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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Thesis! Free-response questions on the AP US Government exam are more straightforward than those on example resume com, some other AP tests, but they can still be tough if you're not ready for them. In this guide, I'll lay out brand, a step-by-step method for answering AP Government FRQs, go through a real example, and resume, tell you where you can find additional practice resources. The free-response section has four questions total, each of which is worth an equal percentage of your score. You’ll have an hour and 40 minutes to answer these questions, which means you should spend no more than 20-25 minutes on brand management, each of them. On Role Of Music! Each question is bachelor thesis, typically worth between 5-7 raw points, and the free-response section as a whole makes up 50 percent of your score. All the resume, free-response questions have pretty much the same format, so it's one of the simpler AP free-response sections overall. Free-response questions on this exam will ask you to integrate your knowledge of the various content areas covered by the course.
This includes analyzing political events in the US, discussing examples, and demonstrating your understanding of general principles of US government and politics. You'll also be asked to examine data from thesis brand management, charts, define key terms, and celebrated cases of judge term paper, explain the roles that different parts of our government play in the political system. AP Government FRQs: Step-By-Step Solution Process. This section provides a step-by-step process for answering any question on the AP US Government exam. Management! Here’s a sample question that I’ll reference throughout so that you can see how these steps might work in practice: Most questions on this test will have an introductory sentence or two before they break down into parts that you need to example resume, answer.
This will give you background information and a general sense of what to expect in the rest of the question. Bachelor Thesis Management! Some questions are accompanied by eop essay, images or charts (as we will see in the example section). If that’s the case, you should also take a second here to review the graphics and make sure you understand what they’re showing. If you want, you can read the intros to all the questions before choosing where to begin. It may help to build your confidence and thesis brand management, improve your efficiency to of music, start with a question that’s easier for you. Thesis Brand! In the buy phd degree, sample question, you would note from the introduction that the question is going to be dealing with the role of political parties in US government. The intro also tells us that political parties have recently gained influence in Congress while losing influence in the actual election process. Step 2: Identify (and Underline, If You Want) the thesis brand management, Command Verb. For each part of each question, you’re given specific instructions on pulp and paper journal, the type of answer that is expected.
These instructions include verbs like “identify”, “explain”, “describe”, “define”, and “compare.” It’s important to be aware of exactly what the question is thesis brand management, asking you to do so that you can earn full points. These command verbs are the first words you should zero in on as you read. If you think it will help keep you focused, you can even underline them as you go through the question. In part a of the sample question, the eop essay prompt, command verb is “describe.” This indicates that you need to do more than just state an important function of political parties; you need to bachelor, expand on buy phd degree, exactly what it is. Thesis Management! In parts c and d, the command verb changes to “explain” , which means you’ll need to include even more elaboration in your answer on how certain factors have affected party politics. Pulp And Paper Journal! Step 3: Address All the thesis management, Potential Points.
After finding the command verb in the part of the question you’re answering, take note of eop essay how many examples or descriptions you need to management, provide. Each of them will almost always correspond to a point in book for 4th grade your raw score for the question. Be careful to answer the bachelor brand, question thoroughly but directly , addressing all of these points in a way that will make it easy for graders to assess your response. You don’t need to write an essay for these free-response questions. Just go straight for the answer to avoid ambiguity. For part a of the sample question, you’re asked to essay on role of music in our, describe two important functions of political parties, which means that part a is almost certainly worth two points. You need to make sure you provide two distinct functions and bachelor thesis brand management, make it easy for the grader to award points for your answer. If you go through the rest of the question, it looks like there are five raw points available in total: two for part a, one for part b, two for part c, and one for part d. Write your answer carefully so you can scoop up all of eop essay them! Finally, reread what you wrote to ensure that it makes sense and addresses the question completely.
Did you give the correct number of descriptions/examples/identifications? Does your answer directly respond to what the question is asking overall? If you’re satisfied, move onto the next part of the question and return to brand, step 2! Now, I’ll go through the answers to a real AP Government free-response question from the eop essay prompt, 2013 exam to bachelor management, show you what your responses should look like: First, let’s consider the chart and celebrated of judge term paper, the introductory sentence for this question. It looks like we’re comparing the distribution of judicial appointments by gender and ethnicity for two different presidents. For part a, you are asked to describe one way in which the judicial appointments of Obama and Bush were similar. You might say that in both cases more than half of the appointees were white , with Obama at 59 percent and Bush at 82 percent white. You could also say that the percentage of Hispanic nominees was similar for each president or that in bachelor both cases Asian American nominees were the rarest of all the ethnic groups. You would earn one point for this part of the question if you included either of those responses. For part b, you are asked to describe two differences between the presidents in their judicial appointments. Report Grade! One difference you might point out is that a significantly larger percentage of bachelor brand Obama’s nominees were women - almost half compared to Bush’s mere 22 percent.
A second difference is that Obama appointed a greater percentage of candidates from eop essay prompt, racial minorities. For example, 22 percent of his appointees were African American as compared to Bush’s 7 percent. You could earn two points for part b, one for each difference between the two sets of nominees. Part c asks you to explain how party affiliation impacts judiciary nominations. You might say that the President often chooses nominees with similar views who will adhere to his policy preferences. Thesis Management! This typically means people who belong to the same political party as the President. You could also say that the book guidelines, President tends to choose nominees who will make his party’s electoral base happy and lead to victories in future elections. Part c was worth one point. Finally, part d asks you to describe what a President can do to increase the bachelor thesis brand, likelihood that his federal court nominees will be confirmed.
Possible answers to eop essay prompt, part d include: Consulting with the Senate/using senatorial courtesy Selecting a moderate candidate in the first place Properly vetting candidates and bachelor brand management, choosing people who are highly qualified. You would earn one point for this part of the question if you described any one of these methods. Celebrated Cases Dee Women! Notice that this question was worth a total of five raw points , which is probably the lowest raw point value you’ll see on brand, any of the AP US Government free-response questions. However, a lower raw point value doesn’t mean it’s worth any less in your final scaled score ; each free-response question is report guidelines, equally important on bachelor brand, this test. Even people who make extremely important decisions, like federal judges, are appointed partially based on their political favorability. Report For 4th Grade! How to Practice AP US Government Free-Response Questions. There are several resources that you can use to bachelor thesis management, hone your skills in answering AP Government FRQs.
The College Board site hosts free-response questions from previous tests that you can use for practice. Questions that come from tests administered between 2004 and 2015 are accompanied by scoring guidelines, so you can check your answers and tally up how many points you would have earned. These are the best sample free-response questions you can get because you know for essay of music in our life, sure that they accurately represent what you’ll see on the real test. The questions from 2002 and bachelor management, 2003 don’t have scoring guidelines, so be aware that you won’t be able to check the official answers if you choose to use them. Example Resume! Review books can also be good resources for free response practice although they tend to vary in bachelor management quality. The Princeton Review book for AP Gov includes five full practice tests , so there should be plenty of free response questions that you can use to practice your skills. The Barron’s review book also has a couple of practice tests and extra free response questions that may be useful for practice.
If you don’t want to buy the book, you can also take Barron’s free online practice test for AP Gov, which includes free-response questions and journal abbreviation, scoring guidelines. If you use these free-response questions for thesis brand management, practice, just be sure to intersperse them with official questions from the College Board so that you maintain an accurate sense of what to expect on the real test. Review books can be great resources for free-response and multiple-choice practice questions and for and paper research journal, test-taking strategies that you may not have discovered on your own. The four free-response questions on the AP US Government exam can be approached methodically to earn the maximum number of points. Read the introduction to the question first so you can get your bearings. Then, for each of the separate parts, identify the command verb, address all aspects of the bachelor thesis management, question, and double check your answer for missing pieces and careless errors. I'd suggest practicing at least a few free response questions before heading into the exam. Essay On Role In Our! The best resource to use is the College Board website, which has an archive of past questions accompanied by answer guidelines.
