an event variable (see Bach 1981, Higginbotham 1985). The next section looks at another difference between stative and non-stative predicates, one which is related to the interpretation of generic NPs. 3.2. Homework Sipser! Generic NPs . Sentences like those in essay, (28) present an interesting puzzle: (28) a. Dogs are excellent companions. b. Dogs are barking outside my window. Though the write, same word -- dogs -- functions as subject in both it seems to refer to two different things. (28a) is a statement about dogs in general, perhaps all dogs, while (28b) talks about on girl kincaid some specific dogs, perhaps only two or three. Greg Carlson (another of rtl essay Barbara Partee's students!) had a crucial insight in proposing a solution to this puzzle.
He shifted attention from the subject to by jamaica, the predicate and saw that the apparent distinction in NP interpretation correlated well with a difference in whether the verb phrase expressed a permanent property, or instead a more temporary property, of the and effects of drunk, subject. In Carlson's analysis (see Carlson 1977, 1980), dogs is taken to uniformly denote the kind dogs. Truth of (28a) requires the predicate to hold generally of individual dogs belonging to this kind. The predicate of by jamaica (28b) on the other hand introduces (existential) quantification over temporal stages of we write your papers individual dogs -- a concept which was inspired by essay on girl kincaid, W.V. Quine 1960. Although particular aspects of this analysis have been disputed (see Carlson Pelletier 1995 for some current views of generics), Carlson's distinction between individual level and stage level predication has proved to have far reaching significance. One application is describing the difference between possible subsidiary predications in existential sentences in English. (29a), with an individual level predicate, is an ungrammatical sentence but (29b), which has instead a stage level predicate, is perfectly natural. (29) a. *There are dogs excellent companions.
b. There are dogs barking outside my window. Carlson's stage level predicates are all stative predicates, and the individual level predicates seem to esl essay writing, be nonstative, but that leaves many unanswered questions. Are there just two types of eventualities? If not, what other kinds are there, and how are the different categories defined? These questions have not been answered yet in a way that everyone agrees on. We will look at by jamaica kincaid some proposals in the next section. 3.3. Types of eventualities . The German word Aktionsarten (singular Aktionsart) is commonly now used in the study of different types of eventualities, to distinguish aspect in this sense from the aspectual markers found on rtl essay verbs in by jamaica kincaid, inflecting languages. Grammarians since Aristotle have commonly found more than just a two-way distinction in types of predicates. Aristotle himself pointed to a three way distinction among states like knowing Arabic, which are relatively unchanging, processes like running, in which there is esl essay writing assignment, activity of by jamaica kincaid some kind going on, and actions like building a house, which have a natural culmination or termination point. Causes And Effects Driving! The latter are now commonly referred to as telic eventualities.
Zeno Vendler, one of the earliest philosophers to by jamaica kincaid, pay serious attention to the kinds of linguistic evidence that motivates linguists, divided Aristotle's telic eventualities into two subcategories -- accomplishments like building a house, which are volitional and take some time to rtl essay format, bring about, and what he called achievements like noticing a mistake or dying, which are nonvolitional and are referred to as though they were instantaneous. (See Vendler 1967.) Some of the grammatical distinctions in essay by jamaica kincaid, these four categories are illustrated in homework sipser, the following examples, where know Arabic represents stative predicates, push a cart represents processes, build a house represents accomplishments, and notice a mistake represents achievements. (30) a. *Mary is knowing Arabic/noticing a mistake. b. Essay By Jamaica! Mary is pushing a cart/building a house. (31) a. Mary knew Arabic/pushed a cart for a year. b. *Mary built a house/noticed a mistake for a year. (32) a. *Mary knew Arabic/pushed a cart within day. b. Mary built a house/noticed a mistake within a day.
However, not everybody has agreed with Vendler about the number of distinct categories he postulated. Causes And Effects Of Drunk! In the formal semantics for Aktionsarten presented in essay kincaid, Parsons 1990, there are just two operators: Cul ('culminate') to represent Vendler's accomplishments and homework sipser achievements, and Hold, for sentences representing either states or processes. Bach 1986, on the other hand, subdivided eventualities into six different subcategories, including two different types of states (dynamic and essay by jamaica kincaid static), in addition to processes and causes and effects essays several kinds of telic eventualities. There are other complications too; Verkuyl has stressed the importance of the essay on girl, effect different types of NP arguments can have on the aspect of a sentence. (33a) and (34a) would be classified as telic eventualities, whereas (33b) and and effects (34b) are non-telic processes. (33) a. Mary painted a picture (*for a year).
b. Mary painted pictures (for a year). (34) a. A guest arrived (*for an hour). b. Guests arrived (for an hour). Verkuyl 1993 proposes a formal semantics in which NPs as well as verbs are taken into kincaid, account, and eventuality types are determined compositionally for the sentence as a whole. 4. Homework Sipser! Summary, conclusions and prognostications . 4.1.
Commonalities . All of the formal analyses described and summarized here have shared some common assumptions about the goals of semantics. One is that any proposed analysis of the semantic interpretation for on girl by jamaica kincaid a language, or a portion thereof, must be given in rigorous and explicit terms. Vagueness is to be avoided, and if possible nothing is to be left to the reader to fill in or guess at. The kind of formal semantics adapted from the languages of logic has filled that bill extremely well. This explains the frequent use of special symbols in formal semantics. The special symbols can be defined explicitly so that there is no risk of misinterpretation or ambiguity. The symbols also make formal statements less lengthy and more readable, once one has learned their interpretation. Although the heavy use of special symbols initially presents somewhat of a formidable seeming barrier to formal semantics, ultimately it has more than enough value in clarity to make climbing over this barrier well worth while.
Another common assumption was referred to essay penasco, above in the contradictory-sounding statement from David Lewis: 'Semantics without truth conditions is not semantics' (Lewis 1972, 169). Truth conditional semantics takes the essay on girl kincaid, core of meaning for a sentence to be given by some kind of explicit statement about what it would take for a sentence to be true. There are many arguments for this assumption. One is that it makes clear how language is related to the things in the outside world that it is used to talk about. Esl Essay Writing! It also explains how people can use language to convey information to each other about the extra-linguistic world. And finally there is the fundamental fact that if someone knows what sentence means, then she knows what the world would have to be like for the sentence to be true -- i.e. the truth conditions of the sentence. Generally also if one knows truth conditions then one knows meaning too, but not always.
Necessarily true sentences like the truths of mathematics all have the same truth conditions -- they are true under any circumstances or in every possible world. Essay On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid! Nevertheless these sentences don't all mean the same thing. Two plus two equals four does not mean the same as There is no largest prime number . So there is essay, more to meaning besides truth conditions, but formal semanticians agree that giving truth conditions is an essential core to essay, describing meaning. The approaches to semantics sketched above in §§2 and 3 also followed common logical practice in being model-theoretic. Model-theoretic semantics is a generalization of the causes and effects of drunk, truth conditional approach according to which truth conditions are given relative to a model. Essay On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid! The semantics for a given language will specify what a model for the language must consist of -- what kinds of things it must have and how the language is to be related to them. Then for a natural language we assume that a sentence is true if it is true relative to a model which matches the write help matlab, real world in the relevant respects. (See Kalish 1967 for discussion and by jamaica kincaid historical notes.) 4.2. Writing Assignment! Alternatives, formal informal . Not all truth conditional semantics is model-theoretic. Donald Davidson has proposed a different style of semantics for natural language, which is essay by jamaica, also based on modern logic, but which takes the task of semantics for a language as divising a system which will generate specific statements of truth conditions which are called 'T-sentences'.
T-sentences were introduced by Tarski (see Tarski 1944), but the esl essay, 'T' stands for 'truth' not for 'Tarski'! A T-sentence for essay kincaid the English sentence Snow is white is esl essay assignment, given in by jamaica, (35). (35) Snow is white is true if and only if snow is white. (35) looks fairly vacuous, but part of that vacuous look is because the object language -- the language we are talking about the semantics of, is the same as the metalanguage -- the language we are using to do the homework sipser, semantics with. When the object language is different from the metalanguage, the T-sentence looks more significant: (36) Xuê shì baí de is true if and only if snow is white. Tarski proposed as a minimal condition on the adequacy of the semantic rules for a language, that they should allow the derivation (that is, the proof, in the logical sense) of the correct T-sentences for all the sentences of the object language. Larson Segal 1995 have undertaken the task of working out the formal details of the essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, T-sentence approach for a large fragment of English which includes generalized quantifiers, referentially opaque sentences, tense and aspect features, and many other interesting and challenging constructions. Their work is presented as a textbook for graduate students, but it is of great interest to professional linguists and philosophers of language as well. There are few alternatives to the approaches falling under the heading of formal semantics, and none that offer the same comprehensiveness. Probably the most well known is the approach of Jackendoff -- see Jackendoff 1990, 1997.
Jackendoff's specialty is lexical semantics, about which formal semanticists have had the least to say, and his work, which offers many insights into the nature of word meaning, deserves careful attention. Rtl Essay! Zwarts Verkuyl 1994 show how Jackendoff's work might be put in a formal framework. Fauconnier 1994, 1997 has put forward an approach invoking what he calls 'mental spaces', which are similar in some respects to possible worlds or situations but intended to be (representations of) human thought. This work focuses in particular on essay on girl by jamaica kincaid unusual cases of we write your papers reference such as those illustrated in (36). (36) a. Bill [meaning Bill's car] is parked on the next street. b. If I were you I would treat myself/me with a little more respect. Fauconnier's work tends to be less carefully worked out than Jackendoff's, and neither approach reaches the level of explicit comprehensiveness of the formal theories we have been looking at.
4.3. Essay By Jamaica Kincaid! Future prospects . The relation between language and mind remains at present a very murky one. Chomsky's mentalistic revolution in linguistics put the study of language, at least theoretically and according to Chomsky, under the we write, umbrella of psychology. However in practice developments in linguistics and findings of psycholinguists have not always fit together comfortably, and I regret to have to report that linguists have sometimes seemed to turn their back on psycholinguists in essay on girl by jamaica, such cases. Chomsky continues to throw up a wall, with one side marked 'competence' -- the static knowledge of language shared by speakers, and the other side marked 'performance' -- actual occasions of use of this knowledge to produce and comprehend utterances; and he seems to your papers, think that this wall will keep at bay any experimental findings which do not support his theoretical proposals. Essay By Jamaica! On the other hand there are some meager indications that eventually contrary evidence can penetrate. The early transformational model of grammar was not well supported by evidence from experiments on rtl essay language processing. While this evidence seemed to be ignored for many years, gradually Chomsky has replaced the transformational model with another, and it is possible that the psycholinguistic evidence played a role in this replacement. Another issue is the relation of essay on girl by jamaica kincaid semantics to homework sipser, the rest of the grammar, on the one hand, and to the rest of cognition on the other.
In his current 'Minimalism' theory of grammar Chomsky sometimes seems to suggest that the rules of semantics are completely outside the essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, grammar, and belong to aspects of general cognition. On other occasions, though, Chomsky uses examples of word meaning to esl essay, argue for by jamaica kincaid the highly specialized nature of linguistic competence and for its innateness. Rtl Essay! (See Chomsky 1995a,b.) This ambivalence is matched by other long standing controversies -- the essay on girl, controversy over whether word meanings are specialized and distinguished from general knowledge about the world (the 'dictionary' view) or whether they are holistic and global, and encompass everything related to essay penasco, extensions (the 'encyclopedia' view), as well as the many disputes about whether certain aspects of sentence meaning (in a broad sense of 'meaning') belong to semantics or pragmatics -- aspects such as presupposition, conversational implicature, and on girl by jamaica kincaid illocutionary force. I predict that these issues will be resolved within the next fifty years, and that findings from the rest of the new field of cognitive science -- especially the subfields of psycholinguistics and essay on puerto language processing, neurolinguistics, and computational linguistics -- will be helpful in this resolution. I also believe that the essay on girl by jamaica, evidence will ultimately indicate that the framework for semantic interpretation will share the unique nature that the causes of drunk driving, rest of language seems to have, and that there will be a distinction between the linguistic lexicon and the encyclopedia of world knowledge. By Jamaica! I base this projection in homework sipser, part on kincaid the fact that the principles of meaning, whether at the word level or at the sentence level, seem to be as illusive and inaccessible to conscious reflection as the principles of syntactic structure or phonological interpretation, and in part on my belief that Grice and Montague were right, that the logical approach to language, in which semantic and syntactic representations mirror each other, is justified for natural as well as formalized languages. [ 1] According to your, Carnap A theory, a rule, a definition, or the like is to be called formal when no reference is made in on girl by jamaica kincaid, it either to the meaning of the symbols (for example, the words) or to the sense of the expressions (e.g. the sentences), but simply and esl essay assignment solely to the kinds and order of the symbols from which the expressions are constructed. (Carnap 1937, 1.) On this characterization it may seem like the phrase 'formal semantics' should be a contradiction in terms! At the time Carnap and essay on girl kincaid others believed that relations of meaning among sentences, such as entailment and contradiction, could and should be given an account in purely formal, that is syntactic, terms. However with the development by Tarski and your papers others of rigorous methods of semantic interpretation, on the one hand, and the proof by Gödel of the nonequivalence of syntactic and semantic notions of logical consequence, on the other, 'logic' has come to encompass both syntax and semantics, and 'formal' has come to mean something like 'rigorous and explicit; modeled on methods in logic'.
In some ways the term is a counterpart to Chomsky's term 'generative'. By Jamaica Kincaid! [return] [ 2] One of these developments was the discovery by Fillmore of the cyclic principle of transformational rule application (Fillmore 1963), which allowed the abandonment of essay generalized transformations and the incorporation of recursive rules in the phrase structure component. On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid! The other was the development by Katz and Postal of arguments for deep structure triggers of otherwise meaning changing transformations -- most notably the negation and writing assignment question rules (Katz Postal 1964). [return] [ 3] The earliest of these papers were published in 1970, but reference notes make clear that the ideas were already beginning to be presented in lectures as early as January and February of 1966 (cf. On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid! Montague 1970a, 188). [return] [ 4] The reader may have guessed from your papers, this quotation that the phrase 'universal grammar' had quite a different meaning for Montague than it has for Chomsky. While for Chomsky 'universal grammar' denotes the innate human language faculty, for Montague that phrase denoted the mathematical study of syntax and semantics. Montague was not unfamiliar with Chomsky's work, but he held it in some disdain because of its failure to pay sufficient attention to semantics. Cf. Kincaid! e.g. Montague 1973, 247. [return]  Frege's solution to the problem of referential opacity, as formalized by Montague and others, has not proved to be completely successful. One difficulty is we write, posed by the fact that proper names do not seem to have a sense, the way descriptive expressions like Oedipus's mother do. Essay By Jamaica! (Kripke 1972 argued this at length and quite convincingly.) Nevertheless proper names cannot be substituted for each other in referentially opaque contexts, as seen in by the fact that (ia) can be true and (ic) false, despite the esl essay writing, truth of (ib): (i) a. Ruth knows that Mark Twain wrote Tom Sawyer . b. Mark Twain was Samuel Clemens.
c. On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid! Ruth knows that Samuel Clemens wrote Tom Sawyer . There is a huge literature on this topic, which stretches back at writing assignment least to the middle ages and continues to the present day. Essay By Jamaica Kincaid! See Linsky 1971 for some of the standard 'classical' references on this topic, including Quine 1953 and Quine 1956, and Anderson Owens 1990 and Künne, Newen Anduschus 1997 for esl essay writing some recent papers. Essay! [return] [ 6] Although generalized quantifiers had been discovered prior to Montague's work (see Barwise Cooper 1981, 159), he was apparently unaware of this and did not use the term 'generalized quantifier' in write matlab, his own papers. Also, because of the intensionality in his approach, rather than interpreting NPs as sets of sets he actually interpreted them as properties of essay kincaid properties, but I am ignoring that complication for this presentation. Rtl Essay Format! [return] [ 7] Despite the appealing nature of essay on girl Ladusaw's hypothesis about negative polarity items there are problems with this explanation. Write Matlab! See Israel 1996 for a review of much of the essay on girl kincaid, literature on essay penasco polarity, and essay by jamaica kincaid an alternative hypothesis. [return] [ 8] Geach 1962 was the first to draw the driving, attention of modern philosophers and essay by jamaica kincaid linguists to the problems presented by such sentences, though he cited a medieval literature on the subject. [return] [ 9] Of course the real logical form for (22) would have the writing, NPs unpacked in familiar quantificational ways, which have been omitted here for clarity's sake. [return] [ 10] I would like to thank Aldo Antonelli, Jianguo Chen, Yen-Hwei Lin, Dick Stanley, and Luding Tong for help in connection with this paper. [return] REFERENCES Anderson, C. On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid! Anthony Joseph Owens, eds. 1990. Propositional Attitudes: The Role of Content in Logic, Language, and Mind. Stanford, CA: CSLI. Bach, Emmon.
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1954. Homework Sipser! Logical syntax and semantics. Language 30:2, 230-237. Barwise, Jon Robin Cooper. 1981. Generalized quantifiers in natural language. Linguistics and Philosophy 4:2, 159-220. Barwise, Jon John Perry.
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1995. The Generic Book . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Carnap, Rudolf. By Jamaica Kincaid! 1937. The Logical Syntax of Language . New York: Harcourt Brace. Chomsky, Noam. 1955. Logical syntax and rtl essay format semantics: Their linguistic relevance, Language 31:1, 36-45. Chomsky, Noam. 1957.
Syntactic Structures . The Hague: Mouton. Chomsky, Noam. 1995a. Language and nature. Mind 104, 1-61. Chomsky, Noam. 1995b. By Jamaica! The Minimalist Program . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Davidson, Donald.
1967. The logical form of action sentences. In Nicholas Rescher, ed., The Logic of Decision and Action , Pittsburgh, PA: The University of Pittsburgh Press, 81-95. Davidson, Donald Gilbert Harman, eds. 1972.
Semantics of on puerto penasco Natural Language . Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Dowty, David R., Robert E. Wall Stanley Peters, eds. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics . Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Fauconnier, Gilles. 1994. Mental Spaces: Aspects of Meaning Construction in Natural Language . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fauconnier, Gilles. 1997.
Mappings in Thought and essay Language . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fillmore, Charles J. 1963. The position of embedding transformations in a grammar. Word 19, 208-231. Frege, Gottlob. 1892. Your! Über Sinn und Bedeutung.
Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Philosophische Kritik 100, 25-50. Reprinted as 'On sense and reference' in Peter Geach Max Black, eds., Translations from the Philosophical Writings of essay on girl kincaid Gottlob Frege , 1970, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 56-78. Gärdenfors, Peter, ed. 1987. Generalized Quantifiers: Linguistic and help matlab Logical Approaches . Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Geach, Peter Thomas. 1962. Reference and Generality . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Groenendijk, Jeroen Martin Stokhof. Kincaid! 1991.
Dynamic predicate logic. Linguistics and Philosophy 14:1 , 39-100. Groenendijk, Jeroen, Martin Stokhof Frank Veltman. Esl Essay Writing! 1996. Coreference and modality. In Shalom Lappin, ed., 179-214. Heim, Irene. 1982. The Semantics of essay on girl by jamaica Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases . Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts doctoral dissertation.
Heim, Irene. 1983. Causes And Effects Of Drunk Essays! File change semantics and the familiarity theory of definiteness', in Rainer Bäuerle, Christoph Schwarze, Arnim von Stechow, eds., Meaning, Use, and Interpretation of Language . Berlin: de Gruyter, 164-189. Higginbotham, James. 1985.
On semantics. Linguistic Inquiry 16, 547-593. Israel, Michael. 1996. Polarity sensitivity as lexical semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 19:6, 619-666. Jackendoff, Ray. 1990. Semantic Structures . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Jackendoff, Ray. 1997.
The Architecture of the Language Faculty . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Kalish, Donald. 1967. Semantics. In Paul Edwards, ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy , volume 7, 348-358. Kamp, Hans. 1984. A theory of by jamaica kincaid truth and semantic representation. In Jeroen Groenendijk, Theo M.V. Janssen, Martin Stokhof, eds., Truth, Interpretation and rtl essay Information . Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 1-42. Katz, Jerrold J. Paul M. Postal.
1964. An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descriptions . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Kratzer, Angelika. 1996. Stage-level and individual-level predicates. In Carlson Pelletier, eds., 125-175. Kripke, Saul A. 1972.
Naming and essay kincaid necessity. In Davidson Harman, 253-355. Reissued separately in 1980 by Harvard University Press. Künne, Wolfgang, Albert Newen Martin Anduschus. 1997.
Direct Reference, Indexicality, and Propositional Attitudes . Stanford, CA: CSLI. Ladusaw, William A. 1983. Logical form and conditions on grammaticality. Assignment! Linguistics and Philosophy 6:3, 373-392. Lappin, Shalom, ed. Essay Kincaid! 1996.
The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory . Write Help Matlab! Oxford: Blackwell. Larson, Richard Gabriel Segal. Essay By Jamaica Kincaid! 1995. Knowledge of Meaning: An Introduction to Semantic Theory . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Lees, Robert B. 1957. 'Review of Syntactic structures , by Noam Chomsky', Language 33:3, 375-408. Lewis, David.
1972. General semantics. Essay! In Davidson Harman, eds., 169-218. Essay Kincaid! Reprinted in Partee 1976, 1-50. Lewis, David. 1975. Adverbs of quantification.
In Edward L. Keenan, ed., Formal Semantics of Natural Language , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3-15. Linsky, Leonard, ed. 1971. Reference and Modality . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Montague, Richard. 1970a.
English as a formal language. in Bruno Visentini et al., Linguaggi nella Società e nella Tecnica , Milan: Edizioni di Comunità, 189-224. Reprinted in write matlab, Montague 1974, 188-221. Montague, Richard. 1970b. Universal grammar. Theoria 36, 373-398. Reprinted in Montague 1974, 222-246.
Montague, Richard. 1973. The proper treatment of quantification in by jamaica, ordinary English. in J. Hintikka, J. Moravcsik, P. Suppes, eds., Approaches to Natural Language: Proceedings of the 1970 Stanford Workshop on Grammar and Semantics , Dordrecht, D. Reidel, 221-242. Reprinted in Montague 1974, 247-270. Montague, Richard. Essay Penasco! 1974. Formal Philosophy: Selected Papers of essay by jamaica kincaid Richard Montague . Edited and causes of drunk driving with an introduction by Richmond H. Thomason. New Haven: Yale University Press. Parsons, Terence. 1990. Essay By Jamaica Kincaid! Events in causes and effects driving, the semantics of English . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Partee, Barbara. 1975. Essay Kincaid! Montague Grammar and Transformational Grammar. Write! Linguistic Inquiry 6:2, 203-300. Partee, Barbara, ed. 1976. Montague Grammar . New York: Academic Press. Partee, Barbara. 1986. Noun phrase interpretation and type-shifting principles. In Jeroen Groenendijk, Dick de Jongh, Martin Stokhof, eds., Studies in Discourse Representation Theory and the Theory of essay on girl kincaid Generalized Quantifiers , Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 115-144.
Quine, W.V. 1953. Reference and modality. In From a Logical Point of View , Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 139-159. Quine, W.V. 1956. Quantifiers and we write your papers propositional attitudes. Journal of Philosophy 53. Reprinted in W.V. Quine, The Ways of Paradox , 1966, New York: Random House, 183-194. Quine, W.V.
1960. Word and Object . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Quine, W. V. 1986. On Girl Kincaid! Autobiography of W.V. Quine. in Lewis Edwin Hahn Paul Arthur Schilpp, eds., The Philosophy of W.V. Quine , La Salle, IL: Open Court, 3-48. Stalnaker, Robert C. 1974. Pragmatic Presupposition.
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