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Thesis family business

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Building Java Programs, 4th edition. Except where otherwise noted, the contents of this document are Copyright 2013 Stuart Reges and Marty Stepp. lab document created by Marty Stepp, Stuart Reges and Whitaker Brand. Thesis? Goals for this problem set: write our own new classes of role essay objects declare fields, methods, and constructors understand the difference between class code and client code Where you see this icon, you can click it to check the problem in Practice-It! Exercise : Client code method call syntax. Business? Suppose a method in quantitative paper, the BankAccount class is defined as: If the client code has declared a BankAccount variable named acct , which of the thesis family following would be a valid call to the above method? int result = BankAccount.computeInterest(42); double result = computeInterest(acct, 42); acct.computeInterest(42.0, 15); double result = acct.computeInterest(42); What are the x- and y-coordinates of the Point s referred to as p1 , p2 , and p3 after the management dissertation following code executes? Give your answer as an x-y pair such as (0, 0). (Recall that Point s and thesis family other objects use reference semantics . The above Point class has 5 errors. Can you find them all? line 6: method header should not have the word static line 12: should not re-declare field x (delete word int ) line 13: should not re-declare field y (delete word int ) line 17: should not declare Point p line 18: should not use p. in front of the models fields. The above println statement (the entire line) is equivalent to what? System.out.println(p1.string()); p1.toString(); System.out.println(p1.toString()); System.out.println(Point.toString()); System.out.println(toString(p1)); Download the following files Point.java and PointClient.java to your machine and thesis business open them with jGrasp. (or solve this problem in Practice-It!) The PointClient program is supposed to construct two Point objects, translate each, and then print their coordinates. Finish the program so that it runs properly. (You don't need to audiology resume cover modify Point.java .) The debugger can help you learn how classes and objects work.

In this exercise we will debug the thesis business Ch. 8 Stock Case Study example. This program tracks purchases of two stock investments. To download the example: Go to audiology cover letter the class web page and click the Textbook link. Thesis Family Business? Find the section labeled Code Files and click the code files link. Then click ch08. Download and save the research files Stock.java and StockMain.java . Right-click each file name and Save the thesis business Link in the same folder you use for lab work. Compile and run StockMain.java in jGRASP to quantitative research method paper see that it works. continued on the next slide. Set a stop on the System.out.print on line 53, and debug the program. Type the user input to recreate the following partial log: At this point, what are the values of the thesis fields in the currentStock object? (Ask a TA if you need help.)

continued on the next slide. Now let's debug inside one of the Stock object's methods. Your program should still be stopped. Essay On First Of Travelling Train? Set a new stop at the return on line 29 of thesis business Stock.java . Resume your program . Resynthesis Plugin? It will prompt for today's price per share. Enter 37.29 . If you did it properly, the program should now call getProfit on thesis the Stock and hit your stop point. What are the values of the object ( this ) 's fields, and the variable marketValue ? continued on critical for night the next slide. Now let's watch the total shares and cost of a stock change with each purchase. Remove your existing stop points and set a new stop somewhere in the for loop on lines 42-50 of StockMain , and Resume . Type the user input to continue recreating the following partial log: After each call of purchase , what are the field values of currentStock ? The next exercise refers to the following BankAccount class (download it and open it in jGRASP). Exercise : BankAccount transactionFee.

Add a double field to the BankAccount class named transactionFee that represents an thesis, amount of money to deduct every time the user withdraws money. The default value is are celebrities good role models $0.00 , but the client can change the value. Deduct the transaction fee money during every withdraw call (but not from deposits). Make sure that the balance cannot go negative during a withdrawal. If the family business withdrawal (amount plus transaction fee) would cause it to become negative, don't modify the balance value at all. Test your solution to this problem in Practice-It. Download the following file PointMain.java to your machine and open it with jGrasp. Business Management Dissertation? Now edit Point.java and add two methods to the Point class as described on thesis family business the next two slides. The PointMain program calls these methods; you can use it to test your code. Or you can test your code in Practice-It!

Add the following method to the Point class: Returns which quadrant of the x/y plane this Point object falls in. Quadrant 1 contains all points whose x and y values are both positive. Quadrant 2 contains all points with negative x but positive y. Quadrant 3 contains all points with negative x and y values. Quadrant 4 contains all points with positive x but negative y. If the point lies directly on the x and/or y axis, return 0. (Test your code in Practice-It! or by running the PointMain program.) Add the following method to the Point class: Negates and swaps the x/y coordinates of the Point object. For example, if an object pt initially represents the point (5, -3), after a call of pt.flip(); , the object should represent (3, -5). Quantitative Research Method Paper? If the same object initially represents the family point (4, 17), after a call to pt.flip(); , the management dissertation object should represent (-17, -4). Test your code in Practice-It! or by running the PointMain program. Modify the toString method in family business, the Point class. Make it return a string in the following format. For example, if a Point object stored in a variable pt represents the point (5, -17), return the string: If the client code were to call System.out.println(pt); , that text would be shown on the console. (Test your code in Practice-It, or by running your PointClient or PointMain and printing a Point there.) Add a toString method to the BankAccount class. Your method should return a string that contains the account's name and balance separated by essay, a comma and space.

For example, if an account object named benben has the name Benson and a balance of 17.25, benben.toString() should return: If the client code were to call System.out.println(benben); , that text would be shown on thesis family the console. (Test your code by writing a short client program that constructs and resynthesis plugin initializes an account, then prints it.) Add the family following method to the Point class: Returns the Manhattan distance between the current Point object and resume letter the given other Point object. The Manhattan distance refers to thesis business how far apart two places are if the person can only travel straight horizontally or vertically, as though driving on the streets of Manhattan. In our case, the Manhattan distance is the gimp resynthesis sum of the absolute values of the differences in their coordinates; in other words, the thesis business difference in x plus the difference in in a train, y between the points. Thesis Family? Click on the check-mark above to try out your solution in Practice-it! (Write just the on first in a new method, not the thesis family business entire Point class.) Define a class named TimeSpan . A TimeSpan object stores a span of on first experience time in hours and minutes (for example, the thesis time span between 8:00am and 10:30am is 2 hours, 30 minutes). The minutes should always be reported as being in the range of 0 to 59. Quantitative Research Method Paper? That means that you may have to carry 60 minutes into a full hour. To solve this problem, you may want to refer to the lecture slides about the syntax for constructors . See the Practice-It link above for a full description of the class and the methods/constructors it should have. Define a class named Circle . A Circle object stores a center point and a radius.

See the business Practice-It link above for a full description of the class and the methods/constructors it should have. You can also test your class in Practice-It. Gimp Plugin? The above Point class has 8 errors. Family Business? Can you find them all? line 5: constructor header should not have the critical essay word void line 6-7: the assignment statements are backwards; reverse left/right sides of each line 10: method header should not have the word static line 11-12: should not re-declare fields x and thesis family business y lines 18-19: should not re-declare fields x and y (remove word int ) Suppose you are given a class named ClockTime with the following contents: Write an instance method advance that will be placed inside the good role ClockTime class. The method accepts a number of minutes as its parameter and moves your object forward in thesis family, time by critical for night, that amount of minutes.

The minutes passed could be any non-negative number, even a large number such as 500 or 1000000. Business? If necessary, your object might wrap into the next hour or day, or it might wrap from the morning (AM) to critical lens essay the evening (PM) or vice versa. Thesis? (A ClockTime object doesn't care about what day it is; if you advance by 1 minute from 11:59 PM, it becomes 12:00 AM.) For example, the following calls would produce the following results: Test your solution to this problem in Practice-It. Write an instance method isWorkTime that will be placed inside the ClockTime class. The method returns true if the object is experience of travelling in a train a time during the thesis family work day from 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM inclusive; otherwise false . The following objects would return the following results if the method were called: Test your solution to this problem in Practice-It. Suppose you are given a class named Rectangle with the following contents:

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Les autres matieres suivantes: l'histoire, le francais. France , Trigraph 1141 Words | 3 Pages. The French legal system essay Britain is a common law country in which the system of justice depends heavily on custom and thesis family business . Audiology Resume Letter. precedent. By contrast, France is thesis a civil law country where the legal system is based entirely on role essay a body of written law commonly called the Code of Law. This translates into less reliance on thesis case law, no straight precedent rule, and to simplify matters, no need in contracts for providing for are celebrities, every single occurrence, which means that a standard agreement might well be ten. Civil law , Codification , Common law 1272 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Impact of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and family Citizen on are celebrities good models essay the French Revolution Course: HIST 1801E Major Issues In World History . By: Andrew Grossman- 250790710 Professor: Dr. Thesis. Reid-Maroney Due date: October 15, 2014 Chapter 16: “Atlantic Revolutions, Global Echoes” Document 16.1: The French Revolution and the “Rights of Man” German philosopher and role models revolutionist Karl Marx once said, 1“It is not history which uses men as a means of achieving - as if it were an.

Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of thesis family business Man and of the Citizen , Democracy 1343 Words | 6 Pages. Some of the following content has been altered to maintain anonymity. MSU standards for intellectual honesty apply to scholarship application . essays . Essays copied in whole or in part from these samples or any other applicant’s work will be rejected and are celebrities good role may result in family business, disciplinary action. Essay #1 Score: 4.0 For as long as I can remember I’ve known what I wanted to do with my life. Science has always been a passion of mine, and medicine in particular has interested me for some time. Dedicating. College , Experience , German language 1196 Words | 4 Pages. revolutions was the critical essay French Revolution because it came with many consequences and influences.

Nothing else like this had ever happened this . powerful to change the political status quo. Many people surprisingly don’t know how the French Revolution started but through this paper we will be learning more about it. Starting in 1789 through 1794 the people of France dethroned and arrested their king Louis XVI, took apart his monarchy, and executed him, his wife, and thousands of nobles. Thesis Family Business. The French people then. Demographics of France , Estates of the realm , France 1127 Words | 4 Pages. EssayForum Unanswered [2] / Urgent [3] Home / Speeches / 'Good morning friends!'; Introducing Myself - college speech . Research Paper. answers: 2 Sarath Kumar Oct 31, 2013, 11:19am #1 Introducing Myself - college speech Good morning friends!

My name is Sarath Kumar. I'm going to thesis business, introduce myself.I have born and grown up in Vizianagaram and I'm studying first year BSC computer science in this prestigeous college, Vizianagaram. As for my family, I've just one brother older than me. My father. 1995 singles , Attention , Employment 746 Words | 3 Pages. ?1. FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754–1763) The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was the last of a series of great colonial wars that . stretched for plugin, almost a hundred years and thesis business disrupted settlements throughout North America. It marked the end of the French empire in resume cover, North America and the beginning of family business English domination of the continent. It also emphasized the differences between Englishmen and are celebrities role models colonists and family laid the essay on first experience of travelling groundwork for the drive toward independence, culminating in the American Revolution (1775–1783). Appalachian Mountains , Canada , French and Indian War 1384 Words | 3 Pages.

the incentive to go against the monarchy. Historical evidence suggests that Marie Antoinette betrayed France in the soul aim to thesis family business, bring back absolute monarchy. . Apparently, she sent details of French military plans to the Austrians. This claim is supported by Source 2, where Marie Antoinette “had discussed French military strategic nuggets of on first experience of travelling military information in letters to Axel von Fersen”; it showed the monarchy as traitors to thesis family, the Revolution. This put Marie in a bad light with her family declaring. Absolute monarchy , Constitutional monarchy , Head of state 1420 Words | 4 Pages. Causes and Outcomes of the French Revolution Essay. Causes and quantitative paper Outcomes of the French Revolution A common theme of the thesis family historical French Revolution of the late 1700s is the . bloodshed associated with a new execution device developed by Antoine Louis, the guillotine (Acton). This negative connotation of the Revolution resides in the minds of the French and people all around the world. Although the French Revolution has contained a fair amount of resynthesis plugin bloodshed, its aftermath on the French nation was overall positive for the French people.

There were several. Age of business Enlightenment , Declaration of the resynthesis Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 2263 Words | 6 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Thesis Family. Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. Management. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to business, access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS.

Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the experience in a Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an thesis business attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ Essay: Causes Of The French Revolution.

The French Revolution of business management dissertation 1789 had many long-range causes. Political, social, and economic conditions in France mad many French . people discontented. Most disaffected were merchants, artisans, workers, and peasants. The ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers brought new views of government and society. The American Revolution also influenced the coming of The French Revolution. Thesis Family. Therefore, The French Revolution of 1789 had several causes not only due to political, but also due to social and economic issues.

Age of Enlightenment , American Revolutionary War , Democracy 1049 Words | 3 Pages. maybe connected to low self esteem and image, a clear example of research method this can be shown in the time it has taken for me to thesis family, write this piece of work, I decided . Management Dissertation. that I would base what I had learnt on the course, theory and group work around my beliefs about myself and my abilities. Thesis Family. Main I realised that I was not taught how to cover letter, learn as a child and due to thesis, this I formed my own beliefs around. I decided that by having an audiology cover letter understanding of different learning styles may help me find what approach works best. Cognition , Essay , Mind 849 Words | 3 Pages.

France - Change over Time Essay (French Revolution) *As the title indicates, this is a change/continuity AP essay written for World History class. Vaguely, the essay question was: . Describe change and continuity in France from the mid-1700s to the mid-1800s.*Like many other European nations in the 1700's, France experienced a dramatic shift of sentiments against the monarchy, nobility, and Catholic Church as the people, fired by rousing new Enlightenment ideals, began to question authority and emphasize the need for thesis family, equality, liberty, and lens for night democracy. Age of Enlightenment , Democracy , Europe 1164 Words | 4 Pages. Breakfast Club Essay, Myself Relating to family business, Characters. Essay The Breakfast Club The Breakfast Club is a story about five teenagers put in Saturday detention. Each character gives a face to most . Lens. of the high school stereotypes. Family Business. The brain, the athlete, the audiology resume cover basket case, the princess and family business the criminal. Each are given their own seat and the instructions to sit for eight hours and write an essay on who they think they are. Each of them, having very strong personalities, will fight, cry, laugh and learn from each other, making friendships that would have.

Stereotype , Suicide , Suicide methods 880 Words | 3 Pages. A friend of mine asked me to write an essay about lens for night, myself ….and I wondered that I did experience many writings but none of them . Family Business. were my own. Undoubtedly it’s difficult to tell you about me but let’s start from a scratch. I am Adeela Abbasi, born at Deena near Mangla in 1988. Are Celebrities Role Essay. Being the thesis family business elder of business dissertation my family with two siblings a brother and a sister, I enjoyed the love of every relation at utmost level.

My father belongs to a construction business and my mom is family a house wife. Papa, having charismatic personality. Allah , Islamic banking , Management 809 Words | 2 Pages. [pic] Fluent French Experiences of an English speaker by Erik T. Mueller Citation: Mueller, Erik T. Essay Experience Of Travelling In A Train. (1998). Fluent . Thesis Business. French : Experiences of an English speaker. New York: Signiform. Available: http://www.signiform.com/ french / Read more about French [pic] Contents 1. For Night. What would it be like to thesis family business, speak French fluently? 2. Dissertation. Section 1: Words and expressions 1. The basics of spoken French 2. Thesis Business. Conversational tics 3. Synonyms for good 4. Essay On First Experience Of Travelling In A Train. Hedges . Belgium , English language , French Canadian 24669 Words | 85 Pages.

?Nadia Testroet Eikum AP English December 13, 2014 About Myself In 1914, World War I began and was commonly referred to family, around the on first experience of travelling in a world as . “The War To End All Wars” and “The Great War”. As volunteers for the war ran out, the family business government had to go into a draft. As names were getting pulled, the soon to be soldiers were being pulled out as just a number, not even a name. Following the conclusion of World War I was the emergence of The Great Depression. “Millions of people were out of work, and. Federal government of the United States , Franklin D. Critical Essay For Night. Roosevelt , Great Depression 797 Words | 4 Pages. try to figure out by myself . I was very sacred I didn’t know what I am going to do. Thesis Family Business. I decided I am not going to sit here and do nothing. Resynthesis Plugin. Next . morning I went to college and asked the administration lady what is assessment test, and where I have to take the test and family what should I study. She explained me everything about plugin, assessment test. I took my assessment test without getting any help from my brother. I was really happy that I am ready for some responsibility of myself . But now there is new.

Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. Louis Xvi of France and family French Revolution. Major Causes of the French Revolution - College Essay - Studymode www.studymode.com › Essays › Governments? . Audiology. Rating: 4 - 4 votes DBQ Essay : What were the major causes of the French Revolution? (Discuss three.) The major cause of the French Revolution was the disputes between the . Causes of the French Revolution - Wikipedia, the thesis family free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causes_of_the_French_Revolution? The causes of the French Revolution are those significant factors that led to resume, the . of. Age of Enlightenment , Essay , Five paragraph essay 554 Words | 3 Pages. PERSONAL ESSAY The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, to thesis business, try or to attempt. The Frenchman . (Michel de Montaigne 1533–1592) was the first author to audiology resume letter, describe his work as essays ; he used the term to characterize these as attempts to put his thoughts into writing. Thesis. Francis Bacon's essays , published in book form in 1597, 1612, and 1625, were the first works in English that described themselves as essays . Audiology Resume Cover Letter. (Jonson, 1609) first used the thesis word essayist in English, according to the Dictionary. Academic degree , Education , Essay 1154 Words | 3 Pages. Cultural research on french Michael Alatorre French 101 (Friday 8a-12:20p Spring 2011 Project 1, Cultural Research . After referencing many topics to choose from the french culture, i have made my dicision on what interest's me the most from any culture. Art. Gimp Resynthesis Plugin. My research will discuss the importance of french art in a cultural aspect to why the french people adore art, and most importantly I will write about some of the greatest french artist this world has ever known. . Art museums and galleries in Paris , Claude Monet , France 827 Words | 3 Pages.

concepts. All countries go through a variety of wars to fight for their freedom and stance. Like any other nation out there, France fought through many . hardships to become an independent country and excel in many concepts. Thesis Family Business. People tend to believe that French citizens are full of themselves due to their advanced, intellectual achievements, but the cause is quite abstruse. The story behind France becoming a country was just as herculean as any other nation. To begin with, around 50 B.C., France was under. Cultural heritage , France , Franks 906 Words | 3 Pages. Read and Download french essay topics for igcse. Gimp Resynthesis Plugin. Free access for PDF Ebook French Essay Topics For . Igcse as well as other store collections. There are many totally free French Essay Topics For Igcse that are regularly created and also archived in our online library.

If you want French Essay Topics For Igcse that will satisfy your term paper needs, then you don not need to family business, to fret about that to obtain long. This is considering that there is a significant database of different compositions and are celebrities role models research. Book , Charles de Gaulle , Essay 2001 Words | 7 Pages. The French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution and the American Revolution. There is no Revolution without a Dance Before it A little essay about the reasons and the outcomes of The American Revolution, the . French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Jakob Tegner History A 20/03/06 Katharina Brummer Bjork Source Criticism In order to achieve this essay I found help in three different books.

The first book, A History of World Societies by the authors McKay, Hill and Buckler, was my primary source. Family Business. It is a history book of 1800 pages which thoroughly explain. Age of Enlightenment , American Revolution , Europe 1822 Words | 6 Pages. Essay on self believe and writers. during this 3 years period I didn’t have the chance to go school because the lens Ivory Coast was a French speaking country, so they didn’t have . Thesis Family Business. English schools when I was there. Cover Letter. I still believed that being in 7th grade I’m halfway to becoming a High School graduate and that my dream will come through it was just a matter of business time before I start school again. The only thing I could learn in Abidjan were Math and essay of travelling train French . I thought learning Math were going to make School little bit easier for me when I get to. College , Graduation , High school 1504 Words | 5 Pages. Ariana Herbert Modern European Revolutions Essay # 1 The French Revolution (1789-1799) was one of the thesis business most influential . social and radical movements in models, European and modern history. Family. Like all revolutions there were many successes and many failures. But with all those positive and negatives, could we honestly say that the French Revolution was a success?

Did the are celebrities models radicals come to common ground? With these and other factors all playing major roles, especially as the Revolution became more radical. Age of Enlightenment , Belgium , Declaration of the thesis Rights of Man and for night of the Citizen 1158 Words | 4 Pages. AY In this essay I will explore the good and the bad of playing sport. One of thesis family my favourite hobbies is management playing sport. It’s the excitement and . eager of physical competition that makes me interested in sport. I have taken part in almost every single sport for example, hockey, rugby, tennis, basketball and most loved, football. There are many heroes of sport like Didier Drogba who was is a legend for my favourite club Chelsea FC. His ambition, good sportsmanship and personality are one of the main reasons. Abidjan , Ancient Olympic Games , Chelsea F.C.

606 Words | 2 Pages. Developments in French Art changed the older attitudes regarding the happy mother and the ideals of the family. Family. During the eighteenth century, . the enlightenment figures began to develop new ideals on the happy mother and resume family. Evolving attitudes and family developments were seen in the family setting, which brought on new ideals in quantitative research method paper, the French society. The negative view that marriages portrayed was then seen as a blessed and heavenly sacrament. New ideals regarding children were also developed, as they.

Age of Enlightenment , Conjugal family , Family 1377 Words | 4 Pages. Chen Hao World History 9, Period 4 1-I-13 First Draft of family business French Revolution Essay Why was there a revolution in France in gimp plugin, . 1789? The French Revolution was a imaginary train that changed the direction of thought in thesis business, Europe and also showed the end of the “Modern Age”, which is called the Ancien Regime in gimp, France, and showed the beginning of a “Contemporary Age”. Family Business. The absolutism of the Ancien Regime was the seed that planted the fury of the people in quantitative research method paper, France and it was the thesis family main reason that started. Age of Enlightenment , American Revolutionary War , France 1545 Words | 5 Pages. ?How far was the russo-Japanese war responsible for the outbreak in Russia 1905? The Russo-Japanese war took place in 1904 to 1905 and management dissertation began because of . both Russia and Japans desire to expand their borders into places such as Korea. During this war, Russia was humiliated and had many defeats from a country which were considered to be inferior. Family Business. The defeat of this war humiliated the people of Russia and business dissertation therefore lost confidence in Nicholas II. Russia’s defeat in business, the war also caused problems in. Kazakhstan , Latvia , Russia 1309 Words | 3 Pages.

What is models essay a comparative essay ? A comparative essay asks that you compare at least two (possibly more) items. These items will . Family. differ depending on the assignment. You might be asked to compare positions on an issue (e.g., responses to for night, midwifery in Canada and the United States) theories (e.g., capitalism and communism) figures (e.g., GDP in the United States and Britain) texts (e.g., Shakespeare’s Hamletand Macbeth) events (e.g., the Great Depression and the global financial crisis of 2008–9) . Communism , Comparison , Essay 980 Words | 4 Pages. Napoleon Essay: Was Napoleon an enlightened leader who preserved the French Revolution or a military dictator who betrayed its ideals? Napoleon Essay : Was Napoleon an enlightened leader who preserved the French Revolution or a military dictator who betrayed its . Thesis Family. ideals? Napoleon’s rule eleven-year career from 1804 to audiology letter, 1815 as the business Emperor of the French allowed him to quantitative research, accomplish many things, some beneficial to France, others betraying the basic ideals formed by the revolution. When closely analyzed, it is business clear that his positive work greatly outweighs his negatives’. Napoleon ruled using the enlightened ideas of equality, freedom.

Age of Enlightenment , Christianity , Europe 1205 Words | 4 Pages. The French Revolution: Why and how did it start? What were major events that took place during it? How did it end? . There are many factors that contributed to the start of the French revolution. The enlightenment? is one of the major factors. The enlightenment was a time where people started to think for themselves and opinions started to form. Doing things for yourself and forgetting the government was among the business management people. One of the questions that started to arise was, ? why are the aristocrats more privileged than everyone else. Age of Enlightenment , Isaac Newton , John Locke 1539 Words | 4 Pages.

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The “Myth” of Unity: A Response to a 2009 Address Given at St Vladimir’s Seminary. This article was originally published on OrthodoxyToday.org. ABSTRACT: Last year, a symposium entitled The Council and thesis, the Tomos: 20th Century Landmarks Towards a 21st Century Church , was held at St Vladimir’s Seminary (Crestwood, June 18-20, 2009). One of the speakers, Matthew Namee, presented an expanded version of a paper he delivered the previous year at on first in a train the Orthodox Theological Society in America. His paper was titled, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Jurisdictional Pluralism in North America.” Namee expanded an earlier thesis to thesis, argue that the story of the Russian Mission and the implicit unity it fostered in the early years of the Orthodox presence in America was largely mythical. Rather, the history is one of jurisdictional rivalry and division from resume cover letter which we can draw little or no guidance for our present situation or the future. Thesis Business. Namee implicitly issued a challenge: Which historical narrative that describes the Orthodoxy presence in America is correct? Is it the Russian Mission narrative which prescribes a Church guided by the Orthodox missionary imperative? Or is quantitative paper, it the narrative of ethnic protection that has little interest in family business engaging American society and culture? The resolution of this question will impact the future of Orthodoxy in America.

Will American Orthodoxy become a local church in the canonical tradition of mission-minded Orthodoxy, or will it remain divided by ethnic interests, essentially a Balkanized entity subject to overseas leadership and political interests? What follows is essay, my response. I. Thesis Business. Introduction: The “Creation Myth” of American Orthodoxy. Recently, an insightful analysis on the origins of American Orthodoxy was given at St Vladimir’s Seminary in Crestwood, New York. It was presented by critical essay a well-respected authority on American Orthodox history, Matthew Namee, a resident scholar at the Society for Orthodox Christian History in America (SOCHA). Namee’s thesis is that there was never a “golden age” of thesis family business administrative unity and thus the primatial claims of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA) which is the direct descendant of the original Russian missionary diocese are invalid. As such, the essay experience of travelling train, various ethnic jurisdictions are themselves under no obligation to thesis family business, submit to the claims of the Orthodox Church in audiology cover letter America. Namee’s final conclusion is that despite the present administrative disunity, we are in fact more united than we have ever been.

To his great credit, Namee declares that despite this newer understanding of American Orthodoxy’s origins, he has always been a “passionate supporter” of thesis business administrative unity and continues to remain so today. In A Train. 1. To support this analysis, the importance of the year 1917 is minimized. Family. As is well known, this is the date considered by essay for night many to be the thesis business, end of Orthodox unity in America. That year the Bolsheviks succeeded in overthrowing the Romanov dynasty, thereby ending the critical, subsidies of the Russian Orthodox Church to its diocese in North America. Instead, we are told that the first Greek parishes in the United States were already “independent” and that as far as the other ethnic parishes were concerned, “cracks and fissures” appreared previous to the final rupture in 1917. Thesis Business. As such, 1908 is proffered as a watershed year, since that was when the Ecumenical Patriarchate (under duress from its Ottoman overlords) transferred its parishes in the United States to the Church of Greece thereby ostensibly uniting the Greek-Americans into a new, independent ethnic jurisdiction. (As we shall see, this act was resolutely ignored by a significant majority of the Greek parishes in the United States.) Left unanswered in this newer narrative are several questions.

It is the intention of this essay to ask these questions and examine these claims as critically and as impartially as possible. The Primacy of the Russian Mission. Namee’s research is diligent; the facts as laid out are impressive. Indeed, I used many of critical essay these same sources for my own book, The American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings . 2 It is probable that there is no more knowledgeable historian of American Orthodox history than Namee (as noted by Fr John Erickson, who introduced him at the conference). Certainly his sources are more voluminous than those which my coauthor and myself had access to. The quarrel therefore is not with the facts, but with the interpretation of these facts.

More disturbingly, his analysis evinces a seeming unconcern with the ecclesiological ramifications of the canonical chaos (willful as it often was) for the rival jurisdictions that arose out of them. Thesis Business. It is research method, my contention that the original thesis, that is to say, the primacy of the Russian Mission and its internal administrative unity still stands. Furthermore, it was canonical in all its particulars, something that cannot be said of the incipient ethnic jurisdictions. Therefore the question is: Were these ethnic parishes outside the ecclesiastical norms? I will endeavor to examine only the thesis business, evidence that Namee provides in order to attempt an answer. At the risk of belaboring the point, we can state categorically that there already was an management, established local church in North America and that its internal unity and adherence to canonical norms was beyond dispute. Thesis Family Business. It was recognized not only by audiology resume cover letter the established Orthodox patriarchates, but by secular authorities in America as well. As shall be demonstrated in this response, the Russian missionary diocese (henceforth called the Russian Mission) functioned as a coherent diocese, one recognized the thesis family, world over as an integral part of the Russian Orthodox Church, whose bishops were fully integrated into the life of that church and who was dependent upon it for material support. Such support included stipends for business priests, monies for properties and the erection of churches and donations of liturgical items. It should be noted at this point that in stark contrast to the Russian Orthodox Church, no other foreign Orthodox patriarchate provided any means of support to their emigres or financially assisted any immigrant priests that came to the New World.

Instead, many of these same immigrants received support from the Russian Mission. Russian Church in thesis family Sitka, AK – 1895. The origins of the Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Diocese of America, the official name of this diocese, can be traced to paper, 1794, to Sitka, Alaska, when eight Russian monks from family business Valaam monastery established the essay, original mission. Among these men included future saints such Juvenaly and business, Herman. Its purpose was to evangelize the natives and critical lens essay for night, not merely to care for the pastoral needs of the Russian colonists. Indeed, at great personal risk to themselves, they often ignored the family business, dictates of the Russian colonial administration and conducted mass baptisms of business entire native villages, an act which conferred a degree of political protection on them, most especially from the depredations of the Russian colonial government. From the efforts of this this original mission natives, such as Peter the Aleut and thesis business, Jacob Netsvetov arose and quantitative research method paper, have been added to the roster or glorified saints. More to business, the point, all of its bishops stand in quantitative research a direct line of succession from thesis family business St Innocent (who later became Metropolitan of Moscow). Moreover, its administrative integrity was real and its primacy was recognized by all, including many of the non-Russian ethnic groups who set up their own parishes outside of its purview.

It was the lens, local established Church. To be sure, some one hundred years later, immigrants from traditionally Orthodox countries started making their presence known. Independent noises were certainly being heard at least in business certain precincts. Even in light of actual independence of some parishes from the Russian missionary diocese, the situation was far from static as some of these parishes transferred their allegiances to the Russian Mission at various times and for various reasons. Business. It is noteworthy that not once did a Russian Mission parish transfer its allegiance to any of the newer jurisdictions . As noted, liturgical items were even accepted by family business some of management those parishes that remained independent of the Russian Mission. Be that as it may, the number of these independent parishes was small in comparison to the overall size of the Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, by the time of the creation of the first ethnic exarchates in the 1920s, the Russian missionary diocese contained over three-quarters of all Orthodox parishes in North America.

3 Therefore, I contend that in almost all of particulars, the argument of a normative hyper-independence (for want of family business a better phrase) from the Russian Mission is debatable. That schism from the Russian Mission erupted at various times is not debatable, neither is the fact that many parishes were set up outside its purview; instead the questions that should be asked are whether such actions were (1) canonical, and (2) if they were widespread. It is this author’s contention that such actions were neither canonical nor in the grand scheme of things, that widespread. Let us therefore begin. First, Namee argues that “Orthodox Christians in America today are largely united.” The key word here is “largely.” Depending on where one lives, one can just as easily state that we are “largely divided.” For example in 2007 the GOA Metropolitan of Boston issued a ban on his clergy preventing them from associating and concelebrating with members of the OCA a ban which is still in force. Resynthesis Plugin. 4 Metropolitan Philip Saliba of the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of America (AOA) jurisdiction for his part has banned his clergy from concelebrating with priests of the newly created Palestinian “vicariate” of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (GOA). 5 Recently, the general secretary of the family, Holy Synod in Istanbul, gave a scathing speech at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, in which he castigated two of the primates of other jurisdictions and even slandered the OCA as as “barely canonical.” 6 He then went on to lament the state of Orthodoxy in America, parish life in general, and quantitative research, the Athonite monasteries recently implanted here, among other things. His The Secretary’s most startling claim however was that the thesis business, Ecumenical Patriarchate enjoyed universal jurisdiction and thus, North America should be subjugated to a metropolitan of its choosing. Though his speech was ill received at Holy Cross, the faculty of that school recently posted a statement on the prerogatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and its claims to extra-territorial domination based on an arguable reading of Canon 28 of Chalcedon. Critical Lens For Night. 7 In other words, the thesis, faculty essentially agreed with the broad thrust of the models, original speech albeit in a more restrained and thoughtful manner.

Interestingly enough, this statement was unsigned. Other examples of disunity and noxious sentiments abound. In an business, issue of lens essay The Orthodox Observer , Fr Mark Arey stated that the GOA was “the [only] canonical jurisdiction in business America.” 8 Ironically, Arey is the general secretary of the Standing Council of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in America (SCOBA). Chicanery is also not beyond the quantitative method, pale: In order to increase the number of Constantinopolitan eparchies in thesis family North America, a special Albanian exarchate was created, consisting of two parishes. (The Albanian diocese of the OCA by contrast has 14 parishes.) For good measure, the lens essay for night, Georgian Orthodox Church recently announced the creation of a metropolitan for its one, lone parish in Brooklyn. Thesis. Recently, during an official visit in the United States, the Ecumenical Patriarch distorted the paper, origins of Orthodoxy’s beginnings in family business North America when he completely ignored the entire Russian missionary experience.

9 Rather, he lauded the New Smyrna plantation as the fons et origo of Orthodoxy in North America, even though the vast majority of its population was not Orthodox Christian, its only priest was Roman Catholic, and no Orthodox mission resulted. In any event the plantation withered away and its denizens merged into the majority population, leaving no traces of Hellenism behind. All of the incidents of intra-Orthodox rivalry described above took place within the past few years. None of this would strike the casual observer that the Orthodox Church in America is resume letter, “largely united.” Indeed, estrangement would be not too strong a word. As examples of inter-Orthodox cooperation, we are told by Namee “#133;that various Orthodox churches have banded together to form elementary schools, nursing homes, and thesis family business, soup kitchens.” A Google search for examples of such endeavors at present has not yielded any results as of yet. Although to my mind they would be welcome, the fact of their apparent scarcity should lead one to adopt a more humble attitude regarding local pan-Orthodox cooperation especially in the philanthropic field. To be sure, the IOCC and the OCMC do admirable and for night, much-lauded work, principally in the international arena. However, these are examples of business national ministries sponsored by SCOBA, not individual parishes located in the same city, working in cooperation with each other and pooling their parochial resources.

As for domestic charitable work, the essay experience, recently created Fellowship of Orthodox Christians United to Serve (FOCUS) is receiving less than full support from SCOBA, most probably due to intra-jurisdictional rivalry. 10. Namee does not shy from taking high-ranking members of his own (Antiochian) jurisdiction to business, task for propagating this supposed “myth” of unity. 11 That being said, the very hinge of this argument falls apart when he states, “#133;that from management dissertation its earliest days in America, Orthodoxy was characterized by ethnic separation.” Let us ignore briefly whether this is desirable or even canonical. This argument in toto rests on this one phrase: “from its earliest days.” But what is meant by “earliest days”? Any objective assessment of the North American church would have to thesis family business, begin from the actual inception of Orthodoxy in North America, that is from 1794. Unfortunately the first century of resume cover letter American Orthodoxy is elided over almost completely without comment. The Alaskan experience is resolutely ignored and/or marginalized.

The martyrdom of the family, first native American martyr (Peter the Aleut) in California no less(!) is not mentioned at all. The historic and massive outreach to the Carpatho-Russians, Galicians, and Ukrainians (the “Uniates”) is given remarkably short shrift. Nor are the non-Russian immigrant parishes of various ethnicities that were founded or supported by the Russian Mission given much consideration. The founding of Russian immigrant parishes and diocesan institutions likewise passes with only minimal comment. In reading this author’s paper, one gets the decided impression that only independent Greek parishes were being founded in the United States. Unfortunately we are not told that the majority of resume letter these independent parishes were originally founded as ethnic social clubs, as stated by no less an authority than Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, 12 a bishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese. Others such as the thesis business, Greek community of Galveston, Texas were founded in schism from already established Russian Mission parishes (in this case, a Serbian parish). That most of the Greek parishes were formed due to brazen acts of schism and other canonical irregularities largely passes without comment. Essay Experience Of Travelling In A. One could be forgiven for getting the thesis family, impression that such unfortunate acts are canonically inconsequential. Instead, we are comforted by the fact that Holy Chrism was being received from both the research paper, Church of Greece and the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Left unsaid is business, whether such nonchalance oversights are is ecclesiologically normal or even if it is method paper, canonically valid.

Unfortunately, Namee contradicts himself and equivocates on some important points. Family Business. The author writes that “#133;unity can have a variety of meanings.” How to square his statement that “all Orthodox churches are united on doctrine and sacraments,” in critical for night light of another of his observations wherein we are told that “#133;discipline with regard to marriage, ordination, and thesis business, the reception of converts can and often does differ”? Moreover, it is a stretch to say that all jurisdictions hold to the same “moral teachings.” The GOA for example lauded two Orthodox Senators of Greek extraction who upheld President Clinton’s veto of the partial birth abortion ban passed by Congress a practice that is essay on first experience in a train, so ghastly that presently only thesis family two doctors in America perform it. Indeed, the silence from many jurisdictions in this matter is nothing less than scandalous. Likewise, the question of membership in Freemasonry for Orthodox Christians is far from essay experience train settled across the spectrum of American Orthodoxy. In certain Antiochian parishes in the Upper Midwest, it was reliably reported that Muslim relatives of family business Orthodox Christians have regularly communed and have even served on parish councils. Essay Experience Of Travelling In A. 13 No doubt there are other examples of variances in moral standards, all of family business which calls into question the contention that “all jurisdictions” share the same “moral teachings.” As to English being the “lingua franca” of Orthodox liturgies, a careful examination would indicate that such a statement is essay for night, not necessarily borne out by the facts as presented. The study cited indicates that out of over 2,100 parishes in the United States, only 345 were sampled and of these, 74 percent stated that English was their “primary liturgical language.” From personal experience, I can safely state that regarding this issue alone, the thesis business, range of responses within a single parish can vary dramatically.

The reason is for night, because for many it is family business, a volatile issue, one having to do with an individual parishioner’s self-identity as a member of an gimp plugin, ethnic group which for many is the thesis business, sine qua non of critical essay Orthodox identity. Therefore, even if the universe of responses were more in line with the actual number of churches, I would still be reticent about making categorical statements regarding which is the “primary” language that is in family business fact being used in most American Orthodox churches. III. The “Creation Myth” Its Origins and the Facts. Where then did the “creation myth” come from? The author cites The Orthodox Church by Timothy Ware and Orthodox America, 1794-1976: Development of the quantitative method, Orthodox Church in America by Alexander Schmemann. As for the culprits who ruptured this unity (according to business, this narrative), he identifies the usual suspects, the Bolsheviks and role models, Archbishop Meletius Metaxakis (later to be Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople). The question unanswered is thesis, where did Ware and Schmemann acquire this narrative; one which can best be described as unity followed by rupture? After all, neither Ware nor Schmemann made it up out of gimp whole cloth. A partial answer can be found in business the author’s own biography, wherein he writes that he “grew up believing what [he now terms] the ‘myth of good role models unity.’” In other words, it was a belief that was au courant in Orthodox circles throughout North America. (I can attest to this fact based on my own personal experience.

14 ) It was only by his own research that he came to family, the conclusion that this was never the essay on first of travelling in a, case, a “fact” which caused him “no small measure of disappointment.” How then did we arrive at this point, to believe in two diametrically opposed narratives? It is my contention that despite the best of scholarly intentions, what is being proposed here is a counter-myth, perhaps unwittingly; but nonetheless one which has dire implications for the future of thesis Orthodoxy in America. As noted, this newer narrative is based on a different interpretation of the same facts and a regrettable ignorance of dissertation others. One of the elements of this counter-myth is the business, present Constantinopolitan claims of proteia or primacy which by rights supposedly belong to the GOA alone, since it is the major eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in North America. Although the author does not propagate this startling claim nor give it any credence in his own analysis, it does have its proponents and at present it is tightly interwoven with arguments of good models those who castigate the thesis, “creation myth” to justify their claims.

One of these critics is the business dissertation, aforementioned Arey, who boldly asserts that “the myth of family business a unified Orthodox Church in the Western Hemisphere prior to the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 needs to be debunked by serious historical and factual research.” 15 To his credit, Namee is an honest scholar; his own meticulous research has led him to critical lens essay, the conclusion which he now holds, independent of any preconceived notions. Arey on thesis the other hand feels that the matter is settled because the “myth” of unity will be “debunked” once “serious and factual research” (as opposed to “nonfactual” research?) is critical lens essay, conducted. In other words, Arey and his partisans in the GOA have already decided on the result, now all that is needed is research to justify the official party line. One can reasonably surmise that the reason GOA functionaries have taken this argument is that it is thesis, only by doing so that the primatial claims of the OCA can be trumped. Weaknesses of the Counter-Myth. Leaving aside for the moment the resynthesis, novel claims of Constantinopolitan supremacy and the sloppy logic of its adherents, the assertion of administrative disunity has been taken up by thesis other honest critics. As shall be seen time and again, it can only business dissertation be sustained by completely ignoring the first century of the history of the Russian missionary diocese. Thesis Family Business. Indeed, such willful ignorance is necessary for certain modern partisans of Constantinople otherwise their claims to jurisdiction over America can gain no purchase. It is only by going to the heart of the matter, that is to say the grant of method paper autocephaly by Patriarch Alexei I to the Metropolia in 1970 16 and attempting to delegitimize it, that such grandiose claims over North America can even be sustained.

Although this is probably not Namee’s intent, his arguments unwittingly give aid and comfort to family, the present supremacist Constantinopolitan position. More to the point, such a tack legitimizes the present jurisdictional anarchy with the attendant ecclesiological chaos. Experience Of Travelling In A. Regardless, the thesis business, counter-myth fails to make its case. Consider: it is noted that both patriarchs Alexei I and his successor Pimen defended this action to critical lens essay for night, Patriarch Athenagoras of Constantinople. Their words on this matter, that the authority of the Moscow patriarchate over North America was “recognized by all the Local Churches, including the Holy Church of Constantinople#133;” 17 is left unchallenged. Athenegoras’ lame response that “the initial Russian presence in Alaska and on the west coast of the United States did not grant to the Russian Church jurisdiction over all of America” 18 likewise passes without comment. Two things are immediately obvious from the above statement: (1) Athenagoras recognized the precedence of the Russian Mission on American soil but tried to minimize it by limiting it to the “west coast” (which of course is not entirely true), and family business, (2) Athenagoras made no countervailing argument against Alexei’s assertion that the Russian claim in North America was recognized by “all the Local Churches, including#133;Constantinople.” (What exactly was Athenagoras’ point? That Russia had jurisdiction over the Pacific Rim?) Interestingly enough, Athenagoras made no mention of Canon 28, which supposedly grants only Constantinople the right to on first of travelling in a train, evangelize and establish churches outside the boundaries of already established local churches. At the thesis, risk of digression, it is in are celebrities role essay fact becoming increasingly clear that the present claims of the Phanar regarding these issues have been evolving.

Indeed, this new claim that is to say, Constantinopolitan supremacy based on a novel interpretation of business Canon 28 that no canonical or historical precedent. In fact, it is gimp, only be viewing history a posteriori and with an agenda already in place that it can even be propounded in thesis the first place. 19. It is on first in a train, noteworthy that both Alexei and Pimen held the same position regarding the American church. A case could certainly be made that their defense was self-serving. On the other hand, an even stronger case could be made that both men believed that an thesis family, autocephalous mother church has the right to grant autonomy and even autocephaly to its own dioceses should the political situation warrant it this was in fact how ROCOR came about (after a fashion). 20. Be that as it may, this was also the position of the primitive Church, which saw the on first of travelling in a, proliferation of new dioceses and autocephalous provinces (as is business, implied in Apostolic Canon 34) in the first five hundred years of the Christian Era. What for that matter gives Athenagoras’ counter-argument any more weight? That is to say that Russia’s warrant extended only to cover letter, San Francisco (if that)? Can it not also be said that his own position in this regard was self-serving?

And since we are traveling down this path, which canon gives only Constantinople the right to grant autocephaly to churches that are not in thesis family business its patriarchate? More to the point and apropos of the present argument propagated by some professors at Holy Cross, which canon gives only Constantinople the right to preach and evangelize a territory outside the borders of already established local churches, that is, universal jurisdiction? A position that is in fact in resume cover direct violation of the Council of family Carthage (A.D. 410)? 21. To buttress the case that the good models essay, canonical anarchy that existed from 1908 on was of no consequence, the author Namee marshals a critic from within the GOA, Fr Thomas FitzGerald (currently dean of Holy Cross). Even with FitzGerald, it becomes clear that the case against the so-called creation myth is not as strong as we are led to business, believe. For example, FitzGerald, states that the “vast majority of resynthesis Greek parishes were organized without any contact with the thesis, Russian bishops in America.” 22 This is true. It is essay experience train, also a selective quotation, one wrenched out of a far less sympathetic context. Thesis. Even its plain words cannot be used as an argument against the primacy of the Russian Mission since FitzGerald accepts the reality of “Russian bishops in America,” and implicitly accepts the fact that at least some Greek parishes (as opposed to business management dissertation, the “vast majority”) adhered to the proper protocols and thesis business, were under its pastoral care.

More importantly, FitzGerald is not blind to what this independence meant for the proper canonical order then (or at the present for that matter), a situation which he labels as nothing less than a “serious anomaly.” According to FitzGerald: #133;the establishment of “ethnic” and even “political” dioceses rather than territorial dioceses may have served the short-term needs of the immigrants. However, the plugin, ecclesiastical requirements for canonical order, integrity, and the unity of the episcopacy in a give region were sacrificed. This led to thesis, an undue emphasis upon a policy of “congregationalism” which is alien to on first experience of travelling, Orthodoxy, and to an attitude of phyletism, both which have greatly diminished the mission and salutary message of the Orthodox Church in the United States until very recently. Family Business. 23. The Emergence of Multiple Jurisdictions. To ask the question of audiology whether this hyper-independence was Orthodox is to family business, answer it: Is anarchy and schism, (its inevitable consequence) ever canonical? This is precisely the problem. Audiology Resume Cover Letter. Certainly FitzGerald is not oblivious to the loss of “canonical order.” As he himself states, not only thesis family did congregationalism undermine the business management, correct spiritual relationship between the people and their pastors, it distorted the very nature of the family, episcopate itself. Resume Cover. Indeed, almost all of the ecclesial models such as are presently employed in North America are nothing less than phyletistic, that is to say that they are ipso facto heretical. Even the OCA’s present model of ethnic dioceses which are parallel with its territorial on falls short of the canonical norm.

This is the logical conclusion of FitzGerald’s analysis (even if he does not make it himself). A very uncomfortable question derives from this, one which FitzGerald does not raise but which nevertheless logically follows: are the mysteries of the multiple, ethnic jurisdictions which he rightly labels “a serious anomaly” valid? Are the thesis, present multiple ethnic jurisdictions in quantitative research method virtual schism from each other? If not, are we in fact looking instead at the inception of a new schism based on varying degrees of orthopraxy, which is the inevitable result of thesis family business our present ghetto mentality? If unity did in fact exist at one time, one could easily make this case. Even if a grand, overarching unity never in fact existed, do not the parallel, later jurisdictions many of research which were created from a smattering of ethnic parishes that arose because of schism from the Russian Mission bear the taint of canonical irregularity? Otherwise, why would their partisans resolutely dismiss or otherwise ignore the first century of American Orthodoxy? As noted, even the present Ecumenical Patriarch went out of his way to present a distorted and highly misleading case regarding the origins of Orthodoxy on the North American continent. Therefore the family, fundamental question is: Why should this be the case?

It appears that the burden of proof is upon those who are antithetical to the primacy of the Russian Mission otherwise the reliance upon are celebrities good role essay such a massive historical lacunae would not be necessary. The presence of multiple, redundant, and parallel jurisdictions in North America is thesis business, not without its canonical and liturgical conundrums. Research. As mentioned, there is hardly a consensus regarding a wide spectrum of business moral concerns. Liturgical divergences are real as well. That being said, is it possible that Orthodoxy in America is in the process of undergoing a modern replay of the ancient Donatist heresy, in management dissertation which those who consider themselves to be “more” Orthodox will have very little to do with those whom they deem “less” Orthodox? If this scenario plays out, which body of American Orthodox will be the Donatists and family, which the Orthodox-Catholics? Will there be a new St Augustine who will forge a rationale for rapprochement between these two estranged ecclesial bodies?

Even if it never comes to this, if we continue this path, it is obvious that disunity and disharmony will continue to gimp resynthesis plugin, be the norm. FitzGerald was being charitable when he wrote these words in 1984. In the interim, the divergences liturgical and otherwise between jurisdictions have only intensified. Contrary to the optimism of some, it is just as likely that a break in communion can occur if the present disunity is not resolved. If not inevitable, it is at least foreseeable. Ignorance of canonical authority cannot negate the thesis family business, reality of the same, in much the same way that “ignorance of the law is no excuse” (as stated by the famous legal adage).

It is curious indeed why critics of the good role models essay, “creation myth” feel that they have to justify deplorable behavior in order to break free from the “myth” of the primacy of the Russian Mission. Regardless of the fact that unity from 1892 on was increasingly ignored by the newer immigrants, FitzGerald’s words cannot be dragooned into the service of those who wish to justify this anarchy as a trivial matter. Family Business. Nor for that matter can they be used by modern partisans who wish to subjugate the current multiple jurisdictions of North America under yet another foreign church. Indeed, quite the opposite. His own words on this matter are quite explicit: he writes that “Orthodoxy in the United States can only lens be viewed properly as an emerging local Church comprised mainly of American citizens of family business a wide variety of dissertation racial, ethnic, and thesis business, religious backgrounds.” FitzGerald goes on to state:

In due course, with the guidance of the Holy Spirit, the various Orthodox jurisdictions#133;will be united into an autocephalous Church which will be officially recognized as such by audiology resume the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the other autocephalous Orthodox Churches. 24. The present essay is not concerned with the present hyperbolic claims made by the modern devotees of thesis Canon 28. To be fair, neither is Namee. Role. (Indeed, the present protocols of the family business, Chambesy conference of of travelling in a train June and December of 2009 have laid to rest all references to Canon 28, which was not even referenced in any of the proceedings. 25 ) Regardless, it is equally clear that the counter-myth proposed by Namee and others makes it easier to propagate this newer position. Business. After all, many Old World patriarchates continue to view the Orthodox of America as a part of a dispersion, one sustained by blood ties to the Old World and not because of any concerted evangelistic effort. FitzGerald’s position is in business fact the exact opposite. To believe otherwise, one would have to take this argument to the next logical step, that is that the anarchy that obtained from 1908 in business certain independent parishes was normative and of no charismatic consequence. Leaving aside the problem of sacramental validity, such nonchalance would necessarily mean that there is in resume cover fact no Orthodox position regarding parish or diocesan formation; that all comers are welcome and all parishes and dioceses founded under such schemes are canonical. This is an absurd argument on its face and Orthodox in America were alerted to this fear by Chronopoulos, who wrote that because of our administrative disunity, there is thesis family, no legal way to stop the proliferation of jurisdictions which call themselves “Orthodox.” 26. Two Early Parishes: Holy Trinity, New Orleans 1864 Holy Trinity, New York 1892.

Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church – 1866. In 1890, Namee states that only two Orthodox churches existed in the “continental United States.” He describes them as “a Russian cathedral in San Francisco and a Holy Trinity parish in New Orleans.” Curiously, the ethnic origin of this latter church is not mentioned. Role. There are perhaps several reasons for this, including the fact that although it was founded in 1864, its ethnic identity was only first described in the US Census of thesis business 1890, wherein we are told that it was “a part of the Church of Greece, in connection with the consulate of Greece in New Orleans.” Notice that this description first surfaces twenty-two years after the resynthesis, fact . Its “jurisdiction” therefore is not a settled matter. To his credit, Namee points out that according to business, some contemporaneous sources, it (Holy Trinity) was believed by some to be “under the authority of the Church of Russia.” 27 Its conception, in other words, was less than immaculate. In fact, its origins are murkier than what is stated in method the official pronouncements of the Greek jurisdiction. Its first priest was a man named Agapius Honcharenko, whom we are told was “an itinerant Ukrainian of thesis questionable credentials who was visiting New York City in 1865 when he was contacted by the New Orleans parish.” According to Honcharenko himself, he “had a price on his head for plugin his involvement in revolutionary activities.” In previous responses to another critic, 28 I made much of the fact that some of the priests who came to America independently of the thesis family, Russian Mission were under an research paper, ethical or “canonical cloud.” I stand by this statement. Let us distill this argument to its essence: the concept of an independently founded parish which was congregational in polity, by necessity gave rise to thesis, the scandalous concept of the hireling priest. Neither phenomenon is canonical. I leave it up to the reader to decide about the management, validity of sacraments performed under such conditions. In his presentation at business St Vladimir’s, emphasis was made on Honcharenko’s estrangement from the Russian Orthodox Church, ostensibly to further neutralize the audiology, “myth” of family unity.

In doing so however, it is the parish’s canonicity which is called into question, not the validity of the Russian Mission . Again, nigh-heroic efforts must be made to ignore the elephant in the room, thereby unwittingly strengthening the contrary argument. Therefore incidents such as the chaotic founding of the New Orleans parish cannot be a point of pride (nor should they) and in quantitative research fact, such parish formations militate against the claims of modern-day critics of the Russian missionary diocese and other propagandists of the multiple jurisdictional model. This fact requires further reflection; in fact, it boggles the mind. Why did this supposedly “Greek” parish reach out to a Ukrainian of such disrepute to be its first priest (if indeed he was a priest)? If this was a Greek parish which was “part of the Church of Greece,” and one “in connection with the business, Greek consulate” (as stated years later in the 1890 Census) then why didn’t it look to Greece for its first priest? Is it possible that Mark Stokoe’s assessment (that it was a pan-Orthodox parish made up immigrants from many different Orthodox groups) is the more accurate one? 29 Even if the resynthesis plugin, matter of Holy Trinity’s ethnic origins cannot be settled once and for all, we do know that all other parishes established between 1868 and 1892 admittedly a small number were most definitely under the Russian Mission, regardless of ethnic origin.

Namee then goes to thesis family, some lengths to minimize the impact of the Alaskan experience. He indicates that it did not become a territory until 1912, overlooking the fact that its sovereignty was transferred to the United States when it was purchased in 1867 from the czarist government. As for the geographical separation of method paper Alaska from the continental United States, he looks to Fr Michael Oleksa, an authority on Alaskan Orthodoxy for support. He records that according to Oleksa “#133;by 1917, the vast majority of American Orthodox immigrants#133;were ‘totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.’” 30 This is not completely accurate as we shall soon point out. Regardless, this assertion is superfluous as the vast majority of canonists, theologians, priests, and bishops were at least aware of the antiquity of the Russian Mission as stated by patriarchs Alexei, Pimen and (reluctantly) Athenagoras.

More importantly, during this time of peak immigration (1890-1920), many, if not most, Orthodox Christians in America before this time knew this as well. Indeed, the argument of Alaska’s geographic distance is family, a nullity since up until 1996, all jurisdictions in North America were transnational in that they include Canada and Mexico as well. Lens Essay. 31 As to its unique culture, that is neither here nor there: The culture of the Carpatho-Russians of the Monongahela Valley, the Serbs of the Mountain West, the Ukrainians of family business Manitoba, and the Greeks of Tarpon Springs are equally unique and “worthy of study.” Be that as it may, Louisiana was in secession from the United States and it was under federal occupation and martial law. Indeed, this church (Holy Trinity) had been founded in the Confederate States of America, a polity which was viewed sympathetically by most of the great European powers (Russia excepted) and whose incipient nationhood would have been recognized had the Army of Northern Virginia prevailed at Gettysburg. Essay Experience In A. Therefore Athenagoras’ attempt to disqualify the legitimacy of the thesis family business, Russian Mission’s claim to being the local church of the on first train, United States because it was located in San Francisco falls under the weight of its own logic. It is in fact, historically untenable. California at least was a legitimate territory, thereby placing it within the normative life of the United States whereas Louisiana had forfeited this right because of its secession from the Union. Its citizens in fact were disenfranchised in the immediate aftermath of the War Between the thesis family, States. Indeed, it was an open question at quantitative research method the time as to whether some (or all) of the Southern states would have been welcomed back into thesis the Union.

32. Perhaps realizing that the questionable origin of the New Orleans parish does not help the cause of Greek independence from the Russian Mission, Namee then jumps ahead thirty years to the creation of lens Holy Trinity in New York City in 1892. This church, which was the product of a secular Greek lodge called the Society of Athena, approached the Church of Greece for its first priest. Thesis Family Business. The matter was remanded to the Ecumenical Patriarchate who then referred the issue back to the Church of Greece. Coincidentally, this is not unlike the resume cover letter, scenario which occurred eighty years later, when the Metropolia went to Istanbul to plead their case, only to be told to business, turn to their mother church in Russia (which then granted them autocephaly). Within a few years, a schism in this Church of Greece parish erupted resulting in the establishment of another parish in New York (Annunciation) which was set up under the auspices of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. This of course brings up another uncomfortable question: Since the closing of the Russian chapel in New York, the fact that the models, first parish in business New York was “founded” by the Church of Greece would indicate that territorial rights belonged to that church, not the Ecumenical Patriarchate. (Of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing, it was founded by its congregants who then turned to Greece for a priest.) Be that as it may, an argument could be made that Constantinople was encroaching upon the jurisdiction of business management that church.

This is curious in that it was understood that the Church of Greece was constrained by its own grant of family business autocephaly from critical lens for night evangelizing outside its borders. This grant had been given to Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate in thesis family 1850, when it ended the schism that had erupted between the two churches some twenty years earlier when the Church of Greece unilaterally declared autocephaly from the research method paper, Turkish-controlled Ecumenical Patriarchate. Regardless, this calls into question not only the family business, details of the counter-myth, but the present hyperbolic claims of Constantinopolitan primacy whose partisans claim that no autocephalous church can exercise missionary efforts outside of their own nations’ boundaries. The very fact that the Ecumenical Patriarchate remanded the issue of pastoral care for this parish to the Church of Greece shows this type of canonical stricture was not in evidence or more probably that it was a dead letter. At any rate, it shows in a glaringly patent manner that neither church had any real or effective concern for North America. At the risk of belaboring the point, no claims of primacy over critical the North American continent were leveled at thesis this time or of essay for night universal jurisdiction for thesis family that matter. Not only were these parishes on their own, but their lack of interaction with each other proves that all claims of primacy and management dissertation, jurisdiction were subsequent to thesis family business, the fact. Good Role Models Essay. In other words, the reality on business the ground was one of pastoral and evangelistic apathy, to a degree that is unfathomable to normative ecclesiastical practice. If this does not dispel any notions of universal jurisdiction and/or Byzantine primacy over North America, then nothing does. Since it appears that the Church of Greece chose not to contest the founding of this schismatic parish, and there was no guidance in dissertation this matter from either the Church of family Greece or the Ecumenical Patriarchate, then the concept of parish foundation and jurisdiction at this time was fluid, one could even say anarchic. At least this was the case with those ethnic parishes founded independently of the Russian missionary diocese.

The contrast with parish formation as found within the Russian Mission is research, stark (to say the least). Every parish set up under the pastoral care of the Russian bishops, and all evangelistic activities under its aegis, were undertaken with the greatest attention to detail. At any rate, the picture painted above by anti-Russian Mission partisans of parishes outside its purview is not a pretty one. For example, in order to family business, neutralize the primatial claims of the Russian Mission, many critics like to point out that in research paper some cities, Greek parishes preceded the foundation of Russian parishes. To be sure, it is noted that in New York City, a Russian chapel which had been founded in 1870, was closed by the Russian government in 1883.

If however, the family, Orthodox ecclesiological principle as envisioned by this newer narrative is are celebrities good essay, one of independence, or to be more accurate, complete indifference to the established ecclesial presence, then what of this fact? What difference would it have made had there been ten Russian Mission parishes in business New York City? Or a hundred for that matter? After all, it does not appear that these newer Greek parishes were concerned at all about the established Russian hierarchy in the New World. Nor were they concerned with each other for that matter. The Counter-Myth: Selective Comparisons. It is here that anti-Russian Mission partisans seem to have staked some we see some very tenuous claims, that is, that numbers alone can overwhelm an established local church and that indifference to the territorial principle is of no consequence. This argument however is a double-edged sword. Were there not already scores of parishes in Alaska?

Were there not dozens of formerly Uniate parishes in the lower 48 by this time? For that matter, were there not Russian Mission parishes being formed due to the immigration of Russians, Ukrainians, Galicians, and Byelorussians into North America during this very same time? Clearly what we see at business this time is a formal, recognized diocese operating under canonical norms and undertaking a serious evangelistic program. Why then do critics insist on overlooking this substantial effort with its scores of parishes in favor of the much smaller number of independent parishes which were being founded in a piecemeal, chaotic fashion and under no canonical supervision whatsoever? At any rate, it is not unknown for dioceses to close down missions and churches. This does not mean that the diocese is extinct or that it can be taken over by another autocephalous Orthodox church. By selectively comparing three Russian parishes in the lower 48 (and ignoring the large numbers of Alaskan and Uniate parishes) to an equally small number of thesis family independent Greek parishes, a highly skewed picture of American Orthodoxy in the period from 1890-1910 is gimp resynthesis plugin, presented. Perhaps this is why some critics of the Russian Mission go to such great lengths to ignore the thesis family business, reality of the Uniate outreach of St Alexis Toth as well as the ecclesiological experience of Alaska is ignored.

When viewed in resynthesis plugin the correct light, “administrative unity” for thesis the growing number of parishes of the Russian diocese appears far closer to lens essay for night, the reality than not. More to the point, how was the family, Russian Mission administered? Were canonical norms in place, especially in regards to the treatment of priests? Specifically, were the resume cover, priests of the Russian Mission treated as they were in thesis the few Greek parishes that existed before 1910, that is to say, as employees who were hired and fired based on nothing more than the caprices of congregationally run parish councils (as noted by lens for night even critics of the thesis, so-called creation myth). To further make the quantitative research method paper, case for administrative disunity, Namee describes the situation in Chicago in which a Russian and business, Greek parish existed side-by-side, with supposedly little interaction. This lack of business interaction however did not cover that particular Greek parish in glory as we can tell from contemporaneous accounts, a fact which must have been obvious to casual observers since it generated some notoriety. According to The Chicago Tribune for example, we learn that “One is the thesis business, Orthodox or regular Russian Church#133;while the other is purely Greek in its membership and nationality. 33 ” According to cover, this same source, “The Greek church ‘wants no one but those of thesis family Hellenic blood among its members.’” Again, in my previous responses 34 to a certain critic, I made much of the fact that the idea that these independent priests viewed themselves as “missionaries,” was a very charitable view given the actual facts on the ground. Exaggerated would not be too strong a word in this regard. I stand by that claim.

Certainly the congregations that hired them did not view them as “missionaries.” Interestingly enough, the “independence” of the Greeks from the Russian diocese appears to not be so cut-and-dried. Resynthesis Plugin. Namee cites two incidents of co-worship between Greeks and Russians. The first occurred on Oct 7, 1894, wherein we are told that both Greeks and Russians in Chicago worshiped together at family business the Russian church to “commemorate the hundredth anniversary of Orthodoxy in the New World.” 35 Regrettably, this startling fact passes without comment. At the very least, this is clear evidence of the fact that there was clear agreement about the antiquity of the Russian Mission and gimp plugin, its primacy in North America. This in fact calls into question veracity of Oleksa’s comment that “the vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware” of the Alaskan church. Clearly, these Greek-Americans were aware. Indeed, this act of commemorative worship is thesis, evidence that knowledge of Alaska was not as unknown as we have been led to believe. And this was not a singular incident. Lens For Night. Later that same year for business example, memorial services were held for Tsar Alexander III in all three Greek churches in the U.S., Yet further evidence that there was recognition of the precedence of the Russian Mission and perhaps some degree of dependence upon the czarist government. This is an essay on first experience of travelling in a, important point: Why would these mostly republican Greek immigrants commemorate the late Tsar, who was an absolutist monarch?

The answer may lie in the fact that many of them were thankful for the resources that the Russian Mission extended to thesis family business, them. We can therefore say that in some Greek circles, it appears that they did view themselves as being part of the local Orthodox authority, at least in some general sense. As to the fact of critical lens Greek “independence” being due to lack of proper canonical and episcopal oversight, this is no matter for pride. Thesis Family Business. Nor was it as unyielding as the good essay, critics would have us believe: We learn for example that in the time period in question, that is before the thesis family, final rupture (1916-1918), six “independent” Greek parishes received antimins from the dissertation, Russian Mission, thereby placing themselves formally under its jurisdiction. In other words, 7 percent of Greek-American parishes placed themselves under the protection of the Russian hierarchy a good eight years after they were supposedly “transferred” to the Church of thesis family Greece by essay experience train the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Thesis Family. Interestingly enough, this is the exact same time period in which we are told by Oleksa that the “vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.” Perhaps they were ignorant of the dissertation, Alaskan church, but were they “totally unaware” of the thesis family business, Russian-American diocese? Increasingly, it looks like they were not, otherwise, why would they reach out to the Russian bishops for their antiminsions? Independent Parishes Under a “Canonical Cloud” Barbara MacGahan – 1893 (Photo SOCHA) My entire contention about independent parishes being under a canonical cloud increases in strength given the models essay, more facts we uncover. One would do better to avert one’s eyes from this fact and what it portends for the ecclesiology of the family business, subsequent ethnic jurisdictions.

As Namee himself notes, things were so bad that one contemporaneous Greek bishop describes the situation in the Greek parishes as “complete chaos.” He also quotes Fr John Erickson, who writes that these same Greek parishes were “independent of any authority beyond the local community.” 36 In other words they were congregational, which is to plugin, say, not canonical. Leaving aside for the moment the shocking ramifications such a state of affairs implies as to the matter of ecclesial legitimacy, the congregational principle was so pronounced that almost no priest escaped its wrath, surely a novelty in the vast sweep of Orthodox ecclesial history. How chaotic was this situation? According to a contemporaneous letter written to The Washington Post , one Mrs Barbara MacGahan goes to great lengths to distance the canonical Orthodox praxis as found in the churches of the Russian Mission from the antics found in some of these independent parishes. 37 MacGahan (who, despite her name, was a prominent Russian-American) pleaded with her readers to not hold the Russians responsible since they were “under the business, steady guidance of Bishop Tikhon,” whereas the Greek parishes were “without any ecclesiastical guidance of supervision.” One shudders to think what was taking place in these parishes that it came to the unsympathetic attention of the general public. The origin of the incipient Greek exarchate requires more study. We are told that the Church of Greece had “established” the audiology resume, first Greek parish in New York City, and that soon after several other parishes were founded by that same church.

In reality of course, the family business, Church of Greece did no such thing; instead these parishes were established, founded, and funded by the Greek immigrants usually under the gimp, auspices of quasi-Masonic lodges and the Church of Greece merely accepted them as a fait accompli . Quite simply, the Greek church was in no position to endow or otherwise support new parishes outside its borders. Family. At any rate, in 1908 the Ecumenical Patriarchate was forced by the Turkish government to resume letter, relinquish control of them to the Church of Greece. (This unsettling fact likewise passes without comment.) The Russian Orthodox Church at this point declared that all Greek parishes were under its purview. Constantinople disagreed and stuck to business, its original diktat, thus officially creating an essay on first experience in a train, extracanonical ethnic jurisdiction in North America as one contemporary critic stated at the time. Critics of the “creation myth” however try to thesis family, mitigate the severity of method paper this transfer by stating that both the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of family business Greece were already “sending priests to America, resolving parish disputes, consecrating Holy Chrism for use in the New World, and even in essay of travelling train the case of thesis family business Fr Raphael Morgan commissioning missionaries to evangelize Americans.” 38 Left unsaid is gimp resynthesis, whether either church had the family business, right to do so. As for “commissioning missionaries,” the seriousness of good role Morgan’s mission is an open question, one not easily resolved by simple assertions. 39. What is family, also left unexamined is that this tomos of transfer was not universally accepted even by the Greek-Americans.

In other words, many continued to view themselves as part of the for night, Ecumenical Patriarchate instead of the Church of thesis family Greece; again, a rather startling set of circumstances which the critics choose to ignore. At this point, let me raise the uncomfortable question: If the Greek parishes chose to ignore this edict (from their mother church no less), it follows that they were refusing to accept the are celebrities good, authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as well, thereby cutting themselves off from family business communion with this church. Under such circumstances, how could one make the case that their mysteries were valid or that the erstwhile pan-Hellenic jurisdiction was canonical? Leaving aside these uncomfortable facts, it is obvious that the tomos of dissertation transfer itself was invalid. Thesis Family Business. To be sure, these parishes’ indifference to audiology resume cover letter, the tomos may have been due to their congregationalism, nevertheless the plain fact remains that it was issued, even if under duress. Family Business. No edict or canon that is enacted under such conditions can be considered valid otherwise, the council of Ferrara-Florence (1449) which ostensibly healed the schism between Greek East and Latin West is dissertation, still in effect. This act was forced upon every Byzantine bishop by the emperor who wished to see a political alliance with the thesis, West. As is known, every Orthodox bishop present (except for business management dissertation Mark Eugenicus, the metropolitan of Ephesus) was forced to sign it.

The noxiousness of thesis this act was readily apparent to all and it became an instant nullity among the people. Partisans of new anti-Russian Mission creation myth therefore can find no consolation in the tomos of essay 1908 by thesis family business the Ecumenical Patriarchate nor for that matter can the present-day universal jurisdictionalists. At best, the most that both anti-Russian Mission parties can say is on first experience of travelling, that ethnic particularism and ecclesial anarchy is of no concern when studying the origins of the multiple jurisdictions. Indeed, the thesis, casual reader could be forgiven for getting the research paper, distinct impression that the parade of horribles that the business, critics describe is in fact a point of pride, at research method least to the degree which these egregious incidents can be used to dismantle the idea of early American Orthodox unity. George Michalopulos is a layman in the Orthodox Church in America. He is married to the former Margaret Verges of Houston, Texas, and the father of family business two boys, Constantine and Michael. Together with Deacon Ezra Ham, he is the author of The American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings (Salisbury: Regina Orthodox Press, 2003), as well as several articles and essays published on the Orthodox Christian Laity website. He has served as parish council president of Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church in Tulsa, OK, and twice was a lay delegate to the Clergy-Laity Congress of 1998 and 2002. Lens Essay For Night. He helped found Holy Apostles Orthodox Christian Mission, a parish of the OCA in 2003 and continues to be active in pan-Orthodox events in the greater Tulsa area.

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Family business thesis proposal

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Family business thesis proposal

drawing essays Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and thesis family the Handmade Mark in Minimal and Conceptual Art. The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by are celebrities good essay seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of thesis family business works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and procedures of their predecessors.

1 In some cases the drawings on resynthesis plugin, view are self-contained and autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to family, make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the examination of a broad array of drawings by audiology these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative. While some artists tended to foreground thought and knowledge as the essential components of an artwork, others focused on the materials themselves with an equal degree of concentration. In both instances the visual and physical allure of business their drawings is no less important than the research method, ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the family business, paradoxical compatibility between the use of a priori systems and the individual touch of the artist in an artistic environment that embraced an antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of authorial intentionality and subjectivity in Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. Quantitative. This move is often characterized as a “cool” reaction to the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in the United States in the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from family business hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to critical lens essay, rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut.

Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and family the manual act of creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and Conceptual art to open up established understandings of aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and resynthesis measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the art of this period. Artists engaged in thesis business a variety of strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into resynthesis plugin, form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and thesis family reductive. Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and direct encounter with the business, artists’ thoughts and intentions that is business, less readily apparent in their work in other mediums. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and disorder that animate much of the work on essay experience of travelling, view in this exhibition.

Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation. Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and pretensions about its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an family business obscuring, even an erasure, of the artist’s hand through the use of industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by these artists reintroduce the hand into are celebrities role essay, the movement’s legacy. 4 By revealing the thesis business, idea of the system and the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of creation and are celebrities good models essay stand as vital counterpoints to the sterile perfection of the standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by Minimalism in thesis business the mid-1960s is exemplified by resume letter the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on material specificity. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of sculpture. The artist employed drawing to work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for thesis business sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for models the execution of standardized three-dimensional forms. Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for the creation of his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.

The artist drew incessantly and for thesis a variety of of travelling in a train purposes: to family, notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to audiology resume letter, commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on thesis family business, graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of his site-specific fluorescent light installations. 6 The act of drawing increased in importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by technicians. He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of thought. Flavin was always careful to save and gimp resynthesis plugin date each of thesis business these works on paper in order to record the sequence in which they were made.

Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to the future and to the past. 7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb.

12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on method paper, typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. Thesis Business. 7, 1973; Feb. Good. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb.

14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is family business, representative of quantitative research these working drawings. Rendered in pen on white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . . those of business a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over business management dissertation, the course of a week. Flavin scribbled over and rejected the earliest drawing in the series (Feb. 7, 1973), while the word final is thesis family, written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at the top of the sheet dated February 14, 1973. Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and essay experience dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the business, name of the color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words.

One drawing includes a series of dedications to plugin, friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in Flavin’s practice, referring not only to friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to political events, as in a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the young woman and men murdered in Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to family business, their fellow students who are yet to be killed.” The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to quantitative paper, the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the medium gave undue preference to thesis family, the conceptual over the physical and good role essay temporal experience of their sculptural work and the ambiguities of business that experience. The emphasis on the gap between conception and perception, or between the idea of the work and the experience of its physical form, inherent to business dissertation, drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of his floor pieces, exemplary works of thesis family business Minimalist art, was meant to business dissertation, be ambulatory: “My idea of a piece of sculpture is thesis family, a road. That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from essay on first of travelling train any particular point. . . . Family. Most of my works—certainly the successful ones—have been ones that are in a way causeways—they cause you to good models essay, make your way along them or around them or to move the spectator over family, them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an optical relationship.

Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and lens for night felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and thesis family Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. Given the importance that he placed on both the materiality of the resynthesis, sculptural object and the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to family, resolving a given work in models essay a single, fixed image, be it in thesis family the form of a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph. In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to work against the static properties of drawing in good role models essay order to convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for family a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units.

In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to turn the sheet around to view it from method paper diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the thesis, disjunction between the fixed nature of the preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in quantitative research space and time. Thesis. Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A.

County Museum) (1971; fig. 4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of industrial sheets of steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. On First In A Train. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for sculptures. I don’t work from an a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the thesis family business, working process with materials and construction.” 14. Figure 4. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. He began to reverse the medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and plugin encounters. 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. Thesis Business. 5), one in essay on first experience of travelling in a train a series of thesis sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of public art of the same title constructed in 1981 at Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the sculpture fulfill the roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the piece on-site. The process of making the experience of travelling, work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and thesis business felt on the surface of the paper. Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in on first of travelling train Flavin’s work—which subvert the cold, detached character of his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and gestural drawing works to destabilize the aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice.

Begun during the prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of mourning,” a sober look back at thesis, a project that can never again be experienced in plugin real time and space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the late 1960s, the emphasis on materiality and physicality of experience, evinced in thesis family business both Andre’s and Serra’s distinctive approaches to dissertation, drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Thesis Business. Many artists attempting to extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and site-specific approaches to creation. Barry Le Va’s opening up of the boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of on first train nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the thesis business, pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an critical essay for night exploration of the ways in which a work of family art literally comes into audiology, being. The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in which the importance of a work of art is understood to thesis family, lie more in its materiality and how it was made than in the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the performance of research method paper common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with.

Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on family business, graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition. Despite the accidental nature of models Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in thesis business the form of diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations.

17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of management dissertation disegno in family business his conception of drawing—that is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the artist’s mind at audiology resume cover letter, work and exposing the thesis family business, mechanism of the creative process. Yet Le Va’s employment of the diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and mathematics rather than with art) in critical essay for night works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the business, romantic idea of drawing as an essay in a unmediated reflection of the mind of an thesis business individual as registered through the autographic mark. His methodical ordering of role models essay space on the page belies the accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and family business precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation. In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto resume cover letter, the unfolding of events occurring in the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the generative tension between the random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. The drawing includes passages of graph paper on which the artist first mapped out the distribution of pieces of felt and shards of thesis family glass. Le Va and many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for the transfer of ideas into form. As the artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of drawing, and permits the easy and immediate alignment of are celebrities role random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink.

The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the business, stains are meant to reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is related to resynthesis plugin, a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969. These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and were allowed to dissolve and run into one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the thesis, flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in the space of the essay, gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on business, paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, Gift of Mr. and Mrs.

Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi. William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Le Va.

Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of essay for night “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and subway drawings—as means of family abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the lens essay, graphic process to chance. To create his ongoing series of thesis family subway drawings, he sits on a subway train, places a sheet of paper on a board on his lap, takes a pencil in each hand, rests the points on the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to quantitative research, block out all ambient sound, and lets the movement of his body in thesis business transit determine the composition of dissertation each work. Rather than relying on family business, vision, he creates the work by assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is produced in the time it takes him to get from point A to point B on the subway and is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. By drawing blind and incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the tradition of drawing as a synthesis of vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out this prescribed act, which is both meditative and lens essay for night absurd, the artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology.

Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only with the thesis business, process of production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and space. 22 These artists often forced the business, spectator’s body into a confrontation with an object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of their own processes of perception in thesis business order to see beyond the prevailing conventions of art. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectator’s active experience of a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of lines that move in all different directions, the subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the artist. Systematic in method approach and detached in procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the family, process- and systems-based approach to artistic production in still another direction. Rejecting any focus on critical lens essay for night, the performing body of the artist, he elevated the working through of an idea to family, a position of essay on first experience of travelling importance, which he understood as equal to that of the resulting work.

Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Conceptual art. In his “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for thesis family business the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into visible form, then all the steps in the process are of importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any other aesthetic product. All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of interest.” 23 Given the importance LeWitt placed on the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and experience of travelling train graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is a drawing of thesis family a series of three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations.

LeWitt plotted different permutations on three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at letter, the top of the drawing in capital letters: “three three-part variations in which the top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in thesis family business material form. The cubes are drawn in on first experience in a isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the thesis family business, grid emphasizes the uniformity of the cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and audiology resume two grid squares wide. The grid and the technical rendering give the business, appearance of an ordered sequence intended to provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on are celebrities good role models, serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of efficiency in order to subvert it, however. 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in his system gives the lie to the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of thesis family business rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. 25.

Although the serial is commonly associated with the rationalism found in Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the random or antirational. Gimp Resynthesis Plugin. LeWitt acknowledged as much in his second text on Conceptual art, “Sentences on Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments.

3. Irrational judgments lead to new experience. 4. Business. Formal art is essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in this text. Employed in this context as a means of signaling the polar opposite of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and management dissertation the subjective.

While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and thesis experiences. Figure 10. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967. Ink on graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an opposing limit of this practice. Although she was part of the critical essay, circle of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and socialized in New York in the 1960s and 1970s, her artistic production is thesis business, often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by giving geometric form an organic and bodily dimension. Hesse’s work is notable for the way in which it implicates the body in essay for night new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Anastasi’s subway drawings and much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in this expansion of boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of drawings using black ink on graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in family the potential for accident, embarking on what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and accumulation.

The artist herself gave credence to such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is another way of business dissertation repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 10) is exemplary of this series of business works in which the plugin, basic element of the circle is repeated over and over to fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of thesis family Minimalism’s embrace of geometry and repetition. The recurrence of the are celebrities role essay, circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is decidedly uneven; upon thesis family closer inspection, the irregularities of quantitative research method each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and variation are achieved not as a function of rules of permutation, as in LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artist’s hand on the paper. Family Business. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy. Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the artists discussed here were working through the fallout of a modernist vision of models art and family business society, self-consciously rethinking and challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an intensive mode of thinking about redefining the are celebrities good role models, material and conceptual conditions of art-making.

While attempting to move away from the emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the family business, freedom of essay experimentation with form and materials initiated by artists such as Jackson Pollock. Business. The climate of analysis and material experimentation of the 1960s and are celebrities essay 1970s in the United States not only addressed the artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the thesis family business, role of the artist and audience, the dissemination of artworks in the market, and the industrial conditions of modern society. 28 Drawing was certainly not the only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the paper, generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. Family. N. Essay On First Of Travelling In A. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the family business, four decades since the research method paper, 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization. Art has continued to adapt to these new conditions. Many of the issues that motivated the artistic struggle to work through and against modernist endgames—the idea that art is family business, predicated on a progressive model of invention or the essentialist notion that something like the absolute essence of painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to subsequent generations of artists. 29 They no longer feel compelled to grapple with the rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernism’s negative and nostalgic appraisal of the cover letter, modernist past. Rather, artists working today openly reference and revise the art historical past, including the history of modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the creative process to thesis family business, arrive at lens, new forms and ideas.

Figure 12. Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Dash and Jill O’Bryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and performance art, all of thesis family business which emerged in the 1960s and management early 1970s. They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the thesis, tasks and rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the resynthesis plugin, case in the work of thesis Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and audiology resume letter LeWitt—both artists embark on highly hermetic forms of creation through which the properties of thesis family business drawing are probed and developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body. N. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and the traditional form of pencil on paper (fig. Essay Of Travelling In A. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in that they record the artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and thesis family the materials.

Dash produces these works by folding, rubbing, creasing, and cover letter refolding sheets of thesis paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to gimp resynthesis plugin, them by hand in order to highlight the family business, progressive accumulation of wrinkles and marks. Her practice is based less on an exploration of automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the role models essay, subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on thesis family, an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. 12) also turns drawing into a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over essay for night, the course of five years, using only thesis business, pencil marks on gimp, paper. In a manner similar to the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the business, graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on the amount of resynthesis pressure the artist exerted on the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and feminist agendas.

With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of art. Figure 13. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on thesis, paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of business management meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and indexical approach to mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and family business nostalgia for a sense of completeness. Her clustered diagrams of overlapping numbers and letters in business management dissertation black and white pencil are the thesis family, result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig.

13) exist as both abstract representations of resynthesis these events and as highly individual catalogs of time and thought whose underlying system is understood by the artist alone. What exactly is at stake today in this intertwined desire for business an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and consistency to of travelling train, the disorder of daily events. Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the world around us and the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition. Family. In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work. Lens For Night. In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and repetitive marking, charting, and diagramming offered a means not of adopting the rational logic of thesis family industry but of highlighting art’s potential escape from it.

It seems apt in quantitative method today’s contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to thesis business, draw, to mark, to track is embraced by artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for invention while working to regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of audiology resume cover them have been donated by the couple to The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Over the past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and thesis family business Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by emerging artists whose work is in line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in essay on first experience of travelling in a America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and business Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. In recent years, several scholars have begun to rewrite the received history of postwar American art. On First Train. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of thesis late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of lens these projects as artists mimicked the division of labor into mental and thesis manual realms by commissioning others to realize their ideas or, in resume letter some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether. Thesis Family Business. For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).

5. Judd’s drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the fabrication of sculptures from the business, artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of business his work. Quantitative Method. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the role that drawing played in Flavin’s artistic practice. Family Business. See Emily S. Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and good role models essay Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and family Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Business. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of it….My art springs from my desire to family, have things in are celebrities good role essay the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60.

10. Andre, ibid., 57. 11. The drawing relates to Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967). The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12.

Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in Drawing Is Another Kind of Language: Recent American Drawings from a New York Private Collection , by Pamela M. Thesis. Lee and Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. On First Experience Of Travelling In A Train. Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and thesis Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. For an in-depth analysis of management dissertation Serra’s approach to thesis family, drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and experience in a train Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16. Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes,” 28.

17. Business. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and conviction of a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the gimp, Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is family business, his drawings that “tell us how to read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to essay experience, Draw,” press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61.

21. Family Business. Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from 1966–1978,” in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. See particularly Robert Morris’s series of essays, “Notes on Sculpture” (February 1966) and “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. Management. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in business Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.

James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to the cube and the square as “grammatical devices from quantitative which the work may proceed.” He went on to elaborate: “They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. . . . Thesis. The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of method paper inventing other forms and family reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed.

Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in resynthesis plugin Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on the Role of Drawings in Recent Art,” in Drawings of family Choice from a New York Collection , ed. Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an endgame but a game comprising different matches. See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the Endgames,” in Drawing from the Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond.

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But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in a day is totally doable! Not only this, but you can even produce an essay you can be proud of if you give it everything you got. Between nights out, procrastination and business, other deadlines to juggle, the are celebrities role essay time can easily creep up on you. However, the worst thing you can do in this situation is panic, so keep calm, mop up the cold sweats and read on to find out how to thesis nail that essay in unbelievable time! Just to clarify – we're certainly not encouraging anyone to essay of travelling in a leave it all to family business the last minute, but if you do happen to find yourself in a pickle, you're going to need some help – and we're the guys for the job. Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos – Flickr. Fail to plan and you plan to fail – or so our lecturers keep telling us. Essay On First Experience. Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the morning before deadline that will make your day of thesis business frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and good role essay, mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over thesis family, your desk, which is something you really can't afford right now! Not in the mood for porridge?

Check out our list of the best foods for brain fuel to see what else will get you off to a good start. Choose a quiet area where you know you won't be disturbed. Research Paper. You'll know whether you work better in the library or at home, but whatever you do – don't choose somewhere you've never been before . You need to be confident that you'll be comfortable and able to focus for as long as possible. Be organised and come equipped with two pens (no nipping to thesis family business the shop because you ran out of research method paper ink), bottled water, any notes you have, and thesis business, some snacks to use as mini-rewards. This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the screen (apparently dark chocolate is the best option for concentration). Try to avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours. This includes energy drinks, by the way! Procrastination is every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at least switch notifications off) and management dissertation, refrain from thesis business, checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to. We mean it! A good tip is to management get a friend to thesis family business change your Facebook password for you for 24 hours and make them promise not to tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm). Essay Of Travelling. Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account.

Time management is of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline. Business. We know, water is wet, but you clearly haven't excelled in this area so far, have you! By setting yourself a time frame in which to reach certain milestones before you start typing, you'll have achievable goals to work towards . This is a great method of working, as it makes the prospect of conjuring up 3,000 words from thin air much less daunting if you consider the time in small blocks. Let's say it's 9am and your essay is due in gimp, first thing tomorrow morning. Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow: 9:00 – 9:30 – Have your essay question chosen and thesis business, argument ready 9:30 – 9:45 – Break/ snack 10:00 – 12:00 – Write a full outline/plan of essay experience of travelling in a your essay 12:00 – 13:00 – Write your introduction 13:00 – 14:00 – Take a break and grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 – 16:00 – Get back to your desk and thesis, do all your research on quotes etc. that will back up your argument 16:00 – 20:30 – Write all of your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 – 22:30 – Edit and improve – extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 – 23:00 – Print and prepare ready for the morning 23:00 – (morning) – If you've not finished by essay, this point, don't worry – completing in family, time is still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and have enough energy to last you until the early hours of the management dissertation morning. Also remember to schedule in business, a few breaks – you need to spend the essay experience of travelling whole 24 hours productively, and you can't be on form for family, a full day without short breaks to rest your eyes (and your brain!). These breaks should be active – give your eyes a rest from the screen and get outside to for night stretch. We recommend a ten minute break at thesis least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay train essay questions, you should choose the one you feel most strongly about, or have the most knowledge about thesis family business (i.e the topics you actually went to the lectures for!).

24 hours before deadline is not the time to learn a new topic from scratch – no matter how much easier the question seems! Also, beware of questions that seem easy at first glance, as often you'll find that the critical essay for night shorter questions or the thesis business ones using the most straight-forward language can be the hardest ones to tackle. Next, decide your approach. How are you going to tackle the question? When time is limited, it is important to quantitative method paper choose to write about things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and as long as you relate your argument to the question and construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in any direction you choose. Use this to your advantage! You may need to Google around the topic to get a clear idea of what's already been said on your chosen argument, but limit this research time to 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook! Now, type out 3-5 key points that you'll aim to tackle in your argument, and family business, underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point. Essay Experience Train. Start with the most obvious argument , as this will provide something to business link your other points back to gimp plugin – the key to a good essay.

Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the body of your essay, and thesis business, it'll be a matter of filling in between the lines of each bullet point. This method is perfect for writing against gimp, the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on your question and argument without going off in any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr. Sometimes the introduction can be the family business most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the on first experience of travelling in a most important part! Don't worry too much about making it sound amazing at this point – just get stuck into introducing your argument in thesis business, response to your chosen question and telling the reader how you will support it. You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on critical for night when you're at the editing stage.

Create something of a mini-outline in thesis business, your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is you're planning to argue. Don't use the introduction as a space to throw in random references to things that are vaguely relevant. When in doubt, leave it out! Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to gather outside information and quotes to support your arguments. It's important to limit the time you spend on this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of business irrelevant information. Business. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of relevant info, so use your judgement on this one. Choose search keywords wisely and copy and paste key ideas and quotes into a separate 'Research' document.

If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to chapters that look relevant and remember to use the index! Paraphrase your main arguments to business give the essay your own voice and make clear to thesis business yourself which words are yours and critical, which are someone else's. Plagiarism is serious and could get you a big fat F for your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of your sources – again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at family the end. Take quotes by other authors included in the book you're reading. If you look up the references you will find the business original book (already credited) which you can then use for your own references.

This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too. Sneaky! Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to write your essay, make use of the automatic referencing system. Simply enter the details of sources as you go along, and it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at the end. This tool is AMAZING and thesis family business, could save you a lot of extra work typing out essay on first experience train your references and family business, bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr. Get typing! Now it's just a matter of beefing out your outline until you reach the dissertation word limit!

Get all your content down and thesis, don't worry too much about writing style. You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to business say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on a notepad – they could come in handy if you need to make up the word count later! Use the research you gathered earlier to support the key ideas you set out in your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to reach the word limit, don't panic. Pick out a single point in your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to your research. There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and you build on them and thesis business, build around each piece of meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to make the full kebab… time for a dinner break? Ensure that all the essay on first points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully.

Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on family your circumstance) in order to are celebrities role models essay hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and make sure you have time for potential printer issues. Business. We've all been there!

A lot of critical students overlook the importance of spelling and grammar. It differs from thesis family, uni to uni, subject to gimp resynthesis subject and tutor to tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for up to business 10-20% of are celebrities role models essay your grade. Make sure you edit properly! If you take your time to family business nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to passing! While completing essays 24 hours before the dissertation deadline is family business far from recommended and unlikely to essay for night get you the best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at least prevent tears in the library (been there) and family, the need for any extensions. Remember, this is good role a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to do! Good luck! Exams coming up?

Check out thesis family our guide on how to revise in one day too. If you're starting to feel the pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too. If you have any great tips you think we've missed, we'd love to management dissertation hear them – use the comments section below! Earn ?20 Amazon Vouchers. Win ?250 Nando’s Vouchers! Free* Domino’s pizza. Win a ?100 Ticketmaster voucher. 40 easy ways to make money quickly. How to thesis family start a website in 20 minutes.

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