These questions are pretty simple compared to the free-response questions on bachelor thesis brand, other AP tests once you get the hang of them! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for buy phd degree, each test about the bachelor thesis brand, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at com improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Samantha is a blog content writer for PrepScholar. Bachelor Management! Her goal is to help students adopt a less stressful view of standardized testing and other academic challenges through her articles. Samantha is also passionate about celebrated cases dee women paper art and graduated with honors from Dartmouth College as a Studio Art major in 2014. Thesis Management! In high school, she earned a 2400 on the SAT, 5's on resume, all seven of her AP tests, and was named a National Merit Scholar. You should definitely follow us on bachelor, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.
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High School Mathematics at Work: Essays and Examples for the Education of All Students (1998) IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS: MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Essays And Examples For The Education Of All Students. NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS. NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS. 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the bachelor thesis management National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
The National Research Council (NRC) is the prompt operating arm of the National Academies Complex, which includes the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized in 1916 by the National Academy of Sciences to associate the broad community of thesis, science and of music in our technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and providing impartial advice to the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the bachelor thesis brand management principal operating agency of cases dee women, both the National Academy of Sciences and bachelor the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the eop essay public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by bachelor brand management, both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts, President of the National Academy of Sciences, and Dr. William Wulf, President of the National Academy of Engineering, also serve as chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education (CSMEE) was established in 1995 to book guidelines, provide coordination of bachelor, all the example resume com National Research Council's education activities and reform efforts for students at all levels, specifically those in kindergarten through twelfth grade, undergraduate institutions, school-to-work programs, and continuing education. The Center reports directly to bachelor, the Governing Board of the nordic pulp and paper research journal National Research Council. The Mathematical Sciences Education Board was established in 1985 to provide a continuing national capability to assess the status and quality of education in the mathematical sciences and is concerned with excellence in thesis education for all students at all levels.
The Board reports directly to the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Development, publication, and dissemination of buy phd degree, this report were supported by a grant from the bachelor brand management Pew Charitable Trusts. Any opinions, findings, or recommendations expressed in dee women term paper this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Pew Charitable Trusts. Library of bachelor thesis brand management, Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. High school mathematics at work : essays and examples for the education of all students / Mathematical Sciences Education Board. Includes bibliographical references and term paper index. ISBN 0-309-06353-1 (pbk.) 1. MathematicsStudy and teaching (Secondary)United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Mathematical Sciences Education Board. Permission for brand management limited reproduction of pulp abbreviation, portions of this book for education purposes but not for sale may be granted on receipt of a written request to the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418.
Additional copies of bachelor thesis brand, this report may be purchased from the. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lock Box 285, Washington, DC 20055. (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the nordic and paper Washington Metropolitan Area). This report is also available online at bachelor thesis brand management, http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Center for Science, Mathematics, and on role in our Engineering Education.
Mathematical Sciences Education Board. Glenda T. Lappan (MSEB Vice Chair) Michigan State University. Prescott Unified School District. University of Michigan. St. Paul Academy and Summit School. Borough of Manhattan Community College. University of Wisconsin, Madison. University of Maryland. Arkansas Education Renewal Consortium.
California Mathematics Project. University of Missouri. Oakland Electronic Commerce Resource Center. Enterprise School District, Redding, CA. Yakima School District, Yakima, WA. University of Minnesota.
University of New Hampshire. Leander High School, Leander, TX. State of Connecticut Department of Education. Bronxville Public Schools. University of Pittsburgh. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
J. Bachelor Thesis Management! Sargeant Reynolds Community College. ATT Bell Laboratories. Rodger Bybee Executive Director, Joan Ferrini-Mundy Director, Bradford Findell Program Officer/Editor. Daniel Goroff Division Director,
Post-secondary Policy and Practice. Kathleen Johnston Editorial Associate. Gale Moore Financial Administrative Associate. Doug Sprunger Senior Project Assistant. Member until June 1997. Center For Science, Mathematics, And Engineering Education. High School Mathematics at book report grade, Work Task Force. Oakland Electronic Commerce Resource Center. Leander High School, Leander, TX.
The Langley School, McLean, VA. ATT Bell Labs (retired) California State Polytechnic University. University of brand management, California, Berkeley. North Carolina School of Mathematics Science. High School Mathematics at in our, Work Reviewers. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for brand their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in cases dee women accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee.
The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and bachelor thesis management critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the essay published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the bachelor thesis deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: President and CEO, NACME, Inc., New York, NY. Science Coordinator, Bedford Public Schools, Bedford, NY. Superintendent, Escondido Union High School District, Escondido, CA. State Mathematics Specialist, Maryland State Department of Education. Professor of celebrated cases, Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Chairman, MIT Council on Primary and Secondary Education, Professor of Material Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. Mathematics Teacher, Lincoln Park High School, Chicago, IL. Professor of Mathematics, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA. Professor of Education ,Harvard University, and Emeritus Professor, Engineering Science Education, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the brand authoring committee and the NRC. Foreword: Mathematics for a Modern Age. Governor of Georgia. Now more than ever, our daily lives are directly affected by mathematics. I'm not just talking about the grades students get or how many mathematics classes they have to take.
I'm talking about answering the phone, faxing a document, or driving a car. I'm talking about buying medicine for your family, building a house, and listening to music. Mathematics has also helped bring us things that indirectly affect us, like the celebrated cases term discoveries of DNA, weather patterns, and bachelor management how to prompt, use light as a surgical tool. It has helped us walk on the moon, create microchips, and transmit images across thousands of miles. With mathematics, we design models to bachelor thesis, test our ideas and example resume com refine them, from nerve impulses to human behavior, volcanoes to food. Mathematics is everywhere. But mathematics has always been around, and the concepts it uses have always helped us.
So why is mathematics so much more important to bachelor management, our lives now than it was then? Years ago, in eop essay the eras of the abacus or slide rule, information took a lot longer to sort through, but now it is easy to brand, chart a course, assay a risk, or compare statistics. Information is more abundant than ever. You can find answers about everything from world politics to school lunches almost as soon as you think of the questions. This new speed of access to volumes of information obviously brings good. thingslike better medical information, better building materials, and celebrated of judge dee women term paper more diverse options in business and education. The down side to all of this is that as easily as there can be information, there can be misuse of information.
So what does this mean for our children? More than ever, they need to bachelor thesis management, be mathematically savvy. Learning to celebrated cases of judge dee women paper, think and reason mathematically is the brand management only way our children can be sure that they are in on role control, not being controlled . More practically, almost every job these days requires at least some elementary understanding of mathematics. In fact, many of the jobs that keep our country competitive and successful in the global market are jobs that require more than basic mathematics comprehension. Bachelor Thesis! Not that everyone needs to be able to program a computer or predict the stock market, but with the vastly increased speed of statistical calculation (and manipulation) and easier and faster global communication, our children need to know what a number means, where it came from, and how best to judge its veracity. As the term Governor of Georgia, I take all of this pretty seriously. I know the importance of bringing businesses to brand, my state to create jobs for Georgians. The world, however, is their marketplace; to be healthy, competitive, and paper economically secure, our citizens must understand mathematics. They need to become comfortable with the notion of mathematics as a tool for life. G OVERNOR Z ELL M ILLER was elected Governor of the state of Georgia in 1990. Since taking office, his love of teaching and commitment to education has resulted in one of the most ambitious agendas to management, improve public education in this century.
Governor Miller's public career includes service at virtually every level of eop essay, government: as mayor, as a member of the state senate, as lieutenant governor, and bachelor thesis brand now as Governor. He is currently Chairman of the Education Commission of the example com States. He has also chaired the Southern Governors' Association, the Appalachian Regional Commission, and the Council of State Governments. Governor Miller keynoted the 1992 Democratic National Convention in New York and chaired the bachelor thesis management Platform Drafting Committee for buy phd degree the 1996 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. For over ten years the Mathematical Sciences Education Board (MSEB) has worked to support the bachelor thesis brand improvement of mathematics education. The work of the Board becomes visible largely through publications, beginning with Everybody Counts (1989) and Reshaping School Mathematics (1990). High School Mathematics at Work builds on journal, this prior work.
Like Measuring Up (1992), it contains student tasks; like Mathematical Preparation of the thesis management Technical Work Force (1995), it highlights the mathematics needed for careers. High School Mathematics at Work was developed through the efforts of more people than can be named individually here. We gratefully acknowledge the generous financial support of the Pew Charitable Trusts, and thank both Robert Schwartz for his special encouragement with this project when he was Director of their Education Programs, as well as Janet Kroll for her continuing interest and support as our program officer. The project was launched as a 12th grade sequel to Measuring Up through the resume initiative of Linda P. Rosen. The MSEB first envisioned that this sequel would illuminate some features of high-quality high school mathematics teaching and learning through standards-based assessment tasks. The growing interest in school-to-work issues, however, led to brand management, our giving this theme major prominence. With this new focus, Lynn Arthur Steen and celebrated cases dee women term Susan Forman designed the. project, secured funding, collected mathematical examples, commissioned essays, and worked with the Task Force, first as members of the MSEB staff and later as consultants. We also thank Daniel Goroff for his leadership during a period of staff transition. Examples of thesis brand, mathematical tasks were solicited over a period of two years from a wide variety of sources, as described in Appendix A. From the hundreds of examples that were contributed, the Task Force selected about two dozen for inclusion, wrote first drafts of cases term, those mathematical examples, and identified essay topics and authors.
The resulting collection of examples and essays was molded into its current form by thesis brand management, Bradford Findell, serving as editor, under the guidance of Glenda Lappan, Alan Schoenfeld, and Harvey Keynes, with the paper assistance of Cathy Kessel, and with substantial input from Deborah Ball, Sadie Bragg, Gail Burrill, Shari Coston, Shelley Ferguson, Melvin George, Rick Jennings, Jim Leitzel, Tony Martinez, Pamela Matthews, Patrick McCray, and Jack Price. Of course, no project of this size could ever come to thesis brand, completion without the contributions of support staff. Book Report Guidelines! Thanks especially to Sharon O'Donnell for her help collecting the essays and bachelor thesis brand management examples and to Catherine Bell and Doug Sprunger for their help with the review process. Buy Phd Degree! We must also thank Sally Stanfield, Linda Humphrey, and the staff at the National Academy Press for their support and patience with the bachelor thesis management complex evolution of cases paper, this project. Mathematical Sciences Education Board. National Research Council. (1989). Everybody counts: A report to the nation on the future of mathematics education . Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. Brand Management! (1990). Report For 4th! Reshaping school mathematics: A philosophy and framework for curriculum . Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. (1993). Bachelor! Measuring up: Prototypes for mathematics assessment . Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. Example Resume! (1995). Mathematical preparation of the technical work force . Thesis! Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Additional thanks for the many efforts and suggestions offered by the following people: Jennifer Bemis, John Bishop, Judy Estep, Jim Fey, Carol Findell, Kent Findell, Irene Gable, Jim Gates, Mary Hornyak, Ramona Irvin, Jay Labov, Patrice Legro, Diane Mann, Bob Naismith, Harold Pratt, Kirsten Sampson, Harold Shoen, Kevin Sullivan, Jan Tumoi, Phil Wagreich, Tina Winters, and Judi Zawojewski. Zell Miller, Governor of Georgia. Connecting Mathematics With Work and life Life.
Dale Parnell, Oregon State University. Rol Fessenden, L. L. Bean, Inc. Thomas Bailey, Columbia University. Jean E. Taylor, Rutgers University. Daniel Chazan, Michigan State University Sandra Callis Bethell, Holt High School. The Roles of Standards and Assessments. Jane Butler Kahle, Miami University.
Arnold Packer, Johns Hopkins University. William Linder-Scholer, SciMath Minnesota. John Dossey, Illinois State University. Zalman Usiskin, University of Chicago. Albert A. Cuoco, Education Development Center. Harvey B. Keynes, University of Minnesota. Implications For Teaching and thesis brand Teacher Education. Glenda T. Lappan, Michigan State University. Gilbert J. Cuevas, University of Miami.
Paul G. LeMahieu, University of Delaware and Department of Education Marshá T. Life! Horton, Delaware Department of Education. Susan Forman and Lynn Arthur Steen. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Traditionally, vocational mathematics and brand management precollege mathematics have been separate in schools. But the technological world in which today's students will work and live calls for increasing connection between mathematics and its applications. Workplace-based mathematics may be good mathematics for everyone. High School Mathematics at Work illuminates the interplay between technical and academic mathematics.
This collection of example, thought-provoking essays--by mathematicians, educators, and other experts--is enhanced with illustrative tasks from workplace and everyday contexts that suggest ways to thesis, strengthen high school mathematical education. This important book addresses how to make mathematical education of all students meaningful--how to meet the practical needs of students entering the work force after high school as well as the needs of students going on to postsecondary education. The short readable essays frame basic issues, provide background, and suggest alternatives to celebrated paper, the traditional separation between technical and academic mathematics. They are accompanied by intriguing multipart problems that illustrate how deep mathematics functions in everyday settings--from analysis of ambulance response times to energy utilization, from brand management, buying a used car to rounding off to simplify problems. The book addresses the book report guidelines for 4th grade role of standards in mathematics education, discussing issues such as finding common ground between science and mathematics education standards, improving the articulation from school to work, and comparing SAT results across settings. Experts discuss how to develop curricula so that students learn to solve problems they are likely to encounter in life--while also providing them with approaches to unfamiliar problems. The book also addresses how teachers can help prepare students for bachelor management postsecondary education. For teacher education the book explores the changing nature of pedagogy and new approaches to teacher development. Pulp! What kind of teaching will allow mathematics to be a guide rather than a gatekeeper to many career paths?
Essays discuss pedagogical implication in problem-centered teaching, the role of complex mathematical tasks in teacher education, and the idea of making open-ended tasks--and the student work they elicit--central to professional discourse. High School Mathematics at Work presents thoughtful views from management, experts. It identifies rich possibilities for teaching mathematics and preparing students for dee women the technological challenges of the future. Thesis! This book will inform and inspire teachers, teacher educators, curriculum developers, and others involved in improving mathematics education and the capabilities of tomorrow's work force. Front Matter i–xiv Introduction 1–6 Part One: Connecting Mathematics with Work and Life 7–56 Part Two 57–90 Part Three: Curricular Considerations 91–126 Part Four: Implications for nordic journal abbreviation Teaching and Teacher Education 127–154 Part Five: Epilogue 155–162 Appendix A 163–166 Appendix B 167–170 Index 171–177.
You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to bachelor thesis brand management, take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by essay in our life, name. . Thesis! or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and nordic pulp and paper journal abbreviation press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.
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The Art Of Benin Essays and Research Papers. location of Benin art remains a controversy over whether it should be returned to its place of bachelor, origin. It is vital to observe . the “encounter” between (Woods, 2008, ‘THE ART OF BENIN ’, p.7) Europe and the kingdom of Benin , when the Benin artefacts were initially plundered and confiscated in the “‘punitive expedition’” (Mackie, 2008, ‘1897: the ‘punitive expedition’, p.23). The British opinion of the Benin people as a “savage and brutal” (Loftus, 2008, The British Museum and book for 4th the Benin ‘antiquities’. Aesthetics , Art , Benin 1698 Words | 5 Pages. Why is the ownership of Benin Art so controversial? The ownership of Benin Art could have been so . controversial for a number of reasons.
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Art has had a great number of different functions throughout its history, making its purpose difficult to abstract or quantify to any single . concept. Bachelor Thesis Management! This does not imply that the celebrated cases of judge, purpose of bachelor thesis brand, Art is vague, but that it has had many unique, different reasons for guidelines grade, being created. Some of bachelor brand management, these functions of Art are provided in the following outline. The different purposes of art may be grouped according to those that are non-motivated, and those that are motivated (Levi-Strauss). Non-motivated functions. Aesthetics , Art , Art therapy 1119 Words | 3 Pages. Through the ages, art has played a fundamental role in life. We experience Art on book guidelines for 4th, a daily basis because it’s universal and . therefore everywhere. Thesis Brand Management! Art plays a huge part in making our lives considerably rich.
Imagine, just for a second, a world with no art . You may probably think So what? but just consider the impact that lack of graphics would have on your favorite video game, on buy phd degree, Internet. Art gives people a way to be imaginative and express themselves. For some people, art is one of the reasons. Art , Artist , Arts 1258 Words | 3 Pages. to budgetary and other issues arts programs have continuously been cut in many educational institutions. Bachelor Thesis Management! Describing in detail the nordic pulp and paper research abbreviation, . Bachelor Brand! arts as an area of knowledge what is the value of the arts in com the educational experience? Due to several issues, especially budgetary, many art programs have been cut in educational institutions. This is because many institutions, when faced with economic problems tend to cut the expenses of bachelor thesis, art supplies that are required to sustain art programs offered at places such. Art , Arts , Education 1314 Words | 4 Pages. The arts are individual, expressive, creative and a form of communication that engages students in essay of music life critical and creative thinking and assist . them in expressing themselves and understand the world around them.
The research conducted the field of thesis management, arts education highlights the correlation between the arts and cognitive development, social development and the improvement of a student’s emotional wellbeing (Burton, et.al 2004, ACER 2004, Heath amp; Roach 1999). The impending Australia Curriculum in Arts. Cognition , Cognitive psychology , Critical thinking 1071 Words | 4 Pages. ?Alexis Iradi Professor Mantle ENG102-02 13 December 2013 The Importance of the Arts in report for 4th Education “Involvement in the . Thesis Brand Management! arts is associated with gains in prompt math, reading, cognitive ability, critical thinking, and verbal skill” (Smith 1). The benefits of art in a children’s life are endless, yet the arts are not taken seriously in thesis brand many school district and nordic pulp journal abbreviation instead are being taken out and replaced with other classes that are thought to improve students abilities on standardized tests.
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The definition I consider is the most. Aesthetics , Art , Camera 1052 Words | 4 Pages. What comes to mind when you think of book report for 4th, art class in an elementary classroom? Most people would think of bachelor thesis management, students painting, drawing, cutting, . gluing, or creating some project. Few people realize that art instruction includes much more. Art education encompasses four areas of emphasis: dance, music, theater, and visual arts . Each area is equally important in creating a well-rounded art education. This essay will explore the four areas of art emphasis, their content, and examples of how to teach. Art , Art education , Arts 945 Words | 3 Pages. What is art ? Can we give a current definition of something so abstractive and nordic journal unboundless like that? In our modern world, everything which is . not understandable for the mass audience automatically receives the label Art from his creator. Bachelor Thesis Brand Management! Maybe art is something which is eop essay, not for everyone.
You can find lots of popular definitions on the internet, on google.com and wikipedia.com, also lots of quotes of famous people of art . But what is art for the normal people? The people who don't know what linocut. Art , Florence , Leonardo da Vinci 989 Words | 3 Pages.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to brand management a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only eop essay, about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and thesis brand management, well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the example thing for bachelor brand free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into resume com, Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for management resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of example com, others, you’ll want to bachelor brand choose something else.
And Garamond is guidelines grade, a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the thesis brand benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the and paper abbreviation overused Times New Roman. Bachelor Brand Management? As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the celebrated cases term spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and bachelor brand management, modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and celebrated cases of judge dee women term, Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and thesis brand management, subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design.
You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of report guidelines for 4th, typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the bachelor thesis brand management default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for cases of judge term paper that reason. This font has other things going for brand management it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in nordic pulp journal, printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes.
The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at bachelor thesis brand, larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and celebrated dee women term, typographers to be the bachelor thesis management king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs.
To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Nordic And Paper Research Journal? Georgia is another alternative to thesis Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Essay Of Music In Our Life? Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on bachelor computer monitors, it looks great viewed on eop essay any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an bachelor management, updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and celebrated cases of judge dee women term paper, “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to thesis management read. Avenir Next is eop essay, another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo.
Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in bachelor brand, Germany and is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and example resume com, atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and bachelor brand management, a jarring contrast between sharp and report grade, round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to bachelor thesis brand management be used sparingly) than practical for celebrated of judge dee women paper text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent.
Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into thesis brand, your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and nordic journal, more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out brand management, there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of essay on role of music in our life, a typewriter and later adapted for brand use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in nordic and paper journal abbreviation, 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in thesis brand, a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in resume, 1942).
While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the thesis brand appearance of your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. Buy Phd Degree? The casual, almost childish look of the thesis management font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in dee women paper, case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of bachelor thesis brand management, thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes.
Additionally, the buy phd degree thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to bachelor thesis brand read, particularly at small sizes. Eop Essay? There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on bachelor thesis management a resume, but people seem to like it. Prompt? So if you’re tempted to give your resume an bachelor thesis brand management, adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Example? Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over thesis brand, the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the example com font you use to spell out the bachelor thesis brand word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to celebrated term paper do it.
Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to bachelor brand use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the book guidelines for 4th grade typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of brand management, them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of buy phd degree, 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Thesis Brand Management? Larger sizes are acceptable for essay in our life headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the thesis brand management document’s appearance and example resume com, formatting.
That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and thesis brand management, graphic designer and the owner of dee women, Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and bachelor thesis management, loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design.
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Essay on Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about bachelor thesis management monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of celebrated cases dee women term paper Monopoly 3. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Conditions for bachelor thesis management, Price Discrimination 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on the Sources and Types of Monopoly Essay on Monopoly Price Determination Essay on report guidelines grade the Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on bachelor thesis management the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on the Benefits of nordic pulp Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on bachelor thesis brand management Control and book report grade Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. In the words of Salvatore, “Monopoly is the form of market organisation in which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes.” The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low.
This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an thesis brand management industry and example the monopolist faces the industry demand curve. The demand curve for thesis management, his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to the right, given the essay, tastes and incomes of his customers. It means that more of the product can be sold at a lower price than at a higher price. He is a price-maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. However, it does not mean that he can set both price and bachelor thesis output. He can do either of the two things. His price is determined by his demand curve, once he selects his output level.
Or, once he sets the price for buy phd degree, his product, his output is determined by what consumers will take at that price. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the monopolist is to have maximum profits. Essay # 2. Bachelor? Sources and Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from a number of sources and is of various types: First, grant of a patent right to a firm by the government to buy phd degree, make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by a firm when it supplies the entire market at a lower unit cost due to bachelor brand management, increasing economies of scale, just as in the supply of electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and government regulated monopolies are mostly in public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and pulp journal sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to thesis, a sole firm and protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prompt, prevent the entry of new firms.
Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of monopoly price in the short-run and bachelor thesis the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the price, output and example resume profits under monopoly is based on bachelor thesis the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of a homogeneous product. (2) There are no close substitutes for the product. (3) There is pure competition in the factor market so that the price of each input he buys is given to cases term, him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in bachelor brand management a position to influence the price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the prompt, price of the product is given for the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product.
(7) The monopoly price is uncontrolled. There are no restrictions on the power of the monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the price, output and bachelor brand management profits under monopoly are determined by example com, the forces of demand and supply. The monopolist has complete control over the supply of the bachelor thesis, product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. But he cannot fix the price and output simultaneously.
Either he can fix the price and leave the output to be determined by pulp and paper abbreviation, the customer demand at that price. Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the price to be determined by bachelor thesis, the consumer demand for essay life, his product. Thus, whatever price he fixes and bachelor whatever output he decides to produce is determined by the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is his average revenue curve (AR). Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is also downward sloping and lies below it. But the manner and extent to which the monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon the elasticity of demand for his product.
If the demand for pulp and paper research abbreviation, his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by bachelor thesis, a small reduction in price. If, on the other hand, the essay life, demand is less elastic, the tendency will be to raise the price and profit more by selling less. Given the demand for bachelor, his product, the monopolist can select the most profitable output against this demand. Celebrated Cases Of Judge Dee Women Term Paper? His cost of bachelor brand production may be rising, falling or constant. Whatever the nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concave—the monopoly equilibrium will take place at a point where the marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the example resume com, difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to marginal cost (MC).
He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and error. Geometrically speaking, the point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the MC curve cuts the MR curve from below or from the left, and a perpendicular from it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR. Thesis Brand? In fact, monopoly price = MC –E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC –E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the MC and the elasticity of of music in our life demand. We discuss below the thesis, determination of monopoly price in the short period and the long period.
(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in terms of the buy phd degree, total revenue-total cost approach and the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the total cost curve showing a constant rise in the total costs as output increases. TR is the bachelor thesis brand, total revenue curve which goes on rising to begin with, then flattens and report later on slopes downward, showing fall in total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at bachelor brand management, that output where the prompt, difference between TR and TC is the greatest.
This will be the level at bachelor, which the slopes of TR and for 4th grade TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at points P and bachelor brand T on eop essay prompt the TR and TC curves respectively. A and are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of B, the monopolist is bachelor brand management, incurring losses because TC TR. Thus his maximum profits will be PT and he will sell OM output at MP Price.
Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the short-run, the celebrated dee women, monopolist can change the management, price as well as the quantity of the product. Essay On Role In Our? If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and equipment. On the bachelor management, other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for less hours and use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the average variable costs. Prompt? It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the bachelor thesis brand, short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of production. Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and SMC are the report for 4th grade, short-run average and marginal revenue curves respectively.
AVC is the average variable cost curve. D/AR is the demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at point E where the SMC curve cuts the brand management, MR curve from celebrated term paper, below. The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the bachelor thesis brand management, short-run average cost MA, the monopolist earns AP profits per unit of output.
Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the short-run equilibrium of the monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of SMC curve and MR curve at point E determines OM output which is sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is tangent to the AR curve at this level of output, the monopolist earns normal profits. The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the for 4th grade, SAC curve would be higher than the AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the monopolist incurs losses. As usual, the bachelor, equilibrium point E is paper, determined by the equality of SMC and MR. But the bachelor management, monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the short-run average costs of production PA. It just covers the average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the prompt, demand curve D and thesis brand management the AVC curve at eop essay prompt, point P. PA is thus per bachelor management, unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to BP x PA = BPAC.
In this figure, P is the shutdown point for celebrated cases of judge dee women term paper, this firm. If the market demand conditions lower the price from MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium: In the long-run, the monopolist can remain in business only if he is able to earn super-normal profits.
If he was incurring losses in the short-run, he has enough time to bachelor brand management, make changes in his existing plant in the long- run so as to maximise his profits. With entry of new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of his plant depends upon the position of the demand (AR) curve and its corresponding MR curve. The most profitable level of output is at the point where the example com, LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below and the SMC curve passes through this point. Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output.
Suppose in the long-run, the monopolist installs an efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. Since at management, this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is tangent to guidelines, the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to the LMC curve and to bachelor thesis brand management, the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the of judge term paper, monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in bachelor thesis brand short- run equilibrium. Pulp And Paper Research? By changing its scale of bachelor brand plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is for 4th, less than the optimum size because the monopoly firm is not producing at thesis management, the lowest point L of the LAC curve. It has some excess capacity. It is not in a position to take full advantage of the economies of scale due to the small size of the market for his product.
Essay # 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure: In monopoly, the monopolist is able to earn monopoly profit by buy phd degree, his superior bargaining power. He is in a better position to exploit the market to his advantage. He gains more by putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to the restraints imposed over his competitors by the monopolist through his price-output policies.
There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is always less than the price, the greater the difference between the two, the larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is brand, also considered as the measure of monopoly power. Eop Essay Prompt? The greater the difference between the two, the larger is the degree of monopoly. However, economists have given other measures of brand monopoly power.
We discuss a few. But no method is for 4th, regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by Prof. Abba P. Lerner in terms of the thesis brand, bargaining strength. The difference between price and marginal cost is the measure of the degree of monopoly power. If P is price and example com MC the marginal cost, the bachelor brand management, formula for measuring the degree of monopoly power is P-MC/P. A seller’s monopoly power depends upon essay on role, his ability to sell his product at a price much above his marginal cost. The larger the gap between price and marginal cost, the greater is the monopoly power.
A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. In all cases, the above formula will give zero. But in thesis the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is buy phd degree, a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is bachelor brand management, always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to raise the price of his product in order to increase his bargaining price. The attempt to raise profits by a price rise may be neutralized by the reduction in his sales resulting from raising the price. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in of music life terms of the elasticity of demand and the formula is:
Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P – MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and the formula becomes. DMP= or the bachelor thesis management, inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the of music in our life, inverse of the elasticity of demand, P/P-MR. Lerner’s measure is thesis management, illustrated in Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the eop essay, firm’s average and management marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and marginal revenue curves.
The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is termed as the degree of monopoly power. The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the P-MR elasticity of demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the price elasticity of demand E. Guidelines For 4th Grade? The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the degree of bachelor thesis brand management monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for instance, price elasticity of demand is 2, the degree of monopoly power will be one-half. On the other hand, the elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of resume 2. Though interesting, this measure of brand monopoly power has many limitations.
First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and cost. It also depends on the restriction of output by the monopolist seller. The index showing the degree of monopoly may be equal in the case of nordic research abbreviation two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and equipment while the other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of monopoly power. Secondly, the bachelor, Lerner formula is incapable of measuring non-price competition. Buy Phd Degree? Again the index of monopoly power may be the thesis management, same in case of example com two firms. But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product. Lerner’s formula does not throw any light on bachelor brand this aspect of the problem.
Thirdly, even the case of eop essay prompt absolute monopoly power is difficult to explain in bachelor thesis management terms of this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and substitution effects of a change in price on consumer’s demand. But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the substitution effect is report for 4th, zero and the income effect is the only effect. Thus the price elasticity of demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in Lerner’s measure is that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerner’s measure is essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of marginal cost is bachelor management, due to superior technology or the result of obsolete methods of production. Lastly, the Lerner measure is example, affected by changes over bachelor thesis time in the ratio of capital to labour in an industry. Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and Kalecki used this index to measure the degree of monopoly power.
The former used this in buy phd degree the case of selected industries and the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Robert Triffin has improved upon Lerner’s measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of price elasticity of demand. Price cross-elasticity of demand measures the degree of substitution between the products of bachelor thesis brand management two firms when a change in the price of one firm’s product affects the essay on role of music life, demand for the other’s product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the product of one firm and of all other firms is zero, the reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and bachelor thesis management the firm would have absolute monopoly power. According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of demand is zero and the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power.
On the other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firm’s monopoly power is zero. First, like Lerner’s measure, the Triffin measure is unsuitable for practical purposes. Essay Of Music In Our Life? Pure monopoly like pure competition is unreal. Secondly, it is not possible to find out a definite coefficient of cross-elasticity of demand in the case of any firm. Thirdly, the bachelor thesis brand management, method of pulp and paper abbreviation measuring monopoly power in terms of cross-elasticity of thesis demand is not correct because its coefficient is zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.
But monopoly power is found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Essay On Role Life? Bain suggests the size of super-normal profit as the degree of monopoly power. He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of bachelor thesis brand management monopoly power. Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the entry of new firms in prompt the industry. So the degree of thesis management monopoly power is zero when competition is pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and the degree of monopoly power the example resume, absolute.
The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of bachelor thesis management new entrants exists. Thus the degree of monopoly power is measured by the size of super-normal profits. The greater the strength of the seller, the journal abbreviation, larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where the bachelor thesis, monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The difference between price and average cost (AC) is PC at resume com, OM per unit of output. Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is also not free from shortcomings. First, it is difficult to estimate the bachelor management, net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon the extent of its amortization of the cost of fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the deduction of interest and wages of management from the celebrated of judge dee women, firm’s net income in order to calculate its profits. Thirdly, all profits accruing to bachelor, a firm are not monopoly profits.
Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to book guidelines for 4th grade, be deducted from total net profits to arrive at pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to bachelor thesis, monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of buy phd degree increase in efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and thesis expert management. Prof. Rothschild measures the degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the slope of a firm’s demand curve to the slope of the industry demand curve. In Figure 7, dd represents the demand curve of a firm which is elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of eop essay dd/Slope of DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN. Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the thesis management, Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and industry, this index equals unity.
Therefore, the essay on role of music, degree of monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the exact shape of the demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is based exclusively on demand factors and neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from different customers or for different units of the same product. Bachelor Thesis Management? In the words of Joan Robinson: “The act of selling the same article, produced under single control at different prices to different buyers is known as price discrimination.” Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the two markets could be kept separate. Since the market demand in each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to sell in that market in which he could get the highest price.
Competition would make the price equal in both the pulp and paper research abbreviation, markets. Bachelor Management? Thus price discrimination is possible only when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Buy Phd Degree? Types of Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on bachelor thesis brand management the income of the customer. For example, doctors and lawyers charge different fees from celebrated of judge dee women, different customers on the basis of their incomes. Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the product. Paperback is cheaper than the deluxe edition of the same book, for the former is bought by the majority of readers, and the latter by management, libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at on role of music, lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes.
In the case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of hotels at hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season. Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is also related to the age, sex and status of the customers. Barbers charge less for management, children’s haircuts. Certain cinema halls in small towns in India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at book report guidelines, concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on the time of service. Cinema houses at bachelor thesis management, certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in the morning show than in the afternoon shows. Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at a higher price than in the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the product.
Railways charge different rates for different compartments or for different services. Less is charged for the transportation of coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. State power boards charge low rates for essay on role life, industrial use than for domestic consumption of electricity. Essay # 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to exist the following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is possible when there is some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is able to divide and keep his market into separate parts only if it is thesis brand, imperfect. Customers do not move readily from one market to the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of a commodity is a monopolist or when rivals enter into an agreement for the sale of the product at different prices to different customers.
This is usually possible in the sale of direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from a rich patient and a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from their clients in proportion to the degree of risk or amount of money involved in a law suit. Price discrimination is possible in the case of services because there is no possibility of resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and example com foreign buyers by selling at a lower price in the foreign market than in the domestic market. This type of discrimination is known as “dumping”. It can only be successful if the commodities sold abroad can be prevented from bachelor, being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of dumped goods. Discrimination is possible when buyers need the same service in connection with differentiated products.
Railways charge different rates for the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into coal for the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on age, sex, status and com income of buyers of services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to order. They charge different rates to different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for the product. Shoe makers and tailors charge a high price for the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in thesis brand a position to know the price being charged to others.
(6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by presenting the same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and labels, one for the rich and snobbish buyers and the other for the ordinary. Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the paper, same product. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the bachelor thesis brand management, soap, give it a separate name and charge a higher price. He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. as against Rs.18 for the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in separate markets based on differences of elasticity of demand.
Low price is charged where demand is more elastic and high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the buyers of his commodity or service into buy phd degree two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. We take the case of a monopolist who sells his commodity in two separate markets. This analysis is thesis management, based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the monopolist is to maximise his profits. He, therefore, produces that output at which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in both markets are equal. Given the marginal cost of producing the commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at pulp and paper journal, a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the marginal cost.
Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the bachelor, marginal revenue is greater in market (one) than in market 2 (two), the monopolist will sell less to market 2 and shift this quantity to market 1. This will tend to raise the price in market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is essay on role in our life, very large and there is perfect competition among them. (iii) There is no possibility of resale from one market to the other. (iv) The monopolist’s demand curve in each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in the two markets. (v) Lastly, the most important condition for price discrimination is that the elasticities of demand in the two markets must be different. It means that the price charged in brand each market must be different from the other. And Paper Research? The price will be high in the market with the thesis brand management, less elastic demand and low in the market with the high elastic demand. In the words of Joan Robinson: “The sub-markets will be arranged in eop essay ascending order of their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.”
Figure 8 illustrates price and output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the bachelor management, figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and MC is the marginal cost curve. The point of intersection between the MR T and MC curves at E determines the equilibrium level of of music in our life output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by thesis brand, equating the marginal cost Q T E with the marginal revenue of each market. Celebrated Of Judge Dee Women? To equal the bachelor, marginal costs Q T E with MR, and nordic pulp and paper research journal MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of output in each market. Thus, the quantity sold in market 1 is brand, OQ, and in market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . The price in the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and report guidelines Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the bachelor, monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at celebrated cases dee women paper, a lower price in the foreign market with elastic demand and bachelor brand management sells less at a higher price in domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and prices differ in the two markets, price discrimination is possible and profitable. (5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination:
Dumping is international price discrimination in which an exporter firm sells a portion of its output in a foreign market at a very low price and the remaining output at of music, a high price in the home market. The home market is controlled or protected and the foreign market is free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: “The sale of goods abroad at thesis, a price which is lower than the selling price of the same goods at the same time and in the same circumstances at home, taming account of differences in example resume transport costs.” The analysis of price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in thesis brand management the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is example resume, perfectly elastic and in bachelor brand the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the report for 4th grade, total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of brand producing the commodity. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by celebrated of judge, the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is also the MR curve because the foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for the product is the downward sloping curve D H and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and PD curves leads to the formation of bachelor thesis TRED F as the combined marginal revenue curve.
In order to life, determine the quantity of the product to bachelor brand management, be produced by nordic and paper journal abbreviation, the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from bachelor, below at report for 4th grade, point E. Thus OF output will be produced for sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in the domestic market will be established at point R where the marginal cost EF equals the MR H curve. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in bachelor thesis brand management the home market and the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at example com, OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the more elastic demand at a low price and less in bachelor management the home market with the less elastic demand at a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of a certain commodity is not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the average cost curve is likely to be below the average revenue curve at of music life, some point.
Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of certain commodities and services. As emphasised by Mrs. Brand? Robinson: “It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the buy phd degree, point of view of society, it is only necessary that the concern should make sufficient profits to maintain the thesis brand management, efficiency of the plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to in our, justify the original investment.” If a doctor charges a uniform fee to all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to leave his private practice and join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of his services in the particular area where he is practising. If, however, he charges more fee to his rich patients than to the ordinarily, his income is likely to be so high as to induce him to stay in that area.
Similarly, the existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for the market. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the market demand curve d throughout its length. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve.
But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the discriminating monopolist lies above the bachelor thesis brand management, downward sloping portion of the AC curve. Equilibrium is established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is produced and sold at QP price and the discriminator g earns RP profits per unit of output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the higher income groups are charged higher prices and the funds so collected may be used to subsidies the goods meant for the poor. Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for pulp research journal, it helps in reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to the rich than to the poor. In public utility services, the higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the government may use these funds to bachelor management, subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. Celebrated Of Judge Term Paper? If a foreign market is elastic, more will be sold at a lower price. It means expansion in output, the use of larger resources of the economy, more employment and income to the community.
Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the industry obeys the bachelor thesis, law of decreasing costs. It implies the realisation of larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and prices to the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. In that case, had it been imported from abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in pecuniary and real terms. Some of the country’s resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and instead of receiving income from abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the monopolist started producing for the foreign market.
Hence price discrimination is eop essay prompt, justified. Essay # 9. Harms of Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to society when it leads to mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the result that output, employment and bachelor brand income are not maximised. It may lead to the diversion of resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on international plane when price discrimination takes to form of dumping, it. Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by prompt, undercutting the foreign producers and forcing them to close their business.
Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10. Control and Regulation of Monopoly: There are three methods of controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the monopolist from charging a very high price in order to earn large super-normal profits. Thesis Brand Management? They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. The fear of potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to his customers.
If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to on role of music in our life, the entry of new firms, would prefer to charge a reasonable price and thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of Government Regulation. Bachelor Brand? The same consideration applies to potential government regulation.
The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the attention of the government. Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the monopolist to wield an absolute monopoly power. If the product or service which the monopolist provides is a public utility service, there is every likelihood of the state taking over the monopoly organisation in public interest.
This consideration may prevent the monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction. The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against the monopoly firm in parliament to press for anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Boycott. Book Report Guidelines For 4th? People may even boycott the use of monopolised service and start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and earn only nominal profits.
(6) Fear of Substitutes. Thesis Brand? Then there is the fear of substitutes. In fact, the nordic and paper journal, fear of substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from bachelor thesis brand, charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is not a close substitute. Therefore, the fear of the emergence of very close substitutes is always uppermost in the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on his absolute power. (7) Differences in Elasticities of buy phd degree Demand.
The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to some other substitutes. The demand for the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. But in the long-run, the fear of public opinion, emergence of substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the monopolist to set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and bachelor sell more at a low price.” (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in order to avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the producer and retailer to the detriment of other traders. (ii) Control of Monopoly through Price Regulation:
We now take the case where the government feels that monopoly price is very high and tries to bring it down by price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to competitive price. This is done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for nordic pulp and paper abbreviation, the monopoly product below the monopoly price, thereby increasing output and lowering the price for the consumer. This is illustrated in bachelor Figure 11. Before the regulation of monopoly price, the book report, monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at MP (=OA) price. Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the maximum price QK (=OB) at the competitive level.
The new demand curve facing the management, monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. Buy Phd Degree? He produces and sells OQ output at point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from below. As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. He still makes super- normal profits equal to KG x OQ that are smaller than the brand management, monopoly profits (PF x OM) at the unregulated price MP.
If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the eop essay prompt, AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the monopolist would be able to place a greater quantity of thesis management output OW in the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to pulp and paper abbreviation, produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. But the thesis, regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at a loss. (iii) Control of Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to the output, the amount of com tax rising with the increase in output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the product. A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the bachelor thesis, tax is levied. Celebrated Of Judge Term Paper? The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by selling OM product at MP Price.
The imposition of the thesis brand management, lump-sum tax is, in fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is book report for 4th grade, independent of output. Bachelor Thesis? It, therefore, raises the average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the effect of buy phd degree reducing monopoly profit from bachelor, APRT to APBC. The entire burden of the tax will be borne by the monopolist himself. He cannot shift any part of it to his customers at buy phd degree, any stage by raising the price and reducing output. Since the bachelor thesis management, monopolist’s marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only cases paper, lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by levying a specific or a per unit tax on the monopolist’s product. A per unit tax on monopoly output has the bachelor management, effect of shifting both the average and marginal cost curves upward by the amount of the com, tax.
Figure 13 illustrates this case. Bachelor Brand? AC and MC are the monopoly firm’s average cost and research journal abbreviation marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. Bachelor Brand Management? It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the product at UP price. Suppose a the prompt, government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to bachelor thesis management, shift the cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolist’s new equilibrium point is E 1 where the MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. The new price is buy phd degree, M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and the output is OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the monopolist is able to shift a part of the tax burden to bachelor thesis brand, consumers in the form of higher price and a smaller output of the product. Prompt? Since the monopolist has to bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in regulating monopoly price and output. For the higher, the demand elasticity of tax, the higher the price for the product and the lower the output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by bachelor thesis brand management, the monopolist. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net!
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Essay on Air Pollution: Sources, Causes, Effects and Control. Essay on Air Pollution: Sources, Causes, Effects and Control! Air pollution occurs due to the presence of bachelor, undesirable solid or gaseous particles in essay on role of music, the air in management, quantities that are harmful to human health and environment. It can be defined as presence of foreign matter-either gaseous or particulate or combination of both in the air which is detrimental to on role, the health and welfare of human beings. Pollutants that are emitted directly from bachelor identifiable sources are produced by natural events can be in the form of particulate matter or gaseous form. These are called primary pollutants Example: Dust storms and cases of judge term volcanic eruptions and bachelor brand through human activities like emission from celebrated of judge term paper vehicles, industries etc. There are five primary pollutants that contribute to 90% of thesis brand management, global air pollution:
(i) Oxides of carbon like carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (CO and CO 2 ). (ii) Oxides of nitrogen, like NO, NO 2 , NO 3 (expressed as NO X ). (iii) Oxides of sulphur particularly sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). (iv) Volatile organic compounds, mostly hydrocarbons. (v) Suspended particulate matter (SPM).
Particulate pollutants are categorized according to size, mode of formation (source) or physical state. a. Aerosol (general term for particles suspended in air) b. Mist (aerosol containing liquid droplets e.g., H 2 SO 4 mist) c. Dust (aerosol containing solid particles) d. Smoke (aerosol containing mixture of solid and liquid particles produced by chemical reaction such as fire) e. Fume (same as smoke by produced by condensation of hot vapors of metals e.g.. Zinc and Lead fumes)
f. Plume (smoke coming out of chimney) g. Fly ash (finely divided non-combustible particles present in the gases arising from fuel combustion. Nordic Pulp Research Abbreviation! It contains inorganic metallic or mineral substances released when the organic part of the coal is burnt.) h. Natural particulates (Natural particulates are pollen grains spores bacterial, viruses, protozoal, fungal spores and volcanic dusts.) The pollutants that are produced in the atmosphere, when certain chemical reactions take place among the primary pollutants and with others in the atmosphere are called secondary air pollutants. Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, carbonic acid, ozone, formaldehydes and peroxy-acyl-nitrate (PAN). Particulates are small pieces of solid material. Particulate matter can be: 1. Natural such as dust, seeds, spores, pollen grains, algae fungi, bacteria and viruses.
2. Anthropogenic such as mineral dust, cement, asbestos dust, fibers, metal dust, fly ash smoke particles form fires etc. Air pollution may originate from one or more variety of sources. The natural pollution includes sources such as oceanic aerosol, volcanic emissions, biogenic sources, windblown terrestrial dust and lightening. The artificial pollution generates from human activities and includes sources such as fuel burning, refuge burning, transportation, construction of buildings, chemical factories, metallurgical factories and, vehicles. The third category includes solvent usage and sources include spray painting and solvent extraction. Automobiles are the first rate of polluters. Industries occupy second position. Particulates cause carcinogenic effects, accumulate in lungs and interfere with ability of lungs to exchange gases.
Prolonged exposure causes lung cancer and asthma. Brand! Cigarette smoking is responsible for greatest exposure to carbon monoxide (CO). Exposure to air containing even 0.001% of CO for several hours can cause collapse, coma and even death. As CO remains attached to hemoglobin in the blood for a long time, it accumulates and reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of example resume com, blood. This impairs thinking, causes headaches, drowsiness and bachelor management nausea. SO 2 irritates the respiratory tissues. NO 2 can irritate lungs; aggravate asthma and susceptibility to influenza and common colds.
Many volatile organic compounds (benzene and formaldehyde) and toxic particulates can cause mutations and cancer. Lead causes neurological problems and cancer. Gaseous pollutants enter the leaf pores and damage the leaves of crop plants, interfere with photosynthesis and plants growth and reduces nutrient uptake and causes the example resume, leaves to thesis brand, turn yellow, brown or drop off altogether. Air pollutants break down the exterior paint on cars and houses. The upper stratosphere consists of considerable amounts of ozone, which works as an effective screen for prompt, UV light. This region is called ozone layer, which extends up to 60 km above the surface of the earth.
Ozone is a form of bachelor management, oxygen with 3 atoms instead of 2. It is produced naturally in nordic research journal abbreviation, the atmosphere. Presence of bachelor brand, certain pollutants can accelerate the eop essay prompt, breakdown of ozone. Depletion of bachelor brand management, ozone effects human health, food productivity and climate. Book! Sun burn, cataract, aging of skin and skin cancer are caused by increased UV radiation.
It weakens the immune system by supporting the bachelor thesis brand, body’s resistance to eop essay prompt, certain infections like measles, chickenpox and other viral diseases. UV radiation affects the ability of plants to capture light energy during the process of photosynthesis. This reduces the nutrient content and growth of plants mostly in legumes and cabbage. Plants and animals are damaged by UV radiations. Contribute to global warming, a phenomenon which is caused due to bachelor brand management, the increase in concentration of certain gases like CO 2 , NO 2 methane and chloroflorocarbons (CFCs). Photochemical smog is cases of judge, highly oxidising polluted atmosphere comprising largely of ozone, NO X , hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, PAN and thesis brand management peroxybenzoil nitrate (PBzN). This is nordic pulp, produced as a result of photochemical reaction among NO x hydrocarbons and oxygen. Effects of photochemical smog are as follows:
a. Thesis! Breathing ozone results in respiratory distress, headaches. b. PAN damages plants. c. PAH’s poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, carcinogenic. Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, i.e., elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure through the process of wet deposition. Acid rain is caused by emissions of compounds of ammonium, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur which react with the water molecules in on role of music, the atmosphere to produce acids. Carbonic acid then can ionize in water forming low concentrations of brand, hydronium and carbonate ions. Acid deposition as an environmental issue would include additional acids to H 2 CO 3 . The effects of acid rain have been known for a long time.
Though experts admit that the and paper journal abbreviation, problem of thesis management, acid rain is generally under control, it’s still worth reiterating the effects brought on by acid rain on the wider environment. Acid rain has adverse effects on: a. Eop Essay! Forests and brand other vegetation. b. Freshwater lakes and streams destroying aquatic life. d. Buildings and materials. Carbon dioxide and other gases allow light to pass, but trap heat in dee women term, the atmosphere much like glass in a greenhouse traps heat. This greenhouse effect is thesis, thought to be responsible for global warming. Carbon dioxide contributes to only 56% of greenhouse heating. The average surface temperature of Earth is nordic abbreviation, about 15°C (59°F). Global Warming is increase in the average temperature of the bachelor brand, atmosphere, oceans, and landmasses of Earth. Effects of global warming are as follows:
a. Temperature extremes. b. Rise in sea level, and buy phd degree change in precipitation. c. Injuries from storms, coastal flooding. d. Interruption of power supply, contamination of drinking water. f. Bachelor Management! Food shortages due to shift in agricultural food production. g. Report For 4th! Air pollution (made worse by warming) h. Thesis Brand! Asthma, bronchitis, emphysema complications. i. Strain on public health systems. j. Essay Of Music In Our! Increased need due to population migrations. k. Unable to contain spread of infectious diseases. Taj Mahal, Agra, India: A symbol of love affected by air pollutants:
Emperor Shah Jahan constructed this historic monument in bachelor thesis brand, the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal at Agra, India in the year 1648. The innumerable industries in and around Agra released a large amount of sulphur dioxides, suspended particulate matter, smoke, soot etc causing tanning, blackening, and yellowing of the marble stone. The oxides reacting with rainwater resulted in acid precipitation and in return caused the deterioration and corrosion of the in our, Taj Mahal. In 1984, the Supreme Court of India ordered designated polluting industries in the Taj area to be shut down and or adopt cleaner control technologies. The zoning of the industries is thesis brand management, done based on the type of industries, their function etc. every city has its own zoning rules. Zoning of the industries may be based on: The functions include industries such as linkages for industries, sidings etc. The performance includes classification of industries according to their nuisance value such as:
(i) Traffic congestion. (ii) Obnoxious and hazardous emissions, and. (iii) Industrial nuisance such as smoke, dust, dirt, odour, noise etc. If zoning is done properly, it results inconsiderable improvement of health of the community as a whole. Eop Essay Prompt! It prevents the bachelor thesis, invasion of undesirable in and around residential areas and so toxic, hazardous and harmful gases and odours are prevented from entering or attacking the humans living in residential areas.
The air pollution problem can be minimized at the source of making use of the following measures: (a) Raw Material Substitution: In order to check air pollution, it is desirable to substitute the raw material if it results in pollution, by another one which is less polluting. The raw material may contain an ingredient which is not essential but a pollution source. Prompt! The pollution can be minimised if the non-essential ingredient is removed before the processing of the raw material. Thesis Management! Low sulphur fuels can be used in place of high sulphur fuels in order to buy phd degree, control air pollution by SO 2 . (b) Modification of Process: Pollution reduction can frequently be achieved by using modified procedure or new process. Management! For example, the eop essay, use of exhaust hoods and ducts over several types of industrial ovens allow the recovery of various solvents that could have become air pollutants. (c) Equipment Alterations: Equipment alterations such as the use of floating roof tanks rather than vented tanks can cut down on the evaporation losses. New type of equipment for example, the basic oxygen furnaces which are replacing the open hearth furnaces in steel industry, pose much less air pollution problems.
Controlling Air Pollution by Devices : Because of large number of industries, various types of gases are liberated in the atmosphere along with particulates and become major source of air pollution. In order to prevent these pollutants into the atmosphere, control devices have been used depending on the collection property and capacity of the device and nature of the thesis brand, processes used by the particular industry. Based on the method of removal several types of dust collectors have been used. Some important control devices are gravity settling chamber, fabric filters, wet scrubbers and electrostatic precipitator. Following are the 5 classes of the particulate collection equipment: (i) Gravity Settling Chamber: This is the simplest method for of judge, the control of particulate matter.
This applies to coarse particulate matter larger than 50 µm. Thesis! Here the gravitational force is employed to remove particulate matter with a settling velocity greater than 0.13 m/s. they are used to control emission of coarse particulate from power plants and industrial sites. (ii) Cyclone Separator: Cyclone separator is gas cleaning devices that employ a centrifugal force generated by report guidelines for 4th grade, a spinning gas stream to separate the particulate matter from the carrier gas. The cyclone separator is usually employed for removing particles 10 µm in size and larger. Fractional removal efficiency of the cyclone separator drops rapidly beyond a certain particle size. Cyclone separator operates by the centrifugal force which is several times greater than the gravitational force.
In a wet collector a liquid, usually water is bachelor thesis brand management, used to capture particulate matter or to increase the size of aerosols. Report For 4th Grade! It is used for fine particulates, ranging from 0.1 to 20 µm. One of the primary aims of the device is the adequate dispersion of the liquid phase in order to achieve good contact between the particulate phase and thesis management the liquid phase. Three major types of wet collectors are: (a) Spray chamber scrubbers. (b) Cyclonic scrubbers. (c) Venturi scrubbers.
Filtration is one of the for 4th grade, oldest and most widely used methods of separating particulate from the bachelor thesis brand, carrier gas. A filter generally any porous structure is composed of granular or fibrous material which tends to retain the particulate as the carrier gas passes through the report guidelines for 4th grade, void of the management, filter. Fabric filters are usually formed from cylindrical tubes and hung in multiple rows to provide large surface areas for gas passage. Typical dust loadings handled are from pulp 0.23 to 23 gm/m3 of gas. Fabric filters have efficiencies of 99% or better when collecting 0.5 µm particles and can remove substantial quantities of management, 0.01 µm particles. (v) Electrostatic Precipitator:
Particulate and aerosol collection by electrostatic precipitation is based on the mutual attraction between particles of buy phd degree, one electric charge and the collecting electrode of opposite polarity. Its advantages are: (a) Capacity to handle large gas volumes. (b) High collection efficiencies even for submicron size. (c) Low energy consumption.
(d) Ability to operate with relatively high temperature gases. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to bachelor, post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: