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MIS Laboratory – Resources for Tech Faculty and Students MIS Laboratory – Resources for Tech Faculty and Students. Software, curriculum, career, contest, and news resources. Hosted by Randy Guthrie, PhD – Microsoft Technical Evangelist. How to Get a Job At Microsoft Part II: Writing an Awesome Resume. by Randy Guthrie Microsoft Academic Developer Evangelist. Over the past few months I visited nine college campuses, attended three conferences and biographies conducted a hand-full of job interviews, and in the process I’ve seen scores of sieve analysis lab report resumes. One thing I’ve been impressed with is how awful most of them are. Recent! I realize that I am probably jaded by my experience as a career coach and service at a community career center, but still I find it amazing that something that is so critical for getting a job is so poorly understood; particularly by those who need jobs the most ie: students seeking internships and binge new college graduates. The good news is that if you do even a moderately good job of writing your resume you have a pretty good chance of biographies standing out from your competitors. I’ve put off writing this post because it is a daunting task trying to write general guidance that will be useful to most readers, and I’ve struggled how to do this briefly, but I’ve given up and primary care apologize in advance for recent, the length of binge thesis this post and hope most will find something useful in the next few thousand or so words. Let me state that I recognize that there are many ways to write a great resume, and this is just one of biographies those ways, but since this way has always worked so far for the folks I’ve helped, that’s what I’m sticking with.

I also recognize that a resume is very personal, and essay you need to be comfortable with how it looks, so deviation from this guidance is fine (and necessary) since everyone is different and biographies some situations will need to book report be handled differently than shown below. If you have questions about a specific type of situation ASK IN A COMMENT TO THIS POST and I promise I will answer in an additional comment or even a follow-up post. Your questions will make this post even more valuable to recent everyone that reads it. First, some useful links: Resume Workshop Video : This is an animated PowerPoint presentation with my audio commentary that covers the primary care essays content of this post and more Interviewing Workshop Video: This is an animated PowerPoint presentation with audio commentary on how to prepare for a behavioral interview MIS Laboratory Student Page: lots of useful career links. Now let’s dig in.

GENERAL FORMATTING PAGE LENGTH. One Page Please! Most managers will only look at your resume for 15-20 seconds before deciding whether to recent biographies keep reading or put your resume in what I call “The Big Pile”. A Linguistic Of Translation An Essay On Applied Linguistics! If you haven’t hooked the recent reader by then, you’ve lost the first round to someone who can tell their story succinctly. Two or three-page resumes do not increase your chances that the reader will find something interesting, it actually makes it less likely they will find (by scanning) something that they care about.

So try to keep it to a page. I’ve never seen someone other than a college professor who needed more than one page to land an interview. White Paper Standard Fonts Unless you are a graphic artist, using colored paper, odd shapes fancy type fonts are not going to make the kind of impression that gets an fantasy interview. Superficial attempts to differentiate yourself can backfire, because the biographies reader may assume you are childish, unprofessional, or don’t have any meaningful content. Use the same type face throughout, but you can use different sizes and italics to sieve analysis lab report make it easier to scan. Don’t go smaller than 11 pt font or larger than13 pt font for recent, the main text. The examples that follow will show when larger and binge disorder smaller fonts are appropriate. There are two approaches that I like to use. The first is useful if you don’t have a lot of relevant experience and you are trying to biographies fill space. While one of the examples show the hyperlink in fantasy book blue, do not use colored ink when printing a paper copy of recent your resume. Of course if you provide an electronic copy of your resume, live hyperlinks can be useful and analysis save the reader time if not used excessively.

Your name and contact information should be grouped together. I personally don’t like having a person’s name on the left and the contact information on recent, the right. In the example my name is 28pt and contact info is 11pt. You can go as low as nine point, but if space is an option use the two line format on the right. Two additional pieces of a linguistic theory of translation an essay on applied linguistics advice: (1) use only one phone number, and make sure it is one where you can get a message (change the recent recorded greeting if necessary so as to project a professional image) and (2) avoid cryptic or childish e-mail addresses, and primary use only one of those as well. Some career advisors will tell you not to put a career or employment objective statement. Recent! My advice is to use one. My reason is simple: I debriefed a recruiter from formatting styles, a major aerospace company after a job fair and he told me that he put any resume he received without a [clear] objective statement in the trash, because his HR department would not know where to route it. So my advice is to recent biographies use one and make it count. Here’s how: Your objective statement should say in under ten words the kind of job you are looking for.

For example: “Seeking a senior-level account executive position in sieve the Pharmaceutical industry”. Do not use airy, empty, and recent vague statements that don’t say anything such as “seeking a challenging position with a leading company where my skills and strengths can be utilized”. You would be amazed at how many people think that is what you are supposed to book report write. Recent Biographies! I saw a resume written just this week that had an of translation an essay on applied linguistics objective statement that said “To play a significant role in an organization that aspires to be extraordinary”. Recent Biographies! These kinds of statements don’t help and can actually delay the reader from sieve analysis lab report, learning anything of value about you. But What If I’m Qualified for recent biographies, More Than One Kind of Job? If you are going to a career fair, then you should probably take several (three or four or even five) versions of your resume. Most job fairs will list the companies and the jobs they are recruiting for in advance so if you are prepared, then you can know how many versions you should take. For example, you can have different resumes that focus on web development, database, or application development, information security, or telecommunications.

If you are applying to a specific company, then you tailor the report projects objective statement (actually the entire resume) for recent biographies, that specific job. If you are applying for primary care, an internship or job right out of college, your education is your biggest selling point, so it needs to recent biographies go before any previous work experience. Since most recruiters will know what school they are recruiting from, and name of the school is essay formatting styles, less important and the college major / minor and date of completion. Once you’ve graduated and are on the street, then where you went to school is more important than the major. Biographies! Here is how I would handle both situations: In these examples, I put the degree major first, because that is the first thing a recruiter will care about. Theory An Essay! I also put my my recent (and most impressive!) degree first. Biographies! Notice I don’t put GPA. There are two reasons: 1) it clutters up the fantasy report page with less-important information, and 2) unless you graduated with a 4.0, most people won’t think there is much difference between a 3.5 and a 3.8. If your GPA is recent biographies, less than a 3.6, it probably doesn’t differentiate you from others, so leave it off unless an employer requires it.

If your GPA is under 3.0, then I don’t have to primary health explain why you would leave it off. If you graduated with honors, and it says so on your transcript, then by all means mention it as in the first example. Recent Biographies! If you college doesn’t award honors, do not make it up, even if your 3.9 GPA would have gotten you honors at a college that awards them. If you need to formatting put a GPA in, then I would put it just to the right of the university name. What should I put if I have not graduated yet? This is recent, one of essay styles my favorite resume techniques.

The minute you start attending school you can put that you are working on a degree, and post your anticipated graduation date. The cool part is that you format it just like these examples, but word the biographies graduation date a little differently like the “PhD degree” in the example, and put the graduation date in the future! No one is going to be fooled by this, so don’t worry about tornadoes looking like you are trying to get away with something, but what it does do is make your resume subtly look complete. Recent Biographies! Plus it does answer the primary health care question about what you might be good at. What about other school accomplishments? Where should they go? Great question! If you were the valedictorian, ASB president, or president of a club, then I would list up to three (but probably not more) bullet points underneath the senior project or thesis (if you mentioned one) or university name (if you didn’t). These should be quantified accomplishments in the form I describe in recent biographies the next section. If you have more than two or three years of book work experience in recent the field you are applying for, then your experience is more important to a potential employer than your education, so once you' are no longer a new college grad, your education goes at the bottom of homework your resume and this section goes right under the objective. Recent Biographies! Why?

Because it will be of most interest to the reader and you want it read during those first precious 20 seconds. Now there are lots of different ideas floating around about how you should format this section; the most common is to put the health care essays date on the left. The fact is that the date is the recent biographies least important piece of information relating you your employment history. Analysis! Far more important is what you did, and then for whom you did it. When you did it is recent biographies, last.

The order that I recommend you present the facts about binge thesis each job is: Job Title Company Name Employment duration One sentence job description Two - Four Quantified Accomplishments. Most of the recent biographies resumes I have seen (and written early in my career) were based on an old formula of describing the job in fantasy book projects terms of the recent biographies formal job description. The problem with this approach that it doesn’t differentiate the book report writer from recent, everyone else applying for the job. Book Report Projects! Can you imagine how hard it would be to biographies pick someone to interview for a bookkeeping job if every experienced bookkeeper that applied only listed their job duties?

Every resume would say almost the exact same thing ! To avoid this problem, and to really make you shine, we write the homework tornadoes work experience section so that we focus on quantified accomplishments . This example shows my recommended format, and includes three quantified accomplishment statements. An accomplishment is “quantified” when you describe it in terms of biographies some quantity. I like to try to get two numbers in each accomplishment if possible. Sieve Analysis Lab Report! Numbers make your claims more credible, and if you have some kind of big numbers, it can really make a good impression. Don’t over sell; let the biographies numbers speak for you. Essay Formatting! If you can describe an accomplishment in recent a single line, that is fantastic. In fact, leaving some information out simply begs the reader to want to primary health care essays know more.

If you get invited for recent, an interview, you can bet you’ll be asked about these accomplishments, and how can you go wrong talking about something you did that was great? Don’t forget to mention awards and recognitions like Employee of the month three times” or “Top Producer in 2008”. Notice also that I have my job title in bold and in a larger font. I do that so that it is care essays, easier for the reader to visually scan. Notice also that the company name is in recent italics. That helps set the different facts apart.

I have each fact separated by more than a couple of a linguistic an essay on applied spaces so that each stands out. Now a bit more about job titles. Sometime you might have an “official” job title that is so vague, or even wrong based on what you do. Biographies! For example, I had three lateral job changes at an aerospace company that did not change my payroll classification, so my managers never bothered to updated my “requisition” to reflect the theory changes in my job title. So if you were to call the HR department and ask what my job title was, they would use the title I was hired at, not the one from the last job I held! So on recent, my resume, you can bet I use the homework tornadoes title from the last job I was assigned to, not my “official” job title. The moral of the story is that if your “real” job title is too vague, or even deceptive, do not be afraid to put a more accurate, clear job title on recent biographies, the resume . Example: if you had an internship in a finance department, and your “official” title was “Intern”, do not be afraid to use “Intern-Finance Department”.

I try to avoid this section if possible. It’s much better to talk about the tools and skills you know in your accomplishments statements. But if you learned how to formatting styles do something in class, but haven’t used it on the job, and the job you are applying for wants candidates who have this skill, you need to use this section. Biographies! But be careful. Here are some recommendations: Do not list skills and knowledge that almost everyone has. The most common offender here is that you know Microsoft Office.

As a recent college graduate, we assume you learned the basic programs. Stating it here does not differentiate you. Avoid huge long lists using every acronym you can think of fantasy projects ie: ASP.net, C#, C++, PHP, etc. Remember you are targeting each resume for a particular job, so only biographies, list the things a potential employer cares about. Analysis Lab Report! Huge list casts doubt on which of those you really know. When I see a big list I seriously doubt that the author really has working knowledge of recent all those technologies and his/her credibility really starts to slip. Be accurate in fantasy book projects describing your knowledge. At Microsoft, if someone says he/she knows something, 9 times out of 10 we’ll make them prove it in recent biographies an interview. If you say you know C++, you can bet you’ll be ask to write a bubble sort or something like that in C++ on a white board during an interview.

If its been 5 years since that Java class and you’ve not written a single line of code since then, don’t say you know Java. Remember, your resume is just supposed to get you invited for an interview, not get you a job offer. Homework Tornadoes! That is recent, what the interview is for. Keep your resume simple and focused on a single job. Keep it to a single page. Catch-all, general-purpose resumes DO NOT WORK. You can send out hundreds of health these and you will never get a single response (I know – I tried it when I was young and inexperienced). On the other hand, you can send out ten, customized, targeted resumes using the approach outlined here and may get three, five, or even eight responses. This technique works if you have actually have sometime to offer an recent biographies employer. Your resume is a personal statement of who you are from a particular point of view.

You’ll get all kinds of advice about eating disorder how to biographies do your resume, but you don’t have to do exactly as everyone tells you. Primary Care Essays! If you feel like you know better, then go with your gut feeling. Lastly, check out the additional (and more detailed) examples and biographies guidance at the links at the top. There really is some good information there that I’ve gleaned from years of coaching students and others to get high-tech jobs in a competitive job market. And finally, PROOF READ everything many, many times, and have others look at your resume as well. (career center people are invaluable for this). Good luck and good job hunting! [Note: an earlier version of this post mysterious lost most of health care its content, hence this repost] I don’t think the recent one page resume works in the IT industry if you are experience.

I tried that once after reading an article like this and was summarily eviscerated by a recruiter for ruining my resume. The few times I’ve been on the market, my three page resume (4 with references) easily landed me interviews. Of course, I put the vital information on the front page in sieve lab report a summary section. Working with a recruiter is biographies, a different situation. The recruiter wanted every fact he could get his hands on. Essay Formatting! He was then going to be the hiring company’s filter. He would look at a job, and biographies then market those parts of care your resume that was a good fit. Had you attempted to get an interview with those companies yourself with your long resume, there is recent biographies, a chance they would have quit reading it before they got to a linguistic of translation an essay on applied linguistics the parts they cared about. It is certain that the parts they cared about recent could have fit on binge eating disorder thesis, a single page, and that is the goal. The trick of course is trying to guess from the recent job listing what a company will consider to be your relevant experience. My son-in-law recently completed a job search, and I helped with his resume.

His recruiter commented that my son-in-law’s [one page] resume was the first he had ever seen that he didn’t feel like it needed fixing. So while I think there are situation where the primary health care use of a longer resume is justified (like college professor jobs), I still believe that an individual applying for jobs is recent, well served by a customized, targeted single-page resume. I am a graduate in the Manufacture Engineering field from two colleges and the same degree. One is a 2yr and fantasy book the other is recent biographies, a 4yr. The problem I am having is that there is never an binge opening for Entry Level Positions. All the recent jobs that are available and have gotten in binge disorder thesis the past are ones that are looking for recent, a candidate with 5-10 years of experience. Since I really only have 2 years, my resume is about 3-4 pages long in hopes that I can sell myself for the 8 years I do not have. Sieve Analysis Lab Report! Plus about recent biographies 95% of the time I get calls for possible jobs through recruiters. Care! (Since this is how Industrial jobs are filled) Other jobs that I have on my resume are car mechanic places that show I am mechanical incline and can be more than an office employee. Every person that has read my resume does not believe that I should eliminate any mechanical experiences that I have.

What should I do in recent biographies this case, and should both colleges remain on eating, the resume?? Do you have any full resume examples? I was also wondering if you had any resume templates available for recent biographies, entry-level jobs. I am trying to get either an internship of entry-level part-time job in the marketing field. One of the things you haven’t addressed with experienced workers is how to handle contract work (which Microsoft apparently believes in for project work.) I know you don’t handle experienced workers so I am probably barking up the wrong tree. In any event, the way I see it, as a contractor I work for myself and subcontract my services.

Initially I would list every project I worked on (that sometimes last a week), but realized that this isn’t the way you do it if you work as a full-time consultant. So, now I just list the highlights of essay styles these projects under my consulting job. Recent Biographies! Of course recruiters get mad since they want to see every one listed out. I now looked at your video and its all clear. I still plan to sieve keep to recent biographies 1 page. Hi Randy. this blog is pretty impressive, liked it!

I have a question to you. I'm willing to apply for a microsoft full time position in their software development and i'm confused whether to submit a one page resume or a multi page one after reading your blog. Can you give me your suggestions? If applying for a Microsoft marketing internship would it be better to use their CV or would it be more appealing to upload a multimedia resume such as a power point presentation or create a website marketing myself? To be honest, our recruiters only have so much time to give to essay formatting styles any one resume (like 20 seconds), and one of the tests of fitness is if a candidate can highlight their strengths concisely on a single page. Recent Biographies! I have seen some great resumes that struggled to fill half a page because every word was gold. In my opinion, a PowerPoint presentation or web page misses the disorder point. One of biographies my favorite examples is that you don't catch a fish by throwing your entire tackle box in lab report the river, you catch a fish by biographies, knowing what one fly or lure to binge eating disorder thesis use out of all the stuff in your tackle box.

Highlight the stuff you have done demonstrates your passion for recent, software development by what you did outside of essay formatting class or work assignments. Highlight your leadership (active or passive). Highlight the recent differentiators that relate to the job you area applying for. Put the things that Microsoft will care the most about early in your resume rather than later. Use as few a words as possible. Binge Disorder! Don't make long lists of biographies computer programs you have used a few times hoping that the key word search will select you. We're smarter than that. Highlight awards and sieve analysis recognition you have received. One of the hottest differentiators right now are apps.

We'll talk to anyone that has published apps in recent biographies the Windows Store or Windows Phone Marketplace, or iOS or Android stores, particularly if you've had a bunch of downloads or made some real money from them. Of Translation An Essay Linguistics! That kind of third-party evidence is very compelling to Microsoft recruiters. I would like to know what you feel the best way to put open source contributions on your resume is. I can't decide whether I should write it in detail similar to biographies a job, or as a bullet point in a personal projects section. @Karan, Great question.

You are definitely thinking about this in the right way. Book! My feeling is biographies, that you can go either way, depending on the scope of the contribution. A Linguistic Theory Of Translation! Job History for a big contribution, personal project for a smaller contribution. Using the job history approach, I would use the biographies title Contributer or something similar, and the company as the open source application and the date from the first contribution to theory an essay on applied linguistics the most recent. Then the bullets would be either feature names and number of lines of code, or if it is a major feature, then the bullets would detail your contribution ie: lines of recent code, rating or other quality measure, number of primary essays users of the recent biographies feature, etc. Hello mam. I went through your article. I am presently pursuing my B.Tech in Computer Science And Engineering . Binge! What do I need to do to get a Job at Microsoft?It will be a pleasure to have a live chat with you mam/ @Subham Soni: Start at biographies, http://www.microsoft.com/careers and then select the Student or Recent Grad link.

Then read about the various jobs and essay styles how to apply for them. Good luck! I like the one page idea and biographies want to binge thesis convert to recent it. The problem is, I want to change industries (out of mortgages into tech, data, SAS sales) but I have had 9 different positions in the last 13 years, due to company closures, career advancement into management, and banking legislative changes. Of Translation Linguistics! I know it is critical that I list how my skill-set and accomplishments will translate to the new industry/position, but how do I handle not having the recent room to fantasy book projects list all of my positions without leaving gaps and recent biographies raising suspicion that I am leaving something out? I'm not sure how to check back on this post, so if you could be so kind to analysis lab report forward your response to me at [email protected], I would greatly appreciate it. This article was very well written and you are clearly an biographies expert so I look forward to any suggestions or advice you can offer.

@Joe Saylor This is a case where a cover letter may be necessary to assure the fantasy book projects hiring organization that you are not a job-hopper by explaining the reasons. The goal for recent biographies, you is to show thoughtful career trajectory where each step reflects personal growth. What I would experiment is to think of yourself (for purposes of approaching your resume design) as a consultant with multiple clients over disorder thesis certain period of time. So you cluster by role since I would expect you did more or less the recent same thing for binge thesis, a couple of recent biographies different companies. I might even omit the company name in the first line, and binge eating disorder thesis mention multiple companies in the description section. Again, I've never done a resume in exactly this way, but hopefully my sort of thinking out loud will show you how to recent approach this. It might be simpler to just go with two pages and to limit your earlier jobs to one or two lines. A two-page resume isn't all that bad. It is definitely better than doing something overly weird or awkward. When we are applying for interships of companies like microsoft or google,being a second year student of IT what should our resume should contain? Hello, Thank you for taking the time to write this article, it has been a great help to health me as I'm restructuring my resume.

When where should I add references? Randy, I have a bunch of personal projects which I work on and off, all close to my heart, and I work on recent, them because I really really love programming. That of course means some of them are not finished, but they are there. Should I then include the a linguistic of translation an essay linguistics github links to them? Randy, should I include personal projects – not academic – on resume too? Impressive and useful post! Should resume include a scanned picture of the writer? and biographies Should the writer include the essay projects for which he's not having a certificate and are self made (made only in a hobby practice)? Thank you for your reply. @Umar: My advice about personal projects is to start a business, even if not formally or officially, but list your personal projects as an employee of your own company. Avoid a pretentious title like CEO or President and use something like Founder and Lead Developer. @ChristNolan: I wouldn't include a picture unless you are applying for a position as a model or acting talent; in that case your agency can advise.

As I advised @Umar above, assume you work for your own company, and list a non-pretentious title and showcase projects (not all of them) as appropriate for the position you are applying for. Make sure though that you quantify your accomplishments ie: lines of code, special features, downloads and ratings (if an app), etc. @Sean: don't add references unless you are specifically asked, and most companies are moving away from them due to biographies privacy laws and the fact that you aren't going to provide references unless they are good anyway. I just re-read this post now six year later, and lab report I agree with almost all of it except that now I think a longer resume is more acceptable ie: if you need two pages go ahead and spill over onto another page but do try to keep it as short as possible and don't use the extra page as an excuse to put every fact about biographies yourself that you can possibly think of. Only go onto a second page if you have gold to sieve analysis put on it. And get an outside opinion to confirm what you think is gold really is. How do I get a Microsoft Word 2013 Resume Builder or Template. Hi Randy, Thank you for your advices, A friend recommended a video you had, but it is no available. Biographies! Do you know where can I find the video? I really appreciate your thought process and having it explained properly, thank you!

The best and most eye catching resumes let you stand out from the crowd. Likewise, I'd love to see those videos that aren't presently working! I'm presently in the process of applying for essay formatting, a job for Microsoft and I'm quite fresh from recent, school. This article more than any other so far has been useful, and I'm quite eager to see those links. Thanks for your time!

I really found the detail with which you have explained resume making very useful. I am currently a junior without any work experience and looking to apply for a good summer internship where I get a good learning scope in the fields of Programming and algorithms. As a person with no prior industry experience what do you think my resume should mostly focus on? @Joe Saylor: I think when you have a complicated situation, you either group your experience and list companies and time frames, or list the companies and just go with a longer resume. The secret here is to handle the formatting explanation in a cover letter. If you are submitting online, and they don't have a place for a cover letter, then just make the first page of your resume your cover letter and then follow with your resume below. Recent! BTW, the resume workshop video links are fixed. The video hoster I used went out of business so I had to essay formatting migrate. Cheers, and good luck! – Randy.

@Ismael, @Ryno, @Sneha: Thanks for recent, the heads up! I moved the videos to another hosting site and fantasy projects updated the links. You should be good to biographies go! – Randy. I also have a new blog post on how to add student projects to your resume: blogs.msdn.com/…/how-to-add-a-student-project-to-your-resume.aspx. Cheers! – Randy. Randy, should we include any academic publications (conference papers for example) in the resume?

Yes, if the publications directly relate to the job you are applying to. Publications should absolutely be included in a curriculum vitae (a special kind of sieve analysis lab report resume for professors and researchers), or for recent, any job where publication will be part of the job. Essays! If you are applying for a job in industry where your skills are what they are looking for, I would leave out the publications. – Randy.

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The Braided Essay as Social Justice Action. I was born in Salt Lake City, Utah. The nouns in recent that sentence define nearly all of fantasy projects my writing. I write from recent, a first-person point of sieve analysis view, from biographies, a place that defines and makes that “I”—I am as much Salt and Lake and sieve analysis City as anything. Salt is a place noun but, here, also acts as an adjective, describing the kind of lake. Salty also describes a kind of writing—irreverent, maybe even sailor-like. The lake part is misleading if it suggests to biographies, you potable water and schools of fish. This lake is undrinkable. Until recently, the city part also seemed inaccurate. Homework. Tumbleweeds still roll down State Street—street number one on the grid, a perfect square, each road big enough to turn an ox-cart around.

The city seems more like a map of a city than a city itself. Salt Lake City is an biographies intense kind of place. Primary Health Care Essays. The Mormon Church dominates most of everything—or at least it did while I was growing up. Or seemed to. My parents, having both been raised in the church, then having left Utah so my dad could go to biographies, grad school in New York City, thought Mormonism stifled their hippy ways. Eating Thesis. They would have stayed in New York, but the job market was weak, and my dad, a geological engineer, found a job with his grandfather’s drill-bit diamond company back in Salt Lake. Geology, or at least the results of geological formations, brings a lot of people to biographies, Utah. Sieve Analysis Lab Report. Brigham Young, the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, after trekking up the Rocky Mountains, wended his way down through what is now called Emigration Canyon, saw the vast bowl that was Salt Lake Valley, and declared, “This is the place.” No matter that the recent biographies, big body of water—which would have suggested to any pioneer that this valley was a good place to start a new civilization—turned out to be full of homework salt. The mountain streams would supply the pioneers with enough water to turn this desert into a Midwestern oasis, with less persecution than they had suffered in Illinois and Missouri. The glaciers that cut through the canyons of the Wasatch Mountains; the rivers that flowed between banks of granite cut by those glaciers; the water that irrigated farms and chchchchchhed out of lawn sprinklers; and the river Jordan, which collected all the canyon streams, and their attendant sewage and pollutants, into one and funneled the leftovers into the stagnant Great Salt Lake, were powerful forces. The Mormon Church, Manifest Destiny, and recent biographies 19th-century Revivalist culture proved to be equally powerful at shaping those mountains and sieve analysis those rivers.

The church pushed, tucking rivers underground, turning a brown valley green, pumping water up and down and around the valley until it looked like a kind of Eden—a green Zion. Orchards and gardens, fountains and trees. Recent Biographies. Sometimes, though, the mountains pushed back. In 1983, 700 inches of snow, rather than the usual 300, fell. That spring, rain compounded the melting snow, and those ox-cart wide streets turned to essay, rivers. As much as the Mormons had sculpted those mountains to fit their grid, the mountains took their turn to undo it.

What is creative nonfiction writing but the biographies, shaping and reshaping of self against fact? You take a personal story and give it syntax, grammar, language, punctuation. The simple fact of putting it on tornadoes, paper reshapes it. But now you’ve got to recent, give it context, associate meaning to it. So next to that personal story, you set a paragraph about apples, or condoms, or chickens, or gun violence. Report Projects. Suddenly, your personal story is reshaped by these new facts, and the facts of recent your personal story cut into the hard statistics of your paragraph about imported apples or the failure rate of condoms. The facts are the glacier to the soft canyon of your own history. You see the history newly. You see the facts a little more softly.

The geological forces that shaped Salt Lake City, and the work the church did to essays, shape the geology, played out on recent biographies, the bodies and psyches of Mormon children. Or, at homework tornadoes least, this child. Technically, I was Mormon if only by relation. My grandmothers were both LDS. My parents were both baptized although I never was. I went to church on Sundays only recent biographies, when I slept over at my grandma’s on Saturday nights.

School was mostly fine, except when it wasn’t, or when my friends couldn’t come over to play because my parents drank wine, or when my friends went to after-school church activities like Mutual and I went over to the non-Mormon neighbor’s house where my body got shaped further by the neighborhood boys. At some ages, we’ll do anything to belong. Sieve Lab Report. In my book Quench Your Thirst with Salt , in an essay about a slide that happened after that 700 inches of biographies snow melted and changed the landscape of many parts of Utah, and also about the hernia I developed from carrying my twin sisters around, I braided together scenes of a linguistic of translation land and scenes of body. Symptom: I was showering in recent biographies my mom and binge eating dad’s bathroom when my mom opened the shower curtain to hand me a washcloth and noticed the lump. She asked how long it had been there.

I did not like her looking at my vagina. I told her as much. Recent Biographies. But she kept looking anyway. I told her I was OK and showed her my neat trick. If you pushed on binge, the lump, it went away. I thought she would like that—it was a little like ironing—press it down and the protruding wrinkle goes away. She did not like it. She called the doctor. Symptom: For a while, those floods transformed the recent biographies, riverbeds and the canyon floors, but the most dramatic changes came from sieve, underneath. As the water sopped into the sandy ground far above in the mountains, the underlying valley aquifers began to fill.

The aquifer just above Thistle filled to the brink and recent biographies then it bubbled over disorder thesis like any lid that tries too hard to hold the contents of recent biographies its burgeoning cup. The land that capped the groundwater spectacularly split from the underlying ground and steamed right in to the town of Thistle. Thistle—dry, pokey, brittle. Nothing wet about it. Not usually. Sieve Lab Report. Not until 1983, when the rules changed and the lid was no longer tight enough and the cup no longer big enough and the whole side of the recent biographies, mountain shifted its weight up and over and then down on the town of Thistle. How literally can you take the metaphor between land and the body? My body houses a number of species of homework tornadoes mite and yeast and bacterium and occasionally another human body. A chemical imbalance of any sort can disrupt that number, but even if I manage to recent, kill all the mites off of my eyelashes, if they were to go extinct all over me, six billion other human-planets would continue to sustain the fantasy book report, very same species of mite. Recent. The Earth, though it may have six billion other brothers and sisters in tornadoes the universe, as far as we know, is the only one to house anywhere from one-and-a-half to six million species on recent biographies, it.

See how a body repairs itself. See how a planet does. Reality is not my strong suit, which is rough for a nonfiction writer. Happily, the braided essay lets me pop in sieve lab report and out of different realities—not so much manipulating the facts as pacing them—and digest reality in drops. Forces that shape your childhood parallel forces that shape the natural world. That should be an easy enough metaphor to make. But add toxins to the mix, and you have a ready-made drama on your hands. Recent Biographies. In Salt Lake, drought presses down from the parching August sky. Mercury and nitrates trickle downstream, layering the Great Salt Lake with bird-killing bands of poison.

Oil refineries hidden behind the folds of the mountains spew layers of carbon, which combine with the parching sky to stave the clouds off. In Salt Lake, there used to be rain in August. Combine that dark narrative with a story about a girl who was born in that valley, whose friends weren’t allowed to essay formatting, come to her house because she wasn’t a member of the recent, predominant religion. Add a trickle of paternal alcoholism and a band of essay formatting styles sexual abuse. Press those layers together in recent biographies memory’s time-lapse. Let them sit for a few years. Start writing. Start digging. A problem for homework tornadoes both memoir and recent biographies nature writing is that some authors assume that nature and hardship inherently signify meaning: an homework addiction overcome must be meaningful; a bird, flying, must be meaningful.

I do think, depending on how you write it, that birds and addictions can make meaning, but I think meaning often lies in what F. Scott Fitzgerald called “first-rate intelligence”: the ability to hold two opposing ideas in your mind at the same time. The tension between two unlike things working against recent, each other does, with enough stress and repetition, press out primary essays, meaning. Environmental writing, like any political writing, can be preachy, overly earnest, and super reverential. The authorial habit of invoking birds and trees and turtles, and imagining that just invoking these names conveys significance, can be off-putting to anyone who doesn’t think turtles or birds are inherently significant. As for recent critics of memoir, there’s a whole contingent of people who say, You’re only twenty-seven years old: how can you write a memoir? You haven’t even lived yet.

You’re not famous. Homework. You’re not an addict. Your insights about life and recent biographies living cannot possibly be significant. In fact, it is memoir that offers something unique to environmental writing. By situating the self in the story, the writer personalizes what in a linguistic of translation on applied some nature writing might come off as eulogizing and obvious. When I toggle between myself and biographies the rest of the world, not only do I stop myself from boring myself with what I already know, I also find surprising commonalties with prairie dogs, or gutters, or the way geological formations seem permanent until they’re not, which reminds me that my bad habits or unattractive character traits, like writing about health essays myself, are not necessarily permanent either. The braided essay isn’t a new form. In fact, I think nearly every essay uses a kind of braiding—a New Yorker story about Bill Clinton’s fundraising skills, for recent example, toggles to fantasy book projects, scenes from his Arkansas childhood. But radical braiding is recent biographies, a foundation of creative nonfiction. The first book I read that I consider creative nonfiction was Terry Tempest Williams’s Refuge . Braiding together stories of the Bear Lake Migratory Bird Refuge and her mother’s cancer, Williams develops the primary health essays, idea that environments, personal and recent biographies global, are inextricably related: the way the cancer moves, conversations move; diagnoses, hope, healing, and formatting death proceed as the plover, the seagull, and the long-billed curlew migrate.

Perhaps the braided form is most effective when the political and recent the personal are trying to explain and essay understand each other. The process of pulling together two disparate ideas allows for biographies surprise. In an essay I wrote about geothermal power in Iceland, I asked the question: although geothermal power is a sustainable, green energy, is it infinite? Will the supplies run out? Research revealed that an overtaxed well could, in fact, run dry, and the power produced by that particular natural hot-spring could come to an end. In a parallel story, I got mad at my husband and stormed off, wondering whether or not a church on a hill was Catholic, and angry that he had made me walk there if he didn’t want to know. Neither of us would let the issue go. Primary. I wandered by biographies the ocean long enough to make myself abysmally sad. I stayed gone long enough to homework, get really mad. I came home and fell asleep on the bathroom floor.

When I awoke, I couldn’t find my husband. I found him waiting for me across the street, letting it go, forgiving me. Recent. The essay led me to understand that our relationship might be elastic and strong, possibly infinite in its resources, but perhaps I should be cautious before I tax it. The form of the braided essay embodies the subject of the essay. Primary Health Care. The braided form is one of resistance. The further apart the threads of the braid, the more the essay resists easy substitutions and answers. Recent. I write politically, but I have found that political writing is often shallow and ideological; in political writing I agree with, I often find nothing new, and in sieve lab report political writing I don’t agree with, I find nothing persuasive.

I keep my Facebook friends close as we confirm each other’s beliefs, sarcastically commenting, “But her emails!” on every new political spectacle. We don’t even have to explain. Recent. But the braided form expands the conversation, presses upon the hard lines of ideology, stretches the book projects, choices beyond right or left, one or the other. Metaphor helps challenge the stultified pathways of our neural networks and test the elasticity of thought. Two ideas. Recent. One time. The brain resists new ways of thinking, but resistance is an health care essays important political tool. Resistance is the metaphor that will rule all other metaphors. I tend to write in braided essay form, but in a recent essay about wolves, I took it to a different level. In this essay, I didn’t make so many explicit transitions.

Instead, I used the research itself to catapult the recent biographies, essay’s questioning. I found “62 Interesting Facts about Wolves” using Google and considered how each one was really a fact about humans. If so many of the facts involve human-and-wolf interaction, can we imagine the wolf as a separate existence-worthy species? Or are wolves only a reflection of human fears, violent capacities, love of wilderness, ability to adapt? Should humans save them to save these elements of ourselves, or does wolf existence matter for homework tornadoes reasons beyond its relationship to biographies, the human? If the tornadoes, essay is a chalkboard onto which we scrape our ontological questions, then this essay fits right in. Recent Biographies. Who are wolves? Are humans wolves?

Can facts exist without humans? If the wolf changes, does the very being of wolf change? As climate change and habitat loss force the wolf to breed with the coyote, do we lose not only a species, or even two species, but also a metaphor for how we understand ourselves? How is the wolf and human already a braided idea? If one is being eradicated, is the other? Or is it just the idea of the other that is eradicated? Is braided form a broken form?

Perhaps. If so, perhaps it is the form that best represents a broken self and a broken world. But there is also something reparative about the health care, braided essay. The way one dips into one section of research, looking for that one right word to recent biographies, express the personal brokenness. As you stitch an essay together, you stitch yourself into the world. The world, stitched by you, is sieve lab report, made more whole. I think it’s incumbent upon us to make a case for what we believe.

I also think it’s incumbent upon us to recent biographies, check our beliefs against a prismatic understanding of facts. Humility and lab report curiosity come from the recent biographies, same place. “How does the world work?” and “Who am I?” are two sides of the same coin. The personal story asks the reader to hear you say, Isn’t this what it’s like to primary care, be human? The research-based story says, See how being human is like being everything else in the world? Strange and wondrous. Wild and mutable. The job of the creative nonfiction writer is to say, Here I am world, and here is the world, and out of this oxymoronic writing, we are here to make each other. Nicole Walker is the author of two forthcoming books, Sustainability: A Love Story and Microcosmology. Her previous books include Egg. read more.

Thanks for putting a name to a style of writing that I seem to naturally fall into. I can't wait to read some of your essays. I so enjoy reading essays that explore a sense of place, and the myriad relations that grow from it. I was a writer long before I became a mother, but in recent biographies 1998, with the birth of my daughter, Sophia, my writing self changed with the. read more. Last year, the provost of Southern Methodist University abruptly announced the suspension of operations at SMU Press, a cost-cutting. Primary Health Care Essays. read more. In Creative Nonfiction #64: “Adaptation,” writers search for new normals. From the eroding shores of Georgia’s barrier. In Creative Nonfiction #64: “Adaptation,” writers search for biographies new normals. From the eroding shores of Georgia’s barrier. read more. Picturing the Personal Essay: A Visual Guide. A design professor from Denmark once drew for me a picture of the creative process, which had been the subject of his doctoral dissertation. read more.

This issue is about how to keep uppersonally, politically, scientificallywith our rapidly changing world. In these essays. read more.

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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent biographies recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of a linguistic linguistics, candidates for any given career is recent biographies, far-reaching. To stand out in such an primary care environment, job seekers need to recent focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of homework tornadoes, past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is biographies, how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an binge thesis applicant tracking system (ATS), which is recent, utilized by [the majority] of fantasy book, companies today to obtain the recent biographies, right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to theory of translation Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of recent biographies, those skills.

If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of job duties and how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is greater for styles those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for an extended period of time. For these professionals, the task of biographies, proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to formatting styles a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and recent experiences that the essay styles, candidate brings to the table. Based on the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of biographies, skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to express them. Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and of translation sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others.

The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for recent instance, would need to sieve highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. Recent Biographies! On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for linguistics feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the recent, job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for theory of translation an essay on applied by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects. Recent Biographies! On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to homework tornadoes express them on a resume.

Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to recent biographies think about book projects, what it is you do as a leader and recent biographies how you guide your employees toward success. Primary Health Care! To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the recent biographies, team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and eating implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for jobs in a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for recent new internal-brand ambassadors.

Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement. Even for lab report nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from biographies Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism.

She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for biographies the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to formatting give teachers and students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for the longer essay-style questions are intended to give some idea about how the exam questions might be answered.

The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of what is rewarded in the exam and which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the recent biographies only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of approaching questions of these types. Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and revenues 1Both private and public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. The difference stems from their ownership. Private companies are owned by private shareholders who can choose the buyer of their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the rules of the primary health care stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in recent biographies the company. An excess of sales receipts over the spending of binge disorder thesis a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the formula: profit = revenue – costs. 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by multiplying output by recent the price at which each unit of output is sold. In perfect competition, because it is fantasy book report projects always possible to increase sales revenue by selling more units of recent output, the on applied revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. In other market structures, including monopoly and oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.

Revenue maximisation occurs at the level f output at which marginal revenue is zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at the level of recent output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and when to produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the report projects factors of production, and they bear the business’s financial risks. In small businesses, the recent entrepreneur is often the founder of the firm, building the business by investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the business and report, takes the important decisions about its direction and strategy.

5The management could control information and take decisions without the shareholders being able to influence the decision or even being aware of an issue. 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to whether factors of production are fixed or variable. In the short run, at least one factor of biographies production (usually assumed to be capital) is fixed. Labour is assumed to be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and primary care essays, none is fixed. Biographies! This question is the obverse of question 6. A fixed factor of production is one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and capital. A variable factor of production, normally labour, can be increased in the short run. 8The law of diminishing returns sets in when units of a variable factor of production, such as labour, are added to fixed factors of production. Eventually the extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to sieve analysis lab report be less than the marginal product of the previous worker added to the labour force. (i)The firm increases the biographies scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in output. (ii)The firm increases the scale of production and essay formatting styles, experiences a proportionate increase in output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by the size of recent output. Average total costs are total costs divided by the size of styles output.

A firm’s average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to its average variable costs. 2Technical economies of scale occur when a firm’s production methods benefit significantly from increasing to a larger scale. The productivity increases experienced by a firm in traditional economic theory stem from the larger scale of production allowing for a greater division of labour and improved specialisation. Hence the firm experiences a technical improvement in production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is biographies provided by Henry Ford’s adoption of analysis assembly-line production in his car factories in recent the early years of the 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of essay formatting styles scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. For example, a school may be able to buy 100 computers at ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is because its products are identical to those of its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.

There is no sense in doing this, given that an infinite number of customers are willing to buy the good at the higher price of P1. 14You can understand this question by referring back to the answer to question 3. As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling more. But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of output above Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and recent, selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of diminishing returns and returns to scale are both parts of production theory. (The law of book report diminishing returns is also known as the law of diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into recent, the production process and the output of goods or services that results. The inputs are the analysis lab report services of the factors of production that the firm employs. The basic nature of production is shown in the diagram below. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to scale occur in the long run. The law of diminishing returns has the recent biographies status of an of translation an essay, economic ‘law’, because in the short run at least one of the factors of production (usually assumed to be capital) is held fixed. This means that the only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by adding more variable factors, e. Recent! g. labour, to care essays fixed capital. Eventually, as labour is biographies added to fantasy fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the already existing labour force and the additional output attributable to the marginal worker begins to fall.

This is when the biographies law of diminishing returns has set in. Returns to scale by contrast occur in the long run when all the factors of thesis production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to recent biographies scale and constant returns to scale. ) To understand the primary health care essays relationship between the biographies law of primary care diminishing returns and short-run cost curves, consider the recent diagram on binge eating thesis, the next page. The upper panel of the diagram shows the marginal and average returns (or productivity) of labour. Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the biographies marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by tornadoes the curve’s negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to recent rise. This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.

And as soon as MC rises through the binge eating disorder thesis average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the recent biographies average total cost (ATC) curve), the two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the AVC and the ATC curves are U-shaped. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the tornadoes nature of returns to recent biographies scale. When a firm changes the scale of all the factors of production in the economic long run, it is usual to assume that to start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to scale set in. Given this assumption, the firm’s long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in the diagram below. However, other assumptions about the primary care essays impact of returns to scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an essay question is ‘issue based’. The mark scheme sets out all the issues deemed to recent be relevant to projects the question and indicates the maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the recent biographies total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an homework tornadoes, essay question). When an recent biographies, answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of homework tornadoes 15. This is the recent biographies case with this answer. All four parts of the question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. The maximum mark of 15 is awarded.

02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in many industries, e. . mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to scale as the size or scale of the firm increases. As the final diagram in the answer to question 01 indicates, increasing returns to primary health scale translate into economies of scale when measured in terms of long-run average costs of production. Economies of scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of recent biographies production fall.

This means that large firms, particularly in manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of book report scale. Many types of plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is biographies a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only a small level of output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to produce the smaller level of output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of care essays capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is doubled in recent dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.

Since heat loss depends on the area of the container’s walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and not upon volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and warehousing, as well as in metal and chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for the conservation of essay heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the one in diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of scale (and economies of large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of operation means that profits will be larger for large firms than for small firms. However, the opposite recent, will be true if diseconomies of scale set in sieve analysis lab report early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of small-scale production (as depicted in diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to be the situation in biographies personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. Primary Care! A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from recent, unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and general consumer exploitation.

The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to homework finance innovation and the benefits of dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an easy life, content with a degree of recent biographies X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of tornadoes production). In conclusion, the answer to the question depends on the assumptions made about whether economies of scale are possible, the motives of firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of consumers. It is useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in order to reduce average costs and increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is almost by accident. Providing it ‘behaves itself’ when large size gives it monopoly power, the firm, consumers and recent, the public interest all benefit.

By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to exploit consumers. Clearly such firms are not ‘best’. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is ‘level of skill based’. Having read the whole answer, the examiner places the answer in one of five levels. These are: • Level 1 — very weak Level 2 — weak with some understanding • Level 3 — reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation • Level 4 — good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and reasonable evaluation • Level 5 — good analysis and good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at the top of level 4 in theory an essay linguistics the AQA mark scheme. The levels descriptors in biographies the mark scheme are used for the second parts of all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at A2).

The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and essay formatting styles, issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and recent, terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the a linguistic of translation an essay on applied answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |17–21 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and biographies, logical chain of |appreciation of styles alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning |points of view | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an biographies, | |or |Good throughout much of the |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and |use of data to support |logic and coherence |points of sieve analysis lab report view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is recent some awareness of | | | | | |the interrelatedness of | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Although analysis of economies and homework, diseconomies of scale is excellent, the analysis on recent biographies, monopoly is too thin, based on assertion rather than rigorous development and application of a linguistic theory an essay linguistics economic theory. Hence the answer is placed at the top of level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for recent biographies human beings to possess perfect information about what is happening in a market. With the possible exceptions of currency and share markets, it is unrealistic to assume that all goods and services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in trade magazines and on the internet to get a picture of the price of cars depending on sieve lab report, age, mileage, condition and biographies, availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always increases total profit. The extra unit adds more to revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is homework tornadoes less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an recent biographies, extra unit of output always reduces total profit. Homework! The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to revenue. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.

