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barbara kruger essay Whitney Museum of American Art. Essay? photo Jeff Goldberg/Esto. I work with pictures and words because they have the media essays a2 ability to determine who we are and who we aren't F rom July 13 through October 22, 2000, the bold work of medier, Barbara Kruger will be presented at persuasive essay public school, the Whitney Museum of American Art, providing a look at one of the most compelling artistic careers of the past two decades. Kruger's instantly identifiable images, exploring the dynamics of power, identity, sexuality and representation, have helped shape a generation of artists. The artist's first major museum retrospective, Barbara Kruger was organized by The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (MOCA), where it debuted in October 1999. (left: Power Pleasure Desire Disgust , 1997, multimedia installation Deitch Projects, New York) Maxwell L. Anderson, director of the Whitney Museum, commented, it is especially timely that we are hosting the Barbara Kruger exhibition at the Whitney, where Kruger's work was shown as early as the 1973 Biennial. Essay Om Sociale? Kruger's powerful juxtapositions of research for 6th grade, pictures and words have had a profound influence on other artists and on the way we see the world. (left: Barbara Kruger, October 17, 1989 - February 13, 2000, MOCA at the Geffen Contemporary, Photo by essay om sociale medier, Brian Ferrest) The presentation of Barbara Kruger at the Whitney features approximately 60 works selected from the original MOCA exhibition that was organized by MOCA curator Ann Goldstein in a dynamic installation designed in close collaboration with the artist. Research On American? The exhibition includes selections from Kruger's photographic prints on paper and vinyl; etched metal plates; audio, video, installation, and sculpture works; sign-painted texts; billboards; and essay om sociale new work made especially for the exhibition. On The Great Magic Show? Kruger's work addresses the cultural representations of om sociale, power, identity and sexuality, and challenges the essay magic spectacles of essay medier, stereotypes and public cliches. Since 1980, her work with pictures and essay medier words has developed into a highly recognizable, consistent visual language. In her iconic photo/text montages, the science research papers for 6th grade artist juxtaposes striking images with equally striking phrases like Your body is a battleground, We have received orders not to move, and I shop therefore I am. (left: Unitiled (Not ugly enough) , 1997, photographic silkscreen on vinyl, 109 x 109 inches, Collection of Patrizia Sandretto Re Rebaudengo)
With a background as a graphic designer at Mademoiselle and House and Garden , the artist is best known for her provocative black and white photographic images, banded with red stripes of text bearing bold messages, delivered in her trademark Futura Bold Italic. These signature images, produced in the 1980s, consistently raise questions about values, taste, and the material world. The exhibition includes documentation and representations of Kruger's public commissions, billboards, posters, media shelters, magazine and book covers, op-ed pieces from newspapers, as well as a selection of consumer products designed by the artist. Among the works to be exhibited are Untitled (We have received orders not to move) , 1982; Untitled (I shop therefore I am) , 1987; and Untitled (Your body is a battleground) , 1989. (left: Barbara Kruger, October 17, 1989 - February 13, 2000, MOCA at essay medier, the Geffen Contemporary, Photo by Brian Ferrest) Born in science papers for 6th grade Newark, New Jersey in 1945, Kruger studied at Syracuse University and Parsons School of Design. Kruger has worked in a number of fields, including photography, teaching, critical writing, curating, public art projects, and book publishing. Her work has appeared throughout the United States, Europe, and Japan in essay galleries, newspapers, magazines, and museums, as well as on billboards, matchbooks, TV programs, t-shirts, postcards and shopping bags. Her major commissions include the media essays a2 park and outdoor amphitheater at the North Carolina Museum of Art in Raleigh, NC; a train station in Strasbourg, France; and floor mosaics for essay the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. She has written about television, film and culture for Artforum, Esquire, The New York Times, and The Village Voice . Kruger lives in New York and Los Angeles. Kruger has been commissioned to design covers for numerous magazines, from Esquire and help homework Newsweek to The New York Times Book Review . She has also created posters on subjects ranging from reproductive rights to a short film by Jonathan Demme and the backdrop for the Rage Against the Machine 1997 tour. Om Sociale Medier? Most recently, she has made life-size white fiberglass statues.
Her work is represented in research papers many major museum collections, including The Museum of Modern Art; the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum; Museum of om sociale, Contemporary Art, Chicago; St. Louis Art Museum; Milwaukee Art Museum; and The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. (left: Untitled (Your Body Is a Battle Ground), 1989, photographic silkscreen on vinyl, 112 x 112 inches, The Broad Art Fouundation, Santa Monica, CA) A major 268-page catalogue accompanies the show and is the first book to provide a critical overview of master or masters thesis, Kruger's career from om sociale multiple perspectives. The publication features essays by Rosalyn Deutsche, art historian and critic; Katherine Dieckmann, New York-based writer-director; MOCA curator Ann Goldstein; Steven Heller, editor of the American Institute of Graphic Arts Journal of Graphic Design and chair of the MFA Design program at the School of Visual Arts, New York; Gary Indiana, novelist and thesis writer; and Carol Squiers, art critic and writer; in addition to a discussion with the artist and om sociale New York-based novelist and master or masters thesis critic Lynne Tillman. Please click on thumbnail images bordered by essay om sociale medier, a red line to see enlargements. This page was originally published in on the great show Resource Library Magazine . Please see Resource Library's Overview section for more information. rev.
3/2/11. Search Resource Library for thousands of articles and om sociale medier essays on American art. Copyright 2011 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.
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An Essay on Understanding the Mind. Several conjectures by A. S. Iberall on life and mind are used as a backdrop to sketch a theory of mental activity that respects both the contents of thought and the dynamics of thinking. The dynamics, in this case, refers fundamentally to animated, meaningfully coupled self-organizing processes (coordination dynamics) and essay exhibit multistability, switching, and, because of symmetry breaking, metastability. The interplay of 2 simultaneously acting forces underlies the public school metastable mind: the tendency for the coordinating elements to couple together (integration) and the tendency for the elements to express their individual autonomy (segregation). Metrics for metastability are introduced that enable these cooperative and competitive tendencies to be quantified. Om Sociale Medier. Whereas bistability is the basis for polarized, either/or thinking, the metastable r#x000e9;gime#x02014;which contains neither stable nor unstable states, no states at all, in fact#x02014;gives rise to master thesis a far more fluid, complementary mode of operation in which it is possible for apparent contraries to coexist in the mind at the same time. By way of essay om sociale medier reminiscence, and apropos the topic of this contribution, the photograph in Figure 1 was taken at master a symposium on medier Nonlinearities in Brain Function, organized by Eugene Yates and Arnold Mandell, held at the Kroc Ranch in science Santa Ynez, California, from March 1 through March 5, 1982.
As remarked upon previously (Kelso, 1995, p. Om Sociale. 50), this was an event way ahead of its time, organized by visionaries and supported by enlightened philanthropy. A quarter of a century ago there were no Centers or Institutes for Complex Systems and the like yet, and no one was talking about #x0201c;brain dynamics,#x0201d; a field of research that very much stirs the air of contemporary neuroscience. The organizers of this remarkable meeting, Yates and Mandell, sensed the science papers for 6th potential and the power of transdisciplinary science and were doing something about it. Essay. The man we honor in these lectures was living testament to that. Arthur Iberall (#x0201c;Ibby#x0201d;) was the centerpiece of the Kroc symposium, holding court every evening, laying out his homeokinetics manifesto in a unique and irrepressible way. Only once can I remember him being told to shut up. Ibby was both generalist and specialist, theorist and experimenter, scientist and engineer, physicist and biologist, swimmer and poet-and much, much more.
Was it Georges Braque who said, #x0201c;Le conformisme commence #x000e0; la definition#x0201d;? Iberall was no conformist so there is no point in trying to master classify him. The usual categories fail and words are not the thing. Nevertheless, he was a great man and friend, the likes of which one is not likely to essay om sociale meet, as they say where I grew up, in a month of research on american history Sundays. For students with an interest in essay medier the history of science and especially #x0201c;the sciences of complexity#x0201d; who also want to get a sense of the man and the range of his intellect in one swift glimpse, consider Iberall's (1994) short article in Physics Today , where he chastises a Nobel laureate for, shall we say, pontificating with blinders on.
For those in the know, the media essays a2 reply is revealing enough. What did Iberall have to say about nature, life, and om sociale mind? Quite a lot, as it turns out, initially with Warren McCulloch (see Kelso, 1995, pp. 114#x02013;115). On the occasion of his 80th birthday, he and his colleague of 60 years, Harry Soodak, provided a primer that contains his principles of homeokinetics along with a number of conjectures about their application to matters of research nature, life, mind, brain and humankind (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1998). Among those pertinent to the present concerns (words italicized to convey effect) are: (1) the notion of a homeokinetic oscillator , a unit of some generality that underlies nature's self-organization of forms and functions, even complex ones; (2) said unit consists of an energy storing nonlinear element and is conceived of as bistable; (3) the energy to medier snap the element in a direction from one #x02018;stable#x02019; position to another is good topics very small (the quotation marks around #x02018;stable#x02019; are theirs); (4) the human is essay conceived as a nonlinear marginally stable storage device who can #x02018;self-urge#x02019; (Ibby's words) onboard sources in any number of directions (Ibby loved telling the story of a young boy's bar mitzvah; when asked by his father what he was today, he replied, #x0201c;Today I am a fountain pen#x0201d; ). The idea is research paper history that people snap into a direction by . . . #x0201c;always taking a binary decision mind set , e.g., to trade or to rob, to persuade or to rape, to buy or to sell, to be or not to be, to kill or not to kill, to eat or not to medier eat, to scratch or not to scratch a body itch#x0201d; (p. 29); (5) complexity develops from interacting or synergetic engine processes; (6) by virtue of very weak interactions #x0201c;whose complex character we do not quite understand yet,#x0201d; a kind of mutual entrainment is possible, which may leave a memory after the interaction is over (for a recent example of social memory following entrainment, see Oullier, DeGuzman, Jantzen, Lagarde, #x00026; Kelso, 2008); (7) a direction of research topics common agreement often emerges, a higher order chemistry or command-control system typical of any complex system; (8) the laws and rules for command-control (a term that Ibby liked despite its linguistic similarity to essay discredited #x02018;commands to persuasive public school system muscles#x02019; schemes for motor control; see, e.g., Turvey, Fitch #x00026; Tuller, 1982) lie in a homeokinetic spectrum in essay om sociale medier the person's body, brain, and mind; this ushered in and grounded the field of on physical homework biospectroscopy (see Yates, this issue, and for an application Goodman #x00026; Kelso, 1983); (9) the human mind operates, as does nature, by om sociale medier a #x0201c;peculiar fumbling mode#x0201d; identified as #x0201c;reverie,#x0201d; suggesting that thought has its own typical space and time scale ; and (10) consonant with 3 and 4, command-control is catalytic, chemically based linguistic signals causing low energy switching among action modes . It is a tribute to Iberall's powers of divination that empirical traces of many of his proposals continue to science papers grade permeate the literature and will be touched upon as we proceed. The foregoing list is presented here principally as a backdrop for where this article is headed, which is to sketch a theory of thoughts and thinking that attempts to: (1) accommodate both the content of thoughts and the dynamics of thinking and (2) narrow the gap between the language and science of molecules and om sociale medier cellular machinery (genetics, neuroscience) and the language and science of mind and behavior (cognitive science, neurology, psychiatry). How the molecular biological level relates to mind, brain, and behavioral function is far from transparent. Research Paper History. As Kandel (2006) has recently concluded, a conceptual shift is needed from studying elementary processes such as single proteins, genes, and cells to studying complex systems of nerve cells, the functioning of whole organisms, and the interactions of organisms. #x0201c;Biology,#x0201d; says Kandel (2006), #x0201c;will have to focus more on human beings as the essay om sociale medier model system of choice#x0201d; (p.
423). He kids not. Ultimately (and there is no point in beating about the bush) we need a language and science of experience, of everything we human beings take for granted#x02014;as Virginia Wolf would say, #x0201c;an ordinary mind on an ordinary day#x0201d;#x02014;that connects to a language and science papers grade science of body#x0223c;brain activity. The central thesis of this article can be stated bluntly: Minds, brains, and bodies, yours and mine, immersed as they are in their own worlds, both outside and inside, share a common underlying dynamics. They are cut fundamentally, as Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (2004) says, from the same dynamic cloth. The dynamics here refers to equations of motion for key coordination variables or order parameters that characterize patterns of behavior on essay medier multiple levels of description: patterns of help on physical science brain activity, patterns of essay om sociale medier cognition and help on physical homework emotion, patterns of om sociale medier human interaction, patterns of the mind. The dynamics are not of a system described by show states parameterized or forced by environmental signals, though they may be conceived as such (cf.
Rosen, 1991). The dynamics refer to both environment and animal in a way that ordinary physics does not (Kelso, 1994a). The dynamics deal with coordination, not (or not only) with matter and motion: coordination dynamics . Coordination dynamics deals specifically with informationally coupled, self-organizing systems, where information is meaningful and specific to om sociale coordination tasks and functions: functional information (for the origins of the master thesis notion of information as form, see references and medier discussion in Kugler, Kelso, #x00026; Turvey, 1980, 1982). Coordination dynamics stresses, in the words of the late James Gibson (1979/1986), himself a genius, that the or masters thesis organism and the environment are complementary . Essay. Indeed, as we shall see, coordination dynamics shows how many apparently contradictory aspects such as whole versus part, integration versus segregation, individual versus collective, cooperation versus competition, stability versus instability, and so on, are complementary. In doing so, coordination dynamics opens up a path to reconciling contradictions, dualisms, binary oppositions, and essay on the great the like in all walks of life, illuminating thereby the complementary nature (Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006; see also Kelso, 2005). Essay. 1. TOWARD A COMPLEMENTARY SCIENCE OF BODY, BRAIN, MIND, AND BEHAVIOR. It is master worth noting that up until the time of Bohr, Heisenberg, and essay om sociale Pauli, physics debated over whether light, sound, and science research papers atomic scale processes were more basically particle-like or wave-like in character.
Philosophy spoke of essay om sociale medier thesis and antithesis, of dialectic tension, of self and help science homework not self, of the qualitative and the quantitative, the objective and essay medier the subjective, as if they were either/or divisions. This tendency to dichotomize, to divide the world into opposing categories (the binary decision mind-set , see 3 earlier) appears to be a #x02018;built in#x02019; property of science research papers grade human beings, perhaps arising very early in development and independent of cultural background (Spelke, 2006). For Bohr, Pauli, and Heisenberg, three of the chief architects of quantum mechanics, it became abundantly clear that sharp dichotomies and contrarieties must be replaced with far more subtle and essay medier sophisticated complementarities, for for 6th grade, all of nature, human nature (and human brains) included. Probably Pauli (1994) expressed it best: To us the only acceptable point of om sociale view appears to be one that recognizes both sides of reality#x02014;the quantitative and the qualitative, the physical and the psychical#x02014;as compatible with each other.
It would be most satisfactory of all if physics and psyche could be seen as complementary aspects of the or masters same reality. (p. 260) The remarkable developments of quantum mechanics demonstrating the medier essential complementarity of both light and matter should have ushered in not just a novel epistemology but a generalized complementary science. Media Essays A2. However, they did not. Thinking in terms of contraries and the either/or seems to come much more easily to the human mind. Om Sociale Medier. As in traditional logic, the science research papers grade mind is in essay one state or another but not both at the same time. Master Or Masters. Much harder to grasp is the notion that contraries are complementary: Contraria sunt complementa , as Bohr's famous coat of arms says. That mind-set might change, however, if complementary aspects and their dynamics were found not just at the remote level of the subatomic processes dealt with by quantum mechanics but also at the level of human beings, human brains, and human behavior. In particular, over the last 25 years or so, due to the efforts of people working in and across many fields, a multilevel, interdisciplinary science of coordination has emerged called coordination dynamics . A broad range of coordinative phenomena have been studied and explained using the om sociale concepts, methods, and tools of coordination dynamics (Fuchs #x00026; Jirsa, 2008; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003, for reviews). Because coordination dynamics deals in research papers for 6th grade the currency of meaningful information, it's to coordination dynamics where we might look for essay om sociale, insights into understanding mind. COORDINATION DYNAMICS: MULTISTABILITY, PHASE TRANSITIONS, AND METASTABILITY.
New empirical and theoretical developments in the science of coordination suggest that the reason the mind fragments the world into dichotomies (and more important, how opposing tendencies may be reconciled) is master deeply connected to the way the human brain works, in particular its multi- and metastable dynamics (Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004; Friston, 1997; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Oullier #x00026; Kelso, 2006; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003; Velazquez, 2005, for reviews). Etymologically, #x0201c;metastability#x0201d; comes from the Latin meta (beyond) and stabilis (able to stand). In coordination dynamics, metastability corresponds to essay om sociale a regime near a saddle-node or tangent bifurcation in which stable coordination states no longer exist (e.g., inphase synchronization where the relative phase between oscillating components lingers at zero), but attraction remains to where those fixed points used to be (#x0201c;remnants of attractor repellors#x0201d;; see Figure 2 ). This gives rise to a dynamical flow consisting of both phase trapping and phase scattering. Metastability is thus the simultaneous realization of two competing tendencies: the tendency of the on physical science homework components to couple together and essay om sociale medier the tendency for the components to media essays a2 express their intrinsic independent behavior. According to a recent review (Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004), Metastability is an entirely new conception of brain functioning where the individual parts of the brain exhibit tendencies to function autonomously at the same time as they exhibit tendencies for essay, coordinated activity. (Kelso, 1991, 1992, 1995; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; see also Bressler, 2003) A number of neuroscientists have embraced metastability as playing a role in papers various cognitive functions, including consciousness (e.g., Edelman, 2004; Edelman #x00026; Tononi, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Friston, 1997; Koch, 2005; Sporns, 2004; Varela, Lachaux, Rodriguez, #x00026; Martinerie, 2001; see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for review). Metastability's significance lies not in the word itself but in what it means for understanding informationally coupled, self-organizing dynamical systems like the brain and its complementary relation to mind. In coordination dynamics, metastability is om sociale medier not a concept or an idea but a result of the broken symmetry of a system of essay great show (nonlinearly) coupled (nonlinear) oscillators.
The latter design is motivated by empirical evidence that the structural units of the brain that support sensory, motor, and cognitive processes express themselves as oscillations with well-defined spectral properties. At least 12 different rhythms from the infraslow (less than 1 Hz) to essay the ultrafast (more than 100 Hz) have been identified, all connected to various behavioral and cognitive functions (e.g., Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 2003a). Indeed, brain oscillations are considered one of the most important phenotypes for studying the genetics of complex (non-Mendelian) disorders (Begleiter #x00026; Porjesz, 2006). The mechanisms that give rise to rhythms and synchrony exist on different levels of organization: single neurons oscillate due to help homework voltage-gated ion channels depolarizing and hyperpolarizing the membrane; network oscillations, for example, in hippocampus and neocortex, strongly depend on the activity of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons in essay om sociale medier the central nervous system (so-called inhibition-based rhythms; see, e.g., Whittington, Traub, Kopell, Ermentrout, #x00026; Buhl, 2000); neuronal groups or assemblies form as transient coalitions of discharging neurons with mutual interaction. Neuronal communication occurs by means of synapses and glia. Synaptic connections between areas may be weak but research shows that synchrony among different inputs strengthens them, thereby enhancing communication between neurons (for one of many recent examples, see Womelsdorf et al., 2007). Great Magic Show. Phase coupling, for example, allows groups of essay om sociale medier neurons in distant and disparate regions of the brain to synchronize together (e.g., Canolty et al., 2006).
According to coordination dynamics, nonlinear coupling among oscillatory processes that possess different intrinsic frequencies is necessary to generate the broad range of behaviors observed, including pattern formation, multistability, phase transitions, switching (sans #x0201c;switches#x0201d;), hysteresis, and so forth. Although the mechanisms of coupling multiple oscillations within and between levels of essay in the school organization are manifold, the principle is clear enough: patterns of behavior arise as an emergent consequence of self-organized interactions among neurons and neuronal populations and this self-organization is medier a fundamental source of cognitive, affective, behavioral and social function (Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Oullier et al., 2008; Schmidt #x00026; Richardson, 2008; Van Orden, Holden, #x00026; Turvey, 2005). Metastability was originally discovered when experimental observations of sensorimotor coordination (Kelso, DelColle, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1990) made it necessary to extend the elementary HKB coordination law (Haken, Kelso, #x00026; Bunz, 1985; Sch#x000f6;ner, Haken, #x00026; Kelso, 1986) to handle the interaction of oscillatory components with different intrinsic properties 2 (Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, 1995, chap. 4). This breaks the symmetry of the original HKB equation, which describes changes of the master or masters thesis order parameter relative phase over time ( #x003d5; . ): where #x003d5; is the relative phase between two interacting components, a and b are parameters p setting the strength of attracting regions in the system's dynamical landscape, Q #x003be; t is a (delta-correlated) noise term of strength Q , and #x003b4;#x003c9; is a symmetry breaking term expressing the fact that each coordinating element possesses its own intrinsic behavior (Kelso et al., 1990; see Park #x00026; Turvey, 2008, for essay, further discussion). The introduction of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Eq. 1 changes the persuasive on religion school system entire coordination dynamics (layout of the fixed points, bifurcation structure) of the original HKB system. This is important to realize because it is the subtle interplay between the essay coupling ( k = b/a ) and good paper on american history the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Equation 1 that gives rise to medier metastability 3 (see Kelso, 2002, for great show, further discussion). where X 1 and X 2 are the individual components, the dots are their time derivatives and #x003b1; and #x003b2; are coupling parameters (Haken, Kelso #x00026; Bunz, 1985). A nontrivial aspect of HKB is essay om sociale medier that it derives patterns of coordination from the individual components and their nonlinear interaction (see Kelso, 2007b for steps and good research on american history rationale). Equation 1 is weird.
Even though it is an essay om sociale order parameter equation of motion that is designed to describe collective behavior (in words, phi dot is a function of phi), it includes also a parameter that arises as a result of differences among the individual components . Eq. 1 is thus a strange mixture of the whole and science for 6th grade the parts, the global and the local, the cooperative and the competitive, the collective and the individual. Were the components identical, #x003b4;#x003c9; would be zero and we would not see component differences affecting the behavior of the whole. Eq. 1 would simply reflect the behavior of the collective untarnished by essay om sociale component properties, a purely emergent interaction#x02014;the HKB equation. It is the fact that both the components and science their (nonlinear) interaction appear at essay om sociale medier the same level of description that gives rise to the array of coexisting tendencies characteristic of metastability.
Eq. 1 is a basic representation of a synergy : a low dimensional dynamic of a metastable organization in which the tendency of the parts to act together coexists with a tendency of the parts to do their own thing (Kelso, 1995, chap. 4; for more on synergies, see Kelso, 2007a, 2000b, in press). It is metastability that endows the synergy with robustness and flexibility, enabling the same parts to participate in multiple functions. If the synergy is a unit of life, then it is metastability that brings it alive. The flow of the coordination dynamics across a range of #x003b4;#x003c9; values is shown in Figure 2 for a fixed value of the coupling parameter, k = b/a = 1, where a = 1 and b = 1). Stable fixed points (attractors) are presented as filled circles and unstable fixed points (repellors) as open circles. Note these fixed points refer to media essays a2 the coordination variable or order parameter and are not known in advance but have to be experimentally identified (see Kelso, 2000, for a full discussion).
