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BioGraph: unsupervised biomedical knowledge discovery via automated hypothesis generation. Hot To. We present BioGraph, a data integration and data mining platform for the exploration and discovery of biomedical information. The platform offers prioritizations of a model of christian putative disease genes, supported by functional hypotheses. We show that BioGraph can retrospectively confirm recently discovered disease genes and identify potential susceptibility genes, outperforming existing technologies, without requiring prior domain knowledge. Additionally, BioGraph allows for generic biomedical applications beyond gene discovery.

BioGraph is accessible at . area under the ROC curve. Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Hot To Resume. Gene Ontology Annotations. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Online Mendelian Inheritance in resume, Man. receiver operator characteristic. unified medical language system. Electronic supplementary material. Resume. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-r57 ) contains supplementary material, which is an essay unrest available to authorized users.

High-throughput methods for large scale and genome-wide identification of disease-related genes often result in large sets of potential targets requiring expensive and arduous experimental validation [ 1 ]. For the high-throughput discovery of hot to resume genes associated with disease (further referred to as 'disease genes'), it is necessary to identify functionally interesting research targets among large sets of candidates. The latter often requires a thorough understanding of possibly indirect functional relations between the research subject and its putative targets. However, one of the most common problems facing biomedical researchers today is an essay unrest finding or keeping up with the knowledge relevant to research interests in the shear amount of available literature and resume, data. Especially when required information is functionally only fantasy book report projects, indirectly connected to a researcher's main field of resume interest, the data deluge becomes unmanageable. Based on the availability of of christian essays large volumes of curated biomedical databases, various methods for gene prioritization have emerged in recent years [ 2 ]. These computational technologies rank putative disease genes with the goal of identifying true disease genes as prominent genes in the ranking. Computational technologies are complementary to conventional 'wet lab' gene discovery technologies in that they can support the prioritization and comprehension of, for example, associated regions from resume, genome wide association studies or linkage studies, allowing researchers to more efficiently select the most compelling variants for further study. A common prioritization approach is the identification of potential causative genes that complement sets of known genes associated with disease, utilizing genetic interaction networks, regulatory networks or high-throughput datasets [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. The statistical fusion of prioritizations from multiple, heterogeneous resources allows for ranking by incorporating diverse types of knowledge [ 6 , 7 ]. Creative Planning Cover. Alternatively, literature mining is a related research theme that employs natural language processing to extract biomedical information from the hot to literature and to adopt this information for the discovery of new knowledge [ 8 ]. Texas. Prioritization platforms commonly lack an easily accessible user interface for the formulation of queries and the intelligible interpretation of the results. Resume. One common problem is that most of the essay peer review worksheet data mining platforms are supervised, that is, they require prior domain knowledge from the user. For example, in hot to, disease gene prioritization techniques, it is cover letter commonly required to define a set of known disease genes on which the system can be trained for the identification of hot to new genes. Since these training gene sets are subjective, they will consequently vary between users and outcomes are strongly dependent on descriptive peer review them, and the robustness of the predictions becomes impaired.

These platforms offer rankings of possible susceptibility genes, but often lack comprehensible support for these prioritizations. Often, rankings of research targets are offered without references to the literature, inhibiting the hot to user from evaluating the rationale behind the predictions. Still, platforms that offer rationale and incentives for services dallas researching functional support are mostly limited to a specific domain of interactions. A common paradigm, for example, is to adopt protein or gene interaction networks for the construction of functional hypotheses, which excludes alternative functional explanations in support of the predictions. Here, we propose BioGraph, a user-friendly computational platform that strives to overcome such deficiencies by applying novel data mining techniques on integrated databases of diverse types of biomedical knowledge. Schematic representation of the data integration and data mining methodology . (a) Public databases with heterogeneous biomedical relations are integrated into hot to resume a common network. Book Projects. (b) Illustratively, genes (green circles), diseases (red boxes) and protein domains (blue diamonds) are related through gene-disease associations, gene-gene interactions and gene-domain annotations and integrated into a unified graph. (c) The a priori accessibility of each concept is computed by performing stochastic random walks to resume detect highly connected hubs in annotated bibliography essay, the network (area of a node scales with its rank score). Hot To. (d) The a posteriori rank of each concept with respect to a source concept, in this case disease A, is computed by of christian essays, performing random walks with restarts in the source. Hot To. (e) The posterior probabilities are adjusted using the prior probabilities to score the importance of each concept, specific to the source target (area of node scales with log of rank score). Genes (green circles) are ranked according to this score, gene 1 being most specific to an essay unrest disease A and gene 8 least specific. Hot To Resume. Integration of heterogeneous knowledge sources. Number of relations.

Gene Ontology term. Gene/gene family/protein domain/repeat/region. Gene Ontology term. OMIM Morbid Map [ 11 ] Overview of the 21 publicly available curated databases used to create BioGraph's heterogeneous knowledge base. Specific concept types were extracted from the various databases and integrated into a central graph. Note that these represent relations selected for Homo sapiens only. OMIM's disease-disease relations have been added after the data freeze of March 2010. CTD, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database; DIP, Database of Interacting Proteins; GOA, Gene Ontology Annotations; HPRD, Human Protein Reference Database; KEGG, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; MeSH, Medical Subject Headings; MINT, Molecular Interactions Database; OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in annotated bibliography, Man; PPI, protein-protein interaction.

The integrated databases were selected based on their quality of relations with respect to curation methods and hot to resume, peer-reviewed references to the literature. Curated database producers employ domain experts to writing dallas read and extract proven knowledge from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Such processes of resume indexing, albeit time-consuming, ensure that the essay peer worksheet collected knowledge is accurate and complete, allowing for the successive establishment of new relations, for hot to example, with BioGraph or related prioritization algorithms. We did not integrate databases constructed from high-throughput experiments with statistical or computational inferences where no manual curation of the descriptive essay peer worksheet indexed relations was performed. Such databases may include information of lower quality and hot to, consequently impair the predictive quality of consecutive data mining. We provide an assessment of each database's quality in report, the Results section. The integrated databases in hot to, BioGraph consist of of christian charity three types. (1) Curated databases (for example, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and various protein-protein interaction databases) constructed by manual extraction of published, peer-reviewed information about a specific type of information, guaranteeing the quality of the relations in these databases. (2) Curated ontology databases (for example, Gene Ontology (GO) and hot to resume, Medical Subject Headings) using hierarchical classifications of bibliography essay subjects. (3) Curated annotation databases (for example, GO Annotations (GOA) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database) that relate biomedical entities or concepts to ontology terms. Hot To Resume. With regard to the integration of diverse databases with diverse identifiers for the concepts, each concept is provided with a distinct accession number, based on on student the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) [ 9 ], to guarantee each concept's uniqueness. It should be noted that some of the integrated concepts (especially microRNAs and resume, pathways) are underrepresented in UMLS.

In these cases, we have extended the index of UMLS identifiers by these concepts' originating identifiers (for example, by adopting miRBase and KEGG pathway accession numbers). Relations between concepts are extracted from the knowledge resources, represented in a common format, annotated with semantic relation types (denoting the meaning of the relations, for example, 'protein interaction' or 'disease drug') and references to supporting literature, as provided by the integrated databases. All relations in the network are equally weighed independent of of christian their support in the databases or the literature. We have experimented with weighing relations differently, dependent on the quality of the resource database, semantic type or references in the literature, but have not noticed a significant effect of resume such weights on test benchmarks, as discussed later. To sanitize the resulting network for the subsequent data mining algorithms, disconnected concepts from the annotated essay largest connected network are removed and dangling concepts (that is, concepts connected to only one other concept) are pruned. As a result, the integrated network comprises 54,567 biomedical entities representing unique biomedical concepts and 425,353 unique relations among these entities, supported by hot to resume, 244,258 references to 52,866 items from the biomedical literature.

The integrated network is frequently updated with updates of its dependent resources and services, the list of integrated databases may be appended with additional resources. Provided with the resume integrated network, one can intuitively conjecture that nearby concepts in the integrated network are related. Indeed, since functionally related concepts are connected in the graph, we may assume that concepts that are close but only indirectly related in the network may also be functionally related in the real world. However, empirical analysis of the network shows that most of the concepts in the network are interconnected in only a few steps. Of Christian. This indicates that the network shows so-called small-world properties. Indeed, there is hot to resume a considerable abundance of highly connected nodes. For example, interactions of proteins with water and charity essays, ATP compounds or functional annotations such as the location of a protein in membranes or protein binding are prevalent. These unspecific hubs serve as ubiquitous connections mediating short path lengths between functionally unrelated concepts. This characteristic of the network prevents successful prioritization using simple shortest path methods. Hot To Resume. Still, our prioritization technique relies on the detection of nearby concepts in the network with respect to a source concept, but we correct the ranking of concepts for their global accessibility in the network.

We provide a short technical summary of the methods here, but refer the interested user to creative the full implementation details in the Additional materials and methods in hot to, Additional file 1 . Bibliography Essay. We utilize stochastic random walks (trajectories on the network that consist of taking successive steps from one entity to a random related entity) on the knowledge network to hot to measure the a priori importance or accessibility of concepts in a graph. This technique determines the global centrality of concepts in our integrated network. For this purpose, we compute the limit distribution that yields the probability of visiting the concepts when performing an infinite random walk on the integrated network. Google's PageRank algorithm [ 10 ] adopts a similar link analysis algorithm to rank web pages by their relative importance. Book Report. Network hubs (top ranked concepts with a high prior probability) are generic and unspecific target concepts in the network (Additional Table 1 in Additional file 1 ). These hubs indicate important concepts for diverse biomedical processes, but should be avoided when trying to find relevant and non-obvious links between seemingly unrelated concepts. For computing the vicinity of targets to resume a source concept in write on student, similarity to the prior probabilities, we compute the limit distribution of a stochastic model of random walks with restarts in resume, the source concept (with probability 0.25 at essay, each step). As such, we compute the a posteriori accessibility of resume each concept from the source concept, measuring the probability of visiting each target concept from the source disease, pathway, and so on.

Concepts are scored by their posterior probability, divided by the square root of their respective prior probabilities and ranked with respect to this resulting score. In practice, for a gene prioritization query, a user of the web application provides a 'research subject' (for example, a disease, but also a pathway, a GO annotation or a gene may represent a research subject) and a list of 'research targets' (for example, putative genes or compounds) that need to be ranked in relation to fantasy report projects the research subject. Our algorithm then assesses and ranks the relations between the source concept and each of the target concepts as above. Since any type of concept can be provided as the subject or target of a prioritization, our method does not require prior domain knowledge from the user, that is, there is no need to define a gene set of resume known disease-causing genes for the identification of related genes, which results in dallas texas, a more reproducible and robust user experience. Automated generation of functional hypotheses. Schematic representation of the backtracking heuristic to find most probable paths from a source concept s to a target t . (a) Assume a network with source and target concepts. For clarity, the nodes are ordered by resume, their accessibility from s (leftmost nodes are most accessible, rightmost nodes least accessible). (b) As a first step in the backtracking process, we find the neighbors of the target t , leading in the direction of the source, that is, the neighbors of t with highest accessibility with respect to s . Resume Writing Services Texas. (c) The paths from the target are repeatedly expanded to include highly accessible nodes leading toward the source concept. Pruning of least probable paths keeps the growing set of paths to a workable size (not shown). (d) Most probable paths that arrive in the source (continuous lines) are considered as functional hypotheses linking the target to the source concept. Unfinished paths (dashed paths) continue being expanded until k paths between s and t have been found. The resulting set of paths is presented to the user as a network with putative hypotheses linking the source to the target.

Each directed edge represents a supporting relation among intermediate concepts, with annotated semantic meanings and literature references intelligibly supporting the relation for evaluation by the user. Hot To Resume. In cases where the target is highly ranked, specific and relevant connections and concepts are included in the constructed hypotheses. Dallas. If the functional hypotheses linking concepts is limited to visiting general hub concepts, this is usually a sign that the linked source and hot to resume, target concepts can be considered unrelated, reflected by a bad ranking score. A Model Of Christian Essays. In order to assess the quality of BioGraph in hot to, prioritizing interesting research targets, we study its application in the identification of genes known to be associated with disease. Charity. Test sets of proven disease-related genes were selected from the OMIM Morbid Map database and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). OMIM Morbid Map contains several thousand diseases and disease genes with a proven underlying molecular basis, manually selected and indexed from the peer-reviewed medical literature by experts [ 11 ]. Similar to the curation process for OMIM Morbid Map, the CTD employs professional biocurators who read and manually curate the hot to resume literature to derive proven relations among genotypes and phenotypes, ensuring that the writing texas indexed data are valid and accurate. We have adopted the hot to resume BioGraph framework to prioritize all human genes in the context of diseases selected from these databases and evaluate the positions of the diseases' proven susceptibility genes in this ranking. We then compute sensitivity and specificity values and observe the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) as the standard performance measure for write an essay on student analyzing the quality of prioritizations or classifications [ 12 ]. A perfect ranking algorithm that manages to put the true disease genes at the top would score 100% on such a test, where random rankings score 50%. Provided with a reliable and valid AUC measure, it can be interpreted as the probability that when we randomly pick one positive and hot to resume, one negative example, the prioritization algorithm will assign a higher rank to the positive example than to the negative. An algorithm that scores well on an essay unrest this assessment is thus likely to identify disease-associated genes as high-ranking genes and vice versa. Disease-gene prioritization benchmark.

As a first application, we analyzed the performance of our platform in prioritizing known disease genes among all genes in our integrated knowledge base. For testing a known disease-gene association, we first removed the hot to link between the disease and its susceptibility gene from the knowledge base. We then ranked all genes in the network in resume dallas texas, relation to the disease and hot to resume, evaluated the ranking of the services test gene. If the test genes ranked high, BioGraph allows retrieval of these genes as valid disease genes based on integrated information linking the disease to hot to resume its susceptibility gene. Write. For this test, we adopted published benchmarks and compared our prediction performance to that of Endeavour. Endeavour is a related and mature technology for gene prioritization [ 6 ], which adopts a data fusion method to build statistical models of known disease-causing genes with respect to various data sets. Using order statistics, genes are prioritized by hot to resume, measuring the resume writing texas matching quality of test genes to these training profiles. We have computed the performance of BioGraph's prioritization method for the disease-gene prioritization benchmark initially published to resume evaluate the performance of Endeavour. This benchmark consists of 627 genes known to cause 29 diseases, selected from the OMIM database, of which 609 disease genes are present in our integrated knowledge base [ 6 ]. Benchmarking a disease gene with BioGraph requires that each disease gene is evaluated by first removing the direct relations between the bibliography gene and hot to resume, the disease from the integrated network to ensure that the relation to book report be prioritized is not already in the network. Moreover, variants of the disease (for example, subtypes or syndromes that have the hot to disease as one of fantasy book report projects its symptoms) are also disconnected from the disease gene.

In order to identify these related diseases, we have selected the diseases for which at least one of resume its UMLS synonyms has the original disease's name as its substring. For example, we identify Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4C as a related disease to Charcot-Marie-Tooth or Alport's disease as related to Deafness, since a synonym of Alport's disease is Nephritis with nerve deafness. This method provides an objective interpretation of the benchmark by guaranteeing that no prior direct information can be exploited by our prioritization algorithm. Subsequently, for creative event cover letter the prioritization of hot to resume a disease gene, we perform a ranking of the integrated network's 16,912 known human genes with respect to the disease concept. For benchmarking Endeavour, each disease-gene relation was tested by removing the gene from the disease's known gene set, by training Endeavour on the remaining disease genes and by ranking the gene among a set of 99 random test genes. For both platforms, we adopt the AUC for analyzing the quality of these prioritizations. Top inferred genes for bibliography essay schizophrenia. SZ association studies. Affected by the antipsychotics aripiprazole and hot to, risperidone, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, associated with autistic disorder. No association studies.

Associated with autistic disorder [ 16 ] Target of mir-20b. No association studies. Related to HTR2A. Target of mir-29*, related to COMT , folic acid. Target of mir-29*, related to writing texas COMT , folic acid. No association studies. Target of mir-206. No association studies.

No association found [ 23 ] Target of mir-20b, involved in CNS development. No association studies. Hot To Resume. Target of mir-346. No association studies. Interacts with DISC1 , target of mir-206. No association studies. Book Projects. Myelin sheet, interacts with RTN4R , axonogenesis. Weak positive association [ 22 ]. Putatively associated with mental retardation [ 38 ] Target of mir-29*, Alzheimer's disease. No association studies. Hot To Resume. Schizophrenia-like phenotypes in BACE1 -null mice [ 39 ] Target of mir-20b. Creative Event Planning. No association studies.

Target of mir-206, axonal and hot to resume, synaptic transmission. No association studies. Down-regulated in psychosis [ 40 ] Interacts with ZNF804A and AKT1. No association studies. Associated with epilepsy [ 41 ] Interacts with RTN4R , neurite growth. No association studies. Essay Peer Worksheet. Interacts with AKT1 , target of mir-20b. No association studies. Interacts with RTN4R , axonogenesis, CNS development.

No association studies. Associated with essential tremor and hot to, Parkinson's disease [ 42 ] BioGraph top inferred genes for schizophrenia that are not known as direct relations in the integrated network. Prioritizations are based on a data freeze of September 2009 to retrospectively verify predictions in more recent literature. CNS, central nervous system. The benchmark indicates that our prioritization approach yields a considerable improvement over resume writing texas, mature technologies. There are two noteworthy differences in the experimental benchmarking design. Hot To. Our platform does not require a training set of known disease-causing genes since it will implicitly base prioritizations on integrated disease-gene associations in addition to other heterogeneous types of fantasy book report projects integrated knowledge of the hot to resume disease. This has a major advantage for the user since no prior knowledge of the disease is fantasy report projects required. Secondly, our platform provides a ranking of the disease gene in relation to all known genes, where Endeavour ranks disease genes among a random set of hot to 99 non-disease genes. As a quality control of the integrated databases, we have assessed the effect of fantasy book each database on the benchmarking results by leaving out one database at a time and by assessing the prioritization algorithm on the Endeavour benchmark. This experiment showed that none of the included databases significantly harms the overall prediction capabilities.

Conversely, it should be noted that some databases (most specifically CTD gene-disease, GOA and Medical Subject Headings) are essential for successful prioritization, since leaving out these databases has a significantly negative impact on hot to the benchmarks. More information on these quality checks is available in the Additional materials and methods in Additional file 1 . Ranking recently discovered disease genes. A Model Essays. In the above benchmark tests, well-known disease genes are expected to rank high. Indeed, important susceptibility genes usually become the subject of intensive research efforts. Consequently, a literature and hot to resume, database bias may exist toward indirect evidence linking a gene to a disease in the integrated databases. Resume Writing Services Dallas. Since BioGraph is hot to resume capable of using this indirect evidence, the literature bias of important disease genes may strengthen the dallas texas predictive power of our algorithm. To remove this bias, we can more objectively evaluate the platform by ranking recently discovered disease-gene relations that are not present in the knowledge base. Provided with the integrated network for which the resource datasets were frozen in March 2010, we identified all recently curated additions of resume human disease-gene relations from the July 2010 releases of the fantasy report projects OMIM Morbid Map (15 new disease genes) and CTD (830 direct, non-inferred relations) that are not present as direct relations in the knowledge base from hot to resume, March 2010. This yielded 845 recent disease-gene relations for which the a model of christian essays ranks in the disease's genome-wide prioritization have been determined based on the integrated network of resume March 2010. ROC curve of prioritization performance on 845 recent disease-gene relations . The performance of BioGraph prioritizations is 86.14%, confirming the relations recently added to the resource databases but not present in report, the integrated database. The diagonal dashed line represents a theoretical random algorithm.

The above benchmarks demonstrate that BioGraph is capable of retrospectively finding or confirming existing disease genes, indicating that we can adopt the method to predict putative susceptibility genes for heritable diseases. Feasible applications of the framework are the hot to resume identification of functionally interesting genes from sets of candidate genes - for bibliography essay example, in the identification of promising genes in linked regions, copy number variation regions or for resume the identification of genes through genome-wide association or expression studies. Additionally, the automated construction of event hypotheses is of interest to explore genetic/genomic findings in peer-reviewed functional support. Collecting functional support for newly discovered disease-gene associations is not always obvious, especially when the functional evidence is indirect and spans several fields of interest. With the hot to advent of high-throughput methodologies and review, torrents of published material to substantiate these findings, detecting relevant information has become a laborious process where computational techniques, such as those presented here, allow for these processes to be automated. Resume. Beyond applications in genetics and genomics, the framework can similarly be adopted to prioritize or to determine functional support for biomedical relations other than disease-gene associations - for example, in linking drug compounds, annotation terms, pathways, and so on - making the framework a very versatile tool in the discovery of a model of christian charity essays diverse types of biomedical knowledge. Resume. In one feasible application, BioGraph can be adopted to projects determine functional interactions between drug compounds and for hot to resume the in silico exploration of drug-drug interactions or the essay review prioritization of identifying compounds in screening pipelines. Another example application is the resume computational inference of clinical biomarkers related to write on student pathways, biochemical functions or disease processes, building on the various integrated types of resume concepts, relations and creative planning letter, integrated literature references to resume detect promising candidates. Genome-wide prioritization of genes related to of christian essays schizophrenia.

To illustrate possible applications of the framework, we have employed the platform to predict candidate genes for schizophrenia (SZ) and substantiate the top predictions with support adopting the automatically generated functional hypotheses. SZ is a common neuropsychiatric genetic disorder with approximately 1% prevalence and with 64% heritability. It is characterized by a constellation of symptoms, including hallucinations and delusions, and symptoms such as severely inappropriate emotional responses, disordered thinking and concentration, erratic behavior, as well as social and occupational deterioration [ 13 , 14 ]. The newly identified genes are indirectly inferred from the integrated knowledge, but not directly associated in hot to resume, our gene-disease resource databases. The predictions in of christian charity essays, this section are based on a dataset freeze of the integrated databases from September 2009. This data freeze allows us to test if the predicted genes have been observed in genetic studies since the data freeze. Table 2 shows the top 20 inferred BioGraph genes with respect to the SZ concept, as designated by hot to, its UMLS accession ID [UMLS:C0036341], and a short summary of the hypotheses of their relatedness with SZ by a model, our platform. PRL , the top inferred gene that is not a known disease-causing gene for SZ, encodes the prolactin hormone, of which the most commonly known function is to stimulate lactogenesis. Prolactin's relation to resume SZ is important, especially due to the effects of dopamine-regulating drugs aripiprazole and letter, risperidone on the expression of prolactin and their adverse hyperprolactinemia-associated side effects [ 15 ] where the secretion of prolactin is regulated by resume, dopamine, following the current dopamine hypothesis of SZ. An Essay On Student. We did not find published association studies of prolactin with SZ, although an association with autistic spectrum disorder was reported [ 16 ]. Additionally, PRL is located on chromosome 6p22.3, which is linked to SZ through DTNBP1 [ 17 ] and ATXN1 [ 18 ]. Hot To. Although no causal associations have been shown between prolactin function and SZ, BioGraph hypothesizes PRL as a likely candidate gene for SZ. Schematic representation of the top ten automatically generated hypotheses supporting the susceptibility of PRL in relation to schizophrenia . Solid, dashed and dotted line styles represent the importance of the link in descending order, that is, the resume writing dallas texas probability to visit the relation to reach the target gene concepts while performing random walks from the source schizophrenia concept.

All links are grounded in their originating integrated curated knowledge bases, annotated with their semantic meanings and resume, enriched by their references to the literature (not shown). Annotated Bibliography Essay. Schematic representation of the hot to resume top ten automatically generated hypotheses supporting the writing services texas susceptibility of HTR1A in relation to hot to schizophrenia . Significant associations with SZ and polymorphisms in 4 of the top 20 ranked genes, namely HTR1A [ 19 ], DRD2 [ 20 ], DNMT3B [ 21 ] and ATXN1 [ 18 ], have previously been shown. These known disease-gene relations are not indexed by our integrated databases, but were successfully prioritized by our data mining platform. Most notably, significant association of polymorphisms in DNMT3B with SZ was only reported in October 2009, where the data for our predictions are based on integrated databases from creative planning, September 2009, demonstrating the usefulness of the currently proposed prioritization technique. Additionally, the hot to resume highly ranking OMG gene has been shown to descriptive review be associated with SZ, warranting replication studies for confirmation [ 22 ]. SYN3 is the only gene in the top 20 for which several association studies have been performed, but where the findings show no support for SYN3 as a SZ susceptibility gene [ 23 ]. For the remaining 15 of the top 20 genes, we did not find published association studies to support or contradict possible roles of resume these genes in SZ, although for an essay some genes associations with SZ-like symptoms or related psychiatric and various neurological disorders have been shown, supporting the putative role of these genes in SZ (Table 2 ). We have constructed BioGraph, an integrated network of hot to resume curated relations from heterogeneous knowledge sources, such as disease-gene-compound associations, protein-protein interactions, GO and pathway annotations, microRNA targets, protein domains, and so on. In order to guarantee the accurateness of the integrated knowledge, the integrated databases were selected based on their curation processes for the indexing of knowledge from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. We show that the automated generation of descriptive review worksheet functional hypotheses in this integrated network of biomedical knowledge allows the successful prioritization and identification of research targets in the context of a research subject. Hot To Resume. More specifically, we can successfully identify proven disease genes for hereditary diseases as highly ranking genes among all human genes in of christian essays, the context of their disease and vice versa. We have shown that ensembles of highly probable walks through this network can be adopted to successfully rank putative relations among non-obvious and indirectly associated concepts, with a focus on adopting these automatically generated hypotheses for the prioritization of possible susceptibility genes of hot to diseases. The prioritization and automated hypothesis generation platform is available as a web service [ 24 ]. BioGraph offers a range of significant improvements over leading prioritization platforms for in silico identification of disease-related genes.

Most notably, and in contrast with other methods, our approach is unsupervised and does not require prior domain knowledge from the user. This removes possible user biases and a model of christian charity essays, problems with prediction robustness in common supervised machine learning approaches that require, for example, training sets of known disease causing genes to define the subject of an analysis. Furthermore, highly ranked targets are grounded in comprehensible functional hypotheses, consisting of refereed relation paths in support of the prioritization. Hot To Resume. Since our method is descriptive based on the integration of heterogeneous knowledge sources, the generated hypotheses offer richer semantics about inferred biomedical relations compared to related data mining efforts in, for example, gene and protein interaction networks. Tests on published benchmarks (AUC 92.92%) show that our prioritization method outperforms leading technologies and resume, notable differences in the rankings are supported by comprehensible hypotheses that confidently support the prioritization.

In experimental cases where an accountable gene needs to be identified in a set of 100 genes, BioGraph prioritizes the review gene among the hot to resume top 10 genes in annotated bibliography, 73.73% of the hot to cases. We showed that BioGraph is able to resume services dallas retrospectively confirm recent disease-gene associations to the integrated databases (AUC 86.14%). Hot To Resume. Additionally, relations that have been confirmed in recent publications were successfully predicted. For example, BioGraph ranked DNMT3B as a top ranking SZ susceptibility gene using integrated data frozen in September 2009 while this association was published in October 2009. Additionally, of the top 20 prioritized inferred genes for schizophrenia, 4 disease genes were not indexed by the integrated resources but are confirmed as true associations by the literature. Finally, we would like to note that, although the focus of the applications of BioGraph in this paper is in the ranking of disease-gene relations, the presented methodology is generic and applicable in various biological research settings requiring the a model of christian construction of intelligent and intelligible hypotheses among interrogated concepts. One may use the platform, for example, to identify diseases related to a pathway of hot to resume interest, or to a model enrich a priori defined gene sets to determine related ontology terms, compounds or protein domains. This work was supported by the GOA project 'BioGraph: Text mining on heterogeneous databases: An application to optimized discovery of disease relevant genetic variants' of the University of Antwerp, Belgium.

We wish to hot to thank Leonardo de Almeida Souza and Mojca Strazisar for creative event planning cover providing fruitful discussion of the hot to resume manuscript draft. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. WD, PDR, JDF and BG conceived the project. AL, JDK and PDR created the BioGraph resource, data miner and hypothesis generator, designed and carried out the performance tests and built the web service. All authors have read and approved the manuscript for publication. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative event planning letter Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the hot to resume original work is properly cited. Anthony ML Liekens 1 Email author Jeroen De Knijf 2 Walter Daelemans 3 Bart Goethals 2 Peter De Rijk 1 Jurgen Del-Favero 1 1. Applied Molecular Genomics group, VIB Department of Molecular Genetics Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1 Wilrijk Belgium 2. Advanced Database Research and Modelling group, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Universiteit Antwerpen Antwerpen Belgium 3. Annotated Essay. Computational Linguistics and Psycholinguistics Research Center Universiteit Antwerpen Antwerpen Belgium. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Resume. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.

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I even sat for an interview with Bill O'Reilly right before the Super Bowl. That was a change of pace. I don't often get a chance to be in event planning cover letter, a room with an ego that's bigger than mine.'' —President Obama at the 2011 Gridiron Dinner. ''I know Republicans are still sorting out what happened in 2012, but one thing they all agree on is they need to do a better job reaching out to minorities. And look, call me self-centered, but I can think of one minority they could start with. Hello? Think of me as a trial run, you know? See how it goes.'' —President Obama at the 2013 White House Correspondents' Dinner. Continue Reading Below.

''I wasn't sure I should actually come tonight. Biden talked me into it. He leaned over to me and said, 'Mr. Hot To Resume! President, this is no ordinary dinner, this is a big BLEEP-ing meal.''' —President Barack Obama, referring to Biden's 'big f**king deal' remark caught on mic during the health care reform signing ceremony, 2010 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''In my first term, we passed health care reform.

In my second term, I guess I'll pass it again.'' —President Obama at the 2012 White House Correspondents' Dinner. Continue Reading Below. ''Despite many obstacles, much has changed during my time in office. Four years ago, I was locked in writing services, a brutal primary battle with Hillary Clinton. Resume! Four years later, she won't stop drunk-texting me from Cartagena.'' —President Obama at the 2012 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Now I'm sure that you've noticed that there's somebody very special in event cover, my life who is missing tonight, somebody who has always got my back, stands with me no matter what and gives me hope no matter how dark things seem. So tonight, I want to publicly thank my rock, my foundation -- thank you, Nate Silver.'' —President Barack Obama, on the famed statistician and blogger who correctly predicted the 2012 and 2008 presidential election results (2013 Gridiron Dinner) ''The White House Correspondents' Dinner is known as the resume prom of Washington D.C. Projects! -- a term coined by political reporters who clearly never had the chance to go to hot to, an actual prom.'' —President Obama at the 2012 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''It's great to be here this evening in the vast, magnificent Hilton ballroom -- or what Mitt Romney would call a little fixer-upper.'' —President Obama at the 2012 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Many of you know that I got my name, Barack, from write an essay on student unrest my father.

What you may not know is Barack is actually Swahili for 'That One.' And I got my middle name from somebody who obviously didn't think I'd ever run for president.'' —Barack Obama, at hot to resume the 2008 Al Smith Dinner. ''The History Channel is not here. I guess they were embarrassed about the whole Obama-is-a-devil thing. Descriptive Essay Peer Worksheet! Of course, that never kept Fox News from showing up. They actually thought the comparison was not fair -- to Satan.'' —President Obama at the 2013 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''I think it is fair to resume, say that when it comes to my presidency, the honeymoon is over. For example, some people now suggest that I'm too professorial. Book Report Projects! And I'd like to address that head-on, by assigning all of hot to resume, you some reading that will help you draw your own conclusions. Others say that I'm arrogant.

But I've found a really great self-help tool for this: my poll numbers.'' —President Obama at the 2011 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Dick Cheney was supposed to be here, but he is very busy working on his memoirs, tentatively titled, 'How to Shoot Friends and Interrogate People.''' —President Barack Obama, at the 2009 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''The fact is I really do respect the press. I recognize that the a model of christian charity press and I have different jobs to do. My job is to resume, be President; your job is to keep me humble. Frankly, I think I'm doing my job better.'' —President Obama at fantasy book the 2013 White House Correspondents' Dinner.

''Recently, [Romney's] campaign criticized me for slow-jamming the hot to resume news with Jimmy Fallon. In fact, I understand Governor Romney was so incensed he asked his staff if he could get some equal time on 'The Merv Griffin Show.''' —President Obama at a model of christian charity essays the 2012 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Now, I know that he's taken some flak lately but no one is prouder to put this birth certificate matter to resume, rest than The Donald. And that's because he can finally get back to focusing on the issues that matter, like, did we fake the moon landing? What really happened in Roswell? And where are Biggie and Tupac?'' —President Obama, ribbing Donald Trump at the 2011 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Our chaperone for the evening is Jimmy Kimmel . Creative Planning Cover Letter! Jimmy got his start years ago on hot to resume, The Man Show. In Washington, that's what we call a congressional hearing on event, contraception.'' —President Obama at the 2012 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Another difficult challenge is how to help our automakers thrive in the 21st century.

We've tried a number of different approaches, and tonight, I'm announcing a new one. Hot To! It's a plan passed on to me by fantasy projects, a close friend and advisor, Oprah Winfrey. Hot To Resume! So if each of you will look under your seat, you find that -- you get a car company! You get a car company! And FOX -- you get AIG. Enjoy!'' — President Barack Obama, at the 2009 Radio TV Correspondents' Dinner. ''One senator who has reached across the aisle recently is Marco Rubio, but I don't know about bibliography essay 2016. I mean, the guy has not even finished a single term in the Senate and he thinks he's ready to hot to resume, be President.

Kids these days.'' —President Obama at the 2013 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Limbaugh can play with himself.'' —President Barack Obama's response when asked if he would play a round of golf with Rush Limbaugh, relayed by a top Democrat to Zev Chafets, author of the creative event planning book 'Rush Limbaugh: An Army of resume, One' ''Some folks still don't think I spend enough time with Congress. 'Why don't you get a drink with Mitch McConnell?' they ask. Book Projects! Really? Why don't you get a drink with Mitch McConnell?'' —President Obama at hot to resume the 2013 White House Correspondents' Dinner. That, Marco Rubio, is write unrest, how you take a sip of water. —President Obama, after pausing to drink water in a jab at Florida Sen. Marco Rubio, who was widely mocked when he desperately gulped water during his State of the hot to Union response (2013 Gridiron Dinner) ''While I know I have my share of critics out there, I don't focus on the negative stuff. I just don't pay much attention to it. Most days I barely skim through the resume writing dallas comment section of Huffington Post — Daily Kos — Fire Dog Lake — The Daily Dish —'' —President Obama at the 2011 Gridiron Dinner.

John McCain couldn't make it. He said he had never identified himself as a maverick. Hot To! We all know what happens in of christian essays, Arizona when you don't have ID. Hot To! Adios, amigos. —President Barack Obama, at the 2010 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Look, when I was a kid, I inhaled frequently. That was the point.'' ''After a very public mix-up last week, my communications team has provided me with an easy way to descriptive essay peer review, distinguish between 'Star Trek' and hot to resume 'Star Wars.' Spock is what Maureen Dowd calls me. Report Projects! Darth Vader is what John Boehner calls me.'' —President Obama on getting 'Star Wars' and 'Star Trek' mixed up when he referred to doing a ''Jedi Mind Meld'' with Republicans (2013 Gridiron Dinner) ''I've made a few jokes over the years about John Boehner's unusual coloring. I used to think that it was a tan. But after seeing how often he tears up, I've come to hot to resume, realize: that's not a tan, that's rust.'' —President Obama at of christian charity the 2011 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''I must confess I really did not want to be here tonight.

But I knew I had to come. That's one more problem that I inherited from George W. Bush.'' —President Barack Obama, at the 2009 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''And where is the National Public Radio table? You guys are still here? That's good. I couldn't remember where we landed on that. Now, I know you were a little tense when the hot to resume GOP tried to cut your funding, but personally I was looking forward to annotated bibliography essay, new programming like 'No Things Considered' or 'Wait, Wait. Hot To! Don't Fund Me.''' —President Obama at the 2011 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Some of book, my former advisers have switched over to resume, the dark side. For example, David Axelrod now works for MSNBC, which is a nice change of pace since MSNBC used to work for David Axelrod.'' —President Obama at the 2013 White House Correspondents' Dinner. On Chief of annotated essay, Staff Rahm Emanuel and Mother's Day: ''This is hot to, a tough holiday for Rahm.

He's not used to saying the services dallas word 'day' after 'mother.''' —President Barack Obama, at the 2009 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Three words: Vice President Oprah.'' —the #1 item from Barack Obama's Top Ten Campaign Promises, which he presented on the Letterman show. ''The Jonas Brothers are here, they're out hot to resume, there somewhere. Sasha annd Malia are huge fans, but boys, don't get any ideas. Two words for you: predator drones. You will never see it coming. Projects! You think I'm joking?'' —President Barack Obama, at the 2010 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Who is Barack Obama? Contrary to resume, the rumors you have heard, I was not born in a manger. I was actually born on Krypton and sent here by my father Jor-El to write an essay, save the Planet Earth.'' —Barack Obama, at the 2008 Al Smith Dinner.

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But as I was going through my daily routine — sitting alone in resume, my study, meditating, thinking about bibliography essay how to win the resume future — I pondered this critique, and annotated bibliography essay calmly rejected it as thoroughly illogical. And for all those who think I golf too much, let me be clear. Hot To Resume! I'm not spending time on the golf course — I'm investing time on descriptive review, the golf course.'' —President Obama at the 2011 Gridiron Dinner. On House Minority Leader John Boehner and his fake tan: ''We have a lot in common: He is hot to resume, a person of color. Although not a color that appears in the natural world.'' —President Barack Obama, at the 2009 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''There a few things in life harder to find and more important to keep than love. Well, love and a birth certificate.'' —President Barack Obama, at the 2010 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Ultimately though, tonight's not about the an essay on student unrest disagreements Governor Romney and I may have. It's what we have in hot to, common, beginning with our unusual names. Of Christian! Actually Mitt is hot to resume, his middle name.

I wish I could use my middle name.'' —President Obama at the 2012 Al Smith Dinner. ''Even Sarah Palin is essays, getting back into the game, guest hosting on The Today Show -- which reminds me of an old saying: What's the hot to difference between a hockey mom and a pit bull? A pit bull is a model of christian charity essays, delicious.'' —President Obama at the 2012 White House Correspondents' Dinner. On the news media: ''Most of you covered me. Hot To! All of you voted for me. Apologies to the Fox table.'' —President Barack Obama, at the 2009 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''I'm also hard at charity essays work on plans for hot to the Obama Library. And some have suggested that we put it in my birthplace, but I'd rather keep it in the United States. Did anybody not see that joke coming?

Show of hands. Only Gallup? Maybe Dick Morris?'' —President Obama at the 2013 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Look, it's no secret that my Vice President is still ambitious. But let's face it, his age is an issue. Review Worksheet! Just the other day, I had to resume, take Joe aside and say, 'Joe, you are way too young to resume services texas, be the pope.''' —President Barack Obama at hot to the 2013 Gridiron Dinner. ''It's been quite a year since I've spoken here last. Charity! Lots of ups, lots of hot to resume, downs, except for my approval ratings, which have just gone down. But that's politics, it doesn't bother me.

Besides, I happen to know that my approval ratings are still very high in the country of my birth.'' —President Barack Obama, at the 2010 White House Correspondents' Dinner. 'But the truth is when you really get to resume, know Rahm, he does have a softer side, Amy will attest to resume, this; very few people know, I think, know prior to this evening that he studied Ballet for a few years. In fact, he was the first to creative planning cover letter, adopt Machiavelli's the prince for dance. It was an intriguing piece, as you can imagine, there were a lot of kicks below the waist.'' —Barack Obama, roasting his future chief of resume, staff Rahm Emaneul in 2005. ''Everyone please take your seats, or else Clint Eastwood will yell at of christian charity them.'' —President Obama at the 2012 Al Smith Dinner. They say I'm popular on hot to, Twitter and Facebook. Resume Writing Texas! Or as Sarah Palin says, the 'socialized media.''' —President Barack Obama, at the 2010 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''The media landscape is changing so rapidly. You can't keep up with it. I mean, I remember when BuzzFeed was just something I did in college around 2:00 a.m.'' —President Obama at resume the 2013 White House Correspondents' Dinner. On a new spirit of bipartisanship: ''We're seeing people with strong disagreements get along as never before.

You have the former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney, current Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney — working together every day, sharing a host body. It's inspiring. Projects! Or creepy. Depending on how you look at it.'' —President Obama at the 2011 Gridiron Dinner. ''I know that some folks think we responded to hot to, Bob Woodward too aggressively. Cover Letter! But hey, can anybody tell me when an administration has ever regretted picking a fight with Bob Woodward? What's the worst that could happen?'' —President Obama at hot to resume the 2013 Gridiron Dinner. ''Monday's [presidential] debate is a little bit different because the topic is foreign policy. Descriptive Essay Review Worksheet! Spoiler Alert: We got Bin Laden.'' —President Obama at the 2012 Al Smith Dinner. ''Now that's my phone buzzing there. I don't want you to hot to, think I'm getting fresh or anything.'' —Barack Obama, posing for a picture with supporters in Indiana, when he apparently felt his phone start to creative cover, vibrate in his pocket, against which one woman was closely pressed.

''I'm taking my charm offensive on the road -- a Texas barbeque with Ted Cruz, a Kentucky bluegrass concert with Rand Paul, and a book-burning with Michele Bachmann.'' —President Obama at resume the 2013 White House Correspondents' Dinner. On his Teleprompter: ''In the an essay on student unrest next hundred days, I will learn to resume, go off prompter -- and a model Joe Biden will learn to stay on it.'' —President Barack Obama, at the 2009 White House Correspondents' Dinner. ''Good evening, everybody, I would like to welcome you to the 10-day anniversary of my First 100 Days. During the resume second 100 days, we will design, build and essay open a library dedicated to resume, my first 100 days. Descriptive Essay Peer! My next 100 days will be so successful, I will complete them in resume, 72 days. And on planning letter, the 73rd day, I will rest.'' —President Barack Obama, at the 2009 White House Correspondents' Dinner.

''Michele Bachmann is hot to, here, though, I understand, and she is a model of christian charity essays, thinking about running for President, which is hot to, weird because I hear she was born in Canada. Yes, Michele, this is how it starts. Just letting you know.'' —President Obama at the 2011 White House Correspondents' Dinner.

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The Natural Learning Development for Right-Brained Children. I’ll start off taking excerpts (in blue) from my book, The Right Side of Normal, from Chapters Four and Seven to explain the natural learning development for right-brained children using the Learning Stages chart I created. Because the resume left and resume writing services dallas, right hemispheres of the brain are mirror images of each other, each specializing in hot to resume something different, it makes sense that the educational paths for left- and right-brained learners are opposites of each other. The time frame that schools utilize in teaching various subjects aligns with the left-brained learner stages of essay review worksheet, learning. I’ve noticed that right-brained learners acquire subject matter in a different learning pattern than their left-brained counterparts.

I have identified the resume time frames of creative event planning cover letter, three stages of learning, depicted in the charts below. This chapter introduces the function of each stage while Chapter Seven provides details for the content and subject expression. T he first stage of hot to resume, learning is called the Foundation Stage because it focuses on the universal gifts and strengths of each learner (see Chapter Five). Left-brained learners are two-dimensional thinkers who focus on symbolic and write an essay on student, word development. Right-brained learners are three-dimensional thinkers who focus on global and hot to resume, creative development.

For both left- and right-brained learners, it makes sense that learning should build upon resume, one’s strengths for a firm foundation . The second stage of learning is called the resume Transition Stage because it’s the beginning of the integration process of the annotated bibliography two hemispheric specializations. This is the time when the right-brained learner starts to utilize some of the strengths of the resume left side of the brain to incorporate two-dimensional thinking. The left-brained learner begins to utilize some of the strengths of the right side of the brain to cover, incorporate three-dimensional thinking. The Moores support my theory of a major shift during this stage in their book Better Late than Early . They say, “Studies have demonstrated a variety of hot to resume, significant changes in brain maturation between ages 7 and 11. Some of these changes are in the brain’s structure, others are in review its chemistry and still others in its electrical potential.” The third stage of learning is called the Integration Stage because the established dominant brain preference increasingly integrates the opposite brain specialties so the learner becomes competent in more subjects.

Even though each brain processing preference continues to rely heavily on its own specialization (right-brained children are still right-brained dominant and left-brained children are still left-brained dominant), each more fully integrates the less preferred specialty skills. Better Late than Early states, “A recent Stanford Research Institute study by Meredith L. Robinson points to the likelihood that the early adolescent years, from 10 to 14, may be the hot to resume time when most children finally develop the full range of their capacities, or in effect, reach their integrated maturity level.” If you study my chart for the learning stages above and compare it to the traits of the left- and right-brained learners I have listed on the right side of this site, I think you’ll find it quite evident that schools are truly set up for the left-brained learner to succeed. And as the of christian essays first sentence I quoted above from my book states, doesn’t it make sense that left- and right-brained people will learn opposite one another if the brain specialties are mirror images of one another, each with its own specialty? How are we missing this huge component? In the early years, both learners are supposed to be able to delve into their dominant brain specialties so that they have a firm foundation in their strengths.

Left-brained learners are doing that because of how schools are set up to hot to resume, support their strengths. Right-brained learners try to do that, too. I challenge anyone to find me a young right-brained learner at the 5 to 7 year age who isn’t actively trying to engage in a creative outlet, or what I call the “early subject strengths” for right-brained learners. The creative outlets are computers/video games, art/photography, puzzles/mazes, building/electronics, math/numbers, music/dance, theater/showmanship, cooking/gardening, and fashion/sewing. The right-brained early subject strengths are areas of study that promotes creative and imaginative thinking that include history, mythology, cultures and geography, animals, nature, and descriptive peer worksheet, science. Does school promote these subjects between 5 and 7 years old? No, they promote the subjects that left-brained children succeed in as a foundation. My oldest son’s interest in the right-brained early subject strengths, plus his avid pursuit of drawing, was the primary catalyst for our choosing to homeschool him. Hot To? He was so engaged in learning and we knew schools for his age group didn’t teach the subjects he so craved to know. As noted by the Foundational Stage of Learning, it isn’t that right-brained children don’t learn to annotated bibliography, read, write, spell and learn math facts, but it’s that they are pursuing history, science, geography, cultures, nature, and animals as well as art, music, dance, computers, electronics and all the other creative outlets, instead. Who gets to decide that the subjects most conducive to hot to resume, the right-brained universal gifts is less important than those subjects most conducive to the left-brained universal gifts?

Once we understand this difference, we can celebrate it and encourage it instead of fearing it and misunderstanding it. What are these subject and creative pursuits accomplishing within our right-brained children’s minds as their foundation? They are building a large library of pictorial images that they need in order to successfully transition to a model charity, the next stage … because they think in pictures. They are developing a strong visualization ability which is needed to create, maintain, and translate the images. Resume? And they are nurturing their extraordinary imaginations which is the base for innovation, creativity, and big picture thinking they excel at as learners. Instead of honoring this foundation for our right-brained children, we are trying to turn them into left-brained thinkers. We can’t make three-dimensional right-brained thinkers change to two-dimensional left-brained thinkers, but they’ll integrate these abilities at the developmentally appropriate stage.

We can’t make big picture, concept thinking right-brained children perform sequentially like their left-brained peers, but they’ll use their own strategies to perform those tasks at the developmentally appropriate stage. Annotated Bibliography Essay? We can’t make history-loving, right-brained artists prefer writing words and spelling, but they’ll become competent at it at the developmentally appropriate stage. We can and should value the focus and hot to resume, natural development for right-brained children during the foundational years of learning. During the next two stages of learning, the Transition and Integration Stages, each of the a model essays two gift areas of each of the brain processing preferences get learned by the non-dominant side. So, note that left-brained learners are naturally good at hot to word and symbolic development, so right-brained learners pick each of those up individually at each of the next two stages.

Right-brained learners are naturally good at fantasy book report creative and global development, so left-brained learners pick each of these up individually at each of the next two stages. Both types of hot to, learners — left- and right-brained children — integrate all the gifts and necessary skills at the developmentally appropriate time for fantasy book projects their brain processing preference. Right-brained children are ready to transition to two-dimensional, symbolic work and hot to, development at the Transition Stage, between 8 and 10 years old. This includes the important reading and math facts skills everyone feels is crucial to have sooner than later. I agree that these are important skills, but what everyone is actually implying is that these need to be everyone’s foundational skills , but foundational skills are actually those skills that line up with the traits for the dominant side of the brain. If we’re patient and creative event cover, honor this natural development in right-brained children, then some time in the 8 to 10 year time frame, these children will begin to learn to read … their way. Because they are whole-to-part learners, the sight word method is often a good starting place for learning to read.

Phonics comes behind that. In fact, there are appropriate ways to help right-brained children learn to resume, read that have everything to do with their brain processing traits. Fantasy Report Projects? Here is a post that talks about some of these traits that influence how right-brained children learn to hot to, read best. Event? And here is a link to a reading resource page on hot to, this site and creative event planning cover letter, a page with examples on how certain reading programs can work for right-brained learners. Math facts, starting with addition and subtraction, will also begin during this stage. All painlessly when we understand how, when, and why right-brained children learn. The Integration Stage is hot to resume when the last of the services subjects get integrated by each type of learner. In the case of resume, right-brained learners, word parts are finally incorporated. Being part-to-whole learners, and a model of christian charity essays, being word and symbol based, left-brained learners can learn to decode and encode symbols at the same time.

For left-brained learners, the resume process of learning spelling and writing and reading are parts of the same coin. For right-brained children, being whole-to-part learners, and being picture based, decoding and encoding are two separate acts. Right-brained learners first tackle the symbol decoding of reading (the whole). After fluency is developed and on student unrest, “the whole” is achieved, only hot to resume then can right-brained children do “the parts” section of symbol/words with spelling and writing. That’s because the services process for right-brained children to learn spelling and writing is different from the process for hot to learning to event cover letter, read. From Chapter Seven in my book, The Right Side of resume, Normal: For the creative event planning letter right-brained learner, reading is about taking the whole word and hot to, creating a picture. This is a model charity essays a translation process, moving from a non-gift area (symbols) to a gift area (pictures).

However, spelling uses two double left-brained strengths. In order to spell a word, a right-brained learner sees a picture (right-brained gift), translates the hot to picture to the word (left-brained strength), and then needs to decipher the whole word into annotated bibliography its individual sound parts (left-brained strength). Writing has three left-brained strength requirements. Right-brained learners visualize a whole picture (right-brained strength), translate it into the individual word parts (left-brained strength), break these down into its spelling parts (left-brained strength), and hot to resume, sequence the picture scene in words (yet another left-brained strength). Notice how the bibliography skills required to hot to, do well with spelling and fantasy projects, writing favor the gifts of the left-brained learner: a symbolic, word-driven focus and hot to resume, sequential processes.

Because a right-brained learner uses two entirely different processes, one to learn to read, and another to learn to spell and write, it’s not effective for a right-brained learner to learn spelling and writing at the same time he receives reading instruction. Because right-brained learners do best with whole-to-part learning, it’s best to master each process independent of the other, establishing the holistic, or whole skill first (reading), followed by the linear, or part skills (spelling and writing) last. To summarize the Stages of Learning, I again take a section from my book: Foundation Stage (5 to annotated, 7 Years) The ages of 5 to hot to resume, 7 are best focused on the universal gifts of each type of learner. Because the left-brained child enjoys sequential, symbolic, word-based activities, she’s ready to tackle reading and beginning arithmetic (addition/subtraction) at a model charity the ages of hot to resume, 5 to 7. Because they are part-to-whole word-based learners, left-brained children can learn spelling and writing alongside reading. A right-brained learner is gifted in imaginative, three-dimensional, picture-based activities, so instead enjoys history, science, geography, social studies, (see Chapter Sixteen) and an essay on student, the creative outlets (see Chapter Six) as his foundation during this time. Transition Stage (8 to 10 Years) Around the ages of 8 to 10, the left-brained learner sequentially improves in reading and hot to resume, tackling higher arithmetic (multiplication/division). Left-brained children learn best with part-to-whole sequential processes using memorization as a primary tool.

They have the ability to show their work as they go. Dallas Texas? Creative thinking is integrated through higher level spelling and writing ability, reading comprehension skills, and math story problems. The right-brained learner will shift into the two-dimensional, symbolic realm to hot to, begin learning to essay, read and tackle beginning arithmetic. A deeper understanding of the hot to previous subjects occurs during this 8 to 10 year stage for the right-brained child, as well as development of annotated, higher skill levels in hot to resume the creative outlets. Integration Stage (11 to write, 13 Years) As left-brained learners reach the full integration stage and use the hot to weaker hemisphere strengths more reliably, they’re ready to develop the on student global concept strengths of right-brained learners by studying subjects like history and science and taking the other subjects to hot to resume, the highest level. Right-brained learners will more fully integrate the strengths of the left-brained learner: reading (by achieving fluency) and higher arithmetic.

This is when the word focus of spelling and writing is bibliography essay tackled as a separate subject from reading because they use completely different techniques to achieve success. Hot To Resume? Right-brained children learn best with whole-to-part conceptual processes using association as a primary tool. They enjoy various imaginative tools such as mnemonics and the ability to intuitively discover ideas through holistic imagery. Question: What surprises you the most about these patterns of learning, and why? Do you see these learning stage patterns in your right-brained child? 42 responses to “ The Natural Learning Development for Right-Brained Children ” Thank you for this! I see these differences and stages in my two girls – one very RB and one very LB. Of Christian? The accepting /letting go of my LB expectations and seeing this as normal, good, healthy, and even advantageous (!) is my challenge – not theirs.

I look forward to sharing this with my husband as well! I think it’s a challenge our society has created for most of us, Julia, so know you’re not alone #128578; This is the resume number one reason I share the information that I do, because the annotated left-brained measuring stick has become so accepted, that it’s considered the “norm.” That’s why I called my book, “The Right Side of Normal.” There’s a right-brained normal as much as a left-brained normal! Thanks for sharing! Cindy, I just love your website (and yahoo group). Can’t wait to read the book! This post really struck me because I’ve finally adapted to my oldest RB daughter. She’s 12 and we’ve been through the hot to resume wringer; looking back I see how it all played out. Now my totally LB (age 6) son comes along, and event cover letter, all he wants to do is math worksheets! And I’m frustrated bc he won’t read greek mythology with me…. Hot To? Time to reverse gears back to LB and learn how to work with his strengths! Robyn, Ha!

Just when we finally figured it out … learning difficult lessons *often for us* in a way that empowers us to feel like we know a little something. And then the next one comes along and essay, tells us to start over … haha! Yep, that’s life learning! I always felt I did something terribly wrong when my child, who had been so wildly creative in her younger years — making up plays and songs and hot to, even languages, including “dog language” — left that behind in her middle years. Now I see that is part of the integrative stage, and that her learning focus was elsewhere during that time. Indeed she learned to spell and punctuate right on your schedule for right-brained kids, between 11 and 13; coincidentally, I discovered Jeffrey Freed’s visual spelling techniques right about then, and she just surged forward. Now, at 16, she’s finally starting to draw again, and I’m hopeful that the fantasy book projects creativity will come out in new ways. I can’t tell you what a sense of relief I felt to resume, understand that the pattern of development she showed was right-brained normal, rather than something I’d done to constrict her creative streak.

I have felt bad about this for YEARS. Creative Cover Letter? Thank you for lifting the hot to resume guilt burden! Karen, I’m sorry you worried and peer review worksheet, felt guilty for so long, and hot to, I’m also glad to help you see that your daughter is on student traveling along her natural path to learning. Hot To Resume? You may also find my Collaborative Learning Process interesting. It goes hand in hand with the planning cover letter natural stages of learning. What I discovered after the Integrative Stage was through, and after I helped my children learn how to integrate goal setting into their lives, their creative lives came back with a vengeance. Just like you’re hoping, I found that my children were able to take their creative pursuits to a higher level, in a way that could shape their career choices. Exciting stuff! Enjoy #128578;

This is hot to wonderful! Finally after finding this site, I recognize that my son’s struggles in school really are avoidable. Projects? We are now home schooling him and will be approaching it from a right brained perspective. Hot To Resume? Thank you! I would love to hear back from you with what you discover, Jan, as you enter this journey with your son. Bibliography Essay? I truly believe our family avoided a lot of struggle, too, though it took a LOT of deschooling from me to open up that space to happen. I’m happy for you and am here to hot to, support you as you take that step! These are very interesting trends — thought-provoking indeed. I would like to know what you think about people who are less extreme in their favour of one side of the brain over the other. For example, when I saw the descriptive essay review chart near the beginning of the article, I thought, “Oh!

My son is a left-brain learner,” but when I came down to the part about resume, favoured activities, “No, he likes right-brain activities (He’s 5.)” For my part, all the tests/quizzes I’ve ever done have put me at “slightly right-brained.” I wonder how that fits into learning development. Good questions, Victoria! As it pertains to your son and which he favors, I would continue to observe throughout his 5 to bibliography, 7 year development. This is the time that I feel my children showed me how they learned. If you look under my Collaborative Learning Process tabs, I share what each stage showed me and how I supported it. As for the quizzes coming up as “slightly right-brained,” most of the quizzes I’ve seen have only resume about up to a 60/40 split. I think it’s hard to come up with appropriate questions to really measure brain preference.

I think I talk about that in annotated bibliography essay my Am I Right-Brained Dominant post. If you look at what you were drawn to engage in, especially when you were young (before school and society molded you), it may show you what you favor based on your interests. As I mention in my book, Linda Kreger Silverman, a person who has spent years trying to develop a test for VSLs, says that what a person is interested in is still the hot to resume most predictable factor for knowing. Interesting, huh? That said, you could be a right-brained learner whose female traits influence your learning more to the left in certain areas. The natural female gene traits favor the left-brained side, and the natural male gene traits favor the right-brained side. So, a right-brained dominant female may still read at 5-7 and enjoy organizing, but still love photography, cultures, animals, and think in pictures. There is the right-brained foundation, but every individual brings in an essay unrest their own nuances to the whole picture that creates YOU. Thank you for resume your detailed reply! Off to think some more. #128578; I wish my mom read this when I was in school.

I used to descriptive essay worksheet, do so well in school and was ahead of my peers, but fell behind somewhere in resume high school. I begged to unrest, be homeschooled, but she didn’t listen. Not all kids want to be homeschooled, but if they ask, I think you should listen. It’s my dream to make a school system for hot to right brained kids and teens. (k-8) and (9-12). It’s one of my dreams, too, Elizabeth!

If either of us manage to do this, let’s contact each other and share #128578; And yes, when a child asks to be homeschooled, I’m positive there’s a strong reason for it and event planning, should be taken seriously. It’s still a huge problem that young people are viewed as always getting out of things or looking for the easy road instead of viewed as people who know what is resume good for them and on student, know what is hot to resume or isn’t working. A Model Of Christian Essays? Sigh. We still have a long way to hot to, go. Do you consider a synesthete to essay, be a right brain learner, or would the child need to have other right brain characteristics as well? I certainly believe that being a synesthete is hot to resume a strong indication you are right-brained. That’s because of the visual translation of something. For instance, my daughter sees color patterns for different music. I wish I would have explored right brain learning before now. Bibliography Essay? I’ve always tailored her education to meet her needs, but I don’t feel that I’m doing as well now that she’s in high school. College, for hot to resume sure, isn’t designed for right brain learners, but she has career desires (that match her right brain strengths as well as life experiences) and I want to help her succeed in whatever way I can.

By the way, she has at least 15 different areas of synesthesia: letters, numbers, words, days of the creative planning cover week, musical instruments, pitch, rhythm, household noises, and quite a few that I can’t remember. Her “oddest” one is that if she’s eating and we mention another food, she will taste that food instead of the flavor of resume, what she’s eating! How fascinating about the variety of areas she experiences synesthesia, especially the projects food/flavor thing! I wonder if some people have strong sensory spaces that are more able to inter-relate with each other. Interesting… I think the more important thing I may have done during the high school years is to resume, continue promoting strengths-based learning. Write On Student Unrest? Although my children were more able and willing to do traditional topics, it still remained at the 30% level versus the 60% level devoted to strengths.

They also chose individualized specialties within subject areas, such as animal science for a science course or Japanese history for a history class. Of course, most of hot to resume, these were interest translations, not specifically chosen studied topics. Instead of reverting back to making our goal about on student, taking the traditional route going from hot to resume, strong grades in generalized topics during high school to applying to as top a school as possible to bibliography essay, continue getting strong grades in generalized topics, we recognized the diverse types of higher education out resume there and specifically chose a school based on its good fit for each child and their goals. Also, embracing the entrepreneurial choice instead of resume writing, college was viable. I always told my children that if they were going to take risks and try something on their own, at the younger ages when they had no family commitments and obligations was the time to do it. College would always be there. So… Do you find that the Right brained learner is predominantly Left handed?

My eldest son (7) is I believe from your chart Right brained (and Left handed) We’ve just had a sit down with his teachers, and principal about doing away with his ‘homework’ because it is such a struggle. Both my husband and I are LH as well, and when I sit with my son to do homework we usually go off on a tangent and learn something in a different way that he grasps without a problem, far beyond the level of his school work. He is very creative artistically, and takes great interest in hot to animals and geography, and an essay on student, history. I’ve read to resume, him from books like ‘The World Without Us’ which he finds fascinating… even though the vocabulary is far beyond his school level, he still ‘gets it’. What we ‘learn’ at home is charity essays very different from school, and I have told his teachers that we can not do his plethora of ‘homework’ and teach him things of interest to him… there is hot to not enough time in the day, and creative event cover, I am unwilling to have the daily fight about it with him.

Schoolwork is for school at this age. Homework will be what we choose to learn done how we choose to learn it. Yes, Sherri, those who are left-handed are right-brained (though not all right-brained people are left-handed because of the cultural influence). How exciting to hear how your son’s interests line up perfectly with what I say is hot to typical for annotated a right-brained child your son’s age. Validating, yes? And, also, how interesting to see how he learns and grasps high level concepts, another typical trait for a young right-brained learner. Kudos to hot to resume, you for standing up for services texas your son’s learning rights by refusing to waste his valuable free time on hot to resume, homework that will be more of what doesn’t match his learning style or interests. I’m always interested in how parents advocate for descriptive review worksheet their right-brained children in school so that it can work better for them. I know there’s an active opt-out of standardized testing movement; I think it would be equally valuable to have an active opt-out of homework movement as well. Keep me informed!

I’ve always wondered about my remarkable turn-around in school. I was a “terrible” student until midway through the 5th grade, at hot to which point I got my first straight A report card. I thought it was a fluke – I had been so used to the idea of projects, being bad at school that it didn’t seem possible – but I continued to get them through my high school graduation. It was so odd because I never changed the way I approached school, yet these amazing report cards started following me home. My six-year-old son is hot to resume showing similar difficulties in school, so I’m trying to annotated, find out what options I have to help him. I can’t figure out hot to why they want to teach a Kindergartener how to read. It seems that all the “advanced” schools in our area push early literacy and neglect all other areas of study.

He’s expected to write sentences every day, but I can’t remember the fantasy book projects last time I saw a science worksheet come home in his backpack. Hot To? We used to spend our after-school time exploring and investigating the world around us, but now I have to dedicate it to homework. For a Kindergartener! I look forward to summer when I get to start crafting his curriculum for him again. What a fascinating anecdotal discovery, Ruth! Thanks for sharing how your experience matches up with what I’m saying about the right-brained time frame, even though you didn’t know about review worksheet, it before. Hot To Resume? Very cool. And, yes, it’s SO frustrating how mismatched the descriptive peer review early elementary grades are for our creative learners. Hot To? Not only does it go into areas they aren’t ready to develop until later, but as you said, they neglect the very subjects they would excel in. Who knows, maybe you’ll have so much fun this summer, you’ll just keep right on an essay, doing it into the school year (wink).

How does dyslexia play into resume this. My son is a right brained thinker and was found to have visual and auditory processing disorder in first grade. He went to fantasy book report projects, 24 sessions of VT for hot to a weakness, eye teaming, tracking and focusing. Bibliography? He even had auditory therapy via FastForWord with Lindamood Bell for hot to 3.5 years. He even had OT for 2 years. A Model Of Christian Charity? The district now wants to drop his IEP, after the triennial results. Hot To Resume? I want some type of safety net due to new CC standards and grade level 7th, plus the new testing in 2014 SBAC. He is going to a model, be 13 and in hot to 7th grade. Basically, what you describe about your son sounds like a typical right-brained learner. Visual differences and auditory differences are two ways a young right-brained child can appear different when comparing him to his left-brained peers and their preferred scope and sequence. Right-brained children typically view in pictures between 5 and 7 and descriptive essay worksheet, three-dimensionally almost primarily.

I feel they process visual information differently in these early years. I hope for resume research to be able to prove this. Peer Review? You notice how long it took for him to hot to resume, do the vision therapy. Based on my information, I’m not surprised. We use our senses as a way to input information. These are called input modalities.

Our right-brained children tend to writing, favor the hot to resume visual and kinesthetic inputs. Bibliography Essay? Some are still good with auditory. When some don’t prefer the auditory input, it can be a problem in school especially, because they favor the auditory input for teaching. Again, it makes sense he had to do those programs for hot to so long. Right-brained children don’t tend to develop a more left-brained representation of these two senses (visual processing in a two-dimensional way and auditory input) until starting between 8 and 10. That’s when it appears to have begun to dallas texas, click for hot to resume your son. As for descriptive peer your fears going forward without supports, I would highly suggest reading up on the right-brained learner and hot to resume, their gifts. These two posts will help get you started: and At his stage, he should be better able to do the left-brained tasks. BUT, he’s meant to be strong in his gifts. He may have been remediating so long in annotated essay his weaknesses, that he never got a chance to really develop his strengths and gifts (or he has, and that’s great!).

This is where he’ll shine in our world, and I would definitely encourage you to help him show everyone where he really shines! Wow, thank you for creating this site. Resume? I was looking for an answer of essay, why my one twin has speech delay even though he is definitely non autistic and already evaluated to not be autistic because he was playing peekaboo with the hot to doctor. Event Planning? He is very good at associating things. His creativity amazes me. I am a super left brain, great at math and symbols and no creativity so it’s really hard for hot to resume me to understand or relate to my son. Resume Writing Services Dallas Texas? My other twin is also a very left brain. I heard this analogy before that my left brain child is the type that breeds the best and fastest horse and my right brain child is the hot to resume type that invents the car. But since the school system focuses on descriptive review worksheet, left brain strength, I’m worried it doesn’t suit his strength. I can understand your concern. Hot To Resume? You see the a model intelligence in each of your children and want both to be honored.

This is exactly why I write about and advocate for hot to right-brained, creative children. They are underserved and deserve better, especially in this 21st century that is riding on the backs of the talent of these very learners. All we can do is try to educate those who are educating our children. Share this website; share my book; let’s see if we can make a difference one teacher at creative planning a time, one class at a time, one school at a time! I love your above table and look at it often to comfort myself.

All my children are right brain (one has Autism, one ADD and resume, the other some neurological issues, but not labelled… Some say dyslexia…). My eldest son, 11, is write an essay unrest doing okay now, but my daughter, 8, and son 6, are at least a year behind their peers. I was chatting with the hot to resume student support teacher this morning and she was telling me how much my 6 year old is struggling. I just want to cry, and cry; I hate that my kids are struggling. Do you have any advice on how to keep spirits up and not fret too much about their future. As a kid I remember struggling, indeed my principal told my mum I was hopeless, yet as a mature age student my average grade at uni is 90%. But that’s hard to event planning cover letter, remember when children 5 are better at math than my son who is 6 3/4. That is the applicable dilemma, Danielle.

We recognize the table in ourselves, our family member, or our children, and yet, because the hot to school measurement doesn’t match, and we run straight into where the problem stems, we cave under the write on student unrest pressure and resume, the comparison. And yet, we know it’s an unfair comparison. So, what should we do? Find your faith for the benefit of your children. Advocate for them. Explain things to them so the event planning comparisons can’t hurt them.

Remember often. Resume? Seek support often. Pull them out of school if they are there and you can. Educate teachers if you need to keep them in. Annotated Bibliography? Lots of options are possible if we are true collaborators in our children’s education. If a parent uses school, they are using it as THEIR resource; always remember that. Hot To? Use what is good and modify, explain, or advocate against the rest.

Keep your eye on essay review worksheet, the orange groves ( and trust in the growth of hot to resume, your child as perfectly suited to them! My 2 year old, who shows signs of ADHD, seems to be right-brained. He is a strong visual learner, while organizing words and sentences is planning cover a little late for hot to resume him. But…he learned to recognize all alphabet symbols at event letter 20 months, and he is hot to resume spelling words. he certainly is NOT reading, and he doesn’t understand the words…but he spells by letters. Is this still right brain skill? Should I expect, beyond the spelling skill at such early age, a delay in book report projects reading (dyslexia)…due to his slow processing of speech? I’d be curious as to hear the process your son learned these things, Julie. I have two children who learned their alphabet at such a young age, and both are diagnosed on hot to, the autism spectrum. A Model Charity? One of these also learned to spell young as the hot to alphabet were his special interest. There’s also something called hyperlexia (also often found with autism spectrum disorders), which means they read and spell without comprehension.

In other words, for those children who learn these things at this age naturally and/or incidentally are often either gifted or on creative event cover letter, the autism spectrum. I have one gifted son who learned on a typical right-brained schedule (he would have been labeled twice exceptional because of hot to, this if he had been in fantasy book school). To answer your last question, he could proceed right into reading because of this decoding ability of his, or he could end up following the typical right-brained schedule. Not much help, am I? Haha! For my two, one learned at 4-5 years old and the other was 10-11.

Basically, it depends on hot to resume, how and why he learned his alphabet so young. Report? To answer your first question, those on the autism spectrum and those who are ADHD are typically right-brained. However, the hot to resume autism spectrum brings in fantasy book projects left-brained traits. You can read more about my ideas with that here: I hope something helps… I am very glad I came across your blog. I have 3 girls and I believe all 3 are right brained. Hot To? We struggled with my now 17 year old, but she is essay peer review worksheet doing SO much better in school then I thought she ever would.

I now have a 1st grader and preschooler and feel like we are going through the same issues as we did with our oldest. My 1st grader struggles with writing sentences, and math is not clicking yet. My youngest who is 5, the prek she is wants to do a speech evaluation on her, they don’t think she is advancing like the rest of the kids. Is there a correlation between learning some speech later and right brained thinking? My youngest loves to draw, she is actually quite good at drawing stick figures with emotions which is crazy to me, other girls are drawing rainbows and hearts and my girl is drawing faces with emotions! I would love to get your thoughts on this and see if I am going down the hot to resume right path. Of Christian Charity? I never want my girls to hot to resume, feel different or dumb, because they are NOT, but I feel the school system makes them feel that way. As you are reading on my site, Amber, the scope and sequence of learning is quite different for annotated bibliography essay those with right-brained dominance factors. So, your 1st grader not tuning into writing or math (or more likely, arithmetic, is not unusual, as their early subject strengths are often different than found in school.

As for a correlation between speech delays and resume, right-brained learning, I’m not sure there is a direct correlation (if there are speech delays, you are right-brained dominant), but certainly those who are right-brained dominant can have speech delays. I think the big difference is that if this is so, now you are double whammied at school. You may not mesh with their scope and cover letter, sequence for hot to resume learning AND you are not measuring up with speech. You are absolutely right that as right-brained dominant learners, they are more likely to be highly sensitive, thus, they are the first to event, see themselves as “stupid” because of the mismatch in learning environment. Everyone in that environment tends to blame the hot to child as being broken or wrong when, in fact, that is often not the case. Even with speech differences, with a positive approach to support over time, the child doesn’t have to feel singled out or wrongly different.

I had several children with delays in speech at that age. I love your sharing of your daughter’s drawings of creative event cover, stick figures with emotions. Hot To? It certainly is a view into her creativity and annotated bibliography, emotion-based thinking! HI Cindy. Hot To? I am waiting for your book to come and have been reading through your site. Thank you. My daughter seems very right brained…I struggled with schooling her and still do, she is now 12. She reads but not really well and write, refuses to do anything “schooly.” She is resume very creative, loves the computer and movies and has an amazing vocabulary…my question is when she was around 7 and I was working with her on her reading, I asked her what she saw when I read to her. ( I have always read to her). She said nothing. A Model Of Christian Charity? That she did not see any pictures in her head when I read stories to her which led me to resume, believe that she was unable to visualize thus making reading difficult for event planning cover her.

Now I am not so sure. Any thoughts? Thank you. Can she visualize when you read aloud to resume, her now, Maria? I just asked my son who didn’t start reading until 10-11 years old, and still didn’t prefer it at 12. He didn’t prefer information through his auditory system, so read alouds were not interesting to essay worksheet, him mainly because it was too hard to translate through the auditory system at a young age. Now that he’s an adult, he can do it. I think when he was in his later teens, he could do it. So, it could be a matter of hot to resume, maturity and/or her preferred input modality. Fantasy Projects? Anything this son sees through visual input, he can readily re-visualize in his head.

But not if it came through the auditory system when he was younger. I’ve recently pulled my 10.5 year old from public school to homeschool her. She has special needs and LDs but is extremely bright and highly creative. She is definitely a right brainer. My question is, do I follow the same table based on age, or do I go back a bit since she missed a lot of the freedom, play, and exploration due to being in public school? She is just now starting to find interest after interest and is digging into them (drawing led to hot to, anime, which led to Japan, which led to her now learning Japanese, etc). Michelle, You are spot on in recognizing her need to have the time and space to book, reconnect and discover her innate creative interests. Hot To? Look what she’s done so far! You are giving her the gift of joy that every creative, right-brained child/person needs in pursuing her creative outlets. There is creative time enough for your daughter to be given the resume space to develop her creative foundation in which all other learning rests upon.

It will make everything else easier and more joy in learning. As she does this, you may find her special needs/LDs begin to appear less problematic as her strengths are honored and fantasy, expanded upon.

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a moking bird essays To Kill a Mockingbird and the discussion of race should present a teachable moment or moments in the classroom, resulting in a beneficial outcome for all involved and a better understanding of the resume issues of the past and an essay unrest the presence of those issues in the present. Hot To? The first aspect that should be discussed is the title of the novel. The title is descriptive essay peer hinted at hot to resume, multiple times throughout the book; the first is when Jem wants to take his gun outside and he is told he can shoot all of the blue jays he would. Resume Dallas Texas? Racism, Characters, and Abuse in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. other minorities. Many African Americans made it possible for us all we have rights today for those great people even though racism is still alive we can still stand up for our rights like our four fathers did. The characters all have different personalities and styles they each show each other sides that they didn’t know in the beginning of the hot to resume book. In To Kill a Mockingbird the essay worksheet characters are: Jean Louise Finch(Scout), Atticus Finch, Jeremy Atticus Finch(Jem), Boo Radley, Bob Ewell, Charles Baker. Essay on resume, Racism in the novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee. After that incident, word gets out that Tom Robinson, a Black man, raped Mayella Ewell, a white girl and book projects it is hot to not long before a mob is gathered together to kill Tom.

One day, Atticus Finch, the defendant for the upcoming case of Tom Robinson, is protecting Tom from the mob. The mob comes and looks for Tom in order to annotated essay kill him because they don’t think that he deserves a case. They say to Atticus, “He in hot to, there? . . . You know what we want . . . Get aside from the door, Mr. Finch” (Lee 202). Atticus.

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The essential difference of plot is a juxtaposition: in To Kill a Mockingbird, an hot to resume innocent man. did she told him he had to read to her two hours a day for a month. Maturity was a huge part in projects, moving on in life during these tough times. In To Kill a Mockingbird people in the 30’s were a lot more racist compared to nowadays. People came to realize near the end of the novel that black people aren’t any different than the white. The first way racism appears is hot to when Aunt Alexandra wanted Calpurnia to leave because she was black and she didn’t think she was needed anymore now that she was there. Book? Essay on Innocence in to Kill a Mockingbird. a much better representation of the mockingbird because he contributes to society, while Boo does not. Both Tom Robinson and Boo Radley were persecuted by the legal and social systems of hot to resume Maycomb County. Boo is allowed to go free for his crimes simply because he is white, whereas Tom is letter convicted of a crime he never committed, raping Mayella, because he is black and is killed as a result of the colour of his skin.

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When meeting someone for the first time you judge them and make an hot to resume opinion on them no matter what. In the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, Boo is mistaken for someone who “dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could catch” (Lee 13). Boo wasn’t even known by those who were judging him. Essays? The children are so confused that all. Harper Lee and to Kill a Mockingbird Essay.

To Kill a Mockingbird was an impressive novel that touched many people. The descriptive writing of Harper Lee leads the writer to really get the feel of the way of life during the times of hot to resume depression in the south. Harper Lee lived part of her life in New York and other cities. However, her southern childhood, gave her the insight to portray the racial prejudice, the a model charity essays impact of the depression, and the simple ways of southern life in her writings. Ms. Lee wrote a book that has become a classic.

Atticus presents a solid case that leaves virtually no room for doubt: Tom Robinson is innocent, and if he is found guilty, then it is only because of the jury’s racism. Resume? When Tom is found guilty, the outcome of the trial presents a crisis of confidence, particularly for Jem: if the law fails, then how can one have faith in justice, and if the people of Maycomb fail, then how can one have faith in the goodness of humanity? Although these questions are explored to some degree before the trial, they. The Mockingbirds of To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee Essay. He also protects Jem and scout when they were walking home from the descriptive costume party. Furthermore, Boo also stitch’s up Jems pants when they get caught under his fence. Mrs. Dubose is also another mockingbird in hot to resume, the novel. She is looked upon resume writing as a bad person because she had a slight morphine addiction back in her younger years. She is slowly recovering from it, but, she is always cranky and hot to angry whenever she does not have her morphine.

Atticus thinks that she is a brave soul for battling her addiction. an equal respect, no matter the situation. Scout learns that she should love people for who they are, even if they are malevolent. “Mr. A Model Essays? Tate was right,” Scout proclaimed. “What do you mean?” Atticus asked. Hot To Resume? “Well it’d be sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird, wouldn’t it?” Scout rhetorically asked (370). Scout now appreciates Boo’s well being. She figures how Boo was never a bad person just an honest man with an honest living. Her maturity level dramatically increases as she understands how people are. Essay To Kill a Mockingbird Part One Analysis. blue jays you want… but remember it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird”. This statement can be used as a metaphorical representation of crime in general. He states that he’d rather people investigate the town as a whole, but in essay, the end people will stride toward the resume colored people as culprits. It is fine to punish them based on if they did it, but it is wrong to book projects punish someone who has done nothing at all. This explanation also ties in with the common racism dilemma in Maycomb as a whole.

Metaphorically. Critical Lens: to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. something, she is too polite to say no. Which is resume why she listened to Miss Caroline, and of christian charity this shows how Scout is growing up, and being more responsible and listening to other people, and the ‘village’ is resume helping to raise her. Throughout To Kill a Mockingbird, we see the many different types of annotated social classes that there are in resume, Maycomb. The Finches are in the upper area of the social pyramid of Maycomb, with the many townspeople below them, and the not-so-well-off Ewells just above the very bottom. A Model Of Christian Charity? Essay on To Kill a Mockingbird and the Merchant of hot to Venice. 36-37). This shows Jessica is describing her love for write unrest Lorenzo and in the end runs away from her father to be with Lorenzo. In The Merchant of hot to resume Venice there are Stereotypes too but also there are some people who don’t follow them. Both To Kill a Mockingbird and The Merchant of Venice are alike in the way that they both have some stereotypes that are the creative planning letter same; both stories have a trial at resume, the end that are both roughly based on stereotypes. Tom Robinson who is voted guilty although the evidence is. not even okay for a black person to feel something for a white person.

Who are merely the same complete person that God created. Essay Worksheet? Even though the resume people of Maycomb knew the Constitution??s saying that ?®all men are created equal?? the prejudice and racism in them leads them to not accept it word for word. The hypocrisy of the society drives Mr. Dolphus Raymond to his pretense. Alongside his wealth, Mr. Dolphus Raymond lives with a black woman and has mixed children. Mr. Dolphus Raymond also. To Kill a Mocking Bird: Racism and Courage Essay. As you can see the children, Jem especially, are starting to take a stand against racism on their own and being very courageous along the way.

Atticus defines courage as “when you know you’re licked before you begin but you begin anyway and see it through no matter what. As the book goes on fantasy projects, the children start to realize that instead of realying on presonal prejudice or gut reaction they start to think more and more what is resume right. Their are different examples of courage in the book, but one is. Harper Lee#x27;s To Kill a Mockingbird Essay. her novel consisted of creative event planning cover letter a series of short stories strung together, and hot to resume she was urged to re-write it? (Kansas). Kansas also tells us that she worked on the manuscript with the help of her editor, Tay Hohoff, and in 1960, Lippincott published To Kill a Mockingbird.

According to an article in the New York Times, from May 19, 1961, titled ?Prize for Novel Elates Film Pair,? the novel caught the attention of producer Alan Pakula. Author of the article, Murray Schumach said that after reading the. Racial Injustice in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay. Creative Event? young white women, but consorting with black men would put them to the ultimate low. They preferred to resume let innocent men die rather than have their own already low reputations tarnished. This shows a clear connection between Scottsboro and To Kill a Mockingbird, as in annotated bibliography essay, both cases the lives of innocent men were sacrificed on hot to resume, the altar of southern womanhood. The Mockingbirds of To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee Essay. to walk the street of Maycomb again.”(p.83) Some members of the Finch family believe that Atticus is damaging the whole family’s reputation in Maycomb through “loving” African Americans. Letter? Secondly, the African American Tom Robinson is also a “mockingbird” in the novel. Before the story has begun, the African American is already accused of raping a white, nineteen year old Mayella Ewell. Many townspeople of Maycomb believe that Robinson is not responsible for his crime because he is a hard-working.

To Kill a Mockingbird Character Analysis Essay. events in Maycomb, Atticus teaches Jem and Scout to resume show respect to everyone, regardless of descriptive essay review worksheet their appearances or odd behaviors. Hot To Resume? Besides respect, Atticus accentuates courage as a fundamental element to grow up in resume dallas texas, his parenting career. In To Kill a Mockingbird, Atticus was invited to Mrs. Hot To Resume? Dubose’s house only to acknowledge that she has passed away, free from morphine addiction “as the mountain air” (page 111). He comes home, bringing the gift of Mrs. Dubose for Jem and a message of event planning cover him. Resume? As Jem opens. Literary Analysis of To Kill A Mockingbird Essay. trial.

They had started to resume services dallas talk about resume, how no matter what, a white man’s voice will overpower a black man’s word. A white man’s voice will always be heard. Annotated Bibliography? A white man’s voice will always conquer and win against a black man’s voice. Jem realizes that racism over rules justice in the court system. Although everyone has different perspectives, they will always listen to the white man. Resume? He understands that really ugly truth that is held in descriptive, their society. ‘ “I’d rather you shot at tin cans in the backyard. Resume? Good and Evil : to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. payback delivered by Bob Ewell in the final scenes of the novel. After the fantasy projects attack, Scout realizes that if society knew what Boo Radley actually did, “It’s be sort of like killing a Mockingbird,” as it would destroy Boo Radley’s innocence even if it was pure accident.

Therefore, Boo Radley is defined as a “Mockingbird,” as he is misinterpreted victim of society that has only tried to resume help the a model of christian essays people around him. Hot To? Tom Robinson is an African American man who lives on the outskirts of Maycomb with his. Freedom of Expression in To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee. There are many good characters in unrest, “To Kill a Mockingbird” who posses excellent character. For example, one character is Atticus Finch. “Atticus Finch is the voice of morality, compassion and fairness in hot to, the novel.

These are the principles that he consistently tries to teach his children, Scout and Jim (Harper Lee 1). This portrays that “To Kill a Mockingbird” is a good book for children to read because it teaches them character. Another character in of christian, “To Kill a Mocking Bird” who possesses good character. Hot To? Harper Lee#x27;s To Kill a Mockingbird Essay. to occupy the lowest level of society in the Maycomb community. The city’s white population continues to reinforce their rigid unfounded beliefs. Atticus Finch’s closing argument during the trial clearly outlines his own views on racism. When the jury continues to show ignorance and predjudice, Atticus realizes there is little chance of proving Tom’s innocence and bibliography essay winning his case.

The guilty verdict directly reflects the white population’s predjudice and resume assumed guilt. Essay on To Kill a Mockingbird- Boo Radley and His Children. understand why Boo Radley's stayed shut up in the house all this time. it's because he wants to stay inside. Seeing the prejudice and racism that Tom suffered in his case makes the kids understand why Boo may have wanted to decide to essay stay in his house all these years. Hot To? The kids come to a model of christian see Boo as a real person when he saves them from resume Bob Ewell, the man who attempts to kill the descriptive essay children in revenge, and not the monster he was first portrayed as. Scout then treats him as she would any neighbor would. As. Social Difference in Too Kill a Mockingbird Essay. behalf of the resume African American community, an act that would never be performed today. Due the fact that the storyline represents outdated statements, To Kill a Mockingbird is clearly inappropriate for class study. Secondly, people today see social class and social differences in a new way that does not relate to the way it does in the book.

In To Kill a Mockinbird, when Calpurnia takes the children to church, some members were offended by descriptive review worksheet, the children's presence, a racist act that would not be accepted. Resume? New Perspective to Study to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. Southern literary tradition(Liu Guo-zhi, Hubei university)”; analysis of figures’ characteristics, like “Reconstructing Atticus Finch (falseLube Steven)” and the pedagogical meaning studies, like “A Moral Criticism on the Growing-up Theme in To Kill A Mockingbird (RuiYuping and Fan Yi, Ningbo university)” , but no one have ever written something about the different psychological growth stages of this brother and sister. As a lover of this novel, I find it quite important to give more deep thoughts upon. English Speech- Away and to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. went through an emotional journey overcoming the cover letter obstacle of prejudice and learning the fact how lucky they were comparing to Tom’s family.

The inner journey that demonstrated of overcoming the hot to barrier was also demonstrated in an essay unrest, the film ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’. Resume? The main protagonist Scout was shown in the process of overcoming prejudice through her self-maturation and understanding. Scout and the kids were scared as Miss Stephanie the neighbour told them about the unjustified assumptions of Arthur. Psychological Analysis of Boo Radley-- to Kill a Mockingbird. A Model Of Christian Charity? Loosely translated, this means that Boo Radley is a mockingbird. He is, in general, a kindhearted compassionate person, shown by the gifts he gave to Jem and Scout, and how much he obviously cared for hot to them. But he was shot down by his community because he was a little different from the writing dallas texas other people in society. If my theory that he’s mentally disabled is true, he has done nothing of his own consciousness to hurt anyone. He was nothing if not friendly to Jem and Scout, two of the only people.

Essay about Segregation Exposed in To Kill A Mockingbird. blacks could meet here and talk and it also brought the blacks together (“African American Daily Conditions). There was also some other activates that would bring them together, such as sports (“African American Daily Conditions). In To Kill a Mockingbird, the resume kids have to stay with their. Essay Bravery in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. Planning Cover? Another act of bravery was when Atticus had been called home because of the hot to resume mad dog walking around on his street. Atticus didn't want to shoot the gun to kill the stray dog. Atticus hasn't picked up a gun in years and he didn't want to use it. Sheriff Heck Tate asked Atticus to, so Atticus took the gun and aimed at the mad dog. BANG!

The mad dog was put to rest. It was times like these when I thought my father, who hated guns and annotated bibliography had never been to any wars, was the bravest. Symbolism in To Kill a Mockingbird by hot to resume, Harper Lee Essay. harmless individuals, who never intend to essay peer review hurt a soul. Yet Tom's life is lost, and this is like shooting a mockingbird. As Scout wisely says: to hurt Boo Radley too would be like killing a mockingbird. Thus the mockingbird has been used to symbolize the good and the harmless things in hot to, this world which should not be abused. As Mary Clare points out, the mockingbird is a symbol for two of the characters in the novel: Tom Robinson and Boo Radley. In the novel, the people.

Innocent Victims in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay example. the rumors they heard about fantasy book projects, Boo Radley. Boo Radley can be compared to a mocking bird because mockingbirds are not guilty of any wrong doing and don’t hurt others. That’s why Boo Radley is hot to considered a mockingbird because he never hurt any known or bothered any one. The sad part was that Boo Radley was killed by couple of town’s people because he never came out because he was shy. Another mockingbird in the story was Tom Robinson. Tom Robinson was just like Boo Radley nice and fantasy projects loving to others.

The Theme of Prejudice in To Kill a Mockingbird by hot to, Harper Lee. tries to teach this ultimate moral lesson to Jem and Scout to show them that it is possible to a model of christian charity live with conscience without losing hope or becoming cynical. In this way, Atticus is able to resume admire Mrs. Creative Event Planning Cover Letter? Dubose's courage even while deploring her racism. He serves as a different type of. Destabilizing Innocence: Lee Harper#x27;s To Kill A Mockingbird Essay. 273) Quite simply, he was saying that many people would look at Tom Robinson, not as a person, but as a mockingbird. They would look at him, and see all the hot to resume Negro men who have hurt them, or their families, they would punish him, because of what others have done. In the case of southern life, we look at Arthur “Boo” Radley. Due to the fact that he was different, people automatically stereotyped him.

They assumed that he was a troublemaker and unfit for their society. They inadvertently ostracized. To Kill a Mockingbird- How Maturity Affects the Characters Essay. Bibliography Essay? all that much, Dill responds maturely and hot to says, I don't care one speck. It ain't right, somehow it ain't right to creative event cover do 'Em that way. Hasn't anybody got any business talking' like that, it just makes me sick. (266) Dill sees Tom Robinson for the mockingbird he really is. Jem,Scout, and Dill all learn lessons that impact their life and affect their maturity. A few of these lessons are learned from the Tom Robinson case. Learning to not judge people for what they hear, taking responsibility, To Kill a Mockingbird Provides Insight into the Past Essay. children by stabbing Bob and carrying an hot to injured Jem back to the house, where the Sheriff in order to protect Boo says that Bob must have tripped and stabbed himself with his own knife. The portrayal of charity essays Racism is very accurate, at the time that the story was set there was still a lot of racism in the South of Alabama.

Some of the story is based in truth; the hot to rest of bibliography essay it is all very historically accurate. The trial of Tom. The Loss of hot to resume Innocence and Maturity in to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. that his hometown is not the ideal place he thought it was, where everyone is services good and friendly, but instead, he learns that racism and prejudice exist. For instance, when Jem discovers that Tom Robinson is wrongfully declared guilty for raping Bob Ewell’s daughter, Mayella, he immediately comprehends the injustice that subsists in his society. He discovers the evil of racism during and after Tom’s trial, losing his faith in integrity. Harper Lee#x27;s To Kill a Mockingbird is Still Valuable in Modern Times. extreme racism and a completely one sided view of hot to resume society. Lee’s use of symbolism also portrays many themes in the novel. Planning Cover Letter? The most prevalent example of this is hot to resume Lee’s use of the mockingbird, which is described as a bird that “[doesn’t] do one thing but make music for us to enjoy”.

In the novel, one of the most prevalent themes is essay peer racial and social injustice, which complements the previously stated idea of hot to innocence and morality, which in letter, turn is represented by the idea of the mockingbird. The two. Racism and The Justice System in “A Time to Kill” Essay. Hailey epitomizes this hatred. The casts’ realization of this hatred flows in each of the characters during the filming of this movie, creating a more convincing storyline about racial injustice. Hot To? It is possible to creative event planning say that the race issue in hot to, “A Time to Kill” maybe legitimate exploration of black/white tension (Berardinelli 1996). It’s also possible to question how much is sensationalism (Berardinelli 1996). In many courtroom drams there is much that is typically grandstanding.

Essay on Writing Inspired by To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee. Write An Essay On Student? All this was unnecessary and useless. That is a fact it is all useless, why didn't they just kill me on spot and call it a day, it would only be one more colored boy dead. Hearing my name made my heart drop. I walked up to the stand and told myself that even though it would do no go that I was going to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth, that is just what I did. To say that it was easy would be a under statement, in truth it wasn't.

It is a position that I would dare not put anyone. Essay about The Setting of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. The racism of hot to resume Maycomb's white community blocks their judgement. The way Atticus's friends and family react to him defending Tom Robinson reveals the racist members of the community. Descriptive Review? 'He's ruinin' the family.' This quotation from Alexandra, Atticus's sister shows that she is ashamed to hot to resume have black people linked with her family. 'I guess it ain't your fault your Uncle Atticus is a nigger lover.' Alexandra does not hide her feelings about Atticus from essay her son. She is resume passing on her racism to Francis. The Ideas of Hypocrisy, Prejudice and book Dignity in Harper Lee#x27;s To Kill A Mockingbird. Aunt Alexandra of the resume news Tom Robinson has died, she is writing services texas genuinely upset - 'Aunt Alexandra put her hands to her face.' This is unlike the Aunt Alexandra we had seen before In Maycomb, the town in which Harper Lee's book 'To Kill a Mockingbird' is set, hypocrisy and prejudice are prevalent in most of its citizens. Although many of the characters morals are admirable, you soon realise that what people say and what people do are not always related. Hot To Resume? Mrs Grace Merriweather.

To Kill a Mockingbird, by write an essay on student, Harper Lee and A Blow, A Kiss, by Tim Winton. kiss also has underlying references to alcoholism and hot to resume family values and the effects alcohol has on book projects, the family unit. The themes in Harper Lee’s novel however evolve differently, The underlying theme resides about the inclusion of racism and resume prejudice within society. To kill a mocking bird delves into creative event planning letter several themes including; the maturing of Jem and Scout, respect for others, Acceptance of hot to resume people who appear strange and reclusive only creative event cover, because they are misunderstood by the majority. Because of the length.

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Essay on Theories of International Trade. In this essay we will discuss about International Trade. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Theories of International Trade 2. Theory of Mercantilism of International Trade 3. Theory of Absolute Advantage 4. Theory of Comparative Advantage 5. Factor Endowment Theory 6. Country Similarity Theory 7. New Trade Theory 8. International Product Life-Cycle Theory and resume Other Details. Essay on Introduction to Theories of International Trade Essay on the Theory of descriptive peer, Mercantilism of International Trade Essay on the Theory of Absolute Advantage of International Trade Essay on the Theory of Comparative Advantage of International Trade Essay on the Factor Endowment Theory of International Trade Essay on the the hot to, Country Similarity Theory of International Trade Essay on the the New Trade Theory of International Trade Essay on the International Product Life-Cycle Theory of fantasy book report, International Trade Essay on the Theory of Competitive Advantage of resume, International Trade Essay on the Implications of International Trade Theories. Essay # 1. Creative Planning? Introduction to Theories of International Trade: The exchange of goods across national borders is termed as international trade. Countries differ widely in terms of the resume, products and services traded. Countries rarely follow the trade structure of other nations; rather they evolve their own product portfolios and trade patterns for exports and imports. Besides, nations have marked differences in event planning cover, their vulnerabilities to the upheavals in exogenous factors. Trade is crucial for the very survival of countries that have limited resources, such as Singapore or Hong Kong (presently a province of China), or countries that have skewed resources, such as those located in the Caribbean and West Asian regions.

However, for countries with diversified resources, such as India, the resume, US, China, and the UK, engagement in trade necessitates a logical basis. The trade patterns of a country are not a static phenomenon; rather these are dynamic in nature. Write An Essay? Moreover, the hot to, product profile and trade partners of a country do change over a period of creative event planning cover, time. Till recently, the Belgian city of resume, Antwerp, the undisputed leader in diamond polishing and trade, had witnessed a shift of fantasy book, diamond business to India and other Asian countries, as given in Exhibit 2.1. It is resume also imperative for international business managers to find answers to some basic issues, such as why do nations trade with each other? Is trading a zero-sum game or a mutually beneficial activity? Why do trade patterns among countries exhibit wide variations?

Can government policies influence trade? Theories of essay review, international trade provide the raison d’etre for most of these queries. Trade theories also offer an insight, both descriptive and hot to resume prescriptive, into the potential product portfolio and trade patterns. They also facilitate in understanding the basic reasons behind the annotated, evolution of a country as a supply base or market for specific products. The principles of the regulatory frameworks of national governments and international organizations are also influenced to a varying extent by resume these basic economic theories. Essay # 2. Theory of Mercantilism of International Trade: The theory of mercantilism attributes and measures the wealth of a nation by the size of its accumulated treasures. Accumulated wealth is dallas texas traditionally measured in terms of gold, as earlier gold and silver were considered the hot to, currency of descriptive peer worksheet, international trade.

Nations should accumulate financial wealth in the form of gold by encouraging exports and discouraging imports. The theory of mercantilism aims at creating trade surplus, which in turn contributes to the accumulation of hot to resume, a nation’s wealth. Between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, European colonial powers actively pursued international trade to increase their treasury of goods, which were in report projects, turn invested to build a powerful army and resume infrastructure. The colonial powers primarily engaged in international trade for the benefit of their respective mother countries, which treated their colonies as exploitable resources. The first ship of the East India Company arrived at the port of Surat in 1608 to services, carry out trade with India and take advantage of its rich resources of spices, cotton, finest muslin cloth, etc. Other European nations—such as Germany, France, Portugal, Spain, Italy—and the East Asian nation of Japan also actively set up colonies to exploit the hot to, natural and human resources. Mercantilism was implemented by active government interventions, which focused on maintaining trade surplus and expansion of cover letter, colonization. National governments imposed restrictions on imports through tariffs and quotas and promoted exports by subsidizing production. The colonies served as cheap sources for primary commodities, such as raw cotton, grains, spices, herbs and medicinal plants, tea, coffee, and fruits, both for consumption and also as raw material for industries.

Thus, the policy of mercantilism greatly assisted and benefited the colonial powers in accumulating wealth. The limitations of the hot to resume, theory of report projects, mercantilism are as follows: i. Under this theory, accumulation of wealth takes place at the cost of another trading partner. Therefore, international trade is treated as a win-lose game re­sulting virtually in no contribution to the global wealth. Resume? Thus, international trade becomes a zero-sum game. ii.

A favourable balance of trade is of christian possible only in the short run and would automatically be eliminated in the long run, according to David Hume’s Price-Specie- Flow doctrine. An influx of gold by way of more exports than imports by resume a country raises the a model, domestic prices, leading to increase in export prices. In turn, the hot to resume, county would lose its competitive edge in terms of price. Essay? On the resume, other hand, the loss of gold by bibliography essay the importing countries would lead to a decrease in their domestic price levels, which would boost their exports. iii. Presently, gold represents only a minor proportion of national foreign exchange reserves.

Governments use these reserves to intervene in foreign exchange markets and to influence exchange rates. iv. The mercantilist theory overlooks other factors in a country’s wealth, such as its natural resources, manpower and hot to its skill levels, capital, etc. v. If all countries follow restrictive policies that promote exports and restrict imports and create several trade barriers in the process, it would ultimately result in a highly restrictive environment for bibliography, international trade. vi. Mercantilist policies were used by colonial powers as a means of exploitation, whereby they charged higher prices from their colonial markets for their finished industrial goods and bought raw materials at much lower costs from their colonies. Colonial powers restricted developmental activities in hot to, their colonies to a minimum infrastructure base that would support international trade for their own interests. Thus, the colonies remained poor. A number of national governments still seem to cling to the mercantilist theory, and exports rather than imports are actively promoted. This also explains the resume writing, raison d’etre behind the ‘import substitution strategy’ adopted by a large number of countries prior to resume, economic liberalization. This strategy was guided by their keenness to contain imports and promote domestic production even at bibliography the cost of efficiency and higher production costs.

It has resulted in the creation of a large number of export promotion organizations that look after the promotion of exports from the country. Hot To? However, import promotion agencies are not common in bibliography essay, most nations. Presently, the terminology used under this trade theory is neo-mercantilism, which aims at creating favourable trade balance and has been employed by a number of countries to hot to, create trade surplus. Japan is a fine example of a country that tried to equate political power with economic power and economic power with trade surplus. Essay # 3. Theory of Absolute Advantage of essay worksheet, International Trade: Economist Adam Smith critically evaluated mercantilist trade policies in his seminal book An Inquiry into hot to, the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, first published in 1776. Smith posited that the wealth of write on student unrest, a nation does not lie in building huge stockpiles of gold and silver in its treasury, but the real wealth of a nation is measured by the level of improvement in the quality of living of its citizens, as reflected by hot to resume the per capita income. Smith emphasized productivity and advocated free trade as a means of increasing global efficiency. As per his formulation, a country’s standards of living can be enhanced by essay international trade with other countries either by importing goods not produced by it or by producing large quantities of goods through specialization and exporting the surplus. An absolute advantage refers to the ability of a country to produce a good more efficiently and cost-effectively than any other country.

Smith elucidated the concept of ‘absolute advantage’ leading to gains from specialization with the help of day-to­day illustrations as follows: It is the maxim of every prudent master of a family, never to make at home what it will cost him more to make than to buy. The taylor does not attempt to make his own shoes, but buys them of the shoemaker. The shoemaker does not attempt to resume, make his own clothes, but employs a taylor. The farmer attempts to creative planning cover letter, make neither one nor the other, but employs those different artificers. All of them find it for their interest to employ their whole industry in a way which they have some advantage over their neighbors.

What is prudence in the conduct of hot to, every private family can scarce be folly in that of great kingdom. Event Planning Cover Letter? If a foreign country can supply us with a commodity cheaper than we ourselves can make it, better buy it of them with some part of the produce of our own industry. Thus, instead of producing all products, each country should specialize in producing those goods that it can produce more efficiently. Such efficiency is gained through: i. Repetitive production of hot to resume, a product, which increases the skills of the labour force. ii.

Switching production from one produce to writing dallas texas, another to save labour time. iii. Long product runs to resume, provide incentives to develop more effective work methods over a period of time. Therefore, a country should use increased production to creative event planning cover, export and acquire more goods by way of imports, which would in hot to resume, turn improve the letter, living standards of its people. Hot To? A country’s advantage may be either natural or acquired. Natural factors, such as a country’s geographical and agro-climatic conditions, mineral or other natural resources, or specialized manpower contribute to a country’s natural advantage in certain products. For instance, the agro-climatic condition in India is an important factor for sizeable export of bibliography essay, agro-produce, such as spices, cotton, tea, and mangoes. The availability of relatively cheap labour contributes to India’s edge in export of labour-intensive products. The production of hot to resume, wheat and maize in the US, petroleum in Saudi Arabia, citrus fruits in Israel, lumber in Canada, and aluminium ore in Jamaica are all illustrations of natural advantages.

Today, international trade is book shifting from hot to, traditional agro-products to industrial products and services, especially in developing countries like India. The acquired advantage in either a product or its process technology plays an important role in creating such a shift. The ability to differentiate or produce a different product is termed as an advantage in product technology, while the ability to produce a homogeneous product more efficiently is termed as an advantage in process technology. Production of consumer electronics and automobiles in Japan, software in India, watches in Switzerland, and worksheet shipbuilding in South Korea may be attributed to acquired advantage. Some of the exports centres in India for precious and semi­precious stones in Jaipur, Surat, Navasari, and Mumbai have come up not because of their raw material resources but the skills they have developed in processing imported raw stones. To illustrate the resume, concept of absolute advantage, an writing services dallas texas, example of two countries may be taken, such as the UK and India.

Let us assume that both the hot to, countries have the same amount of resources, say 100 units, such as land, labour, capital, etc., which can be employed either to produce tea or rice. However, the production efficiency is assumed to vary between the countries because to produce a tonne of tea, UK requires 10 units of resources whereas India requires only 5 units of annotated bibliography, resources. On the other hand, for producing one tonne of rice, UK requires only 4 units of resources whereas India needs 10 units of resources (Table 2.1). Since India requires lower resources compared to UK for producing tea, it is relatively more efficient in tea production. On the other hand, since UK requires fewer resources compared to India for producing rice, it is relatively more efficient in producing rice. Although each country is assumed to resume, possess equal resources, the essay peer worksheet, production possibilities for each country would vary, depending upon their production efficiency and hot to utilization of available resources. All of the possible combinations of the two products that can be produced with a country’s limited resources may be graphically depicted by a production possibilities curve (Fig. 2.1), assuming total resource availability of a model charity, 100 units with each country.

The slope of the curve reflects the ‘trade­-off of producing one product over the other, representing opportunity cost. The value of a factor of production forgone for its alternate use is termed as opportunity cost. For instance, if the UK wishes to produce one tonne of tea, it has to forgo the production of 2.5 tonnes of rice. Whereas in hot to, order to produce one unit of rice, it has to relinquish the annotated bibliography, production of only 0.40 tonne of tea. Suppose no foreign trade takes place between the two countries and each employs its resources equally (i.e., 50:50) for production of tea and rice.

The UK would produce 5 tonnes of hot to resume, tea and 12.5 tonnes of rice at point B whereas India would produce 10 tonnes of tea and 5 tonnes of rice at point A as shovra in Fig. 2.1. This would result in a total output of 15 tonnes of tea and bibliography 17.5 tonnes of rice (Table 2.2). If both India and the UK employ their resources on production of only tea and rice, respectively, in which each of them has absolute advantage, the total output, as depicted in Fig. Hot To? 2.1, of tea would increase from 15 tonnes to 20 tonnes (point C) whereas rice would increase from writing texas, 17.5 tonnes to 25 tonnes (point D). Thus, both countries can mutually gain from trading, as the total output is enhanced (Table 2.2) as a result of specialization. The theory of absolute advantage is based on Adam Smith’s doctrine of laissez faire that means ‘let make freely’. When specifically applied to international trade, it refers to ‘freedom of enterprise’ and ‘freedom of commerce’. Therefore, the government should not intervene in the economic life of a nation or in its trade relations among nations, in the form of tariffs or other trade restrictions, which would be counterproductive.

A market would reach to an efficient end by itself without any government intervention. Unlike as suggested by the mercantilist theory, trading is not a zero-sum game under the hot to resume, theory of on student, absolute advantage, wherein a nation can gain only if a trading partner loses. Instead, the countries involved in free trade would mutually benefit as a result of efficient allocation of their resources. Essay # 4. Theory of Comparative Advantage of International Trade: In Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, David Ricardo (1817) promulgated the theory of comparative advantage, wherein a country benefits from international trade even if it is less efficient than other nations in the production of two commodities. Comparative advantage may be defined as the inability of resume, a nation to produce a good more efficiently than other nations, but its ability to peer review, produce that good more efficiently compared to the other good. Thus, the hot to, country may be at an absolute disadvantage with respect to essay, both the commodities but the absolute disadvantage is lower in resume, one commodity than another. Therefore, a country should specialize in resume writing texas, the production and export of a commodity in which the absolute disadvantage is less than that of another commodity or in other words, the resume, country has got a comparative advantage in terms of more production efficiency.

To illustrate the concept, let us assume a situation where the UK requires 10 units of resources for review, producing one tonne of resume, tea and 5 units for one tonne of rice whereas India requires 5 units of resources for producing one tonne of write unrest, tea and 4 units for one tonne of rice (Table 2.3). In this case, India is more efficient in hot to, producing both tea and event cover letter rice. Thus, India has absolute advantage in the production of both the hot to resume, products. Although the fantasy, UK does not have an absolute advantage in any of these commodities it has comparative advantage in hot to, the production of rice as it can produce rice more efficiently. Countries also gain from trade by employing their resources for the production of goods in which they are relatively more efficient. Assuming total resource availability of 100 units with each country, Fig. Resume Services Texas? 2.2 indicates all the possible combinations of the two products that can be produced by the UK and India. In case there is no foreign trade between India and the UK (Table 2.4) and both the countries are assumed to use equal (50:50) resources for production of each commodity, UK would produce 5 tonnes of hot to, tea and book projects 10 tonnes of rice as shown at point A, whereas India would produce 10 tonnes of tea and 12.5 tonnes of rice at point B in Fig. Resume? 2.2. If the UK employs all its resources in the production of rice in which it is more efficient than the annotated essay, other, India can produce the hot to, same quantum of tea, i.e., 15 tonnes (Point C) by annotated bibliography employing only 75 units of its resources. It can utilize the remaining 25 units of resume, its additional resources for producing 6.25 units of rice, which would raise the total rice production from 22.5 tonnes without trade to 26.25 tonnes after trade (Table 2.4).

Alternatively, the UK can employ its entire resources (i.e., 100 units) to produce 20 tonnes of rice and India can use only write on student unrest 10 units of its resources to produce 2.5 tonnes of resume, rice so as to produce the same quantity of rice, i.e., 22.5 tonnes. The remaining 90 units of resources may be used by India for the production of tea, resulting in an increase in tea production from 15 tonnes without trade to 18 tonnes with trade as shown at Point E. Hence, it is obvious from the illustrations that countries gain from trade even if a country does not have an absolute advantage in any of its products as the total world output increases. The Balassa Index is event planning letter often used as a useful tool to hot to, measure revealed comparative advantage (RCA) that measures the relative trade performance of individual countries in particular commodities. It is assumed to creative planning letter, ‘reveal’ the comparative advantage of trading countries, based on the assumption that the commodity patterns of trade reflects the inter-country differences in hot to resume, relative costs as the well as the non-price factors. The factors that contribute to the changes in the RCA of a country include economic factors, structural changes, improved world demand, and trade specialization. RCA is defined as a country’s share of world exports of a commodity divided by its share in write on student, total exports.

The index for hot to, commodity j from country i is computed as. X ij = i th country’s export of commodity j. X wj = world exports of commodity j. X i = total export of country i. X w = total world exports. If the value of the index of revealed comparative advantage (RCA ij ) is greater than unity (i.e., 1), the country has a RCA in write on student unrest, that commodity. The RCA index considers the intrinsic advantage of a particular export commodity and is consistent with the changes in the economy’s relative factor endowment and productivity. However, it cannot distinguish between the improvements in factor endowments and the impact of the country’s trade policies. As indicated in Table 2.5, China has an RCA in industries such as clothing, elec­tronics, information technology (IT) and consumer electronics, leather products, textiles, and miscellaneous manufacturing that belongs to different technology categories (i.e., low, medium, and high) but not in resource-base manufacture.

On the other hand, India has an RCA in resource-based and low-technological industries, such as fresh food, leather products, minerals, textiles, basic manufacture, chemicals, and clothing. It is also observed that the US, Japan, and the UK have an RCA in high- and resume medium- technology categories, such as IT, consumer electronics, electronics, manufacturing, etc., whereas China’s main competitors such as Mexico, Hong Kong, and Thailand have RCA in low-, medium-, and high-technology categories. This implies that countries specializing in medium- to high-technology products may explore opportunities of expanding bilateral trade with India and those in resource-based industries may stand to benefit substantially by an increase in demand of such products in China. For example, Latin American countries mainly produce and export various commodities. Event? The major producer of Latin America is resume copper, oil, soy, and coffee, as the region produces about 47 per cent of the world soybean crop, 40 per cent of copper, and 9.3 per cent of oil. The rising demand for resume texas, commodities in China and other countries presents opportunities to these countries for expanding their pro­duction and increasing foreign exchange revenues. Similarly, the rapid growth in economic activities in India and China opens up opportunity for oil exporting coun­tries. Thus, revealed comparative advantage may be employed as a useful tool to explain international trade patterns. Limitation of Theories of Specialization: Some of the most important limitation of theories of specialization are as follows: i. Theories of absolute and comparative advantage lay emphasis on specialization with an assumption that countries are driven only by hot to the impulse of maximiza­tion of production and consumption.

However, the attainment of economic effi­ciency in write, a specialized field may not be the only goal of countries. For instance, the Middle East countries have spent enormous resources and pursued a sus­tained strategy in developing their agriculture and horticulture sector, in hot to resume, which these countries have very high absolute and comparative disadvantage, so as to become self-reliant. ii. Specialization in resume dallas, one commodity or product may not necessarily result in hot to resume, efficiency gains. The production and export of more than one product often have a synergistic effect on developing the overall efficiency levels. iii. These theories assume that production takes place under full employment conditions and labour is the only resource used in the production process, which is not a valid assumption. iv. The division of gains is often unequal among the trading partners, which may alienate the partner perceiving or getting lower gains, who may forgo absolute gains to prevent relative losses.

v. The original theories have been proposed on write an essay unrest the basis of two countries-two commodities situation. However, the same logic applies even when the theories experimented with multiple-commodities and multiple-countries situations. vi. The logistics cost is overlooked in these theories, which may defy the proposed advantage of international trading. vi. The sizes of economy and production runs are not taken into consideration.

Essay # 5. Hot To? Factor Endowment Theory of International Trade: The earlier theories of absolute and book projects comparative advantage provided little insight into hot to resume, the of products in which a country can have an advantage. Creative Cover Letter? Heckscher (1919) and Bertil Ohhn (1933) developed a theory to resume, explain the reasons for differences in relative commodity prices and fantasy book competitive advantage between two nations. According to this theory, a nation will export the commodity whose production requires intensive use of the nation’s relatively abundant and cheap factors and import the commodity whose production requires intensive use of the nation’s scarce and hot to resume expensive factors. Thus, a country with an abundance of cheap labour would export labour-intensive products and import capital-intensive goods and vice versa. It suggests that the patterns of trade are determined by factor endowment rather than productivity.

The theory suggests three types of relationships, which are discussed here: A country would specialize in production of labour intensive goods if the labour is in abundance (i.e., relatively cheaper) as compared to the cost of land (i.e., relatively costly). This is mainly due to services dallas texas, the ability of a labour-abundant country to produce something more cost-efficiently as compared to a country where labour is scarcely available and therefore expensive. In countries where the capital is resume abundantly available and labour is relatively scarce (therefore most costly), there would be a tendency to achieve competitiveness in the production of goods requiring large capital investments. As the same product can be produced by adopting various methods or technologies of production, its cost competitiveness would have great variations. In order to minimize the cost of production and achieve cost competitiveness, one has to examine the optimum way of production in view of technological capabilities and constraints of a country. According to the factor endowment theory, a country with a relatively cheaper cost of labour would export labour-intensive products, while a country where the labour is scarce and book projects capital is relatively abundant would export capital-intensive goods.

Wassily Leontief carried out an empirical test of the Heckscher-Ohlin Model in hot to, 1951 to find out whether or not the US, which has abundant capital resources, exports capital-intensive goods and imports labour-intensive goods. He found that the US exported more labour-intensive commodities and imported more capital-intensive products, which was contrary to book report projects, the results of Heckscher-Ohlin Model of factor endowment. Essay # 6. Country Similarity Theory of International Trade: As per the Heckscher-Ohlin theory of factor endowment, trade should take place among countries that have greater differences in their factor endowments. Therefore, developed countries having manufactured goods and developing countries producing primary products should be natural trade partners. A Swedish economist, Staffan B. Under, studied international trade patterns in two different categories, i.e., primary products (natural resource products) and manufactures.

It was found that in natural resource-based industries, the relative costs of hot to, production and annotated bibliography essay factor endowments determined the trade. Resume? However, in the case of peer, manufactured goods, costs were determined by the similarity in product demands across countries rather than by hot to resume the relative production costs or factor endowments. It has been observed that the majority of trade occurs between nations that have similar characteristics. The major trading partners of most developed countries are other developed industrialized countries. The country similarity theory is based on the following principles: i. If two countries have similar demand patterns, then their consumers would demand the same goods with similar degrees of resume writing services, quality and sophistication. This phenomenon is also known as preference similarity. Such a similarity leads to hot to resume, enhanced trade between the two developed countries. ii. The demand patterns in countries with a higher level of per capita income are similar to those of other countries with similar income levels, as their residents would demand more sophisticated, high quality, ‘luxury’ consumer goods, whereas those in countries with lower per annotated capita income would demand low quality, cheaper consumer goods as a part of their ‘necessity’.

Since developed countries would have a comparative advantage in the manufacture of complex, technology-intensive luxury goods, they would find export markets in other high income countries. iii. Since most products are developed on the demand patterns in the home market, other countries with similar demand patterns due to cultural or economic similarity would be their natural trade partners. iv. Countries with the proximity of geographical locations would also have greater trade compared to the distant ones.

This can also be explained by various types of hot to, similarities, such as cultural and bibliography economic, besides the cost of transportation. The country similarity theory goes beyond cost comparisons. Therefore, it is also used in international marketing. Essay # 7. New Trade Theory of International Trade: Countries do not necessarily trade only to benefit from their differences but they also trade so as to increase their returns, which in turn enable them to hot to resume, benefit from specialization. International trade enables a firm to increase its output due to its specialization by providing a much larger market those results in enhancing its efficiency. The theory helps explain the trade patterns when markets are not perfectly competitive or when the economies of scale are achieved by the production of specific products. Decrease in the unit cost of a product resulting from large scale production is termed as economies of scale. Since fixed costs are shared over an increased output, the economies of scale enable a firm to creative event, reduce it’s per unit average cost of resume, production and enhance its price competitiveness. Companies benefit by the economies of a model of christian charity essays, scale when the cost per unit of output depends upon their size.

The larger the hot to resume, size, the unrest, higher are the economies of scale. Hot To? Firms that enhance their internal economies of scale can decrease their price and monopolize the industry, creating imperfect market competition. Resume Writing Dallas? This in turn results in the lowering of market prices due to the imperfect market competition. Internal economies of scale may lead a firm to specialize in a narrow product line to produce the volume necessary to achieve cost benefits from scale economies. Industries requiring massive investment in RD and creating manufacturing facilities, such as branded software by Microsoft, microprocessors by Intel or AMD, and hot to resume aircrafts by Boeing or Airbus, need to have a global market base so as to achieve internal economies of scale and compete effectively. If the cost per unit of output depends upon the size of the resume, industry, not upon the size of an individual firm, it is referred to as external economies of scale. This enables the industry in a country to produce at a lower rate when the industry size is large compared to the same industry in another country with a relatively smaller industry size. The dominance of a particular country in the world market in a specific products sector with higher external economies of scale is attributed to the large size of a country’s industry that has several small firms, which interact to create a large, competitive critical mass rather than a large-sized individual firm. However, external economies of scale do not necessarily lead to imperfect markets but may enable the hot to, country’s industry to annotated essay, achieve global competitiveness. Although no single firm needs to be large, a number of small firms in a country may create a competitive industry that other countries may find difficult to compete with. The automotive component industry o India and the semiconductor industry in Malaysia are illustrations of external economies of scale.

The development of sector-specific industrial clusters, such as brassware in Moradabad, hosiery in Tirupur, carpets in Bhadoi, semi-precious stones in jaipur, and diamond polishing in Surat, may also be attributed to external economies. The new trade theory brings in the concept of economies of scale to explicate the Leontief paradox. Such economies of scale may not be necessarily linked to the differences in hot to resume, factor endowment between the trading partners. The higher economies of scale lead to increase in returns, enabling countries to specialize in the production of such goods and trade with countries with similar consumption patterns. Besides intra-industry trade, the theory also explains intra-firm trade between the MNEs and their subsidiaries, with a motive to services, take advantage of the scale economies and increase their returns. Essay # 8. Hot To? International Product Life-Cycle Theory of International Trade: International markets tend to follow a cyclical pattern due to a variety of factors over a period of time, which explains the shifting of review worksheet, markets as well as the location of production.

The level of innovation and technology, resources, size of market, and competitive structure influence trade patterns. In addition, the gap in technology and hot to resume preference and the ability of the customers in book report projects, international markets also determine the stage of international product life cycle (IPLC). In case the innovating country has a large market size, as in case of the US, India, China, etc., it can support mass production for domestic sales. This mass market also facilitates the producers based in these countries to achieve cost-efficiency, which enables them to become internationally competitive. However, in case the market size of a country is too small to achieve economies of scale from the domestic market, the companies from these countries can alternatively achieve economies of scale by setting up their marketing and production facilities in other cost-effective countries. Thus, it is the economies of scope that assists in resume, achieving the economies of scale by expanding into international markets.

The theory explains the variations and reasons for change in production and consumption patterns among various markets over charity, a time period, as depicted in Fig. 2.3. The IPLC has four distinct (Exhibit 2.2) identifiable stages that influence demand structure, production, marketing strategy, and resume international competition as follows. Generally, it is in high-income or developed countries that the majority of new product inventions take place, as product inventions require substantial resources to be expended on RD activities and need speedy recovery of the initial cost incurred by way of market-skimming pricing strategies. Since, in the initial stages, the annotated bibliography essay, price of a new product is relatively higher, buying the resume, product is only within the dallas texas, means and capabilities of customers in high-income countries. Therefore, a firm finds a market for hot to, new products in descriptive review worksheet, other developed or high income countries in hot to resume, the initial stages. The demand in write an essay unrest, the international markets exhibits an increasing trend and resume the innovating firm gets better opportunities for exports. Moreover, as the market begins to develop in other developed countries, the innovating firm faces increased international competition in the target market. In order to defend its position in international markets, the firm establishes its production locations in other developed or high income countries. As the technical know-how of the innovative process becomes widely known, the firm begins to establish its operations in a model essays, middle- and low-income countries in order to take advantage of resources available at competitive prices.

The major thrust of marketing strategy at this stage shifts to price and cost competitiveness, as the technical know-how and skills become widely available. Therefore, the emphasis of the firm is on most cost-effective locations rather than on producing themselves. Besides other middle-income or developing countries, the production also intensifies in low-income or least-developed countries (LDCs). Hot To? As a result, it has been observed that the innovating country begins to import such goods from other developing countries rather than manufacturing itself. The UK, which was once the essay, largest manufacturer and resume exporter of bicycles, now imports this product in large volumes. The bicycle is at the declining stage of its life cycle in industrialized countries whereas it is still at a growth or maturity stage in a number of developing countries.

The chemical and hazardous industries are also shifting from high-income countries to low-income countries as a part of essay peer review, their increasing concern about environmental issues, exhibiting a cyclical pattern in international markets. Although the product life cycle explains the emerging pattern of international markets, it has got its own limitations in hot to, the present marketing era with the fast proliferation of market information, wherein products are launched more or less simultaneously in various markets. Essay # 9. Theory of Competitive Advantage of International Trade: As propounded by descriptive peer Michael Porter in The Competitive Advantage of Nations, the theory of hot to, competitive advantage concentrates on a firm’s home country environment as the main source of competencies and innovations. The model is often referred to as the diamond model, wherein four determinants, as indicated in Fig. 2.4, interact with each other. Porter’s diamond consists of the following attributes: Factor conditions refer to how well-endowed a nation is as far as resources are con­cerned. These resources may be created or inherited, which include human resources, capital resources, physical infrastructure, administrative infrastructure, information infrastructure, scientific and technological infrastructure, and natural resources.

The efficiency, quality, and fantasy book specialization of underlying inputs that firms draw while com­peting in international markets are influenced by a country’s factor conditions. The inherited factors in case of India, such as the abundance of arable land, water resources, large workforce, round-the-year sunlight, biodiversity, and a variety of agro-climatic conditions do not necessarily guarantee a firm’s international competitiveness. Rather the factors created by meticulous planning and hot to implementation, scientific and market knowledge, physical and capital resources and infrastructure, play a greater role in fantasy, determining a firm’s competitiveness. The sophistication of resume, demand conditions in event planning cover letter, the domestic market and the pressure from domestic buyers is a critical determinant for a firm to upgrade its product and services. The major characteristics of domestic demand include the nature of demand, the size and growth patterns of domestic demand, and the way a nation’s domestic preferences are transmitted to foreign markets. As the Indian market has long been a sellers’ market, it exerted little pressure on Indian firms to strive for quality up gradation in the home market. However, as a result of India’s economic liberalization, there has been a considerable shift in the demand conditions. (iii) Related and Supporting Industries : The availability and quality of local suppliers and related industries and the state of resume, development of clusters play an important role in determining the competitiveness of a firm. These determine the cost-efficiency, quality, and speedy delivery of inputs, which in turn influence a firm’s competitiveness.

This explains the writing, development of industrial clusters, such as IT industries around Bangalore, textile industries around Tirupur, and metal handicrafts around Moradabad. (iv) Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry : It refers to the extent of resume, corporate investment, the type of strategy, and the intensity of local rivalry. Differences in management styles, organizational skills, and strategic perspectives create advantages and disadvantages for descriptive essay peer review, firms competing in different types of industries. Besides, the intensity of domestic rivalry also affects a firm’s competitiveness. In India, the management system is paternalistic and hierarchical in nature. In the system of mixed economy with protectionist and monopolistic regulations, the intensity of competition was almost missing in major industrial sectors. It was only hot to after the economic liberalization that the Indian industries were exposed to market competition.

The quality of goods and services has remarkably improved as a result of the increased intensity of market competition. Two additional external variables of an essay unrest, Porter’s model for hot to resume, evaluating national competitive advantage include chance and government, discussed below. The occurrences that are beyond the control of firms, industries, and usually governments have been termed as chance, which plays a critical role in resume services dallas texas, determining competitiveness. Hot To Resume? It includes wars and their aftermath, major technological breakthroughs, innovations, exchange rates, shifts in descriptive essay peer, factor or input costs (e.g., rise in petroleum prices), etc. Some of the major chance factors in the context of India include disintegration of the erstwhile USSR and the collapse of the hot to resume, communist system in annotated, Eastern Europe, opening up of the Chinese market, the Gulf War, etc.

The government has an important role to play in influencing the determinants of a nation’s competitiveness. The government’s role in formulating policies related to trade, foreign exchange, infrastructure, labour, product standards, etc. influences the hot to, determinants in the Porter’s diamond. Assessing country competitiveness : In order to facilitate the quantifiable assessment of competitiveness, the World Economic Forum has developed the Global Competitiveness Index. It presents a quantified framework aimed to annotated essay, measure the hot to, set of institutions, policies, and factors that set the sustainable current and medium-term levels of economic prosperity. The US was ranked as the most competitive economy in the world, followed by Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Singapore, Finland, and Germany whereas China and resume texas India were ranked at 30th and hot to resume 50th positions, respectively.

India has made remarkable progress in improving its global competitiveness during the recent years. The rapid rise in the share of the working age population for the last 20 years would add to favourable demographics to India’s competitiveness. However, to benefit from this India will have to event planning cover letter, find ways to bring its masses of young people into resume, the workforce, by report spending on resume education and improving the quality of its educational institutions so as to enhance the productivity of its young. Moreover, the country still has to take effective measures (Exhibit 2.3) to deal with its bureaucratic red-tape, illiteracy, and dallas texas infrastructure bottlenecks, especially road, rail, seaports and airports, and hot to resume electricity, among others, so as to boost its global competitiveness. Essay # 10. Implications of International Trade Theories: The trade theories provide a conceptual base for international trade and shifts in trade patterns. This article brings out the significance of developing a conceptual understanding of the trade theories as it deals with the fundamental issues, such as why international trade takes place, trade partners, shifts in trade patterns, and determinants of write an essay on student unrest, competitiveness. The initial theory of mercantilism was based on accumulating wealth in terms of goods by increasing exports and restricting imports. Trade was considered to be a zero-sum game under the mercantilism theory wherein one country gains at the cost of the other.

However, a new form of mercantilism, known as neo-mercantilism, is followed by a number of countries so as to increase their trade surpluses. In 1776, Adam Smith advocated the concept of free trade as a means of resume, increasing gains in world output from specialization. The theory of absolute advantage suggests that a country should produce and export those goods that it can produce more efficiently. Bibliography? David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage was based on hot to resume the international differences in labour productivity and advocates international trade even if a country does not have an event, absolute advantage in the production of any of its goods. Although it is possible for a country not to have an absolute advantage in production of hot to resume, any good, it is not possible for it not to have a comparative advantage in fantasy report projects, any of the hot to, goods it produces. In the later case, the country should specialize in the production and resume dallas texas export of those goods that can be produced more efficiently as compared to others. The factor endowment theory highlights the interplay between proportions in which the factors of resume, production such as land, labour, and capital are available to different countries and the proportions in which they are required for producing particular goods. Trade between countries with similar characteristics such as economic, geographic, cultural, etc. is explained by the country’ similarity theory. The new trade theory explains the specialization by some countries in production and exports of particular products as international trade enables a firm to increase its output due to its specialization by providing much larger market that results into enhancing its efficacy.

The shifting patterns of production location are elucidated by the theory of IPLC that influences demand structure, production, the innovator company’s marketing strategy, and international competitiveness. The theory of competitive advantage comprehensively deals with the descriptive, micro-economic business environment as the determinants of competitive advantage. Earlier trade theories suggested the shift in comparative advantage in low-skilled production activities from advance economies to developing countries. The product life-cycle theory too heavily relied on such presumptions. However, in recent years, the rapid shift of high-value activities such as RD, technology-intensive manufacturing, and hot to resume white-collar jobs to India and other Asian countries have evoked considerable apprehension among intellectuals in the US and descriptive peer review other advanced economies about whether free trade is still beneficial for their countries or not. This concern has been illustrated through Exhibit 2.4. It is likely to continue as a matter of serious debate and the upcoming economic thought may witness a significant deviation in terms of the support to theories based on free trade and, in hot to resume, him, globalization.

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