Normal profit is the level of recent biographies profit made by a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in the market. As a profit level, it is not high enough to attract new firms into the industry to eating thesis compete with existing firms, or low enough to force firms out of the market. Biographies! Supernormal profit is excess profit over and above normal profit. If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to enter the market and compete for primary care essays customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. 5When the price of a good is greater than the marginal cost of production, the result is allocative inefficiency because the price charged by firms will be greater than the cost of making the last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Hence not enough of the good is demanded and society’s scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.

For any given employment of resources and any initial distribution of income and biographies, wealth among the lab report population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is achieved when P = MC in all markets. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and gain customers by biographies offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at a low price they hope to create an analysis lab report, incentive for the consumer to buy the recent product. Quality competition is when a firm seeks to sell a product to consumers on binge thesis, the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to rival products. In this case the firm’s product may be more expensive than rival goods but the recent firm’s business strategy aims to attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in national and international markets. This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the tornadoes assumption that there are a large number of buyers and sellers.

Internet search engines and comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and this has helped to increase competition, although human decision making is still bounded by limited time and constraints on the level of biographies detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is a market that meets all the six conditions that define the market structure. Homework Tornadoes! These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and recent biographies, sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to binge buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and sellers unable to influence the ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and (vi) an recent, absence of barriers to binge disorder thesis entry into and exit from the recent market in the long run, i. e. complete freedom of entry and exit. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from entering a market. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for its product. The demand curve facing the firm is located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is determined through the interaction of market demand and market supply in the market as a whole, which is illustrated in panel (b) of the diagram. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the firm is a passive price-taker.

Condition (iii) of the conditions of perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at the market’s ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at the market’s ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and formatting styles, sell? Providing we assume that each firm’s business objective is solely to maximise profit, the answer is shown in recent biographies panel (a) of the next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the diagram above adds the perfectly competitive firm’s average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. Point A in panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the profit-maximising level of output Q1. At this level of output, total sales revenue is primary health care shown by the area OQ1AP1. Recent! Total cost is shown by the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the report total cost rectangle from the recent total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Book Report! Referring back again to the list of the conditions of perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in the short run, firms make supernormal profit.

In this situation, the recent biographies ruling market price signals to firms outside the market that an incentive exists for new firms to homework tornadoes enter the biographies market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the market, causing the supply curve to lab report shift to the right to S2 in panel (b) of the diagram. This causes the recent biographies price line to fall to P2, which lies below each firm’s ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the incentive for new firms to enter the market, subnormal profit provides the incentive for marginal firms to leave the market. In panel (b) the formatting market supply curve shifts to the left and recent, the market price rises. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. For the market as a whole, this is thesis shown at output Q/// and price P3.

This answer is recent biographies similar to the answer written for the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of issues to earn all the available 15 marks. Sieve Analysis Lab Report! The candidate starts the answer with a list of the conditions of perfect competition. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the recent conditions as prompts for developing the analysis required of book report projects a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to one firm within the market, and to the use of relevant and recent, accurate diagrams to illustrate the analysis. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. 02In economics the word ‘efficiency’ has several meanings. Theory Of Translation An Essay On Applied Linguistics! For example: Technical efficiency.

A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the available inputs or factors of production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. Recent Biographies! To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the techniques and factors of production that are available, at lowest possible cost per unit of output. In the short run, the lowest point on the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the theory of translation an essay most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of operation. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on recent, and not above its average cost curve. Analysis Lab Report! Allocative efficiency.

This occurs when it is impossible to improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an initial ‘fairness’ in the distribution of income and wealth among the population). For resource allocation in the whole economy to be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in each and every market in the economy. Recent! Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of static efficiency, i. Disorder Thesis! e. efficiency measured at biographies a particular point in time. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and productive efficiency that occur over of translation on applied linguistics time. Recent Biographies! Improvements in essay formatting dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of producing existing products (including firms’ ability to benefit to a greater extent from biographies, economies of scale), and projects, also from developing and marketing completely new products.

The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in the long run, but only under the assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at the lowest point on the ATC curve, and it is allocatively efficient because P = MC. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is simple. If the firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of recent unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and binge eating disorder thesis, make normal profits, a firm has to recent eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is efficient provided there are no economies of scale.

Consider now a situation, shown in the final diagram below, in which the market is too small to allow a large number of analysis firms each to achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from economies of scale to the full, and hence to be productively efficient in the long run as well as in the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to recent biographies the right than this. Sieve! The problem is that the market is too small to allow both full economies of scale and recent biographies, the large number of firms required for perfect competition to be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of a very large number of binge disorder thesis firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is recent indeed productively efficient in the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the level of output that is productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to primary health the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of recent productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to produce the allocatively efficient level of output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by book report a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the recent marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. Homework Tornadoes! e. P = MSC and not P = MPC.

This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an allocatively efficient level of recent output. Nor will the whole market. This is clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and homework tornadoes, terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |22–25 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and recent, logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on efficiency criteria and not on homework tornadoes, welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of marks are available for definitions, this list is really too long. Note that the concept of X-efficiency is not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the concept. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. Recent Biographies! The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of market share is controlled by tornadoes four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.

Halifax Bank of recent biographies Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. 3British Gas and Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is fantasy book report only room in the market for one firm benefiting to recent biographies the full from economies of scale. In the past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Because of the report nature of recent biographies their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. The industries produce a service that is delivered through a distribution network or grid of pipes and cables into millions of separate businesses and essay, homes. Competition in biographies the provision of distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the theory of translation on applied duplication of fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.

Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the market and competing for profits with the recent biographies monopoly. Barriers to entry will often take the form of high sunk costs, i. e. billions of pounds of binge eating disorder capital investment which enable the firm to operate at the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by the government. For many decades, but no longer today, the Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in the delivery of recent mail.

Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. Sieve Analysis! 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in a market to keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to exert monopoly power through collusion and make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. Biographies! This allows poorly managed and inefficient firms to continue to styles make profits and deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. Under UK, EU and recent biographies, US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by imprisonment of company directors. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.

If a cartel can protect firms from the pressures of competition and allow firms to invest in research and development to eating disorder invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to invest in expensive scientific research and drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in higher prices for recent biographies consumers and they allow members of the cartel to operate inefficiently. In the case of the cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for cement, which pushed up the costs of production for essay styles the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayers’ money to purchase cement for investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Private sector companies also had to pass on recent biographies, higher prices to businesses and households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced households’ ability to spend on other goods and services. Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.

7In the original ‘prisoner’s dilemma’, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in isolation from of translation on applied linguistics, each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from recent, one will convict the other, but he also knows that the formatting styles available evidence is insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to biographies go free. Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the prosecutor visits each prisoner in his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for one year; and (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward — if he gives evidence to convict the other prisoner — whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.

Each prisoner faces the dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and styles, shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Recent! Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the formatting second best outcome: one year in jail. However, the best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and recent biographies, possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisoner’s dilemma scenario can be used to model the behaviour of competitive duopolists, for example those in the arms industry. A British and a French company are competing to secure an arms deal to sell a billion pounds’ worth of weapons to primary care essays Iraq. By paying bribes of recent $100 million to government ministers in Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the French company, the of translation an essay on applied only other likely supplier of the arms. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is likely to be shared between the two suppliers. The British company’s profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and recent, gets all the book projects business. The chief executive officer of the British company thinks it a pity to recent biographies pay out $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. In the absence of collusion, there are two strategies available to each firm: (a)Pay the bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.

Outcome: (i)for the essay firm paying the bribe: a net income of $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. To avoid losing all the business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to pay the recent biographies bribe. Binge Eating Disorder! In this scenario, paying the bribe is each firm’s dominant strategy, i. e. the strategy to recent be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and primary essays, vice versa. 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from entering the market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of recent biographies market power. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in order to maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the entry of new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the thesis price of its product to a loss-making level in order to force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by recent biographies large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from fantasy book, another part of their business empire to force smaller rivals out of the market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in order to maximise profits.

This arises when different customers have different elasticities of demand at recent different prices. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an elastic demand, the firm will be able to sell them the same product but at different prices. Train companies will typically price discriminate by charging different fares to different customers and also varying the essay styles price of a ticket at different times of the day to send price signals and create incentives and recent, disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customers’ ability and willingness to pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only willing to homework tornadoes pay a lower price. Recent! Price discrimination allows firms to increase profit by fantasy book taking consumer surplus away from recent, consumers and binge disorder thesis, converting it into extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the recent increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is greater than the extra costs incurred when charging different prices to different customers, it is in firms’ interest to indulge in theory of translation an essay this form of pricing.

10The gamer’s consumer surplus is ? 0, being the difference between the maximum price he was prepared to pay and the actual price he paid. The store owner’s producer surplus is ? 2, being the difference between the lowest price he was prepared to accept and the actual price paid. Recent! 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and sieve analysis lab report, patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the legal protection given to an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for up to 20 years. Recent Biographies! This legal protection allows firms to make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.

Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and new product design frequently require high levels of research and development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the new product fails. Hence the incentive of making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Care! Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of 80%, whereas the domestic market share of Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of just over 50% between the domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the data is that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in more than one country. SAS’s market share in Norway is about 43% while its market share in Sweden is about 37%. The first part of the context data response question in ECON 3 and in ECON4 will usually be in two parts. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). The second part asks for recent biographies identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is only one data series in Extract A, one other significant feature of the data.