Here, fortuitously for the brain, fixed points of the essay om sociale medier coordination variable #x003c6; represent the phase and frequency relationship between oscillatory processes. Papers For 6th Grade. The surface shown in essay om sociale Figure 2 defines three regions under the essay on the great magic show influence of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; . In the first region, present in om sociale the lower part of the surface, the system is multistable: two stable attracting fixed points (filled circles) represent possible alternative states. Which one the on the great magic show system settles in essay depends on initial conditions and the size of the basin of attraction. In an research history intermediate region, following the line labeled 2 from essay om sociale, left to right, the weakest attractor near antiphase (right side) disappears after it collides with its associated repellor somewhere near #x003b4;#x003c9; = 1.3, but the strongest attractor (left side) is still present as well as its repellor partner. Finally, in the third region, in the upper part of the surface, the thesis dynamics become metastable. Following the line labeled 3 from left to right, no fixed points exist anymore: this part of the essay surface no longer intersects the isoplane #x003d5; . Paper Topics History. = 0 where the fixed points are located. Strictly speaking, coordination states qua frequency- and phase-synchrony no longer exist in the metastable regime of the coordination dynamics. What does individual and coordination behavior look like in the metastable regime and how might their relationship be quantified? A unique flow now exists in which the dynamics may be characterized by places where the trajectory of the coordination variable relative phase converges and pauses around the horizontal and places where the essay trajectory drifts or diverges from the horizontal. Let us define the former as a dwell time and the latter as an escape time . In Figure 3c we show two locations for on the great, the dwell times: one that lingers a long time before escaping (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 1), slightly above the om sociale medier more stable inphase pattern near 0 rad (modulo 2 #x003c0; ), and the other that lingers only briefly (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 2), slightly above #x003c0; (modulo 2 #x003c0; ). Thesis. These inflections recur over and over again as long as the system self-organizes in the metastable regime, that is, as long as it does not undergo a phase transition to a locked or unlocked state.
Despite the complete absence of phase-locked attractors, the essay medier coordinating elements in the metastable regime do not behave totally independently. Help. Rather, their interdependence takes the form of dwellings (phase gathering) near the remnants of the om sociale medier fixed points (cf. Figure 2 ) and for 6th may be nicely expressed by concentrations in the histogram of the relative phase (see Kelso, 1995, chap. 4). METRICS FOR METASTABILITY: A START.
In the following some potential measures of om sociale metastable coordination dynamics are introduced. Help On Physical. Notice that all the usual measures used previously in coordination dynamics to measure and quantify stability and loss of stability such as local and global relaxation times, switching times, fluctuations, and so on, no longer apply in the metastable regime (see Kelso, Sch#x000f6;ner, Scholz, #x00026; Haken, 1987; Sch#x000f6;ner #x00026; Kelso, 1988, for reviews of theory and experiments establishing the utility of these quantities). The reason of course is essay medier that in the metastable regime, all fixed point states have vanished leaving only traces of coordination, #x0201c;ghosts#x0201d; or #x0201c;remnants#x0201d; of where the fixed points once were. Once the fixed points go, so also all the methods and techniques of linear stability analysis. 4 This means we have to be creative about finding new ways to capture metastable coordination. A dwell time may be defined by how long a collective or coordinative tendency persists in a system or data set; an master or masters escape time is how long the coordinating elements express their individual autonomy in a system or data set. 5 Consider first the pure cases. For reasons of om sociale medier generality that may become apparent later, let's refer to help science homework them as complementary aspects ca1 and ca2. An example of medier a pure case is illustrated in Figure 3d : there is no coupling and the oscillators are completely independent (ca1). Examples of another pure case are illustrated in media essays a2 Figures 3a and 3b . Whether in the mono- or bistable regimes, the oscillators are locked together, coupled in phase- and frequency-locked states (ca2), which constitute asymptotically stable states of the coordination dynamics.
The metastable regime is in-between the two pure cases and is a blend of two tendencies: one for the elements to om sociale bind together and the other for the elements to behave independently. For 6th Grade. Such coexisting tendencies may be denoted as a complementary pair, ca1#x0223c;ca2. Notice that the transition from a metastable regime to a mono- or multistable regime constitutes the creation of functional information (Kelso, 1994a, 2002; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006). That is, the system moves from a place where there are no states to a place where the coordinated state is well defined and vice versa. Notice also that in the metastable regime near the saddle-node bifurcation, information in essay om sociale medier the classical Shannonian sense (and presumably #x0201c;information processing#x0201d;) is at a maximum. The two pure cases, fully coupled and totally uncoupled, represent a minimum of information. They are what they are forever. For Iberall, the creation and stability of new forms requires two or more force systems. The physical intuition is of a generalized Reynolds number. Or Masters. If the energy sweeping into a field of atomisms can be absorbed, nothing much happens.
If it cannot, the om sociale field becomes unstable and some new inhomogeneous patterning emerges. The generalized Reynolds number is dimensionless and expresses a competition between a global, convective process and a local diffusive transport or propagative process. The resulting form or pattern is a collective, cooperative effect. Note again how the complementary pairs competition#x0223c;cooperation and local#x0223c;global come into play. Formally, the generalized Reynolds number (Re) can be written as follows: with unity (Re critical = 1) reflecting the critical value at which the transition to help on physical science new forms occurs. With apologies for belaboring the fact, criticality conditions have to be worked out in each case (for an interesting example, see Warren, 1984). Along the same lines of essay reasoning, a k number may be defined as follows: The dimensionless k number appears to provide a measure of the science for 6th grade quality of essay metastability . The mathematical expression is trivial: In words, as the help on physical science escape time (e) approaches zero, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets larger and essay om sociale larger. This means that there is a stronger and stronger tendency for the individual elements to bind together than to stay apart. Likewise,
In words, as the escape time (e) gets larger and larger, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets smaller and smaller. This means that the individual elements tend to persuasive essay on religion in the public system express their autonomy more and more, approaching total independence. In analogy to the generalized Reynolds number, a critical k number expresses when the tendency to essay medier coordinate overcomes the tendency to on the great stay apart, and vice-versa. The k number might be expected to scale with the distance from the asymptotically stable locked state. But how? This will again depend on the details of the system. Were this process analogous to so-called Type-1 intermittency, the distribution of dwell times should scale as the distance #x02212;1/2 from the essay om sociale medier critical surface where the parameterized function (Eq. 1) lifts off the origin. Experimentally, this would require pinpointing the bifurcation point and manipulating control parameters very precisely. 6 More generally, comparing k numbers, the ratio of dwell and good research topics history escape times, across a range of levels of observation of the same and different systems may even reveal scale-free properties (for examples, see Billock, DeGuzman, #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 1997, 2003b; Eguiluz, Chialvo, Cecchi, Baliki, #x00026; Apkarian, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2005).
METASTABLE COORDINATION DYNAMICS OF THE BRAIN. This brief introduction to measures of essay om sociale metastability once again highlights the complementary nature. Only together, as a complementary pair, do apparently contrasting phenomena, such as individual #x0223c; collective, integration #x0223c; segregation, local #x0223c; global, cooperation#x0223c;competition, attraction#x0223c;repulsion, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, and so on, exhaust the knowledge necessary for understanding. We are reminded once again of Von Holst's (1939/1973) classic analysis of coordination: Both the #x0201c;magnet effect#x0201d; and the #x0201c;maintenance tendency#x0201d; are needed for a complete description of coordination in all its forms (see also Turvey #x00026; Schmidt, 1994). The metastable regime of the coordination law (Eq. Homework. 1) shows how this is medier so: both tendencies arise as the result of the dynamic interplay between nonlinear coupling and individual intrinsic dynamics. How might the brain make use of metastability? For a fuller discussion of this question, including #x0201c;The Freeman-Kelso Dialogue,#x0201d; the media essays a2 reader is referred to Kelso #x00026; Tognoli (2007).
As the Fingelkurtses (2004) remark, metastability is an entirely new conception of brain organization, not merely a blend of the old. Individualist tendencies for essay om sociale medier, the diverse regions of the brain to express their independence coexist with coordinative tendencies to couple and cooperate as a whole. Good Topics On American History. As we have seen, in the metastable brain local segregative and global integrative processes coexist as a complementary pair, not as conflicting theories. Metastability, by medier reducing the strong hierarchical coupling between the parts of a complex system while allowing them to papers for 6th grade retain their individuality, leads to a looser, more secure, more flexible form of essay medier functioning that promotes the creation of information. Too much autonomy of the component parts means no chance of their coordinating and show communicating together. Essay Om Sociale. On the good research paper history other hand, too much interdependence and the system gets stuck; global flexibility is medier lost. In comparison with theories of large-scale neural organization through linear phase-coupling (e.g., Eckhorn et al., 1988; Gray, K#x000f6;nig, Engel, #x00026; Singer, 1989; Varela et al., 2001) the ability of metastable dynamics to coordinate or compute without attractors opens a large set of media essays a2 possibilities. 7 The classical view of phase-locked coordination prescribes that each recruited element loses its intrinsic behavior and obeys the essay medier dictates of the assembly. Research For 6th Grade. When such situations arise, from the om sociale functional point of view, individual areas cease to exert an influence for the duration of the synchronized state, and the pertinent spatial level of description becomes the synchronous assembly itself. However, it appears that phylogenesis also promoted specialized activity of local populations of neurons (e.g., Chklovskii, Schikorski, #x00026; Stevens, 2002; Ebbesson, 1984). In theories of large-scale integration through phase synchronization, the expression of local activity can exist only papers for 6th grade, when the om sociale area is not enslaved into an assembly, whereas in the metastable regime, the tendency for master thesis, individual activity is continually preserved (see also Friston, 1997).
As exemplified explicitly in the elementary coordination law (Eq. 1), a delicate balance between integration (coordination between individual areas) and segregation (expression of individual behavior) is achieved in medier the metastable regime. Studies of interareal connectivity both at the anatomical and topics functional level (Friston, 1997; Tononi, Sporns, #x00026; Edelman, 1998) support the om sociale medier notion that the region between complete integration and complete segregation is the on religion public system most favorable for cognition: measures of complexity reach a maximum when there is a balance between segregative and integrative forces. Note, however, that such measures are based upon stationarity assumptions whereas metastability in coordination dynamics is a #x0201c;stationary transient.#x0201d; Although the holding and releasing of the relative phase over essay om sociale, time appears to be of or masters a transient nature, it is actually quite stationary. What are the implications of metastable coordination dynamics for understanding the essay mind? Like nature and nurture, the contents of the mind and the dynamics of the mind are inextricably connected. Thoughts are not static: like the flow of a river, they emerge and disappear as patterns in a constantly shifting dynamic system (Kelso, 1995). Pretty though this metaphor is, science demands we go beyond it to seek description and science research papers grade explanation.
As in essay om sociale medier other, more mature fields it is crucial to have a theory or at science for 6th least a conceptual framework of what one is trying to understand. The aim of the present approach is not a detailed model of neurons or neuronal connectivity that will underlie all forms of thought and thinking. Nor is this the forum to present a comprehensive account of the supporting neurophysiological and behavioral evidence. Essay Om Sociale. Rather, in the spirit of the person we honor here, the purpose is to stimulate insight into how mind, brain, and media essays a2 behavior might be connected in a unified way. Figure 4 is intended to convey the gist of the story. On the left side of the middle panel, two areas of the brain (for the om sociale sake of simplicity) are shown to be active. This acknowledges a simple fact#x02014;or at least a dominant assumption in contemporary neuroscience: The contents of thoughts depend on the neural structures activated. Reciprocally, the neural structures activated influence#x02014;directly or indirectly#x02014;the contents of thoughts. If one is imagining producing a pattern of sensorimotor coordination, such as syncopating to media essays a2 a rhythmic stimulus, fMRI studies show that the same neural structures are active as would normally be engaged in the act of syncopation itself (Oullier, Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, 2005).
If one is expecting a reward as a result of an economic transaction, the so-called reward centers in the subcortical nuclei of the limbic system (e.g., nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area) and essay om sociale medier associated pathways are activated (e.g., Knutson, Adams, Fong, #x00026; Hommer, 2001). If one perceives a new face or recognizes an old one, structures in science homework the fusiform gyrus and the inferotemporal visual cortex appear to be activated, and so forth (e.g., Haxby et al., 1996). Essay Medier. Thoughts crop up from within, contemporaneous with the public school activation of neural structures associated with memory and emotion such as the hippocampus and amygdala, and they can be triggered from without by a familiar sound, touch, sight, or smell. Occasionally insightful thoughts arise too. Though much remains to be learned about what exactly constitutes the contents of thought#x02014;which are inherently context-dependent#x02014;thoughts appear to have neural correlates. 8 However, identifying thought-specific structures and circuitry using brain mapping, important though it may be, is hardly sufficient to tell us how thinking works. Unlike real estate, thoughts, consciousness, and mind are not only about location. The overuse and abuse of the terminology of #x0201c;states#x0201d;#x02014;mental states, psychological states, physiological states, emotional states, and so on#x02014;muffles any sense of dynamics. Active, dynamic processes like #x0201c;perceiving,#x0201d; #x0201c;attending,#x0201d; #x0201c;remembering,#x0201d; and #x0201c;deciding#x0201d; that are associated with the word thinking are not restricted to particular brain locations but rather emerge as patterns of interaction among widely distributed neural ensembles and in general between human beings and their worlds. One of the great riddles of contemporary neuroscience is how the multiple, diverse, and specialized areas of the brain are coordinated to om sociale medier give rise to thinking and essay on the show coherent goal-directed behavior. A key primitive of the present theory is that neuronal assemblies in different parts of the brain oscillate at different frequencies.
Such oscillatory activity is a prime example of self-organization in the brain. But oscillation, though necessary, is not sufficient. It is the fact that oscillations are coupled or bound together into a coherent network when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, remember, decide, and act (e.g., Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Singer, 2005; Varela et al., 2001, for reviews). Medier. This is media essays a2 a dynamic, self-assembling process, parts of the brain engaging and om sociale disengaging in help on physical time, as in a proverbial country square dance in medier rural Connecticut. In the simplest case shown in the left column of magic show Figure 4 , oscillations in different brain regions can lock #x0201c;inphase,#x0201d; brain activities rising and falling together, or #x0201c;antiphase,#x0201d; one oscillatory brain activity reaching its peak as another hits its trough and vice versa. Inphase and antiphase are just two out of many possible multistable, phase synchronized states that can exist between multiple, different, specialized brain areas depending on om sociale their respective intrinsic properties and functional connectivity.
More broadly, as Iberall intuited, the organism and its environment are embedded in a nested frame of rhythms ranging from rest activity and sleep cycles to circadian and seasonal rhythms that both modify and are modified by behavior, development, and aging. Coming back to the brain, different aspects of a moving scene, separate remembered parts of a significant experience, even different ideas that arise in a conversation may be bound together into coherent forms by synaptic coupling of (oscillatory) neural populations. The key proposal, conveyed in the top panel of thesis Figure 4 , is that thoughts (figuratively shown as balloons) are #x0201c;coded#x0201d; as relative phases between oscillating brain areas. Essay Om Sociale Medier. Relative phase is a natural quantity for coordinating different things and is a long established order parameter in coordination dynamics. 9 Phase is also the means by which excitatory and inhibitory neurons communicate with each other in so-called central pattern generators (e.g., Grillner, 1985).
If nature operates with ancient themes, as Ibby often reminded us, it is reasonable to media essays a2 propose that the same pattern generating principles typical of spinal circuitry are exploited at essay om sociale the level of cortical circuitry also (Kelso, 1995, chap. 8; Ikegaya et al., 2004). Essay On Religion Public School. In coordination dynamics, phase relationships carry meaningful information with multiple attractors (the fixed points shown in left top part of Figure 4 ) setting alternatives for complementary aspects to enter the mind. The top left part of essay om sociale medier Figure 4 conveys the essay on the essential bistable nature of physical and social reality. Two states are possible for identical parameter values: which state one enters depends on initial and boundary conditions. Baldly put, bistability is the essay basis of polarization and media essays a2 the either/or.
Note that this does not necessarily imply any judgment of good or bad. Polarization, for example, may be seen as the essay driving tension behind scientific progress in the sense of Thomas Kuhn (1962), and bistability may be exploited for solving ill-defined problems where the consideration of multiple interpretations of data is an advantage. Bistable, and in general multistable coordination dynamics confers many advantages on living things, in particular multifunctionality (see, e.g., Kelso, 1991). Why is it that some thoughts seem to persist longer than others? Coordination dynamics suggests that the persistence of a thought depends on the stability of the master thesis brain's relative phase dynamics.
Some thoughts persist longer than others because the phase relations underlying them are more stable. In Figure 4 (top left), the negative slope through the medier ordinate near inphase (#x0201c;thought 1#x0201d;) is greater, hence more stable, than its antiphase counterpart (#x0201c;thought 2#x0201d;). Help On Physical Science Homework. This proposition is supported by essay experiments and specific neurally based modeling, which shows that different patterns of spatiotemporal brain activity are differentially stable (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jirsa, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1998; Kelso et al., 1992; Meyer-Lindenberg, Ziemann, Hajak, Cohen, #x00026; Berman, 2002). For example, applying transient perturbations to Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) and lateral premotor cortex using Transcranial Magnetic stimulation induces transitions from antiphase to inphase coordination but not vice versa (Meyer-Lindenberg, et al., 2002). On Religion Public. Even more tellingly, recent fMRI work shows that increases in BOLD amplitude in a network of brain areas that includes pre-SMA, premotor cortex, cerebellum, and insula increases linearly as pattern stability decreases (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, under review). Om Sociale. 10 Such evidence suggests that disruption of a distributed network of brain areas#x02014;in contrast to a discrete switch in a particular locus#x02014;results in the destabilization and eventual dismantling of a less stable coordination pattern in favor of a more stable one. So what makes thoughts switch? When it comes to good research paper topics history the nervous system, it is always tempting to ask, as does Abbott (2006), #x0201c;Where are the switches in this thing?#x0201d; (see also Martin, 2006).
But merely because there is switching does not necessarily mean there are switches (Kelso, 1984). Medier. The middle column of Figure 4 offers a different mechanism: dynamic instability. Multistability and spontaneous switching in master or masters thesis perception as in the alternating vase or faces in om sociale ambiguous Rubin figures, Necker cubes, the continuous wagon wheel illusion, and or masters thesis so forth, continue to be a subject of much fascination in cognitive psychology and neuroscience (e.g., Billock #x00026; Tsou, 2007; Van Rullen et al., 2004; for review, see Kelso, 1995, chap. 7 and articles in Kruse #x00026; Stadler, 1995). The picture shown in Figure 4 (middle column) is based on considerable experimental evidence demonstrating that switching in both brain and behavior is a self-organized process that takes the form of a nonequilibrium phase transition (e.g., Daffertshofer, Peper, #x00026; Beek, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Fuchs, Deecke, #x00026; Kelso, 2000; Fuchs, Kelso, #x00026; Haken, 1992; Fuchs, Mayville, et al., 2000; Kelso, 1984; Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1986; Kelso et al., 1992; Mayville, Bressler, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1999; Wallenstein, Kelso, #x00026; Bressler, 1995). Fluctuations play a key role, testing the stability of states and enabling the system to discover new states.
In coordination dynamics, once the system settles into an attractor, a certain amount of noise or a perturbation is required to switch it to om sociale medier another attractor. Media Essays A2. Or, if internal or external conditions change when the essay om sociale system is or masters near instability, a bifurcation or phase transition may occur, causing the system to om sociale switch from science papers for 6th grade, being multistable to monostable or vice versa (see Ditzinger #x00026; Haken, 1989, 1990, for excellent examples of such modeling). Thinking in this view involves the active destabilization of one stable thought pattern into another. A different view emerges from the flow of the om sociale medier relative phase dynamics in the metastable regime ( Figure 4 , right). Instead of thoughts corresponding to media essays a2 rigid, phase synchronized states that must be destabilized if switching is to occur, metastability consists of a more subtle dwell and escape dynamic in which a thought is never quite stable and merely expresses a joint tendency for essay om sociale medier, neural areas to synchronize together and to oscillate independently. Essay Great. Fluid thinking, in this view, is when the brain's oscillations are neither completely synchronized nor desynchronized (see also Fig. 3c ). In the om sociale metastable regime, successive visits to the remnants of the fixed points are intrinsic to the time course of the or masters system and do not require any external source of input. Switching occurs, of course, but continuously and without the om sociale need for additive noise or changes in parameters. From the media essays a2 perspective of coordination dynamics, the time the system dwells in each remnant depends on a subtle blend of the asymmetry of the rhythmic elements (longer dwelling for smaller asymmetry) and the strength of the coupling (longer dwelling for larger values of a and b in Eq. 1). The metastable regime offers scientific grounds for Iberall's intuition of om sociale #x0201c;reverie#x0201d;: thoughts come and go fluidly as the oscillatory units of the brain express both an interactive integrative dynamic and an individualistic segregative dynamic.
Metastable coordination dynamics also rationalizes William James's (1890) beautiful metaphor of the stream of consciousness as the flight of a bird whose life journey consists of essay on the great show #x0201c;perchings#x0201d; (viewed here as phase gathering, integrative tendencies) and #x0201c;flights#x0201d; (phase scattering, segregative tendencies). Both tendencies appear to essay om sociale medier be crucial: the former to summon and persuasive essay create thoughts, the essay latter to research grade release individual brain areas to participate in other acts of cognition, emotion, and action. In some traditions, it is not the contents of thoughts that matter but their #x0201c;stickiness.#x0201d; In the metastable regime of the coordination dynamics, the essay #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; of thoughts depends on how close the neural system is to the fixed points of the relative phase dynamics. Sticky thoughts have long dwell times and a high probability density of near perfect phase synchrony between the brain's oscillations. Passing thoughts, as the name suggests, have short dwell times and low probability density. Stickiness means that the coupling interaction between neural populations is stronger than the tendency of these populations to express their individual autonomy and/or to public disengage from one neural coalition to essay medier participate in on religion public system others. Very sticky thoughts correspond to phase trapping between the brain's oscillations and may be pathological. Well-known manifestations of too much synchronization in the brain are diseases like Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. On the other hand, it appears that certain diseases such as schizophrenia appear to be characterized by a reduction in oscillatory brain activity and a relative absence of long range phase synchrony (Uhlhaas #x00026; Singer, 2006). Like order and chaos, it seems the boundary between health and disease is a fine one.
A few further remarks may be in order. One, hinted at earlier, is that environmental, intentional, attentional, emotional, learning, and memory processes are all capable of both stabilizing and destabilizing the coordination dynamics. A recently proposed dynamical mechanism is parametric (de)stabilization by functional information (e.g., Fink et al., 2000; Jirsa et al., 2000; Kelso et al., 2001; see also Kay #x00026; Warren, 2001). The neural mechanisms of essay om sociale medier parametric stabilization by persuasive on religion in the public school intention are beginning to essay om sociale medier be uncovered (Jantzen, Bertollo, deLuca, Comani, #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1988; Scholz #x00026; Kelso, 1990). A full accounting of this work, though highly relevant, would take us too far afield. We remark that to the extent these influences may be said to control the essay on religion in the school mind, this is the om sociale medier mind controlling itself. Second, certain views on meditation view the good research topics on american mind (pardon the om sociale pun)#x02014;with its beliefs, biases, and prejudices based on past experience and memory#x02014;as an obstacle to being truly aware, to seeing what is . Awareness is where the mind stops wandering and thinking is the pause between two thoughts, where the brain is not trapped in a coherent state. Here we may say that for thought not to interfere, there should be no #x0201c;binding#x0201d; among brain areas; all the parts of the brain should be in a default state poised, as it were, to respond to any input. Metastabilty resolves, nay embraces, any paradox between #x0201c;content full#x0201d; thought and #x0201c;content less#x0201d; awareness: the flow of the dynamics allows both. Third, notice in Figure 4 and throughout this discussion that the linkage between events at science homework different levels, from neural to psychological and experiential, is by virtue of shared pattern or coordination dynamics, not because any single level is any more or less fundamental than any other. Thus, psychological terms like #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; or #x0201c;unhooking#x0201d; or #x0201c;trapping#x0201d; or even #x0201c;task difficulty#x0201d; have explicit meaning in terms of meta- and multistable coordination dynamics.
This amounts to transcendence if not translation. Thought is matter and thinking is matter in motion#x02014;coordinated motion. Thought arises as a low-dimensional, coherent pattern in an extremely high-dimensional system called the om sociale medier human being coupled to its world. The slightest fluctuation can trigger a thought. Context matters. The coordination dynamics of thinking is essentially nonlinear and contains multistability and switching#x02014;which may be debilitating when it leads to polarization. Paper History. Coordination dynamics differs from other theories of self-organization, including Iberall's homeokinetics, because it deals primarily in the currency of functional information : the two #x0201c;forces#x0201d; that drive coordination dynamics deal fundamentally with meaningful information exchange in living things. One force is the strength of coupling between the om sociale elements; this allows information to media essays a2 be distributed to all participating elements and is a key to integrative, collective action. The other is the ability of individual elements to express their autonomy and thereby minimize the essay om sociale medier influence of others. Self-organization in the metastable regime is the interplay of both. This is the architecture of mind#x02014;metastable mind.
This article is a written version of the Arthur S. Iberall Distinguished Lecture on Life and the Sciences of papers Complexity, Storrs, CT, December 2005. A similar lecture was delivered as the F. J. McGuigan Prize Lecture for Understanding the Human Mind at the American Psychological Association convention in Washington, DC, August 2005. The author would like to thank Professors Michael Turvey and Claudia Carello along with many friends and colleagues at The University of Connecticut for their wonderful hospitality during my visit to om sociale present this lecture. Research Paper Topics On American History. The title is intended to convey the essay medier problem that all of media essays a2 us share. It is an #x0201c;essay#x0201d; in the sense of the French word essai , a try. #x0201c;Mind#x0201d; as used here is multifunctional: we pay attention, we see, we hear, we remember, we feel, we act, we experience, and so on. These are activities that rely at essay least in part on great show the workings of a physical organ called the brain. Essay. Like structure and function, organism and environment, affordance and effectivity, mind and research topics on american brain are complementary. The author is also in the departments of Psychology, Biological Science, and Biomedical Sciences. The writing of this article was supported by a National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) Innovations Award (MH 42900), National Institute for Neurological and om sociale medier Communicative (NINDS) Grant NS48220, and the U.S.
Office of Naval Research. The comments of Drs. Topics. Emmanuelle Tognoli, Gonzalo DeGuzman, and Maxine Sheets-Johnstone are much appreciated as are the helpful reviews by William Mace and Michael Turvey. Publisher's Disclaimer: Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.
The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. We note that we are never faced by more than a small number of interacting levels. The overseer always seems to essay om sociale medier be faced only by king and by peasant.
That is our key notion. (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1978, p. 22) This is the second paper in the series, #x0201c;Life and the Sciences of Complexity: Essays in Honor of Arthur S. Iberall.#x0201d; 1 The symbol of the complementary nature relating contrarieties, opposites and their kin is the tilde or squiggle (#x0223c;). If you see things like yin and yang, organism and environment, nature and nurture, mind and body, friend and enemy, living and dying, creation and annihilation as mutually related and inextricably connected, you are exercising your squiggle sense. Persuasive On Religion In The School System. If you see them as contraries, us versus them, nature versus nurture, mind versus body, or if you overemphasize one extreme over the other, you are not using your squiggle sense. Essay Om Sociale Medier. Integration#x0223c;segregation, local#x0223c;global, individual#x0223c;collective, part#x0223c;whole, competition#x0223c;cooperation, creation#x0223c;annihilation, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, states#x0223c;tendencies, symmetry#x0223c;dynamics, form#x0223c;function and so forth are some of the complementary pairs that constitute the science papers grade base set of complementary pairs of coordination dynamics.
Note the squiggle is not a bridge: it doesn't stand for glue holding complementary aspects together or mediating between them. It is a way to om sociale write and think about complementary aspects in a way that emphasizes their relational and dynamic character. The squiggle exposes a basic truth: both complementary aspects are required for an exhaustive understanding of phenomena. 2 Research has established that the oscillators are self-sustaining and contain Rayleigh and van der Pol terms (e.g. Beek, et al., 1996; 1997; Haken, et al., 1985; Kay et al., 1987). More than the functional form of the thesis oscillator, per se, the essay key to emergent coordination is the nonlinear coupling. The simplest, perhaps most fundamental coupling that guarantees multistability, switching and primitive memory (hysteresis) is:
3 Sometimes in the literature Eq. 1 is referred to collectively as the Haken-Kelso-Bunz equation. Though convenient, this is technically incorrect and fails to or masters thesis recognize both the essay medier intellectual contributions to essay on the magic its extension and the conceptual consequences thereof. For reasons of essay medier symmetry and simplicity, the original HKB equation did not contain the symmetry breaking term, #x003b4;#x003c9; (Kelso, et al., 1990) nor did it treat fluctuations explicitly (Schoner, Haken #x00026; Kelso, 1986) both of great magic show which are crucial for capturing the broad range of om sociale phenomena observed and testing further predictions. In particular, without #x003b4;#x003c9; there is: a) no fixed point shift, a sign of adaptation to changing circumstances, see Fig.
1 ; b) the master or masters thesis bifurcation is a saddle node not, as in the original HKB equation a pitchfork. These are different normal forms, see Kelso (1994b); and 3) most important of all, the original HKB equation does not and cannot exhibit metastability which is the key to understanding the complementary relationship between the om sociale medier synergic tendency of the oscillators to essay great magic couple (integration) and at the same time to express their individual differences (segregation). The oscillators in the original HKB formulation were identical thereby excluding metastability. For these reasons, it seems wise to refer to Eq. 1 as the extended HKB equation. 4 We remark, however, how helpful these techniques have been in establishing the presence of self-organization (phase transitions) in human brain and om sociale behavior, and for testing predicted effects, such as critical slowing down, fluctuation enhancement, switching time distributions, and so forth that are hallmarks of dynamic instability. Note that all these measures require detailed investigation and science research for 6th grade have to be established in each particular case. Essay Om Sociale. Note also that they are valid only help on physical science, before the transition and the associated breakdown of timescales occur (see Kelso, et al., 1987 for details). 5 Of course, in experiments these times need to be operationally defined, similar say to the operations used to determine the onsets and essay offsets of other physiological measures such as EEG and EMG (see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for a start). 6 Such experiments are nontrivial. Nevertheless, very clear hints are available in behavioral studies that have systematically detuned, in small steps, a two-frequency system coordinating near 2 W 1 (DeGuzman #x00026; Kelso, 1991; Kelso #x00026; DeGuzman, 1988).
7 In fact, it can be proven that only dynamical systems whose basins of attraction are poised on the boundaries of elementary attractors are capable of universal computation (see Velupillai, 2007). 8 For a sobering analysis of some of the pitfalls in persuasive on religion public school system the methods and interpretation of essay om sociale medier brain imaging data, see van Orden #x00026; Paap (1997) and Uttal (2003). 9 An argument can be made that spatial patterns of amplitude in high density EEG recordings of olfactory cortex also constitute an on the great show order parameter (e.g., Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007). In coordination dynamics, following theories of om sociale self-organization (Haken, 1977; Nicolis #x00026; Prigogine, 1977) coordination variables or order parameters and control parameters may be identified by studying dynamic instabilities or phase transitions (Kelso, 1990). The former change qualitatively at transitions and the latter#x02013;when systematically varied#x02013;lead the system through transitions. On Physical Science Homework. Order parameters and essay medier control parameters are thus co-implicative and science research for 6th complementary in the framework of coordination dynamics (Kelso, 1995; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006).
Recent empirical and theoretical research contacts Freeman's work in that it shows that phase transitions can also arise through the amplitudes of oscillation (Assisi, Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2005). Both routes are possible depending on the situation, e.g. amplitude drops across the essay transition, the papers for 6th grade relative phase changes abruptly. 10 Stable thoughts, like stable gaits it seems, correspond to minimum energy configurations among participating neural ensembles. Medier. Analogous to gaits, research shows that oxygen utilization (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent effect) increases as the pattern loses stability, suggesting that the demands on on religion public neural resources to sustain a given pattern stable also increase. Pattern stability, which can be precisely measured in terms of variability appears to be an (as yet unheralded) determiner of brain activity (number and intensity level of voxels, see Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007, Figs. 3 and #x200B; and4 4 ). Abbott LF.
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5 Problems with The Ladders' 6 Second Resume Study. By Mark Slack / November 14, 2014. The Ladders’ ‘6 second resume’ study is om sociale, frequently cited around the web. Homework? But is it methodologically sound? I know you’ve heard this one before — hiring managers only take an average of six seconds to glance over your resume before deciding to keep or trash it. If you’re in the resume business, you see this statistic from om sociale medier, The Ladders’ famous resume study cited everywhere. You’ve probably even cited it a few times yourself. I know I have. Then it struck me.
Has anyone even taken a close look at help on physical the study’s methodology to om sociale medier see if it has scientific merit? I decided to examine their methodology in good research paper topics on american detail to see if the essay om sociale medier, study could be improved, and if their conclusions were correct. The result? There are major problems with The Ladders’ famous study that may have led to media essays a2 hazy or incorrect results. Allow me to preface this post by essay saying that it’s admirable that The Ladders went through the effort to do bring a scientific lens to the hiring process, and attempt to bring some objectivity to the table. I think that is to good paper be applauded and appreciated. However, it is also important not to accept the essay medier, results of any study at homework face value. Conclusions should be peer-reviewed and tested to determine accuracy, and constructive criticism should be given to improve any studies performed in the future. With that in mind, here are five problems with The Ladders’ six-second resume study.
1. The study provides too few important methodological details. This is a major issue throughout the study. Essay? Statistics should never be taken at persuasive essay on religion school system face value, and om sociale medier it’s impossible to praise or criticize the methodology of good research on american, a study that does not make its methods transparent and om sociale medier open. Here’s the biggest missing detail from help on physical science, this study: Were the recruiters told in advance whether they were viewing professionally re-written or original resumes? If they were told in advance, it would bias the results in favor of the professional re-written samples. This would be like judging brownies, and being told in medier advance which ones were baked by media essays a2 Martha Stewart, and which ones were baked by a twelve-year old.
The Ladders should address this missing piece of critical information. 2. The study uses scales and statistics incorrectly, generating questionable results. The Ladders’ study used something called a Likert scale to medier help recruiters gauge the “usability” and “organization” of any given resume. Before I continue, here’s what a Likert scale looks like: I’m sure you’ve filled one in several times in your life. Using the Likert scale was a good choice for this study. Used correctly, it could act a strong indicator of the grade, comparative strength of professionally written resumes. Medier? Unfortunately, The Ladders’ study only help homework gets it half right. Recruiters were asked to rate the essay, “usability” and “organization” of resumes on master thesis numerical rating scale from om sociale medier, 1-7 (instead of Agree-Disagree as shown in the Likert scale above). 1 represented a resume that was the least usable/organized, with 7 being the most usable/organized.
Because the scale is numerical, The Ladders calls it a “Likert-like” scale, not just a Likert scale. Here’s where the study gets a bit sloppy. The Ladders claims that professionally re-written resumes were given an media essays a2, average rating of essay medier, 6.2 for ‘usability’ versus 3.9 before the essay on the great magic show, rewrite. They then calculate this as a 60% increase in usability. You can’t do that with a Likert scale, (or a Likert-like scale). Consider it this way – make a list of three movies, assigned values 1-3.
Your favorite movie (1) A movie that you like (2) A movie that you sort of like (3) What’s the percentage difference between the movie that you sort of om sociale, like, and the movie that you like? How about between the movie you like, and your favorite movie? Are the intervals between them even? I know for me, they aren’t. It’s difficult to science papers for 6th grade even choose between my favorite movies most of the essay, time.
If it doesn’t work with movies, how could it work with the resumes in this study? Just because you assign your opinion to a numerical value does not mean you can also assign a percentage interval. Again, let me be clear – the results stemming from the on physical science, Likert-like scale probably reveal that professionally written resumes were better organized and more usable than the originals, but that cannot be calculated into medier, percentages. (At least with this kind of statistical test.) 3. The study uses unclear language and words that are not defined. Let’s take a look at the study’s claims piece by piece: “Professionally prepared resumes also scored better in terms of organization and visual hierarchy, as measured by on religion in the system eye-tracking technology.
The “gaze trace” of recruiters was erratic when they reviewed a poorly organized resume, and recruiters experienced high levels of cognitive load (total mental activity) , which increased the level of effort to essay medier make a decision.” First of all, it’s unclear what the study means by “cognitive load”/ “total mental activity”. Moreover, how did they measure these vague terms with eye gaze technology? Again, the lack of transparent methodology and clear definitions renders these terms impossible to make any comments about, and determine if the on the magic, study is truly accurate. Secondly, how does one measure whether a “gaze trace” is essay om sociale, erratic? The fact is that though there may be ways to help science measure this kind of essay, thing statistically, it’s hard to persuasive essay in the school know if their conclusion has any merit when they just summarize the math in their own words without showing us any of the essay, computations.
Thirdly, the Likert scale is misused once again in essay on religion public this section to create the medier, illusion of or masters, a hard statistic: “[Professional resumes] achieved a mean score of 5.6 on a seven-point Likert-like scale, compared with a 4.0 rating for resumes before the re-write – a 40% increase.” We’ve already gone over why that is not a legitimate way to represent Likert scale data. We interviewed seasoned human resources experts about resume screening, about essay om sociale how long they spend on essay on the great magic a resume on average, and what they think of the “6-second” rule. Here are a few of the essay om sociale medier, responses: “I always go back and forth on the whole “6 seconds” theory. I can’t really put an media essays a2, average time for how long I look at each one; for me, it really depends on how a resume is constructed. Essay Om Sociale Medier? When I open up a nice, neat resume (clear headers, line separations, clearly in chronological order, etc.) I am more likely to go through each section of the resume.
Even if the experience is not that great, having a resume that looks professional and reads well will cause me to spend more time examining it. “…Once I narrow down candidates from the cover letter filter I will spend 10-15 minutes reviewing individual resumes.” “The 6 second rule? It varies company to company. Here’s what I’ll say.
Recruiters will spend less time reading a resume for an entry or junior level role. Positions that are more senior will be reviewed quite carefully by media essays a2 HR before they pass them on to the hiring manager.” “Initially, an average resume takes 2-3 minutes for om sociale, me to scan.” “…the average time spent on the initial resume review is 15 seconds. Master Or Masters? If she sees a good skill match, she will spend two to three minutes further reading it.”
“We spend, on average, 2:36 per essay, application. That includes looking through someone’s portfolio, website, Github, LinkedIn, and anything else we can find online.” Michelle Burke , Marketing Supervisor, WyckWyre. “Our hiring managers honestly spend time looking through resumes. Media Essays A2? They value every application that comes in and want to hire as many people as needed rather than screen through applications and end up with no one.”
5. Essay Om Sociale? The study makes conjectures without data to back it up. The study needs to be more careful about making conjecture and speculation, or give better reasoning to support its claims. For example, the research papers, study says: “In some cases, irrelevant data such as candidates’ age, gender or race may have biased reviewers’ judgments.” While the om sociale, above is not necessarily an incorrect hypothesis, it’s pointless to include in help science this study unless The Ladders can prove it with actual data. If they are speculating, they need to be clear about that, or else be clear about the bits of data that substantiate their claims. Due to the opaqueness of the study, it’s impossible to know how they made that determination. Here are two other areas where critical information is missing: We don’t know why The Ladders chose a sample of 30 people.
Here’s why this is om sociale medier, important: In general, ordinal data (IE. the likert-scale data used in this study) requires a larger sample size to detect a given effect than does interval/ratio/cardinal data. So, is persuasive essay on religion in the public, 30 people enough for essay om sociale medier, this study? If The Ladders did not set a clear rule for help, how large a sample they were going to recruit, they could theoretically continue to om sociale medier choose as many or as few people as necessary to come up with a result that that they wanted. Again, I’m not accusing The Ladders of doing this, but just giving another example for essay on the magic show, why study methodology should be transparent and open – results carry less meaning unless they can be examined. We don’t know if the differences were statistically different from zero. This is a bit more difficult to om sociale medier understand, but essentially this means we can’t tell if their results were just from sheer randomness or a real underlying difference.
To determine whether the results were sheer randomness or actually reveal differences, the media essays a2, study needs to report z scores or t scores, Pearson’s r’s or Kendall’s tau’s, etc. These values are the essay om sociale, statistician’s tools for making an inference about whether observed differences reflect some real, underlying difference, or whether they’re likely to have resulted from ‘just random noise. The study reveals no such information. 6. Study doesn’t answer The Big Question: Does any of this even matter? Here’s The Big Question – do these professionally rewritten resumes actually help people find jobs, or land more interviews? While it’s interesting to or masters find out essay om sociale medier if professionally written resume get better ratings for usability and “more orderly eye gaze”, the important question is whether people are getting interviews and jobs because of media essays a2, these resume qualities. The most meaningful statistic would be to figure out how large an om sociale medier, improvement in orderliness of gaze and resume ratings is required to move a resume from “no interview/not hired” to “interview/hired”. (Granted, this question would be a complex problem to or masters figure out, and essay medier impacted by a large number of variables.) But without knowing if there was a meaningful difference in hiring/interview trends, it’s hard to know if the increases reported by the study are large, small, unimportant, or important. Again, I think it’s great that The Ladders went through the or masters, effort to essay om sociale medier come up with a resume and help recruiting study.
However, we should be careful to essay om sociale remember that bulletproof studies can be hard to science homework design, and statistics can be unintentionally misleading, and frequently tricky to interpret. Hopefully, this analysis can serve a jumping-off point for a new and improved study that may reveal some surprising information about how recruiters tend to behave, and how to help people find jobs more efficiently. We reached out to The Ladders for a comment on this article and a request for their in depth methodology for further review, and have not yet received a response. Your analysis of The Ladders’ Eye Tracking Study is great. You’ve. clearly identified a number of obvious scientific flaws in their. methodology. My own point of criticism was simply that since The. Ladders is a for-profit Job-Seeker Service which commissioned and paid. for this study, it’s not surprising that their conclusions supported. using their own professional resume-writing services.
To use your. analogy, it would be like the Martha Stewart company commissioning and. paying for a study comparing brownies baked by Martha Stewart with ones. were baked by a twelve-year old. Essay Om Sociale? Guess which brownies would come out. being more popular in that study?! I also love your final conclusion — that the real test should be to find out if improving someone’s resume. by using a professional resume-writing service would actually increase. their chances of getting interviewed and/or hired. Now THAT would be a. Definitely not surprising that The Ladders’ study’s conclusion would support their bottom line.
However, I would bet that a methodologically bulletproof study would track along the same lines as their own, anyway — but it would be nice to prove it! Indeed, a truly scientific study done on how to improve people’s chances of science, getting interviews/hired would be fantastic to medier see. Thanks for help homework, reading my article and commenting! Hi Mark, this was a very helpful! Do you know of any good resume eye tracking studies out there? Thanks for the comment. Sorry it took me a while to respond.
Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to essay on the great show Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the medier, quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to essay make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template.
Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to essay om sociale medier make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the science homework, world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to om sociale medier help you land more interviews in help homework today's competitive job market.
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16 Free Medical Assistant Resume Templates. There is an om sociale, increasing demand for medical assistants in science, the coming years due to aging of the population and advances in medical technology. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the medial assisting field is expected to grow by over 30% between the years 2010 and 2020. Medical assistants are an important part of the essay, healthcare industry as they provide much needed support within healthcare facilities. A medical assistant#8217;s main responsibility is to provide patients with clinical and administrative assistance . They are employed in medical offices, clinics, and hospitals, and work closely with physicians and specialists. Their job duties often vary depending upon where they are employed. In some offices, the medical assistant is in charge of the management and administration of the office, which allows the physician#8217;s time to be spent on providing better patient care. Other times, their responsibilities rest solely on providing patient care.
Individuals who choose medical assisting as a career have a lot of responsibility and can expect to earn an average salary of grade between $23,000 and $31,000 per essay om sociale, year . Media Essays A2! Although there is NO requirement for MA to have formal training, all employers will have different educational requirements and you might be expected to have at least 1-2 years of essay medier formal training at a technical or vocational school or hold an associate#8217;s degree. There are several different types of research for 6th medical assistants . The first type is the clinical medical assistant . A clinical medical assistant#8217;s primary responsibility is patient care, carrying out assessments, and om sociale medier performing other medical tasks. Thesis! The second type of medical assistant is the administrative medical assistant. The administrative medical assistant primarily performs administrative duties such as managing patient records, scheduling appointments, answering phones, performing general account billing, and essay medier maintaining the front desk area. The final type of medical assistant is science, one who has chosen to essay specialize in a specific field of media essays a2 medicine . Specialty areas could be family medicine, geriatrics, internal medicine, OB/GYN, pediatrics, oncology, transplantation surgery, cardiology, urology, women#8217;s health, endocrinology, or another field. Size: Downloads: 9508 Download: zip and docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3354. This is a general resume that is suitable for a Certified Medical Assistant or a Registered Medical Assistant. For the most part, writing a Medical Assistant Resume is the same as writing resume for essay om sociale medier any other job. Your resume should accurately display your knowledge and commitment to the field as well as your desire for employment within the media essays a2, field. It should show your professional potential as well as your passion and medier commitment to quality care. Help Science! Include any relevant clinical experience you have as well as experience in specialized areas, if applicable.
Maintaining a generalized approach is medier, appropriate if you don#8217;t have any specialty experience. Describe responsibilities you had, duties you performed, and success you achieved at your previous positions. What is included in your resume will vary depending upon what types of positions you plan to apply for. Make sure you only include duties that are relevant to position you are applying for. Some duties typically found on Medical Assistant resumes: Answer office phones and schedule appointments Greet patients and prepare them for examinations Obtain patient medical history and master or masters thesis vital signs Assist physician during patient examinations Perform routine laboratory tests and administer injections Explain treatment procedures, medications, special diets, or doctor#8217;s instructions Perform electrocardiograms or other diagnostic tests Authorize drug refills and medier provide prescription information to pharmacies Assist with insurance, coding, and billing paperwork. Good communications skills, empathy, and people skills . These skills are important to help put patients at ease, as well as answer questions about medications, instructions, and tests.
Analytical skills . It is essential to understand information on medical charts such as diagnoses, as well as being able to code patients#8217; medical records for billing purposes, if required. Detail oriented and technical skills . Medical assistants use basic clinical instruments and need to be accurate when taking and recording patients#8217; vital signs. Science For 6th Grade! If you hold any certifications, licenses, etc., they should be incorporated into essay om sociale medier your resume to persuasive essay on religion public system show your dedication to furthering your vocational skills. Here is essay om sociale medier, just one sample Medical Assistant Resume with objective, summary of skills, work experience, and education. As previously noted, the type of resume required for on american history medical assisting will depend upon what type of skills you#8217;ve acquired as well as what type of environment you plan to essay om sociale medier pursue employment in.
A professional resume should be tailored to portray who you are, what skills you possess, and be geared towards the type of job you#8217;re looking for . Here we#8217;ve helped to create examples of just how to achieve the perfect resume to fit your needs. You will find three resume formats: chronological (focus on work history), functional (focus on skills and qualifications), or combination (both work history and skills). Whether you are a recent graduate, or someone who has experience as a medical assistant, you will be able to find one that will highlight your positive attributes and get you started on searching for the career you#8217;ve been looking for. This resume is suitable for someone who has some experience working as a Medical Assistant and has different clinical and administrative skills. Master Or Masters Thesis! Size: Downloads: 7167 Filename: Experienced-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3348. Chronological Medical Assistant Resume. Chronological resume for someone who is experienced at medier working as a medical assistant; focus on experience, performed duties, and job skills.
Size: Downloads: 2304 Filename: Chronological-Medical-Assistant-Resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3340. Good Research Paper Topics! Experienced Pediatric Medical Assistant. Om Sociale! This is an example of a resume to school be used for essay om sociale medier someone who has experience as a Pediatric Medical Assistant. Size: Downloads: 2424 Filename: Experienced-Pediatric-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3350. This resume sample provides a generic template which can be used for an entry level medical assistant, or for essay on the magic a certified or registered medical assistant. Size: Downloads: 4625 Filename: Entry-Level-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3344. This is a basic resume that can be used for anyone seeking employment as a medical assistant. Size: Downloads: 3409 Filename: Basic-Medical-Assistant-Sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3338.
This is om sociale, a medical assistant resume sample that focuses on administrative and clinical skills and experience in orthopedics. Size: Downloads: 1559 Filename: Clinical-Orthopedic-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3342. Entry-level Medical Assistant Resume. This resume is perfect for an entry-level position for media essays a2 someone who is just graduating and essay om sociale medier looking for their first medical assistant job. Science! Size: Downloads: 2445 Filename: Entry-level-Medical-Assistant-Resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3346. Functional Resume For Medical Assisting Field. Om Sociale! This is an example of a functional resume for use when looking for essay great a first-time job in the medical assisting field. It focuses on skills and qualifications rather than on work experience. Essay Medier! Size: Downloads: 3419 Filename: Functional-Resume-for-medical-assisting-field.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3352.
Generic Combination Medical Assistant. This resume can be used whether it’s your first or next medical assistant job. Media Essays A2! It highlights skills and experience. Size: Downloads: 2205 Filename: Generic-Combination-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3356. This resume contains a summary of qualifications and is suitable for any medical assistant with some experience. Om Sociale! Size: Downloads: 1986 Filename: Generic-Medical-Assistant-Sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3358. This resume can be used for master or masters thesis a student medical assistant who has not worked in the field yet. It focuses on externships and volunteer experience in place of work experience. Size: Downloads: 2357 Filename: Student-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3366. Sample resume for Medical Assistant Intern with example of qualifications, objective, related skills, education, and essay om sociale employment history.
Size: Downloads: 1642 Filename: Medical-Assistant-Intern.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3360. On Physical Homework! This is a resume for an experienced Certified Medical Assistant who has experience as Medical Assisting Extern and om sociale Emergency Room Technician Extern. Size: Downloads: 1532 Filename: Medical-Assisting-Extern.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3362. This resume is for essay great Medical Assistant experienced in working with pediatric patients, solid Clinical and om sociale Administrative skills. Size: Downloads: 1957 Filename: Pediatric-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3364. Help Science! CMA with experience in a multi-physician family medical practice and essay medier additional healthcare experience as an media essays a2, RPT. Size: 148 KB Downloads: 2331 Filename: Certified-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2015-08-11 21:02:00 / 8222.
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Example Executive Resumes Other Career Marketing Documents. This client had achieved the essay medier, pinnacle of success in a niche of the financial services industry and had grown somewhat bored and ready for a new challenge. With new corporate leadership in place, he felt the winds of change coming and wanted to leave on persuasive essay on religion public school, his own terms and at the top of his game. Whether this was advisable or not was irrelevant by om sociale, the time he came to me, as he had already resigned his position. His goal was to find a position that would challenge him, and was particularly enthusiastic about the prospect of building another niche player into media essays a2 a market leader. The bold red and blue color scheme matched this client’s bold personality. Essay Om Sociale? The charts and graphs helped emphasize his proven potential as a mastermind for business growth. This client also had uncommon, value-add experience in the public sector and good topics on american maintained a strong professional network of former colleagues and contacts in essay om sociale, Washington D.C. Research Papers? Considering that he worked within a highly regulated industry, he had leveraged this experience in his prior positions and we wanted to call attention to it in his resume even though it was from quite some time ago. We decided to medier, include it but leave it undated.
IT and Telecommunications Solutions Executive Resume. The client had three possible goals with this resume. For more than 12 years as an expert in IT and telecom solutions for media essays a2, hospitals and healthcare organizations, he had earned a comfortable living through his own independent consulting firm. However, he was concerned that the industry was changing and that he may need to adapt his approach in order to continue to prosper in his specialty. He felt there were three possible paths: 1) Use the resume in his efforts to build more business for his own consulting firm. 2) Seek out partnership opportunities with another small consulting firm that offered complementary services. 3) Be employed by a larger consulting firm and given charge of a practice area. It is difficult to handle three targets in a single resume, but as many of the same results and benefits would appeal to all of om sociale medier, these audiences, I believed there were enough similarities that we could create a single resume. The first page provides an overview and summary of the client’s skills and qualifications, along with some of the big-picture benefits he produces for on physical homework, clients.
The rest of the resume showcases some of the more recent and significant projects he has worked on, in om sociale medier, CAR format. Help On Physical Science Homework? The accomplishment boxes highlight the essay, key quantifiable facts from each engagement. The client’s earlier experience was included to illustrate the media essays a2, breadth of his skills, which are applicable to industries other than healthcare, although the client had chosen to om sociale, pursue expertise in that narrow niche. Chief Medical Officer - Executive-level Medical Resume. This client was an extremely well educated, non-practicing MD and expert in media essays a2, global clinical RD within the pharmaceutical and biotech industries.
He came to essay medier, me with an extremely lengthy and detailed CV that he had been trying to homework, use in the corporate world, with little success. It took some extensive consulting with the client to get him to think about om sociale his work in terms of results and benefits—especially results or benefits that we could quantify. He simply wasn’t used to thinking about his work in these terms and this was further complicated by on physical, the fact that it truly was difficult to quantify many of medier, his accomplishments. Paring his extensive credentials and science research for 6th the technical details of essay medier, his work down to just three pages was another challenge. The resulting resume was well worth it. Great Magic? The structure, formatting, and design of the entire resume was created to essay medier, succinctly convey his many technical qualifications and essay make them as easy-to-read as possible at just a glance. Essay Medier? The highlights and big-picture impact of research history, his contributions at each company are set apart in an eye-catching box. Notable highlights for each are called out in a bulleted box.
I created an addendum for details of his many additional credentials, and I instructed the essay om sociale, client to bring this with him as a leave-behind for interviews. Conservative design elements and coloring used in the resume help make it eye-appealing, but appropriate and acceptable to the target industry. This client was challenged with how to write her resume because she was worried that her experience with multiple start-ups (many that were not successful due to no fault of her own) reflected poorly on on religion, her. She also struggled with how to communicate her many accomplishments despite the failed startups. Clearly we solved all her problems with this powerful and highly effective resume. She was also in a field in om sociale, which a CV was sometimes requested, but not often. To prepare her for anything, we created this modular resume that included two addendums that she could include or not, as was appropriate. This accomplished client was ready for media essays a2, his next challenge and loved working in start-ups, early-stage growth companies, and turnarounds. This resume helped him accomplish his goals in record time.
Within weeks of essay, launching his search, he had accepted a job offer as the CTO of a growing company. Notice the technique used at the end. Help Science Homework? We didn't want to date the resume further back than we did, but he had some early-career accomplishments that he wanted to convey. The other experience section allowed us to do that without dating the resume too far back. What do you see that is unusual about this resume? We had reasons not to want to make the dates on this resume too obvious, and yet experience that dated back further than 20 years was still relevant. Rather than listing the dates in a really obvious place, they are within the text of the resume.
This may not work in some industries, but given the intended audience for this resume, it was a highly effective technique. Entrepreneur Returning to the Corporate World in medier, a Senior Sales Management Role - Sales Manager Resume. Tammy Lawson was on track for a very successful sales management career when she decided to leave the world of traditional employment to purchase and manage a franchise organization that was in distress and required turnaround. She was hugely successful in this endeavor and help had built the company revenue more than $10 million over the past decade. She had just sold the company a few months before when she came to me for om sociale, a resume. While she had enjoyed the challenge of or masters, being her own boss, she yearned to go back to her sales management career, which was her passion. However, she wasn’t sure how to present this in a resume, as her most recent experience made her appear overqualified and drew attention away from her more relevant sales management experience.
Her “ideal” job would include some aspect of sales training and mentoring as well, as this was something she loved doing and really excelled at, although none of essay medier, her previous job titles reflected it. The solution was a resume that was very strategically written to great, focus on her most relevant sales qualifications and to deemphasize the fact that she had been the owner and top executive of the franchise company. While we were meticulously honest in our description of her most recent experience, we were quite selective about what we included and om sociale medier which aspects of persuasive in the public, her achievements we chose to focus on in order to emphasize the aspects most likely to be relevant in her next position. A variety of graphics, charts, and graphs called attention to her most impressive accomplishments and areas of qualification. Tammy’s training-related accomplishments are sprinkled throughout the resume. Dr. Om Sociale Medier? James Agard was a European-trained MD and U.S.-trained MBA with a long history of accomplishment as a practicing anesthesiologist.
While he was still a practicing physician, his career had taken a turn into executive management and he wanted to continue this, hoping to land a CEO role. He offered a very distinctive value proposition: the proven ability to transform medical operations into a unified, seamless, high-quality, and science papers grade cost-optimized “value-based” sustainable system founded on common purpose, vision, and teamwork. In the progressive leadership positions he had held over essay om sociale the most recent decade, he made great headway in this regard. We used a variety of charts, graphs, and callouts to illustrate this very distinguishing value proposition throughout the resume. Media Essays A2? In particular, we illustrated Dr. Om Sociale? Agard’s results in decreasing costs while simultaneously increasing quality of patient care, caseloads, and master or masters thesis overall revenue.
When Dr. Agard came to me, it was with a very detailed medical CV which included a very confusing chronology of his experience, since many of his positions have been simultaneous. I rewrote his resume into a traditional executive format that showcased his stories of challenge-action-result-strategic impact success, particularly as they related back to essay, his value proposition. The emphasis throughout is on his leadership and management competencies, though his clinical highlights and on physical medical credentials add essential credibility and medier are highlighted in his summary profile. The color scheme of muted greens, browns, and essay golds create immediate eye appeal and are consistent with Dr. Agard’s conservative personality. Manufacturing Industry CEO Resume.
Terrence came to me as a seasoned CEO, to have me prepare his first resume ever. He had a really incredible story for why his career had progressed as rapidly as it had (engineer to plant GM almost overnight). As a young engineering professional, he was on essay om sociale medier, a business trip and ended up talking with the man sitting next to him on the plane. That man was the owner of a company that was troubled and losing money. They had a lengthy discussion in which Terrence offered a number of suggestions about how he would correct the problems and turn the business around.
A couple of weeks later, the company owner called and recruited Terrence to media essays a2, serve as GM of one of the most troubled plants. The hitch: he would receive NO salary until he turned it around. He quickly produced positive results and was later promoted to president of the entire company, and then recruited to the CEO role he was in when he came to me. This story was touched on in the resume by noting that he had been personally recruited by the owner, but I used it more extensively in om sociale, the letters and biography that I also prepared for for 6th grade, him. An excerpt from one of those letters: Do you want to essay medier, be safe and persuasive essay on religion in the public school good, or do you want to take a chance and be great? I hadn’t heard this quote, attributed to essay om sociale, Jimmy Johnson, 20-plus years ago when I took my chance. But it is a chance I will always be grateful I took, as it changed my life forever. Driving profitable business growth, improvement, and sustainable change. Those are the themes that have been present throughout my career, but my opportunities to really have an impact skyrocketed two decades ago, when by chance or fate I happened to strike up a conversation with the man sitting next to me on an airplane.
At the time I was a young professional, not long out of science research papers grade, college and essay om sociale medier beginning to establish myself in science research, an engineering career. The man I was talking with turned to be the owner of om sociale medier, a company, and after lengthy discussions regarding business philosophy he offered me a job with the challenge to turnaround a failing manufacturing plant. The catch? There would be zero pay until the plant was profitable. Science? As risky as it might have seemed, I had faith in my potential, and somewhere I found the courage to take the chance… Terrence’s personal brand and value proposition was all about driving growth and results through the om sociale, creation of a cohesive company culture of “We.” We showcased this in his profile section, and I called out a quote from him that I had jotted in my notes during my consultation with him.
The quote was perfect, because it emphasized his focus on producing results through teamwork, but also because it emphasized his philosophy of good research paper history, life and leadership which had been shaped by his early experiences. Again, we further drew this out in medier, the other documents I prepared for him. Terrence had lots of successes and for 6th grade results. The Executive Performance Snapshots call immediate attention to the overriding story of success and his strategic impact in each position while complementing his brand. Rather than letting the reader get lost in essay om sociale medier, a sea of great, bullets, I used a graphic element on each page to illustrate some of his quantified achievements in medier, a format that was quick and easy to scan.
The color scheme was selected to give the resume an understated elegance while adding the visual appeal that would ensure his resume stood out. Insurance Reinsurance Industry Executive. Sales Engineering Executive Resume. Vice-President, Global Finance Manager Resume. Brianna was an interesting corporate finance executive. She didn’t have particularly strong mathematical or quantitative skills.
Instead, for good topics on american history, her it was all about understanding the underlying meaning of the om sociale, numbers and how that meaning could be used to drive business strategy. As I interviewed her, her passion for this really shone through and she got really excited describing to me how the C-suite executives would come to her and she would help them understand the numbers and help them create strategy from them. Without a doubt, this was the key to her personal brand and research paper on american history unique value proposition and we emphasized it throughout her resume. The resume was slightly challenging in that Brianna had worked for the same, well-known company for many years. This company had a strong public brand, but behind the scenes had really been struggling since the medier, economic crash about two years after Brianna had been hired. She had a really hard time communicating the specifics of her contributions to me and she said just the fact that the science, company was still alive indicated that. But now there were some serious efforts underway to sell the company, and as a whole it had never really bounced back from the downfall. After a lengthy conversation I was finally able to distill a number of om sociale, specific achievements that balanced all of her contributions in regards to cuts, streamlining, and RIFs with a few stories of growth from when she was first hired and on religion public school from some specific parts of the essay, business that did grow. The result was a really strong resume that clearly positions Brianna as a high-level strategic and finance advisor to the C-suite, but also as someone who is also able to produce results no matter what the science papers for 6th, situation: business growth or streamlining. Essay? The graphic used on the second page, with the plus and minus sign, complements this theme.
Information Technology Executive Resume - U.S. Media Essays A2? Expatriate. Carol was an interesting client in that just out of medier, college, 18 years before, she picked up roots and moved internationally, never looking back as her career took off. Fast forward to the present and she was the mother of two school-aged children and media essays a2 really wanted to return to essay om sociale, the U.S. We intentionally made her U.S. citizenship and papers grade desire for a return to the U.S. very, very clear in the header of om sociale, her resume. Good Research Topics? But, we were concerned that even understanding her citizenship, potential employers might view her complete break from the U.S. Essay Om Sociale? negatively, so I wrote the text of her resume to really emphasize how she was recruited and promoted aggressively over the years, as a way to explain why she had stayed in Ireland for so long. Master? This was also a major theme of the cover letters I wrote for her, as you can see from this excerpt: Some people swear that timing is everything. Others insist that successful people make their own luck. As a 20-something who picked up roots and relocated internationally, I wasn’t really thinking about either at the time.
Today, more than 18 years into medier an ever-progressing and always successful career, I am a true testament to both. Coming out of college with an M.B.A. and a computer science degree from one of the most prestigious universities in help science homework, the world, just as the dot.com era was being born in 1996, there could hardly have been a better place in medier, the world for me to be than Europe. After all, as I’m sure you know, Ireland is master or masters thesis well known as a world-class hub for high tech innovation and startups. As a talented, ambitious, creative, and om sociale pioneering system and software architect, designer, and on physical developer I was aggressively recruited to work on a number of innovative and essay medier start-up technology initiatives and products. Recognized very early on for my leadership, I was sought out for team leadership roles in the first year of my career, a trend that has continued and accelerated since. Carol’s original resume was extremely detailed and help on physical homework technically focused. I rewrote it to emphasize her leadership and management credentials and potential. Her major strengths included her unusually strong ability to clearly and essay deeply understand the issues at hand, cut through the help on physical homework, clutter, and essay om sociale focus on the pivotal points most critical to success, creatively overcoming any obstacles on the path.
These strengths drove her key value proposition: the proven ability to steer world-class product development organizations to increased competitive advantage and stronger sales, profits, and shareholder gains by leveraging innovation and maximizing quality and performance. This value proposition is essay on the great magic show clearly conveyed in her resume profile and also through the stories of om sociale, success and thesis achievements throughout her resume. The graphical and design elements in the resume gave her resume immediate visual appeal, but also provided us a way to convey the essay, key results and thesis contributions she had made. With a goal of highlighting the content of her resume rather than drawing the eye away to design elements alone, we chose a muted color scheme that clearly let her impressive achievements shine through. Senior Sales Manager Resume - Industry Career Change. Jack Asher is an extraordinarily accomplished and ambitious sales management executive with a BOLD and essay om sociale engaging personality—the type of persuasive essay on religion, person who has a presence that “fills” up a room when he walks into essay om sociale it. His leadership style was equally.
bold and highly effective, as evidenced by the outstanding results he had produced consistently throughout his career. He had been in paper topics on american history, the insurance industry since the start of his career. Jack’s goal was to transfer his extraordinary sales management experience into om sociale medier a new industry. Including the names of his employers, which clearly indicated they were insurance. companies, was unavoidable, but we were careful to or masters thesis, strip the essay om sociale medier, resume of essay great magic show, any other industry-specific language that would. pigeonhole him.
The language used throughout the resume was carefully chosen to medier, help show how Jack’s experience was transferable. The bold red and research topics on american black color scheme and layout was selected to complement his personal brand and value proposition which was all about bold leadership of top-producing sales organizations. The format allowed us to essay medier, call out and draw attention to the. major achievement at each company, while further illustrating his value proposition with many results-indicative numbers. The testimonial on the second page was a perfect addition as the person had used language that clearly supported Jack’s brand. The. representative accomplishments section on essay on religion school, the first page gave us a place to om sociale, showcase Jack’s most impressive, career-wide accomplishments. For almost her entire career this client had worked for the same hotel and resort company, which if presented incorrectly could make her career look stagnant. As she was hoping this resume would help her make the transition to the CFO level, it was important to show that while her experience was all in one company, it was still progressive. The client was also concerned that her SVP job title wasn’t reflective of her potential and great magic she really wanted to emphasize that she had worn many hats in a growing company, as well as the essay, acting-CFO for a number of months.
In order to really showcase the concepts of growth and persuasive in the public school system progression, the resume content and design was strategically developed to essay om sociale, highlight the exponential growth of the company during the time this client was working for them, as well as her eight promotions through the years. The charts on the front page, with the eye-catching upward pointing arrows, really emphasize the media essays a2, business growth, while the red-shaded accomplishment boxes in medier, the body of the resume emphasize the client’s progression as well as the depth, diversity, and media essays a2 significance of her most prominent accomplishments. The client hoped to remain in the hospitality/hotel industry or a related industry, so her relevant expertise in these was promoted in the text. Essay Medier? Her passion and science papers grade unique value proposition was all about building connections and teamwork to drive results, and this is really called out in the profile section with the included quotes. International Executive - CEO / COO Resume.
This client was a multicultural, multilingual American expat who had spent his entire career working in the Middle East. He was very accomplished and prided himself on creating ethical and transparent organizations that produced outstanding results and helped propel companies to the next level of medier, success. He had progressed quickly in his career and was leading at the very highest level in media essays a2, his company, but without the essay om sociale medier, title to go along with it. Research Papers For 6th? He hoped to essay om sociale medier, move his career to the next level, but was worried that his job title didn’t convey his level of experience. We quickly addressed this in the job description, justifying his targeting of CEO roles. The rest of the resume is very results-focused and his contributions are highlighted using a variety of design, graphical, and charting techniques. We chose a very conservative color scheme that the client thought would appeal to the audience he was targeting. We anticipated two primary audiences for the resume: 1) American companies doing business in the Middle East and 2) Middle Eastern companies doing business in essay on religion public, the U.S. So as not to confuse the reader, we thought it was best to essay om sociale medier, specify in the resume which currency we are referring to when we give monetary figures.
North American Controller Vice President - Finance Resume. Lucy was concerned that she had spent nearly a decade with a company that had been in essay in the school, rapid growth mode when she first joined them, but then quickly went into decline, beginning in 2008, along with the economy. She was worried that the om sociale medier, company’s revenue decline would reflect back negatively on her capabilities. A second concern was that she had resigned from her last company with plans to start an independent consulting firm. Great Magic Show? While she completed a few small assignments, she did not enjoy the sales and marketing aspect of running her own firm, and jumped at the chance to om sociale, go back to traditional employment. Unfortunately, this left a not very flattering time period in her employment history. In consultation with the client, it became clear that while her current employer’s revenues had declined (an aspect of the persuasive essay in the public school system, company she had zero control over), her contributions in reorganizing and streamlining the company so that it remained vital and positioned for future growth when the om sociale medier, economy rebounded, were absolutely essential. Without her financial leadership, the company may have failed completely during these years.
Instead, by the time we were preparing this resume, the situation was looking much more optimistic for the company and they were entertaining several options to restart growth once again. The client’s very real contribution in all of this was her transformation of the financial function from just an accounting arm of the company into a strategic business partner, a value proposition that we showcased throughout the help science, resume. Care was also taken to balance the content with growth-focused language and achievements, to illustrate that Lucy’s value proposition was just as relevant and essay beneficial when a company was in growth mode. This helped to prevent her from essay on the great, being pigeon-holed as a leader for downsizing initiatives. Lucy was not able to provide any significant accomplishment stories from her consulting years. So, rather than take page space and attention away from the more relevant experiences, we chose to describe the essay, consulting briefly at the end of the resume. To minimize the possible immediate impression of a gap in the resume, the employment dates were strategically placed next to job titles where they were not as visually obvious.
When you invest in my Executive Resume Writing Career Marketing VIP services it is at NO RISK whatsoever, because if you follow through with the project and are not fully 100% satisfied with the quality of the services and deliverables that I provide, within one week of receiving the proof documents you can destroy the electronic copies of the media essays a2, proof files, return any other products or materials sent to you, and can request and receive a full 100% refund. Executive Resumes - Traditional Grayscale Coloring. Chief Investment Officer / Senior Fund Manager - Investment Banking Resume. President / CEO / General Manager - Senior Manager Resume. Infographic Resume / Value Profile Examples. Networking Card - Front. Networking Card - Back. Book your executive VIP project today. Medier? Or, if you still have questions, book an introductory 45-minute consultation with Michelle and get a $155 discount on the $100kCareerMarketing.com program.
One-on-one, Michelle will go over media essays a2 your current resume and essay om sociale job search concerns, discuss the strategies she would use in writing your resume and other portfolio documents, answer your questions, and essay in the school give you the chance to essay om sociale medier, benefit from her expertise and persuasive essay in the public system recommendations. There is no obligation and even if you choose not to medier, proceed with the media essays a2, program, you win! Toll Free: 1-800-644-9694. (You may need to leave a message. Please do! We promise to get back to you promptly and confidentially)