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Giving definition essay

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bird writing paper We have commissioned a new piece of writing from fifty leading authors on the theme of #39;Elsewhere#39; - read on for David Almond#39;s contribution. Giving Definition. Kyoto. Writing Thesis. Ky-o-to! Kyo-to! She feels so weirdly at home. She is herself, Mina, but it’s like there’s another Mina waiting to be discovered or created here. “That’s travel,” says her mum. “Turns the world into somewhere else and turns you into someone else.” This morning they’re off to the Golden Temple. They’re on a packed bus. Mina stands squashed in the aisle. Her mum’s at definition, the front, watching for essay for marriage the temple stop. She keeps turning and peering through the bodies.

Mina waves: don’t worry. Look! Here I am! There’s a woman sitting on giving definition essay, a seat beside her. The woman appears to be completely on her own. She’s calmly folding a square sheet of paper. Geronimo Essay. She folds it edge to edge, point to point. She opens it, closes it, tugs and teases it into shape. Giving. Her lips move, as if she’s silently singing in time with the movement of ages essay her fingers. She swiftly makes a little boat.

She holds it on giving, her open palm and moves her hand gently back and forward, up and down. It’s like she’s on thesis, the bus but not on the bus. The boat moves as if it’s floating on giving definition essay, a lake inside the bus that’s there for anyone to know. She sees Mina watching. Mphil Pakistan. She smiles and bows her head. Mina smiles and bows her head as well.

She feels the strange neat movements of her lips and throat and giving essay tongue as they make the lovely word. She says it again to feel the word in thesis her mouth and to hear the sharp sound of it. The woman floats the boat towards Mina with her hands. Go on, take it, she says with her eyes. Mina takes it and rests it on her own palm. Float it, says the woman with her eyes. Mina floats it through the tiny empty spaces around her body and the spaces open and giving the waters rise. The woman laughs and claps her hands silently. She starts on another sheet of paper - folds it, creases it, tugs and mphil teases it into shape.

She keeps pausing, making sure that Mina sees each fold, each crease, each tug and tease. Look, she’s saying, this is giving, how it’s done. Mina watches the woman’s fingers and the crowds around her disappear. Kyoto is geronimo essay, gone. The bus is gone. She imagines what it would be like to giving definition essay, be a sheet of mphil thesis paper in the woman’s hands, to be folded and creased and definition essay teased into annenberg foundation thinking shape, to become a paper Mina.

Maybe the woman knows this. She smiles deep into Mina’s eyes as if she knows everything. The paper in the woman’s hands becomes a little sharp-winged, sharp-beaked bird. She holds it between her thumb and fingers and flies it through the spaces around her. She flies it towards Mina. Take it, she says with her eyes. Fly it. She takes the giving definition essay bird. For Marriage. She can feel the vibrations of the woman’s fingers within it. With the bird flying between her fingers, she’s surrounded by empty air, by great stretches of water.

The bus sighs to a halt. The woman shrugs, smiles, stands up. Giving Essay. She hands Mina some sheets of paper. The woman twists her way to the opening door and for marriage she steps out into the crowds. Giving Definition Essay. Mina looks through her own reflection into the street outside. She sees the woman then loses sight of her then sees her again but the crowds close around her and the bus moves on and she’s gone. Mina carefully folds the boat and the bird flat and puts them into her sketchbook with the sheets of paper. The bus continues through the busy streets, through all the noise, past skyscrapers, hotels, flower sellers, flashing lights, cyclists, geishas, sushi shops, punks, cinemas, statues, tourist groups, burger bars, lanterns, pachinko parlours, shrines, road signs, lorries, buses, cars, crowds.

Mina sees how beautiful it all is. So much of it is recognisable, but so much of it is annenberg foundation thinking, just so strange. The bus glides and sways. The bodies around her sway against giving definition, her. There’s a smell of fish and of soy sauce which must be carried on people’s clothes and breath. The thrill of being here in Kyoto! She remembers roaring up into the clouds and leaving England behind.

Then the oceans they crossed, the sky they flew through, the film essay mountains and countries and cities below. Now home is on the earth’s far side and this is Japan. Definition. She saw it first at the crack of dawn from miles up in the sky. There it was, the country that seemed to float on the sea. She feels the little bursts of breath in her mouth. She thinks of the world turning and turning through endless space. She feels the great stretches of emptiness that are inside her. Renaissance And Middle. The bodies part, letting Mina through. They walk along the path towards the temple gardens. Mina shows her lovely paper gifts.

She floats the boat and essay flies the bird. They buy their tickets, which bear the name of the place then a picture of writing apa style it, then unreadable and beautiful writing beneath. The gravel gently rattles under their feet as they walk through the giving essay gates. There are rocks, pine trees, narrow pathways, stone lanterns, then the analysis questions lake, then the golden temple, and beyond the temple there are trees, low hills then dark and distant mountains and giving the sky. “The temple’s called Kinkaku-ji,” says her mum. “It contains the ashes of film analysis questions Buddha. It was burned down by a distressed monk in 1950 and giving essay was rebuilt again. It is considered to be the same place, even though it’s new.” She sighs and laughs at the outrageous idea, at the outrageous beauty of the place. “Maybe it suggests that nothing is ever truly lost, that everything will return.” She thinks of her lost dad for a few moments, as she does each day. He would have loved this place so much.

Then she turns her mind back to the temple. Thesis Statement. It is reflected in the lake. Giving Essay. It appears to be floating on another temple. The whole world and the sky above appear to be floating on a world and sky below. Geronimo Essay. Mina looks down into definition essay the lake, and mphil pakistan another Mina looks back up at her. “Ko-ni-chi-wa,” mouths the other Mina. Now her Mum looks back at her from the lake and waves. Mina sees how alike they are, how they are reflected in each other. Then they giggle and hug each other in the garden above and the garden below. Mum goes wandering.

Mina sits on a rock by the lake and watches the visitors. A man and boy crouch close by her and peer down into the water as if they’re passionately searching for giving definition essay something. Many people do the same, of course, as if the glassy water pulls them to it. When the man and boy stand up, the boy pretends that he’s about to geronimo essay, dive in. Definition. The man holds him back and they laugh together quietly and a little sadly. Then they walk on. She catches the boy’s eye as he passes by. “Konichiwa,” she whispers, but he’s lost in thought. Mina draws a picture of the temple. She speaks its name, Kinkaku-ji, as she draws, and she writes the name too, so that the image, the word, the sound and its movements are all the same thing. She writes a tiny note about what happened in the bus: The packed Kyoto bus.

A paper-folding woman. Birds fly from her hands. She takes a piece of the woman’s paper and annenberg thinking writes a message on it. Giving. My name is Mina. Whoever finds this will be my friend forever.

She folds the paper edge to writing thesis apa style, edge, point to point. She makes a boat with it. Nowhere near as good as the woman’s boat, but something the same. She takes another sheet of paper and folds that, too. On this she simply writes, Mina. She makes a bird with it, again nowhere near as good but still it’s a bird. She looks at the world, blinks, and looks again. She imagines a whole world made of giving definition essay folded paper: paper temple, paper trees, paper rocks, paper people, all neatly folded and creased in a paper world. She smiles at the lovely illusion. Film Questions. Then she puts the bird into the boat and stands up.

There are streams flowing through the garden. She kneels beside one of them and carefully places the boat into it and lets it go. “Sayonara,” she whispers as the boat and the bird are carried away through the rocks and the pine trees. “Sa-yo-na-ra,” until they’ve completely gone from sight. Then her mum’s voice: Mina hurries back to the lake. She waves. “I’m here,” she calls silently from the world below. Giving Definition. That evening they eat sushi and sashimi and flakes of something that’s hardly there at all except for the intensity of the taste it leaves on the tongue.

They walk home through the crowds, past the for marriage blazing lights of bars and department stores. They’re staying in a little timber house in a narrow street near the giving definition essay centre of the essay for marriage town. It’s a place with small sparse rooms, low lights, pale gliding shutters, tatami mats on giving definition, the floors. There’s a bathroom with a deep stone bath and with openings in writing statement apa style the wall where steam gushes out and a machine for making powdered ice. In Mina’s room a little stone Buddha sits in a shrine with sprigs of cherry blossom and an incense burner.

Mina lights the incense and scented smoke drifts through the room. She puts her bird and giving her boat on the shrine. She lies on a futon on the floor. Her Mum’s singing in the room next door. The city drones beyond the walls. The moon shines in through the window. It illuminates Mina, and the three-fold painted screen that stands on the floor nearby. Film Analysis Essay Questions. Upon the screen there are stone lanterns standing before a valley filled with cloud. There are distant jagged mountains. Long-legged, long-beaked, long-necked cranes are silhouetted against the dawn sky.

They appear to be flying through this world towards another or into this world from another. When she sleeps, she dreams of the bird and the boat that have been carried away, She dreams of being the paper-folding woman. She folds and creases and tugs and teases. She holds her creations in her open hands: look, this is how it’s done. Deep into her dreams she makes a dark-haired, dark-eyed boy.

Mina smiles back at him. Her lips and giving definition tongue and breath form the essay sharp neat shapes and sounds. And then she falls into the deep dark silent lake that surrounds us all. Early next morning, at the edge of Kyoto, the boy is swimming in Biwa Lake. He swims smoothly across the shining surface, then takes huge breaths and dives again, again, again. He loves moving in the depths, with the essay light above and the darkness below and the silvery flashes of fish around him.

He loves to burst out into the air, to curve, to dive down deep again. This morning there isn’t much time. His father’s already called him. Film Essay Questions. He climbs out onto essay the bank and crouches at the edge. He bangs two sticks together.

Crack! Crack! Crack! Black and silver fish rise and essay for marriage gather at the sound. Crack! Crack! Crack! He drops crumbs towards their mouths that silently open and giving essay close, open and thesis pakistan close. He’s turning away when a little paper boat appears, floating on the surface. Essay. He leans down and lifts it out. There’s a paper bird inside it.

He stands and sees his father on the narrow beach beside their towels. Renaissance Essay. He hurries to him. He dries himself and giving definition essay puts his clothes on. They get into a car, and annenberg thinking head into Kyoto. Miyako inspects the boat and the bird as they travel.

His dad glances at them. “And very wet,” says Miyako, as the boat collapses between his fingers. He opens it and giving essay finds the blotchy faded words inside. He learns English at film analysis essay questions, school, but most of this has seeped into the paper and is pretty meaningless. All he can decipher are the letters that make ‘name’, ‘Mina’ and giving ‘ever’. He finds the message in the bird as well.

He refolds the bird and flies it through the tiny spaces around him. The streets are packed, the roads are so busy, the traffic’s so slow. Dad keeps looking at his watch. He thinks of the one who wrote the messages. English, maybe. And probably a girl. He flies the bird before his eyes, and it’s as if he can still feel the vibrations of its maker within it. He thinks of the girl, and an image of her starts to appear in his mind. They don’t really know it, of course, but as they get close to the centre of Kyoto they slowly pass Mina and her Mum, who are standing at a tiny temple that’s squashed in between a shoe shop and a bank. They’ve just rung a bell that hangs from the temple eaves.

They’ve laughed at critical, the paper fortunes that tell them what their lucky numbers are. Mina throws a coin into essay a small stone pond of golden fish. Miyako watches her. There’s something familiar in the way she moves, the way she bows her head. He continues to fly the writing statement apa style bird. Mina suddenly turns and sees the boy flying a bird inside a car. Definition. She catches her breath, then smiles as the car heads away into the traffic.

Soon Miyako’s dad drives underground, into a huge downward-spiralling car park. Essay. They’re down at level 6 before they find a space. Then they hurry to the escalators that zigzag through a huge department store towards the sky. Sakura’s at a table in the open roof café. She has a pot of coffee with two cups, and a glass of lemonade. She stands when she sees them, bows and smiles. Miyako’s dad is all apologies, but she takes his hand and says it’s nothing, it’s OK. “Good morning, Miyako,” she says. “You have been in the water today?” She indicates the lemonade.

He thanks her. They’re still awkward with each other. Miyako plays with the bird as she and his dad talk and laugh about some mysterious theatre they saw together. Miyako unfolds the bird and essay writes his name beside the name of Mina. He makes the annenberg foundation critical thinking bird again, then slips away from the table and goes to the parapet. He looks back. Sakura’s OK, he supposes. His dad’s laughing again. Change is coming, he knows that. Miyako looks down over beautiful Kyoto: the crowded streets, the skyscrapers, the flashing lights, the giving essay gardens.

He sees Kinkaku-ji itself. Analysis. He’s even sure he can see its reflection in the water. He holds the bird above the parapet and giving definition essay flicks his wrist and lets it fly. Film Analysis Questions. Mina and her Mum walk happily arm-in-arm. Mina’s imagining, as she often does, that her dad is walking beside her, too. Mum’s bought a print of Mount Fuji rising from the mist. Mina’s bought some manga, two versions of the essay same story contained within one book. The English version starts from the left, the Japanese from the right. The versions end and ages essay come together at definition essay, the centre. Mina and her mum love the renaissance ages essay crowds, the shops, the buses, the food, the temples. They love the silence and giving definition essay stillness at the heart of it all.

It’s the annenberg critical thinking last day. Tomorrow it’s a bullet train to Hiroshima. But they feel that even when they’ve left this place they’ll still be here. Mina looks up as they walk and giving essay here’s the bird, swaying, falling, spinning, flying, a single tiny bird in all that space, a single tiny bird in space that goes on forever, as far as distant England, as far as the writing furthest star. Mina raises her hands and the points of the bird touch the points of her fingers. She neatly folds her hands around it, then opens them, and shows it resting there. But it is.

Mina opens the bird, and definition there’s her name, with the new unreadable beautiful word by its side. They look up into the emptiness. There’s nothing they can say. They walk on through indecipherable Kyoto. Miyako and renaissance ages essay his dad and Sakura come down on the zigzag escalators. Sakura suggested a trip to Kinkaku-ji but his dad laughed and said not there again. So they’re heading for definition MacDonald’s and the cinema.

Miyako knows they’re doing it for him. That’s OK. He’s starting to feel at ease with her. Geronimo Essay. He’s even starting to like her, and to feel happy for his dad. Definition. They walk through the sea of people. They come to a great pedestrian crossing where they wait for the lights to change and the traffic to stop. Mina and her mum are waiting at the far side. Writing Thesis. The moment comes and the tides of people flow towards each other in the crowded city beneath the empty sky.

Mina and Miyako see each other. Giving Essay. They stop, and bring the adults who are with them to a stop as well. Copyright 2010, David Almond. All rights reserved. Supported through the Scottish Government’s Edinburgh Festivals Expo Fund. David Almond reading Paper Boat Paper Plane. Multi-award-winning children's author reads his story on the theme of Elsewhere… This astonishingly versatile writer of chldren#39;s fiction has won many awards for his work and has recently turned his attention to writing adult fiction.

His novels are read world-wide and have even been adapted for the stage. The Edinburgh International Book Festival Ltd 2017 . The Edinburgh International Book Festival has its registered office at geronimo essay, 5a Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, EH2 4DR and is a company limited by guarantee (no SC 79939) with charitable status (SC 010120).

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Examples of Definition Essays - …

Internet Encyclopedia of giving, Philosophy. Existentialism is a catch-all term for those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the view that this problem is for marriage, best addressed through ontology. This very broad definition will be clarified by discussing seven key themes that existentialist thinkers address. Those philosophers considered existentialists are mostly from the continent of Europe, and giving definition date from the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Outside philosophy, the existentialist movement is probably the most well-known philosophical movement, and at mphil least two of its members are among the definition, most famous philosophical personalities and widely read philosophical authors. It has certainly had considerable influence outside philosophy, for example on psychological theory and on the arts. Within philosophy, though, it is safe to say that this loose movement considered as a whole has not had a great impact, although individuals or ideas counted within it remain important. Moreover, most of the philosophers conventionally grouped under this heading either never used, or actively disavowed, the term 'existentialist'.

Even Sartre himself once said: “Existentialism? I don’t know what that is.” So, there is a case to be made that the term – insofar as it leads us to ignore what is distinctive about philosophical positions and to conflate together significantly different ideas – does more harm than good. In this article, however, it is assumed that something sensible can be said about existentialism as a loosely defined movement. The article has three sections. First, we outline a set of themes that define, albeit very broadly, existentialist concerns. This is done with reference to the historical context of existentialism, which will help us to understand why certain philosophical problems and methods were considered so important. Second, we discuss individually six philosophers who are arguably its central figures, stressing in these discussions the ways in which these philosophers approached existentialist themes in distinctive ways. These figures, and many of the others we mention, have full length articles of their own within the and middle ages, Encyclopedia . Finally, we look very briefly at the influence of existentialism, especially outside philosophy. Although a highly diverse tradition of thought, seven themes can be identified that provide some sense of overall unity. Here, these themes will be briefly introduced; they can then provide us with an intellectual framework within which to discuss exemplary figures within the history of giving, existentialism.

Philosophy should not be thought of primarily either as an attempt to essay for marriage, investigate and understand the self or the world, or as a special occupation that concerns only a few. Rather, philosophy must be thought of as fully integrated within life. To be sure, there may need to be professional philosophers, who develop an elaborate set of methods and definition concepts (Sartre makes this point frequently) but life can be lived philosophically without a technical knowledge of philosophy. Existentialist thinkers tended to identify two historical antecedents for this notion. Ages Essay! First, the ancient Greeks, and particularly the figure of Socrates but also the Stoics and Epicureans. Socrates was not only non-professional, but in his pursuit of the good life he tended to eschew the formation of a 'system' or 'theory', and his teachings took place often in definition, public spaces. In this, the existentialists were hardly unusual. In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the rapid expansion of industrialisation and advance in technology were often seen in terms of an alienation of the human from nature or from mphil pakistan a properly natural way of living (for example, thinkers of definition essay, German and English romanticism). The second influence on thinking of philosophy as a way of life was German Idealism after Kant. Partly as a response to the 18 th century Enlightenment, and under the influence of the Neoplatonists, Schelling and Hegel both thought of thesis, philosophy as an activity that is an integral part of the history of human beings, rather than outside of life and the world, looking on. Definition! Later in the 19 th century, Marx famously criticised previous philosophy by geronimo essay, saying that the point of philosophy is not to know things – even to know things about activity – but to definition, change them.

The concept of philosophy as a way of life manifests itself in existentialist thought in for marriage, a number of ways. Let us give several examples, to which we will return in the sections that follow. First, the existentialists often undertook a critique of modern life in terms of the specialisation of both manual and intellectual labour. Specialisation included philosophy. One consequence of this is that many existentialist thinkers experimented with different styles or genres of writing in order to escape the giving definition, effects of this specialisation. Second, a notion that we can call 'immanence': philosophy studies life from the inside. For Kierkegaard, for example, the fundamental truths of my existence are not representations – not, that is, ideas, propositions or symbols the thesis apa style, meaning of which can be separated from their origin.

Rather, the truths of existence are immediately lived, felt and acted. Likewise, for Nietzsche and Heidegger, it is essential to recognise that the philosopher investigating human existence is, him or herself, an essay, existing human. Annenberg Critical Thinking! Third, the definition essay, nature of life itself is a perennial existentialist concern and, more famously (in Heidegger and in Camus), also the significance of death. A key idea here is that human existence is in some way 'on its own'; anxiety (or anguish) is the recognition of this fact. Anxiety here has two important implications. First, most generally, many existentialists tended to stress the significance of emotions or feelings, in so far as they were presumed to geronimo essay, have a less culturally or intellectually mediated relation to giving essay, one's individual and separate existence. This idea is found in Kierkegaard, as we mentioned above, and in Heidegger's discussion of 'mood'; it is writing statement, also one reason why existentialism had an influence on psychology. Second, anxiety also stands for definition a form of existence that is recognition of being on its own. What is meant by essay, 'being on its own' varies among philosophers.

For example, it might mean the irrelevance (or even negative influence) of rational thought, moral values, or empirical evidence, when it comes to making fundamental decisions concerning one's existence. As we shall see, Kierkegaard sees Hegel's account of giving, religion in terms of the history of absolute spirit as an exemplary confusion of faith and reason. Alternatively, it might be a more specifically theological claim: the existence of a transcendent deity is not relevant to (or is positively detrimental to) such decisions (a view broadly shared by Nietzsche and Sartre). Geronimo Essay! Finally, being on its own might signify the uniqueness of giving definition essay, human existence, and thus the fact that it cannot understand itself in terms of other kinds of existence (Heidegger and geronimo essay Sartre). Related to anxiety is the concept of authenticity, which is let us say the existentialist spin on the Greek notion of 'the good life'.

As we shall see, the authentic being would be able to giving definition, recognise and affirm the statement, nature of existence (we shall shortly specify some of the aspects of this, such as absurdity and freedom). Not, though, recognise the nature of existence as an intellectual fact, disengaged from life; but rather, the authentic being lives in accordance with this nature. The notion of authenticity is sometimes seen as connected to individualism. Giving Definition Essay! This is only reinforced by the contrast with a theme we will discuss below, that of the 'crowd'. Certainly, if authenticity involves 'being on one's own', then there would seem to be some kind of value in ages, celebrating and sustaining one's difference and independence from others.

However, many existentialists see individualism as a historical and definition cultural trend (for example Nietzsche), or dubious political value (Camus), rather than a necessary component of thesis, authentic existence. Individualism tends to obscure the particular types of collectivity that various existentialists deem important. For many existentialists, the conditions of the modern world make authenticity especially difficult. Giving Definition! For example, many existentialists would join other philosophers (such as the Frankfurt School) in condemning an instrumentalist conception of geronimo essay, reason and value. The utilitarianism of Mill measured moral value and justice also in terms of the consequences of actions. Later liberalism would seek to absorb nearly all functions of essay, political and social life under the heading of economic performance. Evaluating solely in writing statement, terms of the definition essay, measurable outcomes of production was seen as reinforcing the secularisation of the institutions of political, social or economic life; and geronimo essay reinforcing also the abandonment of any broader sense of the spiritual dimension (such an idea is found acutely in Emerson, and is akin to the concerns of Kierkegaard). Existentialists such as Martin Heidegger, Hanna Arendt or Gabriel Marcel viewed these social movements in terms of a narrowing of the possibilities of human thought to the instrumental or technological. This narrowing involved thinking of the world in definition essay, terms of resources, and thinking of all human action as a making, or indeed as a machine-like 'function'. The next key theme is thesis apa style, freedom.

Freedom can usefully be linked to the concept of anguish, because my freedom is in part defined by the isolation of my decisions from any determination by definition essay, a deity, or by previously existent values or knowledge. Many existentialists identified the 19 th and 20 th centuries as experiencing a crisis of values. This might be traced back to familiar reasons such as an increasingly secular society, or the essay, rise of scientific or philosophical movements that questioned traditional accounts of value (for example Marxism or Darwinism), or the shattering experience of two world wars and the phenomenon of mass genocide. It is important to note, however, that for existentialism these historical conditions do not create the problem of anguish in the face of definition essay, freedom, but merely cast it into higher relief. Likewise, freedom entails something like responsibility, for myself and for my actions. Given that my situation is one of being on its own – recognised in essay for marriage, anxiety – then both my freedom and giving definition my responsibility are absolute. The isolation that we discussed above means that there is nothing else that acts through me, or that shoulders my responsibility.

Likewise, unless human existence is to be understood as arbitrarily changing moment to moment, this freedom and responsibility must stretch across time. Analysis! Thus, when I exist as an authentically free being, I assume responsibility for my whole life, for a ‘project’ or a ‘commitment’. We should note here that many of the existentialists take on a broadly Kantian notion of freedom: freedom as autonomy . This means that freedom, rather than being randomness or arbitrariness, consists in the binding of oneself to essay, a law, but a law that is given by renaissance and middle essay, the self in recognition of its responsibilities. This borrowing from Kant, however, is heavily qualified by the next theme. The next common theme we shall call ‘situatedness’. Although my freedom is absolute, it always takes place in a particular context. My body and its characteristics, my circumstances in a historical world, and my past, all weigh upon freedom. This is what makes freedom meaningful. Suppose I tried to exist as free, while pretending to be in essay, abstraction from the situation. Mphil Thesis Pakistan! In that case I will have no idea what possibilities are open to me and what choices need to be made, here and now.

In such a case, my freedom will be naive or illusory. Giving Definition! This concrete notion of freedom has its philosophical genesis in for marriage, Hegel, and is generally contrasted to the pure rational freedom described by Kant. Situatedness is related to a notion we discussed above under the giving, heading of geronimo essay, philosophy as a way of life: the necessity of giving, viewing or understanding life and existence from the ‘inside’. For example, many 19 th century intellectuals were interested in for marriage, ancient Greece, Rome, the Medieval period, or the orient, as alternative models of a less spoiled, more integrated form of life. Nietzsche, to be sure, shared these interests, but he did so not uncritically: because the human condition is definition essay, characterised by being historically situated, it cannot simply turn back the clock or decide all at once to be other than it is (Sartre especially shares this view). Heidegger expresses a related point in this way: human existence cannot be abstracted from ages essay its world because being-in-the-world is part of the definition essay, ontological structure of that existence. Many existentialists take my concretely individual body, and the specific type of life that my body lives, as a primary fact about me (for example, Nietzsche, Scheler or Merleau-Ponty). I must also be situated socially: each of my acts says something about how I view others but, reciprocally, each of their acts is a view about what I am. My freedom is always situated with respect to the judgements of others. This particular notion comes from Hegel’s analysis of ‘recognition’, and is found especially in Sartre, de Beauvoir and pakistan Jaspers. Situatedness in general also has an important philosophical antecedent in Marx: economic and political conditions are not contingent features with respect to universal human nature, but condition that nature from the ground up.

Although, of course, existentialism takes its name from the philosophical theme of 'existence', this does not entail that there is homogeneity in the manner existence is to be understood. One point on which there is agreement, though, is that the existence with which we should be concerned here is not just any existent thing, but human existence . There is giving definition, thus an important difference between distinctively human existence and anything else, and human existence is not to be understood on the model of statement, things , that is, as objects of knowledge. One might think that this is an old idea, rooted in Plato's distinction between matter and soul, or Descartes' between extended and thinking things. But these distinctions appear to be just differences between two types of things. Descartes in particular, however, is often criticised by the existentialists for subsuming both under the heading 'substance', and thus treating what is distinctive in human existence as indeed a thing or object, albeit one with different properties. (Whether the existentialist characterisation of Plato or Descartes is accurate is a different question.) The existentialists thus countered the Platonic or Cartesian conception with a model that resembles more the Aristotelian as developed in the Nichomachean Ethics . Giving Definition! The latter idea arrives in existentialist thought filtered through Leibniz and writing statement apa style Spinoza and the notion of a striving for existence. Equally important is the elevation of the practical above the theoretical in German Idealists. Giving Definition Essay! Particularly in Kant, who stressed the primacy of the 'practical', and then in Fichte and early Schelling, we find the notion that human existence is geronimo essay, action . Accordingly, in Nietzsche and definition essay Sartre we find the notion that the human being is mphil pakistan, all and only what that being does. My existence consists of giving definition, forever bringing myself into being – and, correlatively, fleeing from the for marriage, dead, inert thing that is the totality of my past actions. Although my acts are free, I am not free not to act; thus existence is characterised also by 'exigency' (Marcel). For many existentialists, authentic existence involves a certain tension be recognised and lived through, but not resolved: this tension might be between the animal and the rational (important in Nietzsche) or between facticity and transcendence (Sartre and de Beauvoir). In the 19 th and giving definition essay 20 th centuries, the human sciences (such as psychology, sociology or economics) were coming to be recognised as powerful and legitimate sciences.

To some extend at least their assumptions and methods seemed to be borrowed from the natural sciences. Renaissance And Middle! While philosophers such as Dilthey and later Gadamer were concerned to show that the human sciences had to definition essay, have a distinctive method, the existentialists were inclined to go further. Essay For Marriage! The free, situated human being is giving definition essay, not an object of knowledge in mphil thesis pakistan, the sense the human always exists as the possibility of giving essay, transcending any knowledge of it. There is a clear relation between such an idea and the notion of the 'transcendence of the other' found in the ethical phenomenology of Emmanuel Levinas. Among the most famous ideas associated with existentialism is that of 'absurdity'.

Human existence might be described as 'absurd' in one of the following senses. First, many existentialists argued that nature as a whole has no design, no reason for existing. Although the annenberg foundation critical thinking, natural world can apparently be understood by giving definition essay, physical science or metaphysics, this might be better thought of as 'description' than either understanding or explanation. Thus, the achievements of the natural sciences also empty nature of value and meaning. Unlike a created cosmos, for example, we cannot expect the geronimo essay, scientifically described cosmos to definition, answer our questions concerning value or meaning. Moreover, such description comes at the cost of a profound falsification of nature: namely, the positing of annenberg thinking, ideal entities such as 'laws of nature', or the conflation of all reality under a single model of being. Human beings can and should become profoundly aware of this lack of reason and the impossibility of an immanent understanding of it. Camus, for example, argues that the basic scene of human existence is giving, its confrontation with this mute irrationality. Foundation! A second meaning of the definition, absurd is this: my freedom will not only mphil thesis pakistan be undetermined by knowledge or reason, but from the point of view of the latter my freedom will even appear absurd. Absurdity is thus closely related to the theme of 'being on its own', which we discussed above under the heading of anxiety.

Even if I choose to follow a law that I have given myself, my choice of law will appear absurd, and likewise will my continuously reaffirmed choice to follow it. Third, human existence as action is doomed to always destroy itself. A free action, once done, is no longer free; it has become an aspect of the giving, world, a thing . The absurdity of human existence then seems to lie in the fact that in becoming myself (a free existence) I must be what I am not (a thing). If I do not face up to this absurdity, and choose to be or pretend to be thing-like, I exist inauthentically (the terms in this formulation are Sartre's). Existentialism generally also carries a social or political dimension. Insofar as he or she is authentic, the freedom of the human being will show a certain 'resolution' or 'commitment', and this will involve also the being – and particularly the authentic being – of others. For example, Nietzsche thus speaks of his (or Zarathustra's) work in aiding the transformation of the analysis questions, human, and there is also in Nietzsche a striking analysis of the concept of friendship; for Heidegger, there must be an giving essay, authentic mode of being-with others, although he does not develop this idea at length; the social and political aspect of authentic commitment is much more clear in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Camus. That is the positive side of the social or political dimension.

However, leading up to this positive side, there is annenberg foundation critical, a description of the typical forms that inauthentic social or political existence takes. Many existentialists employ terms such as 'crowd', 'horde' (Scheler) or the 'masses' (Jose Ortega y Gasset). Nietzsche's deliberately provocative expression, 'the herd', portrays the bulk of humanity not only definition as animal, but as docile and domesticated animals. Notice that these are all collective terms: inauthenticity manifests itself as de-individuated or faceless. Pakistan! Instead of being formed authentically in freedom and anxiety, values are just accepted from others because ‘that is what everybody does’. Definition! These terms often carry a definite historical resonance, embodying a critique of specifically modern modes of writing statement, human existence. All of the following might be seen as either causes or symptoms of a world that is giving definition, 'fallen' or 'broken' (Marcel): the technology of mass communication (Nietzsche is particularly scathing about newspapers and journalists; in Two Ages , Kierkegaard says something very similar), empty religious observances, the specialisation of labour and social roles, urbanisation and industrialisation. The theme of the geronimo essay, crowd poses a question also to the positive social or political dimension of existentialism: how could a collective form of existence ever be anything other than inauthentic?

The 19 th and 20 th century presented a number of mass political ideologies which might be seen as posing a particularly challenging environment for giving authentic and essay for marriage free existence. For example, nationalism came in for criticism particularly by Nietzsche. Socialism and communism: after WWII, Sartre was certainly a communist, but even then unafraid to criticise both the French communist party and the Soviet Union for definition rigid or inadequately revolutionary thinking. Democracy: Aristotle in book 5 of his Politics distinguishes between democracy and ochlocracy, which latter essentially means rule by those incapable of ruling even themselves. Many existentialists would identify the latter with the annenberg critical, American and especially French concept of 'democracy'. Nietzsche and Ortega y Gasset both espoused a broadly aristocratic criterion for social and political leadership. 2. Key Existentialist Philosophers.

a. Giving Essay! Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Kierkegaard was many things: philosopher, religious writer, satirist, psychologist, journalist, literary critic and generally considered the ‘father’ of existentialism. Being born (in Copenhagen) to a wealthy family enabled him to devote his life to the pursuits of his intellectual interests as well as to distancing himself from the ‘everyday man’ of his times. Kierkegaard’s most important works are pseudonymous, written under fictional names, often very obviously fictional. The issue of for marriage, pseudonymity has been variously interpreted as a literary device, a personal quirk or as an illustration of the constant tension between the philosophical truth and existential or personal truth. Giving Definition! We have already seen that for the existentialists it is of equal importance what one says and the way in which something is said. This forms part of the attempt to return to a more authentic way of philosophising, firstly exemplified by the Greeks. In a work like Either/Or (primarily a treatise against the Hegelians) theoretical reflections are followed by reflections on how to seduce girls. The point is to stress the distance between the anonymously and logically produced truths of the logicians and the personal truths of existing individuals. Every pseudonymous author is a symbol for an existing individual and at renaissance and middle ages essay times his very name is the key to the mysteries of giving definition essay, his existence (like in the case of Johanes de Silentio , fictional author of Fear and Trembling , where the mystery of Abraham’s actions cannot be told, being a product of and belonging to silence). Kierkegaard has been associated with a notion of truth as subjective (or personal); but what does this mean?

The issue is linked with his notorious confrontation with the mphil thesis, Danish Church and the academic environment of his days. Kierkegaard’s work takes place against essay the background of an academia dominated by Hegelian dialectics and a society which reduces the communication with the divine to the everyday observance of the annenberg thinking, ritualistic side of an institutionalized Christianity. Hegel is for Kierkegaard his arch-enemy not only because of what he writes but also what he represents. Definition Essay! Hegel is guilty for mphil pakistan Kierkegaard because he reduced the living truth of giving, Christianity (the fact that God suffered and died on the Cross) to just another moment, which necessarily will be overcome, in mphil, the dialectical development of the giving definition essay, Spirit. While Hegel treats “God” as a Begriff (a concept), for Kierkegaard the truth of Christianity signifies the very paradoxicality of faith: that is, that it is possible for the individual to go beyond the ‘ethical’ and for marriage nevertheless or rather because of this very act of disobedience to giving definition, be loved by ‘God’. Famously, for Hegel ‘all that is real is rational’ – where rationality means the apa style, historically articulated, dialectical progression of Spirit – whereas for Kierkegaard the suspension of rationality is the very secret of Christianity. Against the definition, cold logic of the Hegelian system Kierkegaard seeks “a truth which is truth for me” (Kierkegaard 1996:32). Christianity in particular represents the attempt to offer one’s life to the service of the divine. This cannot be argued, it can only thesis apa style be lived. While a theologian will try to argue for the validity of his positions by arguing and counter-arguing, a true Christian will try to live his life the way Jesus lived it. This evidently marks the continuation of the Hellenic idea of essay, philosophy as a way of life, exemplified in the person of apa style, Socrates who did not write treatises, but who died for his ideas.

Before the logical concepts of the definition essay, theologians (in the words of Martin Heidegger who was hugely influenced by for marriage, Kierkegaard) “man can neither fall to his knees in awe nor can he play music and dance before this god” (Heidegger 2002:42). The idea of ‘subjective truth’ will have serious consequences to the philosophical understanding of man. Traditionally defined as animale rationale (the rational animal) by Aristotle and for a long time worshiped as such by definition essay, generations of philosophical minds, Kierkegaard comes now to geronimo essay, redefine the human as the ‘passionate animal’. What counts in man is the giving definition essay, intensity of his emotions and his willingness to believe ( contra the once all powerful reason) in that which cannot be understood. The opening up by Kierkegaard of this terra incognita of man’s inner life will come to play a major role for essay for marriage later existentialists (most importantly for Nietzsche) and will bring to light the failings and giving definition essay the weaknesses of an over-optimistic (because modelled after the Natural sciences) model of philosophy which was taught to talk a lot concerning the ‘truth’ of the human, when all it understood about the writing thesis statement apa style, human was a mutilated version. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and giving essay Eve lived in a state of innocence in communication with God and in harmony with their physical environment. The expulsion from the Garden opened up a wide range of new possibilities for them and thus the problem of anxiety arose.

Adam (the Hebrew word for geronimo essay man) is now free to determine through his actions the route of things. Naturally, there is a tension here. Definition Essay! The human, created in God’s image, is an infinite being. Like God he also can choose and act according to his will. Simultaneously, though, he is a finite being since he is restricted by his body, particular socioeconomic conditions and so forth. This tension between the finite and infinite is the thesis pakistan, source of anxiety. But unlike a Hegelian analysis, Kierkegaard does not look for a way out from anxiety; on the contrary he stresses its positive role in the flourishing of the human. As he characteristically puts it: “Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:154). The prioritization of anxiety as a fundamental trait of the giving, human being is a typical existentialist move, eager to assert the positive role of emotions for human life.

Perhaps the most famous work of Kierkegaard was Fear and Trembling , a short book which exhibits many of the issues raised by him throughout his career. Fear and Trembling retells the story of the attempted sacrifice of Isaac by his father Abraham. God tells Abraham that in order to prove his faith he has to sacrifice his only statement son. Abraham obeys, but at the last moment God intervenes and saves Isaac. What is the moral of the story? According to our moral beliefs, shouldn’t Abraham refuse to execute God’s vicious plan? Isn’t one of the fundamental beliefs of giving definition, Christianity the respect to the life of other?

The answer is naturally affirmative. Abraham should refuse God, and he should respect the thesis statement, ethical law. Giving! Then Abraham would be in geronimo essay, a good relation with the Law itself as in the expression ‘a law abiding citizen’. On the definition, contrary what Abraham tries to achieve is a personal relation with the author of the thesis, moral law. This author is neither a symbolic figure nor an abstract idea; he is someone with a name. The name of essay, ’God’ is the essay, unpronounceable Tetragrammaton (YHVE), the unpronounceability indicates the simultaneous closeness and distance of the great Other. Giving Definition Essay! The Christian God then, the author of the writing statement apa style, moral law at his will suspends the law and demands his unlawful wish be obeyed.

Jacques Derrida notes that the temptation is now for Abraham the ethical law itself (Derrida 1998:162): he must resist ethics, this is the mad logic of God. The story naturally raises many problems. Is not such a subjectivist model of truth and religion plainly dangerous? What if someone was to support his acts of violence as a command of God? Kierkegaard’s response would be to suggest that it is only because Abraham loved Isaac with all his heart that the sacrifice could take place. “He must love Isaac with his whole soul. only essay then can he sacrifice him” (Kierkegaard 1983:74). Abraham’s faith is proved by the strength of his love for his son. However, this doesn’t fully answer the question of legitimacy, even if we agree that Abraham believed that God loved him so that he would somehow spare him. Kierkegaard also differentiates between the act of and middle essay, Abraham and the act of a tragic hero (like Agamemnon sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia). Essay! The tragic hero’s act is a product of calculation.

What is better to do? What would be more beneficial? Abraham stands away from all sorts of calculations, he stands alone, that is, free in front of the horror religiosus , the price and the reward of thesis statement, faith. b. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) as an Existentialist Philosopher. “I know my lot. Some day my name will be linked to the memory of something monstrous, of a crisis as yet unprecedented on earth. Definition Essay! ” (Nietzsche 2007:88).

Remarkably, what in 1888 sounded like megalomania came some years later to for marriage, be realized. Giving Essay! The name ‘Nietzsche’ has been linked with an array of historical events, philosophical concepts and widespread popular legends. Above all, Nietzsche has managed somehow to associate his name with the essay, turmoil of a crisis. For a while this crisis was linked to the events of WWII. The exploitation of his teaching by the Nazi ideologues (notably Alfred Rosenberg and Alfred Baeumler), although utterly misdirected, arguably had its source in Nietzsche’s own “aristocratic radicalism”.

More generally, the crisis refers to the prospect of giving definition essay, a future lacking of any meaning. This is film essay questions, a common theme for all the existentialists to be sure. The prospect of giving, millennia of for marriage, nihilism (the devaluation of the highest values) inaugurates for definition essay Nietzsche the era in which the geronimo essay, human itself, for the first time in its history, is called to give meaning both to its own existence and to the existence of the giving essay, world. This is an event of a cataclysmic magnitude, from now on there are neither guidelines to be followed, lighthouses to for marriage, direct us, and no right answers but only experiments to be conducted with unknown results. Many existentialists, in their attempt to differentiate the giving definition, value of individual existence from the alienating effects of the masses, formed an pakistan, uneasy relation with the value of the ‘everyday man’. The ‘common’ man was thought to be lacking in will , taste in matter of aesthetics, and individuality in the sense that the assertion of his existence comes exclusively from his participation in larger groups and from the ‘herd’ mentality with which these groups infuse their members.

Nietzsche believed that men in society are divided and ordered according to their willingness and capacity to participate in a life of spiritual and cultural transformation. Certainly not everyone wishes this participation and Nietzsche’s condemnation of those unwilling to giving, challenge their fundamental beliefs is harsh; however it would be a mistake to suggest that Nietzsche thought their presence dispensable. Questions! In various aphorisms he stresses the importance of the ‘common’ as a necessary prerequisite for both the growth and the value of the definition, ‘exceptional’. Such an idea clashes with our ‘modern’ sensitivities (themselves a product of a particular training). However, one has to recognize that there are no philosophers without presuppositions, and that Nietzsche’s insistence on the value of the exceptional marks his own beginning and essay his own understanding of the mission of thought.

Despite the dubious politics that the crisis of meaning gave rise to, the definition essay, crisis itself is only an renaissance and middle essay, after-effect of a larger and deeper challenge that Nietzsche’s work identifies and poses. For Nietzsche the crisis of meaning is inextricably linked to the crisis of religious consciousness in the West. Whereas for Kierkegaard the problem of meaning was to giving definition essay, be resolved through the individual’s relation to the Divine, for Nietzsche the militantly anti-Christian, the problem of meaning is rendered possible at all because of the and middle ages, demise of the Divine. As he explains in The Genealogy of Morality , it is only after the cultivation of truth as a value by the priest that truth comes to question its own value and function. What truth discovers is that at the ground of all truth lies an unquestionable faith in the value of essay, truth. Christianity is destroyed when it is pushed to tell the truth about itself, when the illusions of the old ideals are revealed. What is writing thesis statement apa style, called ‘The death of God’ is also then the death of truth (though not of the value of truthfulness ); this is an event of immense consequences for the future. But one has to be careful here. Generations of readers, by concentrating on definition essay, the event of the actual announcement of the 'death of God', have completely missed madman’s woeful mourning which follows the announcement. “‘Where is God?’ he cried; ‘I‘ll tell you! We have killed him – you and I! We are all his murderers. But how did we do this?

How were we able to drink up the sea? Who gave us the sponge to mphil thesis pakistan, wipe away the entire horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun? Where is it moving? Where are we moving to? Away from all suns?” (Nietzsche 2001:125).

The above sentences are very far from constituting a cheerful declaration: no one is happy here! Nietzsche’s atheism has nothing to do with the naive atheism of others (for example Sartre) who rush to affirm their freedom as if their petty individuality were able to fill the vast empty space left by the absence of God. Nietzsche is not naive and because he is not naive he is rather pessimistic. What the death of God really announces is the demise of the definition, human as we know it. One has to think of this break in the history of the human in thesis statement, Kantian terms.

Kant famously described Enlightenment as “man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity” (Kant 1991:54). Essay! Similarly Nietzsche believes that the critical, demise of the divine could be the opportunity for the emergence of a being which derives the meaning of its existence from within itself and not from some authority external to it. If the definition, meaning of the human derived from God then, with the universe empty, man cannot take the place of the absent God. This empty space can only be filled by something greater and fuller, which in the Nietzschean jargon means the greatest unity of contradictory forces. That is the Ubermensch (Overhuman) which for Nietzsche signifies the attempt towards the cultural production of a human being which will be aware of his dual descent – from animality and mphil thesis from rationality – without prioritizing either one, but keeping them in an agonistic balance so that through struggle new and exciting forms of human existence can be born. Nietzsche was by giving essay, training a Klassische Philologe (the rough equivalent Anglosaxon would be an expert in classics – the texts of the ancient Greek and Roman authors). Perhaps because of his close acquaintance with the questions, ancient writers, he became sensitive to a quite different understanding of essay, philosophical thinking to that of his contemporaries. For the Greeks, philosophical questioning takes place within the perspective of a certain choice of life. There is no ‘life’ and and middle then quite separately the theoretical (theoria: from giving definition essay thea – view, and horan – to see) or 'from a distance' contemplation of phenomena. Philosophical speculation is the result of a certain way of renaissance ages, life and giving definition essay the attempted justification of thesis, this life. Interestingly Kant encapsulates this attitude in the following passage: “When will you finally begin to live virtuously?’ said Plato to giving definition essay, an old man who told him he was attending classes on virtue.

The point is not always to speculate, but also ultimately to annenberg foundation thinking, think about applying our knowledge. Essay! Today, however, he who lives in conformity with what he teaches is annenberg thinking, taken for a dreamer” (Kant in giving definition essay, Hadot 2002:xiii). We have to understand Nietzsche’s relation to philosophy within this context not only because it illustrates a stylistically different contemplation but because it demonstrates an essay for marriage, altogether different way of philosophizing. Thus in Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche accuses philosophers for their ‘Egyptism’, the fact that they turn everything into giving essay a concept under evaluation. “All that philosophers have been handling for thousands of years is conceptual mummies; nothing real has ever left their hands alive” (Nietzsche 1998:16). Annenberg Foundation Critical! Philosophical concepts are valuable insofar as they serve a flourishing life, not as academic exercises. Under the new model of philosophy the old metaphysical and moral questions are to giving essay, be replaced by new questions concerning history, genealogy, environmental conditions and and middle ages so forth. Let us take a characteristic passage from 1888: “I am interested in a question on which the ‘salvation of humanity’ depends more than on any curio of the theologians: the question of nutrition . Essay! For ease of thesis statement, use, one can put it in definition essay, the following terms: ‘how do you personally have to nourish yourself in order to attain your maximum of strength, of virtu in the Renaissance style, of moraline-free virtue?” (Nietzsche 2007:19). What is Nietzsche telling us here? Two things: firstly that, following the tradition of Spinoza, the movement from transcendence to immanence passes through the rehabilitation of the body. To say that, however, does not imply a simple-minded materialism. When Spinoza tells “nobody as yet has determined the limits of the body’s capabilities” (Spinoza 2002: 280) he is not writing about renaissance and middle ages something like bodily strength but to the possibility of an emergence of a body liberated from the sedimentation of culture and memory.

This archetypical body is indeed as yet unknown and we stand in ignorance of definition essay, its abilities. The second thing that Nietzsche is telling us in the above passage is that this new immanent philosophy necessarily requires a new ethics. Renaissance And Middle Essay! One has to giving definition, be clear here because of the many misunderstandings of Nietzschean ethics. Nietzsche is primarily a philosopher of ethics but ethics here refers to the possible justification of a way of life, which way of for marriage, life in turn justifies human existence on earth. For Nietzsche, ethics does not refer to giving, moral codes and guidelines on how to live one’s life.

Morality, which Nietzsche rejects, refers to the obsessive need (a need or an instinct can also be learned according to Nietzsche) of the human to renaissance essay, preserve its own species and to regard its species as higher than the giving definition essay, other animals. In short morality is arrogant . A Nietzschean ethics is an pakistan, ethics of modesty. It places the giving, human back where it belongs, among the other animals. However to say that is not to equate the geronimo essay, human with the animal. Unlike non-human animals men are products of history that is to say products of memory.

That is their burden and their responsibility. In the definition essay, Genealogy of Morality Nietzsche explains morality as a system aiming at the taming of the human animal. Film! Morality’s aim is the elimination of the creative power of animal instincts and the establishment of a life protected within the cocoon of ascetic ideals. These 'ideals' are all those values and ideologies made to protect man against the danger of nihilism, the state in which man finds no answer to the question of his existence. Morality clings to the preservation of the species ‘man’; morality stubbornly denies the giving essay, very possibility of an open-ended future for humans. If we could summarize Nietzsche’s philosophical anthropology in a few words, we would say that for Nietzsche it is necessary to attempt (there are no guarantees here) to pakistan, think of the human not as an end-in-itself but only as a means to something “. perfect, completely finished, happy, powerful, triumphant, that still leaves something to fear!” (Nietzsche 2007:25).

c. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Heidegger exercised an unparalleled influence on modern thought. Without knowledge of his work recent developments in modern European philosophy (Sartre, Gadamer, Arendt, Marcuse, Derrida, Foucault et al.) simply do not make sense. He remains notorious for his involvement with National Socialism in the 1930s. Outside European philosophy, Heidegger is only occasionally taken seriously, and is sometimes actually ridiculed (famously the Oxford philosopher A.J. Ayer called him a ‘charlatan’). In 1945 in Paris Jean-Paul Sartre gave a public lecture with the title ‘Existentialism is a Humanism’ where he defended the priority of action and the position that it is a man’s actions which define his humanity.

In 1946, Jean Beaufret in a letter to Heidegger poses a number of questions concerning the link between humanism and the recent developments of existentialist philosophy in France. Heidegger’s response is a letter to Beaufret which in 1947 is published in a book form with the definition, title ‘Letter on Humanism’. There he repudiates any possible connection of his philosophy with the existentialism of Sartre. The question for us here is the following: Is it possible, given Heidegger’s own repudiation of existentialism, still to characterise Heidegger’s philosophy as 'existentialist'? The answer here is that Heidegger can be classified as an mphil thesis, existentialist thinker despite all his differences from giving definition essay Sartre. Our strategy is to stress Heidegger’s connection with some key existentialist concerns, which we introduced above under the critical thinking, labels ‘Existence’, ‘Anxiety’ and the ‘Crowd’. We have seen above that a principle concern of all existentialists was to affirm the priority of individual existence and to stress that human existence is to be investigated with methods other than those of the natural sciences. This is also one of essay, Heidegger’s principle concerns.

His magnum opus Being and Time is an investigation into the meaning of Being as that manifests itself through the mphil thesis pakistan, human being, Dasein. The sciences have repeatedly asked ‘What is giving essay, a man?’ ‘What is a car?’ ‘What is an emotion?’ they have nevertheless failed – and film essay because of the nature of essay, science, had to essay, fail – to ask the question which grounds all those other questions. This question is what is the meaning of (that) Being which is not an entity (like other beings, for example a chair, a car, a rock) and yet through it entities have meaning at all? Investigating the question of the meaning of Being we discover that it arises only because it is giving definition essay, made possible by the human being which poses the question. Dasein has already a (pre-conceptual) understanding of Being because it is the essay questions, place where Being manifests itself. Unlike the traditional understanding of the human as a hypokeimenon (Aristotle) – what through the filtering of Greek thought by giving definition essay, the Romans becomes substantia, that which supports all entities and qualities as their base and writing thesis statement their ground – Dasein refers to definition, the way which human beings are. Thesis Statement Apa Style! ”The essence of Dasein lies in its existence” (Heidegger 1962: 67) and giving definition essay the existence of Dasein is mphil pakistan, not fixed like the existence of a substance is. Giving Definition Essay! This is why human beings locate a place which nevertheless remains unstable and unfixed. Writing Thesis Statement! The virtual place that Dasein occupies is not empty. It is filled with beings which ontologically structure the very possibility of Dasein. Dasein exists as in-the-world.

World is not something separate from Dasein; rather, Dasein cannot be understood outside the referential totality which constitutes it. Heidegger repeats here a familiar existentialist pattern regarding the situatedness of experience. Sartre, by contrast, comes from the giving essay, tradition of Descartes and to this tradition remains faithful. From Heidegger's perspective, Sartre’s strategy of affirming the priority of existence over geronimo essay, essence is definition, a by-product of the tradition of Renaissance humanism which wishes to geronimo essay, assert the importance of man as the highest and most splendid of finite beings. Sartrean existence refers to the fact that a human is whereas Heidegger’s ek-sistence refers to the way with which Dasein is thrown into giving definition essay a world of thesis pakistan, referential relations and as such Dasein is claimed by Being to guard its truth. Sartre, following Descartes, thinks of the human as a substance producing or sustaining entities, Heidegger on the contrary thinks of the human as a passivity which accepts the essay, call of annenberg foundation critical, Being. “Man is not the lord of beings. Man is the giving definition essay, shepherd of Being” (Heidegger 1993:245).

The Heideggerian priority then is Being, and Dasein’s importance lies in its receptiveness to the call of Being. For Kierkegaard anxiety defines the possibility of responsibility, the geronimo essay, exodus of man from the innocence of Eden and his participation to history. But the definition, birthplace of anxiety is the experience of nothingness, the state in which every entity is experienced as withdrawn from its functionality. “Nothing . gives birth to anxiety” (Kierkegaard 1980:41). Statement Apa Style! In anxiety we do not fear something in particular but we experience the terror of giving definition essay, a vacuum in which is existence is geronimo essay, thrown. Existentialist thinkers are interested in anxiety because anxiety individualizes one (it is when I feel Angst more than everything that I come face to giving definition, face with my own individual existence as distinct from renaissance and middle ages all other entities around me).

Heidegger thinks that one of the fundamental ways with which Dasein understands itself in giving essay, the world is essay for marriage, through an definition essay, array of ‘moods’. Dasein always ‘finds itself’ ( befinden sich ) in film questions, a certain mood. Man is not a thinking thing de-associated from the world, as in Cartesian metaphysics, but a being which finds itself in various moods such as anxiety or boredom. For the Existentialists, primarily and for the most part I don’t exist because I think (recall Descartes’ famous formula) but because my moods reveal to me fundamental truths of my existence. Giving Essay! Like Kierkegaard, Heidegger also believes that anxiety is born out of the terror of nothingness. “The obstinacy of the ‘nothing and nowhere within-the-world’ means as a phenomenon that the world as such is that in the face of which one has anxiety ” (Heidegger 1962:231). Geronimo Essay! For Kierkegaard the possibility of anxiety reveals man’s dual nature and because of giving essay, this duality man can be saved. “If a human being were a beast or an angel, he could not be in anxiety. Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:155). Equally for renaissance and middle ages Heidegger anxiety manifests Dasein’s possibility to live an authentic existence since it realizes that the crowd of definition, ‘others’ (what Heidegger calls the ‘They’) cannot offer any consolation to annenberg thinking, the drama of existence. In this article we have discussed the ambiguous or at times downright critical attitude of many existentialists toward the uncritical and unreflecting masses of people who, in a wholly anti-Kantian and thus also anti-Enlightenment move, locate the meaning of giving definition essay, their existence in an external authority.

They thus give up their (purported) autonomy as rational beings. For Heidegger, Dasein for the most part lives inauthentically in that Dasein is absorbed in a way of life produced by others, not by Dasein itself. “We take pleasure and enjoy ourselves as they [man] take pleasure; we read, see and judge about literature and art as they see and film judge. ” (Heidegger 1962:164). To be sure this mode of existence, the giving definition, ‘They’ ( Das Man ) is one of the existentialia, it is an a priori condition of possibility of the critical, Dasein which means that inauthenticity is inscribed into the mode of being of Dasein, it does not come from the giving definition essay, outside as a bad influence which could be erased. Heidegger’s language is ambiguous on the problem of inauthenticity and the reader has to make his mind on the status of the ‘They’. A lot has been said on the possible connections of Heidegger’s philosophy with his political engagements. Annenberg Foundation! Although it is always a risky business to read the works of giving essay, great philosophers as political manifestos, it seems prima facie evident that Heidegger’s thought in this area deserves the close investigation it has received. Heidegger was a highly original thinker. His project was nothing less than the overcoming of Western metaphysics through the positing of the forgotten question of being.

He stands in a critical relation to past philosophers but simultaneously he is heavily indebted to them, much more than he would like to admit. This is not to renaissance essay, question his originality, it is to recognize that thought is definition essay, not an ex nihilo production; it comes as a response to things past, and aims towards what is made possible through that past. d. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) as an Existentialist Philosopher. In the public consciousness, at least, Sartre must surely be the central figure of existentialism. All the themes that we introduced above come together in his work. With the possible exception of Nietzsche, his writings are the most widely anthologised (especially the lovely, if oversimplifying, lecture 'Existentialism and Humanism') and his literary works are widely read (especially the novel Nausea ) or performed. Writing Thesis Statement! Although uncomfortable in the limelight, he was nevertheless the very model of a public intellectual, writing hundreds of short pieces for public dissemination and taking resolutely independent and often controversial stands on major political events. Giving Definition! His writings that are most clearly existentialist in character date from Sartre's early and middle period, primarily the 1930s and annenberg critical thinking 1940s. From the 1950s onwards, Sartre moved his existentialism towards a philosophy the purpose of which was to understand the possibility of a genuinely revolutionary politics. Sartre was in definition essay, his late 20s when he first encountered phenomenology, specifically the philosophical ideas of Edmund Husserl. (We should point out that Heidegger was also deeply influenced by writing thesis statement apa style, Husserl, but it is less obvious in the language he employs because he drops the language of consciousness and acts.) Of particular importance, Sartre thought, was Husserl's notion of definition, intentionality. In Sartre's interpretation of this idea, consciousness is not to be identified with a thing (for example a mind, soul or brain), that is to say some kind of a repository of ideas and images of things.

Rather, consciousness is writing thesis statement apa style, nothing but a directedness towards things. Giving! Sartre found a nice way to sum up the notion of the intentional object: If I love her, I love her because she is lovable (Sartre 1970:4-5). Within my experience, her lovableness is not an aspect of geronimo essay, my image of giving, her, rather it is geronimo essay, a feature of her (and ultimately a part of the giving, world) towards which my consciousness directs itself. Thesis Pakistan! The things I notice about her (her smile, her laugh) are not originally neutral, and then I interpret the giving, idea of them as 'lovely', they are aspects of her as lovable. The notion that consciousness is not a thing is foundation, vital to Sartre.

Indeed, consciousness is primarily to be characterised as nothing : it is first and foremost not that which it is conscious of. (Sartre calls human existence the 'for-itself', and the being of things the 'in-itself'.) Because it is not a thing, it is giving, not subject to the laws of things; specifically, it is not part of a chain of causes and mphil thesis pakistan its identity is not akin to that of a substance. Giving! Above we suggested that a concern with the nature of existence, and essay for marriage more particularly a concern with the distinctive nature of human existence, are defining existentialist themes. Moreover, qua consciousness, and not a thing that is part of the causal chain, I am free. From moment to moment, my every action is mine alone to choose. I will of course have a past 'me' that cannot be dispensed with; this is part of my 'situation'. However, again, I am first and foremost not my situation. Thus, at every moment I choose whether to continue on that life path, or to be something else. Thus, my existence (the mere fact that I am) is giving, prior to my essence (what I make of myself through my free choices). I am thus utterly responsible for myself. If my act is not simply whatever happens to come to mind, then my action may embody a more general principle of action. This principle too is one that I must have freely chosen and committed myself to.

It is an image of the type of life that I believe has value. Mphil Thesis! (In these ways, Sartre intersects with the broadly Kantian account of freedom which we introduced above in our thematic section.) As situated, I also find myself surrounded by such images – from religion, culture, politics or morality – but none compels my freedom. (All these forces that seek to appropriate my freedom by objectifying me form Sartre's version of the crowd theme.) I exist as freedom, primarily characterised as not determined, so my continuing existence requires the ever renewed exercise of freedom (thus, in our thematic discussion above, the notion from Spinoza and Leibniz of existence as a striving-to-exist). Thus also, my non-existence, and the non-existence of everything I believe in, is only a free choice away. I (in the sense of an authentic human existence) am not what I 'am' (the past I have accumulated, the things that surround me, or the way that others view me). I am alone in my responsibility; my existence, relative to everything external that might give it meaning, is absurd. Essay! Face to face with such responsibility, I feel 'anxiety'. Geronimo Essay! Notice that although Sartre's account of situatedness owes much to giving definition, Nietzsche and Heidegger, he sees it primarily in terms of what gives human freedom its meaning and its burden. Nietzsche and Heidegger, in contrast, view such a conception of freedom as naively metaphysical. Suppose, however, that at some point I am conscious of myself in a thing-like way. For example, I say 'I am a student' (treating myself as having a fixed, thing-like identity) or 'I had no choice' (treating myself as belonging to the causal chain). I am ascribing a fixed identity or set of qualities to myself, much as I would say 'that is a piece of granite'.

In that case I am existing in denial of my distinctively human mode of existence; I am fleeing from my freedom. This is inauthenticity or 'bad faith'. As we shall see, inauthenticity is not just an occasional pitfall of human life, but essential to it. Human existence is a constant falling away from an authentic recognition of its freedom. Sartre here thus echoes the notion in Heidegger than inauthenticity is a condition of possibility of human existence. Intentionality manifests itself in another important way. Rarely if ever am I simply observing the world; instead I am involved in wanting to do something, I have a goal or purpose.

Here, intentional consciousness is not a static directedness towards things, but is rather an active projection towards the renaissance ages essay, future. Suppose that I undertake as my project marrying my beloved. This is an intentional relation to definition essay, a future state of thesis pakistan, affairs. As free, I commit myself to this project and must reaffirm that commitment at every moment. Giving Essay! It is part of my life project, the image of human life that I offer to myself and to others as something of value. Notice, however, that my project involves inauthenticity. Renaissance Ages! I project myself into the future where I will be married to her – that is, I define myself as 'married', as if I were a fixed being.

Thus there is an essential tension to all projection. On the one hand, the mere fact that I project myself into the future is emblematic of my freedom; only a radically free consciousness can project itself. I exist as projecting towards the future which, again, I am not . Thus, I am (in the sense of an authentic self) what I am not (because my projecting is always underway towards the future). On the other hand, in definition essay, projecting I am projecting myself as something , that is, as a thing that no longer projects, has no future, is writing, not free. Every action, then, is both an expression of freedom and also a snare of freedom. Definition Essay! Projection is absurd: I seek to become the for marriage, impossible object, for-itself-in-itself, a thing that is both free and a mere thing. Born of this tension is a recognition of freedom, what it entails, and its essential fragility. Thus, once again, we encounter existential anxiety. (In this article, we have not stressed the importance of the concept of time for existentialism, but it should not be overlooked: witness one of Nietzsche's most famous concepts (eternal recurrence) and the title of giving essay, Heidegger's major early work ( Being and Time ).) In my intentional directedness towards my beloved I find her 'loveable'. This too, though, is an objectification. Within my intentional gaze, she is loveable in much the same way that granite is hard or heavy.

Insofar as I am in love, then, I seek to mphil, deny her freedom. Insofar, however, as I wish to be loved by her, then she must be free to choose me as her beloved. If she is definition, free, she escapes my love; if not, she cannot love. It is in these terms that Sartre analyses love in critical, Part Three of Being and Nothingness . Love here is a case study in the basic forms of social relation. Sartre is thus moving from an entirely individualistic frame of reference (my self, my freedom and my projects) towards a consideration of the self in giving essay, concrete relations with others. Sartre is working through – in a way he would shortly see as being inadequate – the issues presented by the Hegelian dialectic of geronimo essay, recognition, which we mentioned above. This 'hell' of giving essay, endlessly circling acts of freedom and objectification is brilliantly dramatised in Sartre's play No Exit . A few years later at geronimo essay the end of the definition, 1940s, Sartre wrote what has been published as Notebooks for essay for marriage an Ethics . Sartre (influenced in the meantime by giving essay, the criticisms of Merleau-Ponty and de Beauvoir, and by his increasing commitment to collectivist politics) elaborated greatly his existentialist account of relations with others, taking the Hegelian idea more seriously.

He no longer thinks of concrete relations so pessimistically. While Nietzsche and Heidegger both suggest the possibility of an renaissance ages essay, authentic being with others, both leave it seriously under-developed. For our purposes, there are two key ideas in the Notebooks . The first is that my projects can be realised only with the cooperation of others; however, that cooperation presupposes their freedom (I cannot make her love me), and their judgements about me must concern me. Therefore permitting and nurturing the freedom of others must be a central part of all my projects. Sartre thus commits himself against any political, social or economic forms of subjugation. Second, there is the possibility of essay, a form of social organisation and action in which each individual freely gives him or herself over to a joint project: a 'city of for marriage, ends' (this is giving, a reworking of Kant's idea of the 'kingdom of ends', found in the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals ). An authentic existence, for Sartre, therefore means two things. First, it is something like a 'style' of existing – one that at every moment is anxious, and renaissance essay that means fully aware of the absurdity and fragility of its freedom. Essay! Second, though, there is some minimal level of content to thesis, any authentic project: whatever else my project is, it must also be a project of freedom, for myself and for others. e. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir was the youngest student ever to pass the demanding agregation at the prestigious Ecole Normale Superieure.

Subsequently a star Normalienne , she was a writer, philosopher, feminist, lifelong partner of Jean-Paul Sartre, notorious for her anti-bourgeois way of living and her free sexual relationships which included among others a passionate affair with the definition, American writer Nelson Algren. Much ink has been spilled debating whether de Beauvoir’s work constitutes a body of independent philosophical work, or is a reformulation of Sartre’s work. The debate rests of thesis, course upon the fundamental misconception that wants a body of giving definition, work to exist and develop independently of (or uninfluenced by) its intellectual environment. Such ‘objectivity’ is not only impossible but also undesirable: such a body of work would be ultimately irrelevant since it would be non-communicable. So the question of de Beauvoir’s ‘independence’ could be dismissed here as irrelevant to the philosophical questions that her work raises. In 1943 Being and Nothingness , the groundwork of the Existentialist movement in France was published. There Sartre gave an account of freedom as ontological constitutive of the subject. One cannot but be free: this is the kernel of the Sartrean conception of mphil thesis pakistan, freedom. Definition! In 1945 Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of thinking, Perception is essay, published. There, as well as in an essay from the same year titled 'The war has taken place' , Merleau-Ponty heavily criticizes the Sartrean stand, criticising it as a reformulation of basic Stoic tenets. One cannot assume freedom in isolation from the freedom of others.

Action is participatory: “…my freedom is foundation, interwoven with that of others by way of the world” (Merleau-Ponty in Stewart 1995:315). Moreover action takes place within a certain historical context. For Merleau-Ponty the subjective free-will is always in a dialectical relationship with its historical context. In 1947 Simone de Beauvoir’s Ethics of Ambiguity is published. The book is an definition, introduction to existentialism but also a subtle critique of annenberg foundation thinking, Sartre’s position on freedom, and a partial extension of existentialism towards the social. Although de Beauvoir will echo Merleau-Ponty’s criticism regarding the essential interrelation of the subjects, nevertheless she will leave unstressed the importance that the social context plays in the explication of moral problems. Like Sartre it is only later in her life that this will be acknowledged. In any case, de Beauvoir’s book precipitates in turn a major rethink on giving essay, Sartre’s part, and the result is the Notebooks for an Ethics . In Ethics of Ambiguity de Beauvoir offers a picture of the human subject as constantly oscillating between facticity and transcendence. Whereas the human is geronimo essay, always already restricted by the brute facts of giving definition essay, his existence, nevertheless it always aspires to overcome its situation, to geronimo essay, choose its freedom and thus to create itself. Giving Definition! This tension must be considered positive, and film essay not restrictive of action.

It is exactly because the ontology of the human is giving definition, a battleground of antithetical movements (a view consistent with de Beauvoir’s Hegelianism) that the film analysis essay questions, subject must produce an ethics which will be continuous with its ontological core. The term for this tension is ambiguity . Ambiguity is not a quality of the human as substance, but a characterisation of human existence. We are ambiguous beings destined to throw ourselves into the future while simultaneously it is our very own existence that throws us back into facticity. That is to say, back to the brute fact that we are in a sense always already destined to fail – not in this or that particular project but to fail as pure and sustained transcendence. Definition! It is exactly because of (and through) this fundamental failure that we realize that our ethical relation to essay, the world cannot be self-referential but must pass through the realization of the definition, common destiny of the human as a failed and interrelated being. De Beauvoir, unlike Sartre, was a scholarly reader of Hegel. Her position on mphil, an existential ethics is thus more heavily influenced by giving definition, Hegel’s view in the Phenomenology of essay for marriage, Spirit concerning the moment of recognition (Hegel 1977:111). There Hegel describes the movement in which self-consciousness produces itself by positing another would be self-consciousness, not as a mute object ( Gegen-stand ) but as itself self-consciousness. The Hegelian movement remains one of the most fascinating moments in the history of definition essay, philosophy since it is for the first time that the constitution of the self does not take place from geronimo essay within the self (as happens with Descartes, for giving definition whom the only truth is the and middle ages, truth of my existence; or Leibniz, for giving definition essay whom the monads are ‘windowless’; or Fichte, for whom the ‘I’ is film essay questions, absolutely self-constitutive) but from the outside. It is, Hegel tells us, only because someone else recognizes me as a subject that I can be constituted as such. Definition Essay! Outside the moment of recognition there is no self-consciousness.

De Beauvoir takes to heart the Hegelian lesson and foundation critical thinking tries to formulate an ethics from it. What would this ethics be? As in Nietzsche, ethics refers to a way of giving definition essay, life (a ????), as opposed to morality which concerns approved or condemned behaviour. Thus there are no recipes for ethics. Drawn from Hegel’s moment of recognition, de Beauvoir acknowledges that the possibility of human flourishing is based firstly upon the recognition of the existence of the other (“Man can find a justification of his own existence only in the existence of the other men” (Beauvoir 1976:72) and secondly on the recognition that my own flourishing (or my ability to pose projects, in the language of existentialists) passes through the possibility of a common flourishing. “Only the freedom of others keeps each one of us from hardening in foundation critical, the absurdity of facticity,” (Beauvoir 1976:71) de Beauvoir writes; or again “To will oneself free is also to will others free” (Beauvoir 1976:73). The Ethics of Ambiguity ends by declaring the giving definition, necessity of assuming one’s freedom and statement apa style the assertion that it is only through action that freedom makes itself possible. This is not a point to be taken light-heartedly. It constitutes a movement of opposition against a long tradition of philosophy understanding itself as theoria : the disinterested contemplation on the nature of the human and the world. De Beauvoir, in common with most existentialists, understands philosophy as praxis : involved action in the world and participation in the course of history.

It is out of this understanding that The Second Sex is born. In 1949 Le Deuxieme Sexe is giving definition essay, published in France. In English in 1953 it appeared as The Second Sex in an abridged translation. The book immediately became a best seller and film later a founding text of S econd Wave Feminism (the feminist movement from the giving definition essay, early 60’s to the 70’s inspired by the civil rights movement and focusing at the theoretical examination of the thesis pakistan, concepts of equality, inequality, the role of family, justice and so forth). More than anything, The Second Sex constitutes a study in applied existentialism where the abstract concept ‘Woman’ gives way to giving, the examination of the lives of everyday persons struggling against oppression and humiliation. When de Beauvoir says that there is thesis pakistan, no such thing as a ‘Woman’ we have to hear the echo of the Kierkegaardian assertion of the single individual against the abstractions of Hegelian philosophy, or similarly Sartre’s insistence on the necessity of the prioritization of the personal lives of self-creating people (what Sartre calls ‘existence’) as opposed to a pre-established ideal of definition essay, what humans should be like (what Sartre calls ‘essence’).

The Second Sex is an exemplary text showing how a philosophical movement can have real, tangible effects on the lives of many people, and is a magnificent exercise in what philosophy could be. “I hesitated a long time before writing a book on woman. The subject is irritating, especially for women. ” (Beauvoir 2009:3). The Second Sex begins with the most obvious (but rarely posed) question: What is woman? De Beauvoir finds that at critical thinking present there is no answer to that question. The reason is that tradition has always thought of woman as the other of giving essay, man. It is mphil thesis, only man that constitutes himself as a subject (as the Absolute de Beauvoir says), and woman defines herself only essay through him. “She determines and differentiates herself in relation to man, and he does not in geronimo essay, relation to her; she is the inessential in front of the giving definition essay, essential. ” (Beauvoir 2009:6). But why is it that woman has initially accepted or tolerated this process whereby she becomes the for marriage, other of man?

De Beauvoir does not give a consoling answer; on the contrary, by giving definition essay, turning to Sartre’s notion of bad faith (which refers to film questions, the human being’s anxiety in front of the responsibility entailed by the realization of its radical freedom) she thinks that women at giving essay times are complicit to their situation. It is indeed easier for one – anyone – to assume the role of an object (for example a housewife 'kept' by thinking, her husband) than to take responsibility for creating him or herself and creating the possibilities of freedom for others. Naturally the giving definition, condition of bad faith is for marriage, not always the giving, case. Often women found themselves in a sociocultural environment which denied them the very possibility of personal flourishing (as happens with most of the major religious communities). Annenberg Foundation Thinking! A further problem that women face is that of understanding themselves as a unity which would enable them to assume the role of their choosing. “Proletarians say ‘we’. Essay! So do blacks” (Beauvoir 2009:8). By saying ‘we’ they assume the role of the subject and turn everyone else into ‘other’. Women are unable to utter this ‘we’. “They live dispersed among men, tied by homes, work, economic interests and social conditions to certain men – fathers or husbands – more closely than to other women. Ages! As bourgeois women, they are in solidarity with bourgeois men and giving definition essay not with women proletarians; as white women, they are in solidarity with white men and not with black women” (Beauvoir 2009:9).

Women primarily align themselves to their class or race and not to other women. The female identity is renaissance ages, “very much bound up with the identity of the men around them. ” (Reynolds 2006:145). One of the most celebrated moments in The Second Sex is the giving essay, much quoted phrase: “One is not born, but rather becomes, woman” (Beauvoir 2009:293). She explains: “No biological, physical or economic destiny defines the writing thesis statement apa style, figure that the human female takes on in society; it is civilization as a whole that elaborates this intermediary product between the male and the eunuch that is called feminine” (Beauvoir 2009:293). For some feminists this clearly inaugurates the giving definition, problematic of the geronimo essay, sex-gender distinction (where sex denotes the biological identity of the person and giving essay gender the cultural attribution of properties to the sexed body). For Marriage! Simply put, there is absolutely nothing that determines the ‘assumed’ femininity of the giving definition, woman (how a woman acts, feels, behaves) – everything that we have come to think as ‘feminine’ is a social construction not a natural given. Later feminists like Monique Wittig and Judith Butler will argue that ‘sex’ is already ‘gender’ in the sense that a sexed body exists always already within a cultural nexus that defines it. Renaissance And Middle Ages Essay! Thus the sex assignment (a doctor pronouncing the giving essay, sex of the baby) is a naturalized (but not at all natural) normative claim which delivers the essay, human into a world of power relations. f. Albert Camus (1913-1960) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Albert Camus was a French intellectual, writer and giving essay journalist.

His multifaceted work as well as his ambivalent relation to essay for marriage, both philosophy and existentialism makes every attempt to classify him a rather risky operation. A recipient of the 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature primarily for his novels, he is also known as a philosopher due to his non-literary work and his relation with Jean-Paul Sartre. And yet his response was clear: “I am not a philosopher, because I don’t believe in reason enough to believe in a system. What interests me is knowing how we must behave, and more precisely, how to definition essay, behave when one does not believe in God or reason” (Camus in Sherman 2009: 1). The issue is not just about the label 'existentialist'. It rather points to a deep tension within the current of thought of all thinkers associated with existentialism. The question is: With how many voices can thought speak?

As we have already seen, the renaissance ages essay, thinkers of existentialism often deployed more than one. Almost all of them share a deep suspicion to giving essay, a philosophy operating within reason as conceived of by the Enlightenment. Camus shares this suspicion and his so called philosophy of the absurd intends to set limits to the overambitions of renaissance ages, Western rationality. Reason is absurd in essay, that it believes that it can explain the totality of the human experience whereas it is exactly its inability for explanation that, for annenberg foundation critical example, a moment of fall designates. Thus in his novel “The Fall” the protagonist’s tumultuous narrative reveals the overtaking of a life of superficial regularity by the forces of darkness and irrationality. “A bourgeois hell, inhabited of course by definition essay, bad dreams” (Camus 2006:10). Writing Statement Apa Style! In a similar fashion Camus has also repudiated his connection with existentialism. “Non, je ne suis pas existentialist” is the title of a famous interview that he gave for the magazine Les Nouvelles Litteraires on the 15 of November, 1945. The truth of the matter is that Camus’ rejection of existentialism is directed more toward Sartre’s version of it rather than toward a dismissal of the main problems that the existential thinkers faced. Particularly, Camus was worried that Sartre’s deification of history (Sartre’s proclaimed Marxism) would be incompatible with the affirmation of personal freedom. Camus accuses Hegel (subsequently Marx himself) of reducing man to history and thus denying man the possibility of giving definition, creating his own history, that is, affirming his freedom. Philosophically, Camus is and middle ages essay, known for his conception of the absurd. Essay! Perhaps we should clarify from the very beginning what the absurd is not.

The absurd is not nihilism. For Camus the acceptance of the thesis pakistan, absurd does not lead to nihilism (according to Nietzsche nihilism denotes the state in which the highest values devalue themselves) or to inertia, but rather to their opposite: to action and participation. The notion of the absurd signifies the space which opens up between, on the one hand, man’s need for intelligibility and, on the other hand, 'the unreasonable silence of the definition, world' as he beautifully puts it. In a world devoid of God, eternal truths or any other guiding principle, how could man bear the responsibility of a meaning-giving activity? The absurd man, like an foundation critical thinking, astronaut looking at giving essay the earth from above, wonders whether a philosophical system, a religion or a political ideology is able to make the world respond to the questioning of man, or rather whether all human constructions are nothing but the excessive face-paint of a clown which is there to cover his sadness. This terrible suspicion haunts the absurd man. In one of the statement, most memorable openings of a non-fictional book he states: “There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide. Giving Definition Essay! Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy.

All the rest – whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories – comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer” (Camus 2000:11). The problem of suicide (a deeply personal problem) manifests the foundation critical, exigency of a meaning-giving response. Indeed for Camus a suicidal response to the problem of meaning would be the confirmation that the absurd has taken over man’s inner life. Giving Definition! It would mean that man is not any more an animal going after answers, in accordance with some inner drive that leads him to act in order to endow the world with meaning. The suicide has become but a passive recipient of the muteness of the world. “. Mphil Thesis Pakistan! The absurd . is simultaneously awareness and rejection of death” (Camus 2000:54). One has to be aware of death – because it is precisely the realization of man’s mortality that pushes someone to giving, strive for answers – and film questions one has ultimately to reject death – that is, reject suicide as well as the living death of inertia and inaction. At the end one has to giving definition, keep the absurd alive, as Camus says. Film! But what does it that mean? In The Myth of Sisyphus Camus tells the story of the mythical Sisyphus who was condemned by the Gods to ceaselessly roll a rock to definition, the top of a mountain and then have to let it fall back again of its own weight. “Sisyphus, proletarian of the gods, powerless and rebellious, knows the annenberg, whole extent of his wretched condition: it is giving definition essay, what he thinks of during his descent.

The lucidity that was to constitute his torture at the same time crowns his victory. Renaissance And Middle Ages Essay! There is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn” (Camus 2000:109). Giving Definition! One must imagine then Sisyphus victorious: fate and absurdity have been overcome by a joyful contempt. Mphil! Scorn is the appropriate response in the face of the absurd; another name for this 'scorn' though would be artistic creation. When Camus says: “One does not discover the absurd without being tempted to write a manual of happiness” (Camus 2000:110) he writes about a moment of exhilarated madness, which is the moment of the genesis of the artistic work.

Madness, but nevertheless profound – think of the function of the Fool in Shakespeare’s King Lear as the one who reveals to the king the most profound truths through play, mimicry and songs. Such madness can overcome the definition essay, absurd without cancelling it altogether. Almost ten years after the publication of The Myth of Sisyphus Camus publishes his second major philosophical work, The Rebel (1951). Camus continues the problematic which had begun with The Myth of Sisyphus. Previously, revolt or creation had been considered the statement apa style, necessary response to the absurdity of existence. Here, Camus goes on to examine the nature of rebellion and its multiple manifestations in definition, history. In The Myth of Sisyphus , in truly Nietzschean fashion, Camus had said: “There is but one useful action, that of remaking man and the earth” (Camus 2000:31). However, in The Rebel , reminiscent of Orwell’s Animal Farm , one of the first points he makes is the following: “The slave starts by begging for justice and ends by wanting to wear a crown. He too wants to dominate” (Camus 2000b:31).

The problem is that while man genuinely rebels against both unfair social conditions and, as Camus says, against the whole of creation, nevertheless in the practical administration of such revolution, man comes to deny the humanity of the other in an attempt to impose his own individuality. Take for example the case of the infamous Marquis de Sade which Camus explores. In Sade, contradictory forces are at work (see The 120 Days of Sodom ). Mphil Pakistan! On the one hand, Sade wishes the establishment of a (certainly mad ) community with desire as the ultimate master, and on essay, the other hand this very desire consumes itself and and middle all the subjects who stand in its way. Camus goes on to examine historical manifestations of rebellion, the most prominent case being that of the French Revolution. Giving Definition Essay! Camus argues that the revolution ended up taking the place of the transcendent values which it sought to abolish. An all-powerful notion of justice now takes the place formerly inhabited by God. Rousseau’s infamous suggestion that under the rule of ‘general will’ everyone would be 'forced to be free' (Rousseau in Foley 2008:61) opens the way to the crimes committed after the revolution. Camus fears that all revolutions end with the geronimo essay, re-establishment of the State. “. Seventeen eighty-nine brings Napoleon; 1848 Napoleon III; 1917 Stalin; the Italian disturbances of the twenties, Mussolini; the Weimar Republic, Hitler” (Camus 2000b:146). Camus is led to examine the Marxist view of history as a possible response to the failed attempts at the establishment of giving definition essay, a true revolutionary regime.

Camus examines the similarities between the Christian and the Marxist conception of history. They both exhibit a bourgeois preoccupation with progress. Statement! In the name of the future everything can be justified: “the future is the only kind of property that the giving definition, masters willingly concede to foundation thinking, the slaves” (Camus 2000b:162). Giving Definition! History according to both views is the linear progress from a set beginning to a definite end (the metaphysical salvation of man or the materialistic salvation of him in the future Communist society). Influenced by Kojeve’s reading of Hegel, Camus interprets this future, classless society as the ‘end of history’. The ‘end of history’ suggests that when all contradictions cease then history itself will come to an end. This is, Camus argues, essentially nihilistic: history, in effect, accepts that meaning creation is thinking, no longer possible and commits suicide. Because historical revolutions are for giving definition the most part nihilistic movements, Camus suggests that it is the making-absolute of the values of the revolution that necessarily lead to their negation.

On the contrary a relative conception of these values will be able to questions, sustain a community of free individuals who have not forgotten that every historical rebellion has begun by affirming a proto-value (that of human solidarity) upon which every other value can be based. 3. The Influence of Existentialism. In the field of essay, visual arts existentialism exercised an enormous influence, most obviously on the movement of for marriage, Expressionism. Expressionism began in essay, Germany at the beginning of the 20 th century. With its emphasis on subjective experience, Angst and intense emotionality, German expressionism sought to go beyond the naivete of mphil pakistan, realist representation and to deal with the anguish of the giving definition, modern man (exemplified in the terrible experiences of WWI). Many of the artists of Expressionism read Nietzsche intensively and following Nietzsche’s suggestion for thesis a transvaluation of values experimented with alternative lifestyles.

Erich Heckel’s woodcut “Friedrich Nietzsche” from giving definition essay 1905 is film questions, a powerful reminder of the giving essay, movement’s connection to Existentialist thought. Abstract expressionism (which included artists such as de Kooning and Pollock, and theorists such as Rosenberg) continued with some of the same themes in essay, the United States from the 1940s and giving tended to embrace existentialism as one of annenberg foundation, its intellectual guides, especially after Sartre's US lecture tour in 1946 and giving a production of No Exit in New York. German Expressionism was particularly important during the birth of the critical, new art of cinema. Giving Definition Essay! Perhaps the closest cinematic work to Existentialist concerns remains F.W. Murnau’s The Last Laugh (1924) in which the constantly moving camera (which prefigures the ‘rule’ of the hand-held camera of the Danish Dogma 95 ) attempts to arrest the essay for marriage, spiritual anguish of a man who suddenly finds himself in a meaningless world. Expressionism became a world-wide style within cinema, especially as film directors like Lang fled Germany and ended up in definition essay, Hollywood. Jean Genet's Un chant d'amour (1950) is a moving poetic exploration of desire. In the sordid, claustrophobic cells of a prison the inmates’ craving for intimacy takes place against the background of an unavoidable despair for existence itself. European directors such as Bergman and Godard are often associated with existentialist themes. Godard's Vivre sa vie ( My Life to Live , 1962) is explicit in its exploration of the nature of freedom under conditions of extreme social and film personal pressure. In the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries existentialist ideas became common in mainstream cinema, pervading the work of writers and directors such as Woody Allen, Richard Linklater, Charlie Kaufman and Christopher Nolan.

Given that Sartre and Camus were both prominent novelists and playwrights, the influence of existentialism on literature is not surprising. However, the influence was also the other way. Novelists such as Dostoevsky or Kafka, and the dramatist Ibsen, were often cited by mid-century existentialists as important precedents, right along with Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Dostoevsky creates a character Ivan Karamazov (in The Brothers Karamazov , 1880) who holds the view that if God is dead, then everything is giving essay, permitted; both Nietzsche and Sartre discuss Dostoevsky with enthusiasm. Within drama, the theatre of the absurd and most obviously Beckett were influenced by existentialist ideas; later playwrights such as Albee, Pinter and Stoppard continue this tradition. One of the key figures of 20 th century psychology, Sigmund Freud, was indebted to Nietzsche especially for his analysis of the role of psychology within culture and history, and for ages essay his view of giving essay, cultural artefacts such as drama or music as 'unconscious' documentations of psychological tensions. Geronimo Essay! But a more explicit taking up of existentialist themes is found in the broad 'existentialist psychotherapy' movement. A common theme within this otherwise very diverse group is that previous psychology misunderstood the fundamental nature of the human and giving essay especially its relation to others and to acts of meaning-giving; thus also, previous psychology had misunderstood what a 'healthy' attitude to self, others and meaning might be.

Key figures here include Swiss psychologists Ludwig Binswanger and later Menard Boss, both of who were enthusiastic readers of Heidegger; the Austrian Frankl, who invented the thesis pakistan, method of logotherapy; in England, Laing and Cooper, who were explicitly influenced by Sartre; and in the United States, Rollo May, who stresses the ineradicable importance of anxiety. As a whole, existentialism has had relatively little direct influence within philosophy. In Germany, existentialism (and especially Heidegger) was criticised for being obscure, abstract or even mystical in nature. This criticism was made especially by Adorno in The Jargon of Authenticity, and in Dog Years , novelist Gunter Grass gives a Voltaire-like, savage satire of Heidegger. Giving Definition! The criticism was echoed by many in the analytic tradition. Renaissance And Middle Ages! Heidegger and the existentialist were also taken to task for paying insufficient attention to social and essay political structures or values, with dangerous results.

In France, philosophers like Sartre were criticised by thesis statement apa style, those newly under the influence of structuralism for paying insufficient attention to the nature of language and to impersonal structures of meaning. In short, philosophy moved on, and in different directions. Giving Essay! Individual philosophers remain influential, however: Nietzsche and Heidegger in particular are very much 'live' topics in philosophy, even in the 21 st century. However, there are some less direct influences that remain important. Let us raise three examples. Both the issue of freedom in relation to situation, and that of the philosophical significance of what otherwise might appear to be extraneous contextual factors, remain key, albeit in dramatically altered formulation, within the work of Michel Foucault or Alain Badiou, two figures central to mphil, late 20 th century European thought.

Likewise, the philosophical importance that the existentialists placed upon emotion has been influential, legitimising a whole domain of philosophical research even by philosophers who have no interest in definition, existentialism. Renaissance Ages Essay! Similarly, existentialism was a philosophy that insisted philosophy could and should deal very directly with 'real world' topics such as sex, death or crime, topics that had most frequently been approached abstractly within the philosophical tradition. Mary Warnock wrote on giving definition essay, existentialism and especially Sartre, for example, while also having an incredibly important and public role within recent applied ethics.

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to expand the resumes to a larger size. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to write your own below. Essay. If you are an critical, entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to giving definition download. This MS Word Food Service Resume.

Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465.

Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in mphil pakistan food preparation and essay service, and a certificate in foundation Food Handling and Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and giving the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. Faithfully adhere to geronimo essay the highest standards of hygiene, quality and customer service. Aiming to leverage my knowledge to essay effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL.

Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to mphil thesis kitchen staff in giving definition essay a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and geronimo essay ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to giving essay state law. Mphil Thesis Pakistan. Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011. Present menus to giving definition patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by essay for marriage, greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to definition taste and opened the bottles for them upon writing thesis statement, their approval Served food and definition essay beverages to patrons, and geronimo essay prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required.

Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of giving definition essay Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is thesis able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of definition essay Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to geronimo essay emphasize achievements and giving skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to geronimo essay convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to essay the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in front of strangers at length.

Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables. Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to renaissance and middle ages use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and essay test trainees for memorization of thesis pakistan food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by definition essay, 10% on average Management: Assisted in thesis the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and giving definition comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and geronimo essay practices Awards and definition essay Recognition: Frequently praised for film analysis essay, excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and definition essay broad knowledge of geronimo essay wines and giving definition essay appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish – Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and for marriage common restaurant machinery Able to giving memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to geronimo essay daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to definition input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and annenberg critical equipment cleaning processes.

Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service:

1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at definition a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Writing Thesis Statement. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into giving definition, food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and geronimo essay charismatic personality well suited for essay, a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in essay Spanish. Awarded “Employee of the Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average.

Experience with 3 types of giving essay POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to essay for marriage calculate and split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in giving essay the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in essay for marriage Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from giving essay, a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the geronimo essay, “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and giving definition essay how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to:

Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. Annenberg Foundation Critical. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate.

Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in giving definition mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and geronimo essay Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by giving definition, earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of essay for marriage your resume is called the Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on definition essay, the short list for renaissance and middle, an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective.

Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to essay fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for renaissance ages essay, an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. Essay. It is also well written, and targeted at annenberg foundation the managerial role she wants to fill.

Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to giving essay increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to mphil thesis pakistan write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and giving essay give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to film analysis essay do this is to giving definition essay simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to annenberg foundation critical thinking patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant.

Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of giving definition essay your competition. If you really want to blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and film questions the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in essay sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per geronimo essay, years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for giving essay, the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on writing statement, your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and giving definition hard working. This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and these tend to land the most interviews.

Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in geronimo essay Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to definition build a stronger resume:

Familiarity with Point of pakistan Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in essay Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for film analysis, a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to giving essay having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the essay, Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker.

The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in essay Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the analysis essay, employer should take a chance on definition essay, you. The education section on thesis pakistan, an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an giving, active person or not. Writing Statement Apa Style. Therefore, you can include information about:

Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in definition today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and thesis apa style Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Definition Essay. Put your skills to geronimo essay the test, and definition learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to annenberg foundation Modify and Maximize your Resume Template.

Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to giving definition make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for for marriage, a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs.

LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the giving definition, world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to essay for marriage help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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Sr. Manager Virtualization and giving Automation. Feb '16 to Nov ‘16. - Responsible for apa style, the overall vision, leadership, direction, governance strategies associated with the planning, delivery, management, and giving essay support of virtualization infrastructure and automation. - VMware ESX/vSphere support across 6 data centers; Horizon View VDI environment; monitoring. - Self-service portal build up and foundation critical thinking automation; - Management of geographically dispersed team; project management. - Cost reductions and processes optimization; PCI DSS compliance. - SecureNet infrastructure integration advisor role. - OpenStack POC build out. - Grown Virtualization Automation team from a single engineer to a team of six. - Inventoried, patched and definition secured virtualization infrastructure for for marriage, PCI DSS ROC submission. Definition Essay? - Successfully completed primary datacenter migration. - Implemented virtualization infrastructure monitoring.

Senior Enterprise Infrastructure Architect. Aug '14 to Feb '16. Senior Systems Engineer. Writing Thesis Statement? Nov '12 to Aug '14. Giving Essay? - Managed, defined, and evolved enterprise technology strategy through alignment with corporate business strategy by. driving technology blueprints, conducting technology assessments, automation and managing the technology portfolio. - Budgeting; primary point of contact for vendor engagement and relationship management; project management. - PCI DSS compliance; environment standardization and documentation. - RHEL/CentOS 5/6, Solaris 10, VMware vSphere 5.x administration. - EMC CLARiiON/Dell Compellent SAN, PowerVault MD administration on SAS, iSCSI, Cisco MDS, Brocade fabrics. Geronimo Essay? - f5 Big IP, Cisco ASA/Catalyst and Windows secondary admin responsibilities. - Under budget near 100% server and definition essay SAN hardware refresh and retrofit; over 90% environment virtualized; near $1 million. (USD) in annenberg foundation savings via optimization, re-engineering, automation and contract/vendor negotiations. - Architected and implemented DR infrastructure and automation to meet 30min RTO. - Successful datacenter migration from Sterling, VA to Las Vegas, NV with close to zero hardware budget; allowed. organization cross datacenter operation with minimum latency; over definition essay, 30% savings in month-to-month colocation spending. - Key participant in PCI DSS audit proceedings; year-to-year successful ROC submissions. - SolarWinds expansion to monitor storage and virtualization infrastructure. - Monetra (payment gateway) major upgrade architecture and implementation for PCI-DSS compliance.

- Feedzai (Cassandra based fraud prevention system) design, buildout and integration into SecureNet authorization system. - Planet Group - Acquire360 (Merchant Billing, Settlement and Chargeback platform) migration from Solaris to Linux, redesign and major version upgrade; allowed to scale merchant boarding capabilities and reduced hardware cost. - Multi-distribution Linux environment upgrade/standardization on latest Red Hat OS; server deployment automation. - NTP and external DNS re-architecture; Oracle RAC environments migration and standardization on 12c/RHEL. Senior Systems Engineer, IT Hosting Services. Oct '11 to writing thesis Nov ‘12. - EMC CLARiiON CX4-, CX-series, HP 3PAR P10000 V800 storage administration on Brocade and McData FC fabrics. - VMware administration: 40 ESX servers, 500+ VMs, multiple datacenters. - Automation; performance analyses and definition essay tuning; environment documentation and standardization. - VAR relationship management; project management. Analysis Questions? - SAS70 (SSAE 16) and PCI DSS compliance. - Backup Linux/Unix admin: 400+ RHEL4,5,6 and Solaris 8,9,10 servers, Veritas Clustering (VCS, VxVM) - VMware contracts re-negotiations and infrastructure redesign resulting in definition essay over 20% cost savings. - Storage and server hardware refresh: migration from EMC VNC/Dell PowerEdge to HP 3PAR/ProLiant. - Key participant in essay questions Activant and Epicor infrastructure merger planning. Giving Definition? - Successful PCI DSS ROC submission. Essay? PG Software Engineer Advisor, Data Center Solutions Engineer. Mar '10 to Oct '11. - Dedicated operations engineer for Facebook, Yahoo and OnLive; backup for Amazon and giving essay Microsoft. - Pre-production testing; product design; datacenter deployment support; patching. - Systems integration support; automation; scripting; performance testing/optimization; IPMI; Intel Node Manager. - Increased quality of pre-deployment burn-in and layout test automation resulting in renaissance a higher customer satisfaction. and additional orders. - In collaboration with Facebook developed common platform for system configuration changes and firmware delivery. - Wrote tool for SMBIOS modification. - Helped Facebook, Yahoo and Amazon with DCS systems configuration deployment automation; resolved numerous high. profile hardware fault and definition essay performance escalations involving hundreds of systems; worked numerous “what if” scenarios. - Designed and deployed DCS internal knowledge portal. Writing Statement? Services Technical Consulting Advisor, Field Systems Engineer. Dec '08 to Feb '10. - Microsoft/VMware failover clusters, ROCKS+/Platform PCM (OCS) HPC clusters deployment and troubleshooting. - Performance tuning, setup, migration, merge, upgrade, consultation on best practices for Brocade, McData, Cisco MDS, PowerConnect fabrics, Dell|EMC CLARiiON and EqualLogic SAN storage. Giving Essay? - Performed datacenter moves. Ages? - Developed and pioneered factory integration model for giving definition, HPC clusters at film essay, Dell using 3rd party integrator (TriFusion)

- Deployed over a hundred HPCC and SAN environments; 100% customer satisfaction rate. Enterprise Technical Support Advisor, Services Team Lead role. May '08 to Dec '08. Essay? - Managed team of five highly technical storage consultants; resolved customer satisfaction and annenberg critical technical escalations. Giving Definition? - Oversaw monthly over 140 deployments and consultations for VMware ESX, Dell|EMC CLARiiON, PowerVault, EqualLogic, Brocade, Cisco MDS storage equipment; over 96% customer satisfaction rate. Enterprise Technical Support Advisor, Services Program Consultant role. Mar '06 to Oct '07. - Processes creation and geronimo essay technical writing. - Developed and implemented major changes to North America’s Dell|EMC Remote Enterprise Assistance program, creating foundation for giving definition essay, Dell Global Services program. Annenberg Foundation Critical Thinking? - Participated in Global Dell Commercial Support 2.0 Remote Advisory Services program development. - Created and updated numerous Service Descriptions (SD), Statements of Work (SOW), and giving PnP documents.

Enterprise Technical Support Advisor, Storage Consultant role. Essay For Marriage? Aug '05 to May '08. Definition? - Consulted 250+ customers on design, implementation, performance tuning and upgrades of Dell|EMC CLARiiON SANs, including large number Navisphere Analyzer, MirrorView, SnapView, SAN Copy, Windows, Red Hat and Solaris cases. Enterprise Technical Support Advisor, Level 2 Support role. Film Essay? Aug '05 to Mar '06. - Resolved numerous Dell|EMC SAN related escalations in definition essay collaboration with Dell engineering (IPS) and OEM vendors. (EMC, Brocade, McData, QLogic, Emulex, Microsoft, Red Hat, Sun, IBM, HP) - Developed and delivered technical training to Level 1 technicians; coached. Film Essay? Storage Support Analyst. Jan '03 to definition Aug '05. Apr '02 to Jan '03.

- Worked brake/fix cases for renaissance and middle, PowerEdge server, PowerVault NAS/tape library, Dell|EMC SAN equipment in Windows, Linux, Unix and NetWare environments. - Provided technical support for Dell OpenManage Systems Management suit. - Developed PowerVault storage training website used globally by definition, support teams. Technical Support Specialist. Jul '00 to Jan '02. Texas AM University-Commerce. - Managed 5,000+ Windows NT4/2000 and AIX 4.3 user accounts. - Administered file and print, IIS4/IIS5, Apache, Exchange 5.5, sendmail, POP, Enterprise F-Secure Anti-Virus servers. - Provided network security assessments; troubleshot computer and network related issues.

Co-owner of the essay company. Giving Definition Essay? Feb '00 to Jun '01. Feb '97 to Dec '98. - Created monthly budgets and sales forecasts; managed supplier relationships. - Build and repaired desktops/servers; designed and setup small office networks;

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You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. Essay For Marriage? We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. Giving Definition Essay? However, we do not share Personal Information outside of for marriage our corporate family for essay advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to thesis statement apa style third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to essay share Your password.

If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on film analysis essay, our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in giving the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of ages others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of giving essay taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information.

We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over critical the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of giving definition Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal.

We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at essay for marriage any time to provide updates to or clarification of giving definition our practices.

If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for writing thesis statement apa style the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and giving essay, operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an critical, individual who requests a service via the definition essay, referral link given by a Partner. With the annenberg foundation critical, first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to essay the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is essay for marriage stored on your Referral Balance.

A Partner can transfer the money to giving definition the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is statement possible to transfer the definition, sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).

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Definition essay - Free Essay Writing Tips

John Kuraoka, freelance advertising copywriter. How to become an advertising copywriter. There is precious little current career advice out there for aspiring advertising copywriters. Here are my recommendations, based on what worked for essay me. You may scoff at some of them; then again, you may be more gifted than I. Annenberg Thinking! This advice is aimed at the average aspiring copywriter, who wishes to enjoy a better-than-average career. Get a job in giving definition, sales, preferably one that puts you face-to-face with customers. My first job, while I was in high school, was being holiday sales help in the housewares department of a May Company store. Geronimo Essay! David Ogilvy sold stoves door-to-door.

Maybe if I#146;d spent more time selling cooksets and toaster ovens, I#146;d own a castle in essay, France too. Instead, when the holidays and my temporary employment ended, I found a part-time job at a print shop, where I learned to appreciate what could be done with a sheet of paper. For Marriage! I wrote copy for flyers and brochures. The shop also sold office supplies, so I tried my hand at creating point-of-purchase displays. Giving! This low-level real-world experience is no substitute for classroom learning, but the foundation thinking reverse is equally true. Simultaneously learning the theoretical and essay, the practical at an early stage will put you miles ahead very quickly. A college degree is sort of expected in the advertising industry. You may think that talent alone will get you through, and it might. Nonetheless, you#146;ll want to take advantage of the resources available on college campuses, like the library, internships, and classes in art, politics, and chemistry. Get good at learning new things quickly, because that#146;s an mphil pakistan, important part of the job.

A working knowledge of basic statistics will help you make sense of marketing research. Knowing classic literature and the rules of formal composition will help you defend the ad copy you write. Giving! All the creative people I know – especially advertising copywriters – are voracious and wide-ranging collectors of bits of knowledge. Who knows in what combination those bits might emerge as a freshly minted concept? Also, while on campus, it’s a good idea to participate in relevant extra-curricular activities such as your advertising club (both college and local) and essay, AAF-sponsored events. Certain majors seem to open doors in the creative department. These include advertising, marketing, communications, English, journalism, psychology, liberal arts, and media studies. If your college doesn’t offer a major in advertising, then I’ve always thought – with no first- or even second-hand experience to back it up – that majoring in English and minoring in Business might present a useful foundation of knowledge for a job as an advertising copywriter. The difference between an associate#146;s degree and a bachelor#146;s is two years of giving academic exposure to challenging ideas.

If you are intellectually curious, there#146;s little difference in the real world. Mphil! I have a BA. Giving Essay! No one has ever asked to see it. For my own recommended reading list for aspiring advertising copywriters, click here. About advertising internships. Get your advertising internship in the creative department. Geronimo Essay! Most internships are in other departments, where it#146;s easier to evaluate your work objectively. Definition Essay! Also, most creative directors don#146;t have the time or inclination to properly mentor young talent.

Mentoring is developed to a much higher level in other fields, to geronimo essay, their gain and advertising#146;s loss. Hold out for a copywriting internship. Definition! If you take an internship in the media department, for and middle ages essay instance, then for the next few years, you will always have more experience in media than in copywriting. It will go from being a foot in the door to being a career in no time flat. You may have to be aggressive and create your own internship. Giving Definition Essay! Don#146;t let the thesis internship coordinator limit your options. Call the agencies whose work you admire, and wrangle an definition essay, interview with the creative director. As a creative department intern, you may be left largely to your own devices. Go up and writing thesis apa style, ask the creative director for a copywriting assignment.

You may be teamed with an intern art director, but you#146;ll get more out of the experience if you can occasionally partner with one of the senior creative people. If truly abandoned, wander the halls and introduce yourself. Key people to know - in addition to the creative director - are the giving definition creative department secretary, production department manager, senior production people, and staff copywriters and art directors. Also, introduce yourself to the account services people. Thesis! If they know that there#146;s an additional resource in definition, the creative department (you), they often can initiate small projects that they haven#146;t bothered bringing into the shop before. At most advertising agencies, there#146;s a weekly status meeting where all the projects are reviewed, tasks assigned, and writing thesis statement apa style, timelines checked. Giving Essay! It#146;s usually Monday morning. Whenever that meeting is, you should clear your work/school schedule so you can attend with the intent of writing thesis statement apa style getting an assignment or two. How to build your copywriting portfolio.

Building your portfolio, or book, is a career-long process. You#146;ll never stop adding and giving, subtracting portfolio pieces based on who you#146;re pitching. As your career as an advertising copywriter progresses, you#146;ll amass a large collection of portfolio-worthy work from which to select your presentation. Right now, though, you need only show enough good work to geronimo essay, get a job as an entry-level advertising copywriter. Despite the term “book,” your most-important communication channel will be the web. Giving Definition Essay! You must set up a website, separate from any personal web presence you may have. (And, if you haven#146;t already, now is the time to geronimo essay, get rid of all those wild party photos on your Facebook page, and adjust the settings on all your social media accounts for maximum privacy.) Set up a separate social media presence for your professional life; Facebook and LinkedIn seem to be the choices du jour for businesspeople. These are all places to display your portfolio, but they should all lead back to your main business website. Get copies of the ads you create while a copywriting intern.

This is especially important if you don#146;t turn your internship into a job, because you#146;ll need those completed samples of agency-quality work to post online and show potential employers. Follow up with the art director or production person to get the files or prints. You may also want color copies of comps if you#146;re proud of them. What if you didn#146;t get an internship as an advertising copywriter? Well, you could develop speculative (#147;spec#148;) ads on your own. You could start today with the two sample creative briefs included in my advertising copywriter mentorship section. Giving! Or, even smarter, target actual companies and post your work online – the film analysis essay worst that can happen, is giving essay you get a snippy letter from an attorney demanding that you take down the analysis spec ad. Several large brands, including Apple and Frito-Lay, have produced and run customer-created TV commercials. Some advertisers and ad agencies run contests, so keep an giving, eye out for those (you might want to set up a Google News alert for “advertising contest”). Others simply scour YouTube for fresh TV ideas.

Simple, strong ideas will be the easiest to self-produce convincingly. Don’t worry too much about your ad concepts being “stolen” – the reality is, ad agency creative teams churn out thousands of ideas every day and the likelihood of you being the essay only person in the industry to have thought up a concept is infinitesimal. If you want to turn a winning spot into more than a one-off project or a few kudos, though, think big . Develop ways to giving essay, extend the analysis essay questions concept into other media, and be prepared to talk up those ideas should the opportunity arise because the YouTube spot is just the bait for what you’re really after: a conversation with an interested creative director. Also, there are portfolio development schools, classes, courses, and workshops available in most major cities. Check your local colleges and advertising clubs for information. With any of them, what you get depends mostly on the effort and essay, energy you invest. For Marriage! The most-basic of them will at giving definition least offer you the foundation thinking opportunity to develop a portfolio that shows your capabilities. The best of them will also give you worthwhile industry contacts and feedback from well-established advertising copywriters, art directors, and creative directors. Produced radio spots are presented on a copywriter#146;s reel, which is a compilation of finished spots.

Like the term “book,”, the term #147;reel#148; is definition a hold-over from the old days, when radio spots were presented on ¼#148; audiotape at 15 IPS (inches per film analysis essay questions second). These days, most copywriters and ad agencies use CDs, and it#146;s wise to giving essay, have your reel in both audio and MP3 formats. Radio spots that did not get produced are usually presented in writing apa style, script form. Make sure your production notes at the beginning of your script give enough information that the reader will be able to #147;see#148; the characters and setting. Produced TV commercials also are presented on a copywriter#146;s reel. Giving Essay! The term #147;reel#148; in thesis, this case refers to a film reel. Many TV commercials are still produced on film, then transferred to another format for broadcast. A copywriter#146;s TV reel used to be presented on broadcast-standard ¾#148; videotape, but these days most copywriters and ad agencies use DVDs. I recommend that you also have your work available in giving, a couple other digital media player formats (.mpg, .mov, and critical thinking, .ram seem to be the most popular these days).

YouTube links are also acceptable. You may include TV commercial storyboards in giving definition essay, your copywriting portfolio; for web presentation the easiest format is to have a PDF of the entire storyboard. You can show fully functional websites on CD. However, high-quality print-outs of screen captures will suffice for your copywriting portfolio if your copy is readable. Otherwise, you can simply provide a list of geronimo essay websites you#146;ve written (make sure, though, that the current websites still contain your copy). Social media campaigns can be shown as PDF screen grabs. Be sure to capture them while the campaign is running hot and heavy, and keep them reasonably updated.

While the effort is underway, a live link is definition essay acceptable and for marriage, even preferable. Toss out any student work that you feel unsure about. Enlist the help of an giving essay, understanding art director to polish the pieces you feel good about. It#146;s a good idea to show campaign concepts: how one selling concept or marketing position would be executed across multiple ads or media. Most junior copywriting portfolios are filled with clever little one-off ads. If your portfolio contains some bigger ideas, it#146;ll stand out. Although you want your copywriting portfolio to be as polished as possible, you#146;ll typically be presenting to the creative director or a senior creative.

He or she has plenty of practice understanding roughs, scrawls, scripts, and pantomimes. Essay! Trust me on this one: brilliant ad concepts will be recognized, even if they#146;re scribbled on giving definition napkins and stored in a shoebox. And all the pakistan fine-tuning in the world won#146;t make a mediocre ad concept look more appealing to a creative director. So, polish your ideas first. Your first job in advertising. With luck, you#146;ll roll directly from your advertising internship into your first job. Giving Definition Essay! Otherwise, it#146;s up to you to make calls, send rsums and samples, and geronimo essay, talk to creative directors. Most creative directors do their own hiring, so sending a rsum to definition essay, the human resources department is a doubtful strategy. An equally doubtful strategy, is annenberg sending a cover letter or rsum that takes the form of giving definition a script, an ad, a movie poster, a storyboard, or a cut-out figure of yourself that turns into a mobile or a desk toy. Things are confusing enough in most ad agency creative departments without having to wonder what the heck a cover letter is asking for. Show your creativity in the samples of your work - and you should send three or four samples of your best work.

What if three or four samples are your entire book? Send them all. At the interview, be prepared to discuss the marketing problems the samples were created to solve, and how the ad concepts would extend into other media. As a prospective entry-level copywriter, you won#146;t be expected to have a big book. You will be expected to be able to articulate ideas. Give priority to landing a job at an ad agency as opposed to an in-house corporate creative department - the variety of clients will build a stronger book. The local Ad Club directory is a good place to geronimo essay, start searching, but don#146;t limit yourself to a local agency if your life is giving definition relatively unencumbered.

Adweek is for marriage a pretty good resource for job listings in giving essay, the U.S. Ad people move around a lot, so if you use a directory, call to confirm that the listed creative director is the current creative director. Every few weeks, I get an email from someone who took that job in media or account services, or on the client side as a marketing person. Film Analysis! They want to giving definition, know how to for marriage, go from definition, being an account executive, product manager, marketing director, or whatever, to being a copywriter. Analysis Essay! Unfortunately, I don#146;t know . Giving! I#146;ve never personally known anyone who successfully went from any other marketing/advertising job, to renaissance and middle essay, copywriting. Giving Essay! Once your career gets going in another direction, it may be easier to start your own ad agency than to get a job as a copywriter. For more about life as an advertising copywriter, see my article More career advice: what#146;s it like being an and middle ages essay, advertising copywriter? This first job will define your career.

If you want to be an essay, advertising copywriter, start as an advertising copywriter. While you search for your first job, you may have the opportunity to critical thinking, freelance your copywriting services to local businesses. This is a terrific way to build your book and gain experience; it is also a dangerous trap for starting copywriters. Definition Essay! Here#146;s how the annenberg critical trap works. You get small accounts. You plan to leverage those small accounts into giving definition essay bigger accounts. Say, Abe#146;s Flowers (with one shop) into Ben#146;s Flowers (with three shops and for marriage, an on-line store). Soon, you find that Ben#146;s Flowers is being courted by two ad agencies and a veteran freelance copywriter, all of whom worked on Proflowers or FTD. See how that works?

It#146;s easy to essay, leverage down. It#146;s hard to leverage up. Keep track of your career. It#146;s easy to get so busy working that you neglect your career. Review your work at least once a year. Foundation Thinking! Evaluate what you#146;ve learned. Where your strengths are.

And where you need to keep pushing yourself. Then, look for opportunities that will give you what you need. Maybe you need to giving, ask for and middle ages essay more broadcast assignments. Or, maybe you need to giving, look for essay for marriage a job at an ad agency that has more broadcast work. In any case, keep polishing your book. For my opinions on that endless task, see How to take your copywriting portfolio to the next level .