Some future exam papers may revert to asking for two significant points of comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for identifying a significant feature in a linguistic theory of translation an essay linguistics the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for recent biographies the question. 02The term ‘monopoly power’ does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to a situation in which firms within the market possess the power to reduce output, raise the price, and make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in theory an essay on applied the French market, it may be a monopoly for flights between particular airports. In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.

As the diagram below shows, on routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to P2, compared to recent biographies a competitive market price of formatting P1. It does this by restricting the number of biographies flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of fantasy report flights if the market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the level of output, with Air France then able to charge a price of P2. Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to customers who are prepared to recent pay more for a flight. Alternatively, and presumably requiring the support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is sieve a price set deliberately low to discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.

A predatory price is set even lower, below average costs, with the biographies intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the market, out health, of the biographies market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of landing and eating disorder, take-off slots at French airports, to recent biographies make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to use the airports. As with the first part of context data response question, in ECON 3 and in ECON4 the second part of the question divides into two parts. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to explain the meaning of an theory of translation an essay, economic term (in this case ‘monopoly power’). Recent Biographies! The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the book more demanding skill of economic analysis. An answer is constrained to a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is attempted. Biographies! This answer is more than sufficient to earn all 10 marks. In fact, the sieve analysis lab report candidate is in danger of spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to develop an recent, answer to the last part of the question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by firms, usually to fix prices. Sometimes output may also be fixed.

In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to keep firm E, which is the least efficient firm, in the market. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the inefficient and enabling firms to enjoy an essays, easy life protected from recent biographies, competition, cartels display the theory of translation on applied linguistics disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and restriction of choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of biographies scale and improvements in dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for tornadoes all firms concerned, they are not likely to be good for the consumer.

For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against biographies the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of of translation an essay on applied cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in recent the public interest. These include joint product development and cooperation to improve health and safety within the industry, or to ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of industry collaboration are normally deemed to be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is regarded as bad. [pic] Currently, within the formatting styles European Union, cartels are usually deemed to recent biographies be illegal, both by national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in the UK, and by EU competition policy. In both national and homework, EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and practices to a court of law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is recent biographies more effective than other aspects of competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. Nevertheless, the punishments that the RPC can hand out are quite weak — usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.

Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at cartels, is based on homework tornadoes, the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is biographies activated only when firms operating within the EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the essays UK and recent, not competing with firms from other EU countries, would not attract the care essays attention of the EU Competition Commissioner, who is in recent biographies charge of EU competition policy. In practice, EU and national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the projects case that the biographies EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is evidenced by the case study in Extract C in the question. The case study reported that the EU fined 11 national airlines about ˆ800 million for fixing the binge eating thesis price of air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined ˆ104 million, Air France-KLM ˆ340 million and Cargolux Airlines ˆ79.

9 million. The case study also draws attention to the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by a dissatisfied member of the cartel ‘blowing the recent biographies whistle’ on theory of translation an essay on applied linguistics, other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in recent biographies other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the other cartel members are heavily punished. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word ‘solely’ in the question. Essay Formatting Styles! National and EU policy should reinforce each other and be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is placed at the top of level 4 (17–21 marks) rather than in level 5. The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. However, the analysis is on the thin side. To ensure a level 5 mark, the candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an recent biographies, essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to each other. Care! This is good evaluation.

Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and services, firms respond by employing more labour to biographies increase production. Workers are demanded, not for fantasy the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is necessary for recent biographies profits to be made when the goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is both similar to, and different from, perfect competition in the goods market. In both markets, the ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the interaction of all the economic agents operating in the market. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the ruling market wage, paid by firms and received by workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in the two sets of markets. Households, which are the source of demand in the goods market, are the source of supply of labour in sieve lab report the labour market. Similarly, firms, which are the source of supply in the goods market, are the source of demand (a derived demand) in the labour market.

As a result of role reversal, the biographies ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for labour, and also the AR and sieve analysis lab report, MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the ruling market wage facing each employer in the labour market is a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and also the recent average cost of labour (ACL) curve and the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the train drivers’ union, and with RMT, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workers’ unions. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at a rate of ? 3. 60 an hour for formatting styles workers aged 22 and over. Recent Biographies! The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the main rate for workers aged 21 and over; ? 4. 98, the 18–20 rate; ? 3. 68, the 16–17 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the sieve apprentice rate, for apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of recent biographies their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an economic flow; it is the payments received by an individual or household in tornadoes a given time period. Wealth is an economic stock; it is the accumulated assets, property and savings owned by an individual or household over time. Biographies! ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to an individual or household by homework the government via the taxation and social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is payments received by an individual or household in recent exchange for labour or interest on saving or the rent of an asset. Fantasy Book Report Projects! Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is recent a flow while wealth is a stock.

Personal wealth is the stock, or historical accumulation, of essay styles everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the flow of money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of which (the part saved) can add to or enlarge personal wealth. This is one of the links between income and wealth. A second link operates in the opposite recent biographies, direction: the wealthier people are, the fantasy book report more investment income they are likely to earn, which adds to their total income. Indeed, the rich benefit from a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the recent wealthy to save, and analysis lab report, saving adds to wealth, and so on. By contrast, many of the poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the recent biographies poor have to borrow, borrowing adds to personal debt, income is then spent on debt repayment, consumption falls, and any wealth the essay poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and wealth have always been unequally distributed in the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the poor. Three of the main causes of inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth in the UK are old age, unemployment, and recent biographies, the low wages of many of those in work.

Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on the state pension and lack a private pension. Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in line with average earnings. This meant that pensioners, albeit from a lower base, shared in the increase in report national prosperity delivered by economic growth and higher real earnings. However, since the recent early 1980s, the of translation linguistics state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in line with the consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the recent state pension at formatting styles or near its early-1980s level, while the recent real earnings of health care essays those in recent biographies work have continued to rise. Pensioners reliant solely on the state for a source of income have especially suffered.

The state pension is now regarded very much as a ‘poverty income’. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of living of the elderly rises by more than any increase in fantasy the CPI. Recent Biographies! Unemployment benefits are also now linked to the CPI and, for similar reasons as apply to the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in the incomes of the unemployed generally fell below increases in the incomes of those in work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and a half million. This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of pensioners on low incomes). (Before moving on of translation on applied linguistics, to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Since 2009, the recent wages and salaries of much of the UK population in work have hardly changed at all, but the state pension and unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from a lower starting point. At the same time, because of a series of crises in private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of widening income differentials, an important factor has been the disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in the private sector. An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Many of these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in the British labour market.

There is now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the pile, and highly-paid jobs in industries such as investment banking where the rate of pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in both real and nominal terms. This answer scores 14 out of the report projects 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in the answer to the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of income inequality. Recent! The effects of an essay linguistics old age and unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of low wages is biographies sound but a little thin.

It would have benefited from graphical analysis, showing for example that the widening difference between high and low wages is partially caused by different demand and supply conditions in different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is a linguistic of translation an essay on applied linguistics progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in tax. A transfer is the payment of income by the state to a benefit recipient, without the person involved providing any labour in exchange for the income received. It is of course possible for the government to use progressive taxation to biographies narrow the gap between pre-tax and post-tax income, without redistributing income. The tax revenue could for example be spent on tanks and guns. It is also possible for the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for example through subsidies given to already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on high incomes to spend on binge disorder, improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and transfers, the implicit assumption is that the rich are taxed more than the poor and that much of the tax revenue is transferred and given as welfare benefits to the poor. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and recent biographies, transfers provide an obvious way to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth. Before 1979, UK governments of all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of transfers of income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt — with some success — to reduce inequalities in primary health essays the distribution of income. Biographies! However, there is a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and transfers are used with this aim in mind.

The reason for this relates to the conflict between two of the principles or canons of taxation: equity and efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and possibly conflicting interpretations of what is homework tornadoes fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayer’s ability to pay. This principle is recent one of the justifications of progressive taxation, since the rich have a greater ability to pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the health care essays high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an adverse effect on personal incentives. In particular, they may reduce the incentives to work harder, to be entrepreneurial and to recent biographies take financial risks.

Free-market and supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to a significant slowing down of the economy’s rate of growth. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Sieve Analysis! Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the UK’s growth rate. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and transfers to the poor mean that people have less incentive to work harder and to engage in entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the biographies ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at primary health care which they are available creates a situation in which the poor rationally choose unemployment and state benefits in preference to low wages and work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively ‘married to the state’, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and other public property, as well as privately owned property.

Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of progressive taxation, are a disincentive to recent the better-off. They stop working, or work abroad, and many hours are wasted in designing and applying complicated systems of tax avoidance — a paradise for accountants. Tax evasion (the failure to pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at book report the top and bottom of the income pyramid. Biographies! Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and benefit cuts, which are the opposite of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the lab report labour/leisure choice in favour of supplying labour, particularly for benefit claimants who lack the biographies skills necessary for high-paid jobs. They also believe that to make everyone eventually better-off, the a linguistic theory linguistics poor must first be made worse off. Increased inequality is recent necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Through a ‘trickle down’ effect, the poor would end up better off in absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.

Needless to say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and of translation an essay linguistics, transfers should not solely be used to narrow income differentials. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of intervention in the free market are necessary. One of these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in order to improve the social wage of lower-income groups. The social wage is that part of biographies a worker’s standard of living received as goods and services provided at zero price or as ‘income in homework kind’ by the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to high taxation, with the disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to other aspects of government failure. It is important to read the question carefully.

This question does not ask for recent a discussion of whether the distribution of income should be made more equal. Unfortunately, the answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is still valid to homework tornadoes argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and has been placed at mid-level 4. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on the actual set question and more discussion and analysis of biographies policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for theory of translation an essay on applied definitions in answers to the final parts of essay and context data-response questions. Recent! Nevertheless, it is still a good idea to define key concepts at the beginning of the answer as this acts as a good launching pad for a linguistic of translation developing the subsequent analysis and recent, evaluation. Formatting Styles! Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and non-rejectable. These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good — see answer to recent biographies question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. A merit good is provided by the market mechanism and it has the health characteristics of a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. A merit good, however, is biographies often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by the free market.

There are two reasons for sieve lab report this. First, consumers do not value the recent positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into pure public goods and tornadoes, non-pure public goods. National defence and police are examples of pure public goods — defined as public goods for which it is impossible to exclude ‘free-riders’. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and radio programmes and also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Methods can be devised for converting the goods into recent, private goods by homework tornadoes excluding ‘free-riders’ (for example, electronic pricing of road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.

For public goods, the optimal level of consumption occurs when they are available free of charge. 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of consumption exceeds the short-term private benefit of consumption. However, when deciding how much to consume, individuals take account of short-term costs and benefits, but ignore or undervalue the recent long-term private cost and benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Analysis Lab Report! Many people ignore the long-term benefit of dental check-ups, and decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to consume the service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in biographies life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: ‘If only I had visited the dentist more often when I was younger’. Likewise, school children who undervalue the long-term private benefit of education say later in life: ‘If only I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. ’ 4Property rights in a market-based economy stem from the notion that an individual owns land or a good and binge disorder thesis, can exclude other members of society from entering the land or using the recent good, unless they are willing to pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the essay formatting styles notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the market in which it operates. This can take the form of excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in the extreme, bribery.

This results in the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to recent biographies fairly regulate its conduct in a linguistic of translation on applied the marketplace; hence the term ‘regulatory capture’. 6A cartel is generally illegal because it is an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in dynamic efficiency. As a result of the principle of subsidiarity, UK and recent, EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is involved in relation to monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the an essay on applied issue is strictly national, relating only to the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to the UK competition authorities. See also the answer to Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 15–16 of these answers. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in recent biographies many countries, including the UK, were close to collapse. Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in the USA. Banks faced the danger of possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in analysis lab report the value of their assets, stemming from the credit crunch and recent, the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.

Banks make money by lending out much greater sums than they receive as deposits from customers. Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and primary health, can be paid back on demand, the bank is almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of biographies it collapsing. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to a fear of a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in which the collapse of one bank leads to a string of essay collapses in other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on confidence in the economy, which may in turn lead to a collapse in aggregate demand and the creation of recessionary conditions.

Government ministers also realise the crucial role of banks in providing liquidity to both households and firms. Biographies! When the banking system froze in 2007–08, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the cash supply to perfectly well-run firms dried up and primary health care, some of them went out of business. All this helps to explain why the British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to enable these banks to continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of loans both to recent business customers and to of translation linguistics mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. At the time of effective nationalisation, the UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the Northern Rock bank — the so-called ‘good bank’ but not the ‘bad bank’ element which is still state-owned — has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of recent biographies Virgin Money. 8As the lab report answer to recent biographies question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to the general public in three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and 1993.

An example of deregulation was a change in the law to homework tornadoes allow building societies to compete with banks when granting loans to recent biographies customers. 9In terms of report income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the same income. Biographies! Equity relates to whether the distribution of income between different people is fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since people’s incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on people’s value judgements as to what is fair or just. Thesis! 0In the poverty trap, also known as the earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is closely related to recent the poverty trap, since both affect the poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in the unemployment trap are out of work — at eating disorder thesis least in terms of biographies officially declared employment.

The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who ‘choose’ unemployment because they are better off out of work, living on benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and NICs and losing some or all of their right to claim means-tested benefits. 1Fuel poverty is defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of their income on homework tornadoes, fuel. In July 2011, the UK government reported that more than a fifth of all households in the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 2009. Higher fuel bills meant the recent biographies number of homes affected rose by one million, or 22%, to 5. Theory Of Translation An Essay! 5 million, according to the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of recent climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of carbon pollutants in 1990. This is forecast to rise to 5. 1 billion tonnes in fantasy book report projects 2050, an increase of recent biographies 4. Tornadoes! 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of 467%. One significant feature of the data is that, after 2010, the carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to continue to recent rise, whereas the rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is expected to formatting slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to biographies rise from about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. Fantasy Book Projects! 7 billion tonnes.

OECD emissions are expected to rise from recent, about 3. 5 billion tonnes to about 3. 7 billion tonnes over primary health care essays the same period. Although this is an excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is recent worth reminding you of circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of homework tornadoes question. First, candidates often fail to read the data carefully and end up quoting numbers that are too far different from those in the Extract. Second, even when the numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and a % sign for the % change in the first part of the answer). Biographies! Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is vital to select a significant feature of the a linguistic theory of translation an essay linguistics data rather than an insignificant feature. Biographies! 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of non-excludability and non-rivalry. Non-excludability means that if the good is provided to one person it is provided to all.

It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. e. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Formatting Styles! Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the good, it does not reduce the quantity of the good available for other people. Recent Biographies! The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and lead to global warming are both externalities and a form of public ‘bad’. (A public ‘bad’ is the opposite of a public good. People are generally prepared to binge eating disorder thesis pay for the removal of recent a ‘bad’, to avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of sieve analysis lab report public ‘bads’, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dumping the ‘bad’ in recent biographies a public place, or on someone else’s property. Sieve! Because of this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in the course of recent production and consumption, for example by power stations and book projects, motorists. The unwilling victims of global warming cannot opt out of being adversely affected by the pollutants and they cannot charge a price which the polluter must pay for the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and recent biographies, regulation can in principle reduce that rate at which global warming is taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the binge disorder thesis emission of global-warming gases is different from the emission of many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. In the biographies first place, the a linguistic theory of translation on applied linguistics emission is international.

No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from continuing to emit gases. In the second place, the problem is historical. The atmosphere is continuing to biographies warm up as a result of emissions which have occurred in the past, indeed since the beginning of the homework tornadoes industrial revolution about recent biographies two centuries ago. It may be impossible to stop continuing global warming simply by ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in a linguistic of translation on applied the atmosphere will continue to recent contribute to global warming. And with the rapid growth of the world’s population, it is probably impossible to keep emissions at their current level, let alone to reduce or to stop them.

This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks — 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the meaning of a public good and 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the sieve issue posed by the question. Biographies! It is important to remember that only the final parts of report projects context data-response questions and biographies, essay questions test the skill of fantasy evaluation. Evaluation is not required in the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Do not be misled by the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. This is not the case. 03Extract C lists a number of benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change. Recent! The first of fantasy report projects these is flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for example the destruction of biographies property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and homework, the loss of human life.

The second is a decrease in recent heating bills. Eating Thesis! If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the benefits are likely to be offset by the increased use of recent energy to provide the power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in of translation summer. The extract goes on to mention that ‘with fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the need to find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressing’. Recent Biographies! It is sieve possible to take issue with this prediction, on recent biographies, the ground that it is now out of binge eating disorder date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Vast quantities of biographies shale gas lie beneath the earth’s crust and the technology now exists to extract and use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the diminishing conventional supplies of formatting natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and it will be used for biographies home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for the provision of electricity. But is this a benefit or a cost?

It is sieve lab report certainly a benefit in recent biographies that it will enable economic growth to continue and standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in the past, with all the possible adverse effects on tornadoes, economies and on recent, human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by 5°C may spell disaster for human-kind and life as we know it on planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in which climate change may have an binge eating, impact on biographies, the UK economy. These include the homework decline of recent ski resorts in Scotland, the a linguistic theory of translation on applied growth of biographies hotel resorts in health care essays the south of the UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of production, and on how water is used and biographies, stored. However, in my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by book sensible government policy, can adapt. In conclusion, at the risk of being extremely pessimistic, I wish to return to recent biographies the argument made in the previous paragraph.

Again in my view, the costs which the analysis lab report UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to be far greater, at least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to make the UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in the world. Water shortages, if not occurring in the UK, may lead to attempted mass migration of people from recent biographies, poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over water and other resources and fight against inward migration of lab report people trying to escape growing poverty and seeking a better life for themselves. The UK is likely to suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of climate change. This answer scores 16 out of biographies 25 marks and primary care, is placed at the top of level 3 (10–16 marks). Although the candidate evaluates throughout the answer, and also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is recent weakened because evaluation is primary care essays not preceded by biographies strong enough analysis.

The analysis should have focused on diagrams showing the negative and positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the prompts sufficiently. The answer veers on the side of being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the top of level 3 and could possibly creep into the bottom of level 4. The grade descriptor for tornadoes level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and biographies, terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |10–16 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and sieve, is |some attempt to consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of data to |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |