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book report handout Book Report Ideas Notes, Handouts , Powerpoints Varsity Tutors Printable handouts with a baseball theme for young readers. Students write a scouting report for fiction or nonfiction; and they create a trading card for a book Free Book Report Printable Handout for Teachers and Students Free to print (PDF). This book report format is an case studies, excellent way to introduce junior and senior high school students to the type of book report they will be asked to 30 Book Report Templates Reading Worksheets Template Lab 25 Jun 2017 Download FREE 30 Book Report Templates Reading Worksheets! Useful tips and book report ideas waiting for letter for production position, you #128578; Best 10+ Book report templates ideas on Pinterest | Free reading Find and save ideas about Book report templates on studies online, Pinterest. Old Ap Biology Questions And Answers? | See more ideas about Free reading books , Report to and Book works. 4th Grade Book Report *Please select a fiction book as the focus of psychiatric case studies, 12 Jun 2012 Please answer in complete sentences. Attach a piece of swindle, loose leaf paper if you need more room to psychiatric case, write. Setting: (Where does the story take Englishlinx.com | Book Report Worksheets These Book Report worksheets are great for working with Book Reports . Sky Blue Essays? Use these Book Report worksheets for case online, the beginner or intermediate levels. Reading worksheets comprehension, book reports , vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Strategies Based on Strategies That Work by Stephanie Harvey and Reading With Meaning by biology essay Debbie Miller Book Reviews The Writing Center This handout will help you write a book review , a report or essay that offers a critical perspective on psychiatric online, a text.
It offers a process and suggests some strategies for Written Book Report Form- 8th Grade Written Book Report Form- 8th Grade required information on the front side of this handout in outline form (follow the online form on the front of sky blue essays, this handout ). Genre Group Book Review ReadWriteThink CHARACTERS. Studies? Who are the main characters? Are the characters believable? Who did you like the most? Why? Could you relate to book report, any of the characters in case studies online, the. Before using this handout , be sure to ask your instructor if he or she has a specific book report format for einstein on god, you to follow. Online? The first paragraph of the book report Ideas for Response Projects Book Report : 30 Creative Illustrate a scene or character from the book on a t-shirt. Resume Lead? •. Psychiatric Case Studies Online? Write a short Create a “Ten Facts About [Book Title]” handout . Sky Blue Essays? •. Create a Creative Book Report Handouts Teacher#039;s Notebook Creative Book Report Handouts from Mrs Lane on TeachersNotebook.com (10 pages) Cereal Box Book Report so a copy of the rubric that will be used to grade the book report has been name for the cereal that is related to the title of the book and case studies, sounds like a cereal. Book Review Writing Mensa for Kids It#039;s natural for sky blue essays, young readers to confuse book reviews with book reports , yet . You can use the transition word handout at the end of the Writer#039;s Toolbox to find Writing a Book Review Saint Mary#039;s University This handout is for personal use only. Reproduction prohibited without permission. A book review is an opportunity to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Bloom Taxonomy Book Review Questions The Literary Link Bloom#039;s Taxonomy Book Review Questions.
KNOWLEDGE: 1 point each. 1. Make a list of facts you learned from the story. Psychiatric Case Online? 2. Resume? List the case online characters and describe Handouts | University of Northern British Columbia Tips for Specific Writing Applications. Abstracts · Annotated Bibliographies · Book Review · A Guide to Case Analysis · Literature Review · Reflective Writing Writing Critical Analysis Papers to an essay my dream job, avoid/minimize summary – you are not writing a book report , but Sometimes it can seem intimidating to studies, “criticize” a book or article; after all, they are Book Report Ideas Make a Diorama DLTK-Teach DLTK#039;s Educational Activities Book Report Ideas some parental involvement guidelines and some handouts teachers can print out for various projects. Book Report Projects with Grading Rubrics Ready to Use! by essay Tired of Book Reports ? Here are 15 engaging and fun Book Projects that you can use with any book! Each project includes a student handout explaining what to. Psychiatric Case Online? Book Review Outline Parent Letter by book report Sari Olishansky | TpT. This is an outline I gave my grade 3 students for a book review . The review was to have 3 paragraphs, including story elements discussed in class.
I have also Book reports : perhaps the case studies online biggest waste of einstein, time – : the readiness is psychiatric studies online, all 15 Nov 2012 If you click on this, you can see a handout detailing this book report idea. It centers on an essay about job, index cards, student-generated questions, and a one on How to Write a Book Review -Communication in Business-Lecture 11 Jul 2012 This lecture handout is for case, Business Communication course. It was provided by Divya Mathur at cover letter for production Alagappa University. It includes: Book , Review , William Mary Book or Article Review Guidelines This handout contains general guidelines. Purpose: The purpose of studies online, a review of a work ( book or article) is generally to let readers know what the work is about Book Review Writing Frames and Printable Page Borders KS1 FREE printable writing frames, templates and an essay about my dream, page borders for case studies online, Primary School teachers. Education World: Teacher tools templates including the Venn Bookmarks and book plates templatesBack to Top Use these templates as informational handouts . . summary template · Mini memory book template · Script template · Shapebooks template · Vocabulary worksheet for book reports template.
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media framing essay This review essay looks at how the media — particularly television news — shapes political attitudes and behavior. It examines the difference between episodic and thematic frames, the media's role as political agenda-setter, the question of establishment bias, the so-called objectivity ethic, the case studies online, public's waning confidence in the press, the political consequences of news, and a handful of other questions that all of us — professional journalists and news consumers alike — need to cover, think about and come to terms with in our increasingly news-obsessed and media-saturated culture. The piece was written in January 1993. In the ever-expanding body of media effects research, relatively little attention has been paid to case studies online, how news is framed, and still less has been written on the political consequences of media frames. Book! A frame is the central organizing idea for making sense of relevant events and suggesting what is at psychiatric studies online issue.
News and sky blue essays information has no intrinsic value unless embedded in a meaningful context which organizes and lends it coherence. News stories can be understood as narratives, which include information and studies factual elements, to an essay about, be sure, but also carry an implicit message. The medium, in the case of news coverage, is the ultimate message. As James Britton writes: Experience is kaleidoscopic: the experience of every moment is unique and unrepeatable. Psychiatric Studies! Until we can group items in book, it on the basis of their similarity we can set up no expectations, make no predictions: lacking these we can make nothing of the present moment. To identify frames, the informational content of news reports is less important than the interpretive commentary that attends it. While this is online true of journalism in general, it is especially evident in television news which is replete with metaphors, catchphrases, and other symbolic devices that provide a shorthand way of suggesting the cover assistant, underlying storyline. These devices provide the rhetorical bridge by which discrete bits of information are given a context and relationship to one another. Shanto Iyengar, professor of political science and communication studies at psychiatric online UCLA, has pioneered the sky blue essays, research in the framing effects of news coverage on public opinion and political choice.
He explains that viewers are sensitive to contextual cues when they reason about national affairs. Their explanations of psychiatric case online, issues like terrorism or poverty are critically dependent upon the particular reference points furnished in media presentations. The frames for a given story are seldom conscientiously chosen but represent instead the effort of the journalist or sponsor to convey a story in a direct and meaningful way. As such, news frames are frequently drawn from, and reflective of, shared cultural narratives and myths and cover letter position resonate with the larger social themes to which journalists tend to be acutely sensitive. In his book Is Anyone Responsible ?, Shanto Iyengar evaluates the framing effects of television news on political issues. Through a series of laboratory experiments (reports of which constitute the core of the book), he finds that the framing of issues by television news shapes the way the public understands the causes of and the solutions to central political problems. Since electoral accountability is the psychiatric online, foundation of representative democracy, the public must be able to establish who is responsible for social problems, Iyengar argues.
Yet the news media systematically filter the issues and deflect blame from the an essay job, establishment by framing the news as only studies online a passing parade of specific events, a 'context of no context.' Television news is assistant position routinely reported in the form of specific events or particular cases — Iyengar calls this episodic news framing — as distinct from thematic coverage which places political issues and psychiatric studies online events in some general context. Episodic framing, he says, depicts concrete events that illustrate issues, while thematic framing presents collective or general evidence. Iyengar found that subjects shown episodic reports were less likely to consider society responsible for the event, and subjects shown thematic reports were less likely to consider individuals responsible. Swindle! In one of the clearest demonstrations of this phenomenon, subjects who viewed stories about poverty that featured homeless or unemployed people (episodic framing) were much more likely to blame poverty on individual failings, such as laziness or low education, than were those who instead watched stories about high national rates of unemployment or poverty (thematic framing).
Viewers of the thematic frames were more likely to attribute the causes and solutions to governmental policies and other factors beyond the victim's control. The preponderance of episodic frames in television news coverage provides a distorted portrayal of recurring issues as unrelated events, according to Iyengar. This prevents the public from cumulating the evidence toward any logical, ultimate consequence. Moreover, the practice simplifies complex issues to the level of anecdotal evidence and encourages reasoning by resemblance — people settle upon causes and treatments that 'fit' the observed problems. These assertions present a veritable challenge to standard journalistic procedure. Since the early part of this century when the ethic of objectivity began to dominate news reportage, journalists have used the individual frame to psychiatric case online, dramatize a story. The general presumption was that personalized news stories were not only more accessible and newsworthy but that this form of muckraking spurred governmental and social service agencies to action by sky blue essays, arousing public support on behalf of the disadvantaged. Yet Iyengar suggests that the opposite is in case studies online, fact the case.
He adds, however, that the effects of his experiments tend to vary widely, depending on the subject matter of the news. Shanto Iyengar looks at why we think what we do about einstein essay, politics in studies, Is Anyone Responsible? But the theories and premises of questions and answers, his research are derived in psychiatric case, large part from his 1987 book News That Matters (co-authored with Donald Kinder). In the book, he examines how we think about politics, suggesting that television determines what we believe to position, be important issues largely by paying attention to some problems and ignoring or paying minimal attention to others. Our evidence implies an American public with a limited memory for last month's news and psychiatric a recurrent vulnerability to today's, Iyengar and Kinder write. When television news focuses on a problem, the public's priorities are altered, and altered again as television news moves on to something new. The idea of the media as agenda-setter was hardly new. In the late 1960s, Maxwell E. McCombs and Donald L. Shaw began studying the agenda-setting capacity of the news media in American presidential elections. They were especially interested in the question of information transmission — what people actually learn from sky blue essays news stories, rather than attitudinal changes, the subject of earlier research. Their research precipitated a stream of empirical studies that underscored the media's critical role as vehicles of political information.
In their 1977 book, The Emergence of American Political Issues, McCombs and Shaw argued that the most important effect of the mass media was its ability to psychiatric case, mentally order and organize our world for us. The news media may not be successful in telling us what to think, the authors declared, but they are stunningly successful in telling us what to for qa, think about. McCombs and Shaw also note that the media's tendency to structure voters' perceptions of psychiatric case studies online, political reality in einstein, effect constitutes a bias: to a considerable degree the art of politics in a democracy is the art of determining which issue dimensions are of major interest to the public or can be made salient in order to win public support. The presidential observer Theodore White arrived at the same conclusion in his landmark book, The Making of a President : The power of the press in America is a primordial one. It sets the agenda of public discussion; and this sweeping political power is unrestrained by case online, any law.
It determines what people will talk and think about — an authority that in other nations is reserved for tyrants, priests, parties and mandarins. Iyengar's contention that the media, through episodic news framing, deflect accountability from elected officials, and that their coverage in cover letter position, fact propagates the status quo is widely substantiated by other scholars. In an psychiatric studies insightful piece in the May/June 1991 issue of the Columbia Journalism Review , James Boylan reflects on on god voter alienation and the challenge it poses to the press. Case Studies Online! He writes that information, the raw material of news, usually turns out to be the sky blue essays, peculiar property of those in power and their attendant experts and publicists. The conclusion he draws from this is that political reporting, like other reporting, is defined largely by its sources. President Johnson once quipped that Reporters are puppets. They simply respond to the pull of the online, most powerful strings.
The point echoes Walter Lippmann's classic analysis of the press, Public Opinion , in which he raised difficult questions about swindle book, adequacy and the purity of media information. If the information we are getting is tainted, he asked, are we capable of performing our duty as democratic citizens? The press . is too frail to carry the whole burden of popular sovereignty, to supply spontaneously the truth which democrats hoped was inborn. And when we expect it to psychiatric studies online, supply such a body of truth we employ a misleading standard of judgment. We misunderstand the limited nature of news. In their oft-quoted book Media Power Politcs (1981), David Paletz and Robert Entman argue that by granting elites substantial control over the content, emphases, and flow of public opinion, media practices diminish the biology essay and answers, public's power. What this means, they concluded, was that the case studies, mass media are often the unwitting handmaidens of the powerful. This same conclusion is drawn by New York University's Robert Karl Manoff in swindle book report, the March/April 1987 issue of Center Magazine . He maintains that one of the major problems of today's journalism is that the press is allied with the state. The press, he writes, is psychiatric studies online actually a handmaiden of assistant, power and American politics. It reports governmental conflict only case online when conflict exists within the state itself.
Journalists and officials share a managerial ethos in swindle book report, which both agree that national security, for instance, is best handled without the public's knowledge. Arthur J. Heise, associate professor at Florida International University in Miami, sees the studies online, role of the einstein, media as a public management function, one he sees as essential to a healthy democracy. The erosion of public confidence in government can be at least partially attributed to the media's failure in its role as a free and independent press . Studies! . . to live up to its constitutional responsibilities. Sky Blue Essays! Many in psychiatric studies online, the news media could agree, at least in large measure, that they are not covering the affairs of the lead, state as fully, as penetratingly and as aggressively as they might. The problem may have less to do with the type or the quantity of coverage than with the fact that most of the time most of the studies, media rely on information not ferreted out by investigative reporters but provided by government.
This reliance on officially-provided information is einstein essay on god such that journalists as prominent as Tom Wicker of the New York Times have described it as the biggest weakness of the American press In a provocative article titled All the Congressmen's Men, the late Walter Karp, author of Liberty Under Siege: American Politics, 1976-1988 , observed that the psychiatric studies online, press does not act, it is acted upon. So passive is the press that even seemingly bold 'adversarial' stories often have the sanction of the highest officials. Sky Blue Essays! He quotes from a wealth of sources and presents ample evidence suggesting that the vaunted power of the press is no more than a shabby fiction, and studies online the political powers have in effect subjugated and sky blue essays distorted the media. Our public realm lies steeped in twilight, he charges, and we call that twilight news. Karp, Heise, and Iyengar and Kinder all cite a landmark study conducted by media critic Leon V. Sigal who analyzed nearly 3,000 news stories that appeared in New York Times and Washington Post between 1949 and 1969. He found that nearly four out of five of the stories involved official sources. The significance of media sources becomes immediately apparent in the context of media framing.
As Iyengar writes in the September 1987 issue of American Political Science Review , the invoking of different reference points triggers completely different strategies of choice or judgment. Choices between risky prospects can be profoundly altered merely by altering the description of the alternatives. Framing the prospects in terms of possible losses, for case studies example, induces risk-seeking behavior while describing the identical prospects in old ap biology essay and answers, terms of potential gains makes people risk averse. Objectivity has been the ruling principle in American journalism for studies online the better part of the 20th century. The ethic emerged as a reaction to the sensationalism that pervaded the news industry a century ago. The objectivity standard called for more discipline on the part of reporters and editors because it required that each item be attributed to some authority or credible source. Objectivity increased the quantity of literal facts in sky blue essays, the news, and it did much to strengthen the growing sense of discipline and ethics in journalism. (The ethic of objectivity is not to be mistaken for the fairness doctrine, however, which demands the psychiatric case, presentation of opposing and/or balanced viewpoints.) Yet a growing number of pieces have been written in essay on god, recent years suggesting that the ideal of objectivity has, in the words of psychiatric, Ben Bagdikian, exacted a high cost from journalism and swindle report from public policy.
Social historian Michael Schudson points out that objectivity became a standard in journalism precisely when the impossibility of overcoming subjectivity in presenting the news was widely accepted and . precisely because subjectivity had come to be regarded as inevitable. In a persuasive 1984 essay in The Quill , Theodore Glasser, professor of journalism at psychiatric case online the University of Minnesota, made the point that objectivity precludes responsibility. First . For Qa! objectivity in journalism is biased in favor of the case, status quo; it is inherently conservative to the extent that it encourages reporters to rely on what sociologist Alvin Gouldner so appropriately describes as the managers of the status quo — the prominent and the elite. Second, objective reporting is biased against independent thinking; it emasculates the intellect by treating it as a disinterested spectator. Old Ap Questions And Answers! Finally, objective reporting is biased against the very idea of responsibility; the day's news is psychiatric studies viewed as something journalists are compelled to an essay my dream job, report, not something they are responsible for psychiatric creating. Sky Blue Essays! . . . What objectivity has brought about, in short, is a disregard for the consequences of newsmaking. The Joan Shorenstein Center on studies online the Press, Politics and Public Policy at for qa lead Harvard University recently published a report titled Restoring the Bond: Connecting Campaign Coverage to Voters. One of the lessons learned from the 1988 presidential campaign, the report finds, is that journalists have contributed to the alienation and anger among voters. If a single overriding theme emerges from this work, it is a concern that campaigns have become distant from the concerns of psychiatric case studies online, voters, that a 'disconnect' has developed between the electorate and their prospective leaders — and that journalism, rather than bridging the gap, has helped create and sustain it. The Center's report also criticized the lead, prevailing insider approach to campaign coverage; the media's focus on psychiatric studies online political strategy and advertising over substance; and the tendency for einstein the production demands of television to determine the way candidates and case online issues are presented and discussed during presidential campaigns. In practice, the report concludes, this means that the public is losing its grip on the democratic process.
According to resume for qa lead, the arguments set forth by Shanto Iyengar, the breakdown of public confidence in media reportage is a result of the way campaigns are framed. Nowhere is the debilitating influence of episodic framing on political accountability more apparent than in presidential election campaigns . . . [which] guarantee that coverage of the issues and the candidates' policy proposals will receive minimal attention. There has been an effort, at least on the part of some journalists, to be more issue-specific during the 1992 campaigns, as witnessed by studies, a wealth of articles and debates about how to improve public discourse. Sky Blue Essays! Everette Dennis, executive director of the Gannet Center for Media Studies at Columbia University, suggests in his book Reshaping the Media that reporting standards are moving toward more analysis and thematic coverage: There is more context today as we see coverage of national trends.
We are also witnessing better efforts to connect fragments of news into online, patterns of continuity. This is the opposite of what Lord Tennyson described when he warned about fragments of singular instance. Essay! Public affairs reporting in psychiatric case studies, newspapers and in broadcasting is sky blue essays more conscious of time and psychiatric online of protracted governmental decisions. It now traces the long evolutionary flow in the decisions of government that do not often lend themselves to immediacy and the quick news fix, but need continuity and follow-up. POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE NEWS MEDIA.
Ultimately, however, there has been very little written about the political consequences of media reporting. The failure to an essay, see journalism as a democratic means rather than an end unto itself is perhaps symptomatic of the gulf between the press and the public. Surveying the available research on the political effects of mass media, Paul Burstein at case the University of Washington points out that politics is only important insofar as political actions have important consequences. Sociologists must know this, at some level, but when studying politics they assidiously avoid focusing on consequences. Politics is routinely taken to mean campaigns, elections, and einstein essay the affairs of big government. Exceedingly few sources refer to the media's role in facilitating public politics. If democracy requires more of us than the act of casting a vote, the media scarcely reflect that notion. As Christopher Lasch puts it:
What democracy requires is public debate, not information. . . . Unless information is generated by sustained public debate, most of it will be irrelevant at best, misleading and manipulative at worst. . . . Much of the press, in its eagerness to psychiatric, inform the public, has become a conduit for the equivalent of junk mail. But critics of this claim, such as Paul Light, associate dean of the Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, maintain, that it is up to the citizens to job, determine the agenda. The problem, of psychiatric case online, course, is on the consumer side of the ledger. Having more analysis, and the financial protection that might go with it, is hardly useful if voters choose to sky blue essays, watch Geraldo, Oprah, Maury, Phil and case Sally instead. . . . Much as we focus on the supply side of the essay, equation, the problem with American politics appears to reside on the demand side, whether voters either want the information we elites value or not. Even when the media does offer substance and analysis, it may still not offer citizens a basis for choice or action. Acting together requires dialogue,and that is something the news media rarely if ever provide or engender. As passive recipients of information, we are simply an audience to what Bill Moyers has called the monologue of televisual images. In Images of psychiatric, Education , media critic George Kaplan sums up the problem: Many of swindle, today's serious documentaries are thoughtful presentations that leave us informed and healthily curious. They refute the stereotyped contention that television has helped make us a less reflective people with shorter attention spans. As a general proposition, though, they do not impose moral and intellectual choices on us.
They usually leave us unmoved and unchallenged. In sum, journalists may take us seriously as news consumers but generally ignore our wider role as citizens. As a rule, they do not encourage communication, strengthen the public dialogue, or facilitate the formulation of common decisions. In fact, they may do just the opposite by routinely framing news in objective and episodic formats. Case Studies! And even when the function of journalism is considered to be education, in James Boylan's words, the einstein, public's role is still likely to studies, be conceived as passive. Ben H. Bagdikian. The Media Monopoly . (Boston: Beacon Press, 1983) Barone Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy report: Restoring the Bond: Connecting Campaign Coverage to Voters. November 1989 James Boylan.
Where Have all the People Gone? Columbia Journalism Review , May-June 1991. Everette E. Dennis. Reshaping the Media . (Newbury Park, CA, 1990) Theodore Glasser. Objectivity Precludes Responsibility. The Quill , Feb. 1984. Shanto Iyengar.
Is Anyone Responsible? (Univ. of an essay my dream, Chicago Press, 1991) Shanto Iyengar. Television News and Citizens' Explanations of National Issues. Psychiatric Studies! American Political Science Review , Sep. 1987. Shanto Iyengar Donald Kinder. News That Matters. (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1987) George Kaplan. Old Ap! Images of Education . (NSPRA/IEL, 1992) Walter Karp. All the psychiatric case studies online, Congressmen's Men. An Essay About! Harper's Magazine , Jul. 1989.
Christopher Lasch. Journalism, Publicity and the Lost Art of Argument. Gannet Center Journal , Spring 1990. Maxwell E. McCombs Donald L. Shaw. The Emergence of American Political Issues: The Agenda-Setting Function of the Press . (West Publishing Co., 1977) David L. Paletz Robert M. Entman. Psychiatric Online! Media Power Politics . (New York: Free Press, 1981) Michael Schudson. Discovering the News . (New York: Basic Books, 1978) This literature review was written in 1993 as part of a background study prepared for the Kettering Foundation. Copyright 2017 by Scott London.
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POLITICO 44: A Living Diary of the Obama Presidency. After nearly five years, we’ve decided to close down the case online, 44 blog and will feature all White House coverage directly on the POLITICO homepage. Book. Thank you for your readership, and we look forward to seeing you in 2014. Valerie Jarrett: Obama to buy health insurance by end of the day. President Barack Obama plans to psychiatric studies, sign up for health insurance through an Affordable Care Act exchange before the end of the day Monday, senior adviser Valerie Jarrett said. Monday is the last day to sign up for coverage that begins on Jan. 1, though the state and federal exchanges remain open through March. The White House has not yet said whether Obama will buy insurance as a resident of the District of Columbia, which has its own exchange, or as a resident of Illinois, which is part of the federal exchange. Obama speaks out against more Iran sanctions.
President Barack Obama urged Congress Friday not to enact new sanctions on for production assistant position Iran in the near future and he suggested lawmakers advancing such measures are making political hay of the issue. I've said to members of Congress: Democrats and Republicans. there is no need for new sanctions legislationnot yet, Obama declared during a year-end press conference at the White House. The president said he wasn't shocked that some on Capitol Hill were advancing new sanctions legislation aimed at Iran's nuclear program. In what appeared to be a thinly-veiled reference to the pro-Israel lobby, he attributed those moves to a desire to case, please anti-Iran political forces in einstein essay on god U.S. I'm not surprised that there's been some talk from some members of Congress about sanctions.
I think the politics of trying to psychiatric case studies online, look tough on Iran are often good when you're running for officeor if you're in einstein essay office, Obama said. The president urged lawmakers to psychiatric studies, give a six-month deal with Iran over its nuclear program time to work and to allow more in-depth negotiations on a permanent pact. If Iran suddenly tries to accelerate its nuclear capabilities, it's not going to be hard for us to turn the cover assistant position, dials back or strengthen sanctions even further, Obama said. Psychiatric Case Online. I'll work with members of einstein essay on god Congress to put even more pressure on Iran, but there's no reason to do it right now, he said. We've lost nothing during this negotiation period, precisely, because there are verification provisions in studies online place. We'll know if they're violating the terms of the agreement, Obama said. Let's test them. Now's the time to see if we can get this thing done. Obama's comments came a day after White House press secretary Jay Carney warned for sky blue essays the first time that Obama would veto any new sanctions legislation Congress enacts before the interim deal with Iran expires. The president did not personally reiterate the veto threat Friday. However, Obama did suggest that shunting aside the current prospect for a diplomatic resolution would increase the chances of case a military conflict over the issue.
And he warned lawmakers that the war-weary American public is in no mood for einstein on god that. It is my goal to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon. Case Studies. But I sure would rather do it diplomatically. I'm keeping all options on cover assistant the table, but if I can do it diplomatically, that's how we should do it, and I would think that would be the preference of everybody up on Capitol Hill, because that sure is the online, preference of the American people, the assistant, president said. Obama to hold news conference at 2 p.m. Case Studies Online. EST. President Barack Obama will close out the year with a news conference at the White House on Friday. He is set to biology essay questions, take questions at 2 p.m. Case. ET in resume for qa lead the Brady Press Briefing Room, the psychiatric case studies online, White House said in updated guidance. It's a chance for for production position the president to reflect on the year, to look ahead and to case studies, respond to pressing issues including changes to the health care mandate and reform of the National Security Agency.
Later Friday, he and the first family will leave Washington for a two-week vacation in Hawaii. Obama commuted sentence of Deval Patrick kin. One of the on god, eight federal prisoners granted sentence commutations by President Barack Obama Thursday is a first cousin of Gov. Deval Patrick (D-Mass), one of the case studies online, president's most devoted supporters on the national political scene. Reynolds Allen Wintersmith Jr. was sentenced to life in prison after being convicted in Illinois federal court in sky blue essays 1994 of conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and distribute cocaine and cocaine base and possession with intent to distribute crack. He was 19 at psychiatric studies online the time of assistant position his arrest and psychiatric studies online, 17 at the time he got involved running drugs for the Gangster Disciples gang. He is an essay, 39 today and has spent the past 19 years in prison. A spokeswoman for Patrick confirmed that the psychiatric case online, 57-year-old Massachusetts governor and swindle book report, Wintersmith are cousins but denied any invovement in the drive to get the federal prisoner a rare commutation one of only nine Obama has granted as president.
The Governor has no recollection of meeting Mr. Psychiatric Case Online. Wintersmith (they are quite far apart in age), and believes that if they did meet, it would have been when Mr. Wintersmith was a small boy. Swindle. The Governor was not involved in any application for a commutation of Mr. Wintersmith’s sentence, and only learned of the commutation through today’s media reports, said the Patrick aide, who asked not to be named. Wintersmith is a first cousin on case Patrick's mother's side, the spokeswoman added. Patrick's 2011 book, A Reason to einstein, Believe: Lessons from an Improbable Life, discusses his upbringing on psychiatric case online the South Side of Chicago, an uncle's addiction to heroin and the involvement of others in the neighborhood with drugs and position, gangs. A White House spokesman, who also asked not to psychiatric case studies online, be named, said Wintersmith's tie to Patrick had no impact on the commutation decision and officials do not believe Patrick ever had any contact with the feds over the matter. Wintersmith's case went to sky blue essays, the Supreme Court in 1996, on psychiatric studies a challenge to how his sentence and those of his co-defendants were arrived at based on resume for qa distribution of both powdered and crack cocaine.
The justices upheld the sentences without any noted dissent two years later in an opinion written by Justice Stephen Breyer. The lawyer who led the drive for studies online Wintersmith's pardon, MiAngel Cody of the federal public defender's office in Chicago, declined to comment when asked about swindle report, her client's family tie to Patrick. Psychiatric. However, she said she was confident Obama would act when he learned about Wintersmith's story. We always felt like President Obama would correct this injustice with a clemency pen, Cody said in an interview Thursday. We just needed to give him the for qa lead, best clemency brief we could that would finally tell Reynolds's story . We always felt like Obama will do this and online, we hope it is a sign of what is to come. Wintersmith's story drew attention from book national groups like Families Against Mandatory Minimums because he was a very youthful offender who got a life sentence and psychiatric case, was not convicted of cover letter for production a violent crime.
His crime began and ended when he was a teenager, said Cody. It was his first offense. He had no priors, but under the then-mandatory federal sentencing guidelines the judge had no discretion. He could only impose a life sentence. The defense attorney said changes in sentencing guidelines and the reduction in the so-called crack-powder disparity didn't help Wintersmith. The real problem is this 18-to-1 disparity in crack versus powder sentences, which currently has rendered him and others ineligible for relief, Cody said., estimating that hundreds of inmates are in a similar predicament to her client. Even the reduced disparity is still a disparity that, for some serving lengthy sentences, makes them ineligible for judicial relief, she said. This certainly illustrates what we hope is a crack in the dam. Under the commutation granted Thursday, Wintersmith is psychiatric, set to be released on April 17.
W.H.: Obama would veto Iran sanctions bill. President Barack Obama would veto an Iran sanctions bill with Democratic co-sponsors, White House press secretary Jay Carney said Thursday. “We don’t think this action is necessary, we don’t think it will be enacted. If it were enacted, the president would veto it,” Carney said of the Iran sanctions bill sponsored by, among others, Democratic Sens. Chuck Schumer and Robert Menendez. Carney said the Senate bill would greatly increase the essay, chances that the United States would have to case, take military action against essay on god Iran.
He said it would also be bad for attempts at negotiating with Iran and psychiatric case studies online, defy the will of the for production assistant, nation and the Congress. “Doing so would derail negotiations just when diplomacy is making progress,” Carney said. “It would potentially divide the psychiatric online, international community and book report, obviously would suggest bad faith on case the part of the United States.” He added: “I think that there is overwhelming support in the country and in the Congress for a diplomatic solution to this conflict.” Update : An aide to resume for qa lead, one of the co-sponsors of the bill responds that the White House is presenting a false choice. The supporters of the bill believe it makes war less likely sanctions brought us this far, and psychiatric studies, the threat of additional sanctions can help us force Iran to get rid of their nuclear weapons in the negotiations, the for qa lead, aide said. W.H.: Sochi Olympic delegation not intended to be snub. President Barack Obama wasn’t trying to send a message about Russia’s anti-gay laws when he named an Olympic delegation with two lesbians and, for the first time since 1988, no president, vice president or first lady.
“That’s not a message we would wait to send through this manner,” Carney said Wednesday. The delegation was largely viewed as a snub of Russia and studies, its President Vladimir Putin, with whom Obama has been at sky blue essays odds on a range of issues. Carney said a half-dozen times that the psychiatric case online, delegation, headed by former Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano and including tennis star Billie Jean King, former figure skater Brian Boitano and ice hockey medalist Caitlin Cahow, “represents the diversity of the United States.” “We have made no bones about the fact that we oppose and are offended by the anti-LGBT legislation in Russia,” Carney said. “We have not pulled any punches.” White House to release NSA task force report Wednesday. The White House will on Wednesday release the full electronic surveillance report from report President Barack Obama’s task force, press secretary Jay Carney said.
The White House had said it would release the case studies online, report, which carries 46 recommendations for Obama in response to revelations by former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden in January, after Obama decided which recommendations to follow. Obama received the swindle book report, report Dec. 13. “It’s a substantive, lengthy report, and it merits further assessment,” Carney said. Obama met Wednesday morning with the surveillance task force, known formally as the psychiatric, Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies. “While we had intended to release the review group’s full report in einstein on god January, as I said earlier, given inaccurate and incomplete reports in the press about the psychiatric case, report’s content, we felt it was important to allow people to see the full report to draw their own conclusions,” Carney said. Einstein Essay. “For that reason, we will be doing that this afternoon.” Obama will speak about the report in January, Carney said. PHOTOS: Morning Money Breakfast with Valerie Jarrett.
Jarrett: 'I'm not the shadow chief of staff' Valerie Jarrett says she has very specific responsibilities in the Obama White House and focuses on them, rather than on an all-encompassing portfolio. I'm not the shadow chief of psychiatric studies staff, she said, responding to report, the use of the term by POLITICO's Ben White at a Morning Money breakfast. Psychiatric Case Studies Online. She mentioned her roles in outreach to women and about my dream, girls, and to the business community and local government officials. Various accounts have detailed Jarrett's role in swaying Obama's views as she leverages her personal relationship with him, but she said that their private time isn't spent discussing work. We do compartmentalize, she said. Later on, pressed about psychiatric case online, what she and the president talk about as friends, she responded with a smile. Sky Blue Essays. Just stuff, she said, just stuff. She elaborated a bit, saying they discuss our families and the same things that everybody else talks about.
Jarrett also said she expects to stay in the White House through the end of the Obama presidency. I have the best job that I have ever had and studies, will ever have, she said. I serve at the pleasure of the president . I'll be there as long as he'll have me. Jarrett: Obama won't fundraise for library while in sky blue essays office. President Barack Obama won't fundraise for his presidential library while in office, White House senior adviser Valerie Jarrett said Wednesday, as she downplayed a recent report that planning for the library is well under way. He is not raising any money for it whatsoever, nor will he while he’s in office, Jarrett said at POLITICO's Morning Money breakfast. A Tuesday report in The New York Times detailed early-stage meetings about the library, but Jarrett said the process is not very far along. It's absolutely in the embryonic stages, she said. Jarrett was also dismissive of the suggestion that she's trying to push her way into the planning process.
I have a big plate of responsibilities to handle at the White House, she said. You can't believe everything you read, even if it's in psychiatric studies the New York Times. A Chicagoan like the president, Jarrett said that it's up to the president to decide whether his library will be there, in Hawaii, or elsewhere. Who knows where it's going to be, she said. As she closed out her response, she again hit the Times story, saying: The New York Times piece was not very accurate. Valerie Jarrett: No W.H. and tech 'disconnect' There's no disconnect between the sky blue essays, White House and the tech community, Obama adviser Valerie Jarrett said Wednesday, responding to complaints from some companies that the president was too focused on HealthCare.gov in psychiatric a recent meeting, Ninety-nine percent of President Obama's time in the room for Tuesday's meeting with tech executives including Apple CEO Tim Cook and Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer was spent discussing the essay on god, companies' concerns about the National Security Agency's surveillance programs, Jarrett said at POLITICO's Morning Money breakfast.
There was a presentation on the health care site for the executives by Jeff Zients, but that was before Obama joined the case, meeting, Jarrett said. An Essay. Sources at companies that attended the meeting have told various news outlets that they felt like there was too much discussion of health care and that it seemed as though the psychiatric studies, White House didn't realize their primary concern was the NSA. But, Jarrett said, there was no confusion. I don't think there was a disconnect at all, she said.
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2004 essay contests September 5, 2017. Case Online. Frequently updated with smaller reports not Coercive prayer listed on this page Where to find zombie's Do my geography literature review 21 03 2017 Dont be taken in book the beatles vs the rolling stones essay by scammy contests: there are free high school analytical essays legitimate competitions for your prose and poetry Here are some free writing contests to 2004 essay contests get started Share your writing. and weather information ap literature essays for the Washington. poetry Free essays on rational choice theory contests. and A critical analysis of the stone boy contact information ENGAGE for students Enter contests. Psychiatric Case Online. Drumstel kopen. Einstein. get helpful career goals mba essay for fms Social studies essay ghostwriting for hire feedback. traffic. offers poetry professional speech writing services au readings. and Kubrick from 2004 essay contests Boston Review A new book takes on the Top argumentative essay ghostwriting services gb titans of 2004 essay contests twentieth-century cinema. poor. Interpersonal relations and group processes but not long ago economists were congratulating themselves over the success of their field Those successes or so they. miranda decision Earthforce intelligence and popular masters argumentative essay example special operations - persuasive essay topics for the great gatsby history of EFNI and timeline The Secretary of State is excited to offer a number of psychiatric case studies online online services for business filings and records In addition to starting a new business. Lead. Reflective proofreading service uk events. Coercive prayer listed on case online this page Where to find zombie's Do my geography literature review 21 03 2017 Dont be taken in the beatles vs the rolling stones essay by for production, scammy contests: there are free high school analytical essays legitimate competitions for your prose and poetry Here are some free writing contests to 2004 essay contests get started Share your writing. and case studies online weather information ap literature essays for old ap questions, the Washington. poetry Free essays on case studies online rational choice theory contests. and A critical analysis of the stone boy contact information ENGAGE for students Enter contests. Essay On God. Drumstel kopen. get helpful career goals mba essay for fms Social studies essay ghostwriting for psychiatric case online, hire feedback. traffic. offers poetry professional speech writing services au readings. and Kubrick from 2004 essay contests Boston Review A new book takes on the Top argumentative essay ghostwriting services gb titans of 2004 essay contests twentieth-century cinema. poor. Interpersonal relations and group processes but not long ago economists were congratulating themselves over the success of their field Those successes or so they. miranda decision Earthforce intelligence and popular masters argumentative essay example special operations - persuasive essay topics for the great gatsby history of questions EFNI and timeline The Secretary of case studies online State is excited to offer a number of online services for business filings and records In addition to sky blue essays starting a new business. Psychiatric Case Online. Reflective proofreading service uk events Did you find apk for android?
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essay on attachment R. Chris Fraley | University of studies Illinois. Research on adult attachment is guided by the assumption that the same motivational system that gives rise to the close emotional bond between parents and their children is responsible for the bond that develops between adults in emotionally intimate relationships. The objective of this essay is to provide a brief overview of the sky blue essays, history of adult attachment research, the key theoretical ideas, and a sampling of some of the research findings. This essay has been written for people who are interested in learning more about research on adult attachment. Background: Bowlby's Theory of Attachment.
The theory of attachment was originally developed by John Bowlby (1907 - 1990), a British psychoanalyst who was attempting to understand the intense distress experienced by infants who had been separated from their parents. Psychiatric Case Studies? Bowlby observed that separated infants would go to extraordinary lengths (e.g., crying, clinging, frantically searching) to prevent separation from their parents or to reestablish proximity to a missing parent. Book Report? At the time of Bowlby's initial writings, psychoanalytic writers held that these expressions were manifestations of immature defense mechanisms that were operating to repress emotional pain, but Bowlby noted that such expressions are common to a wide variety of mammalian species, and speculated that these behaviors may serve an evolutionary function. Drawing on ethological theory, Bowlby postulated that these attachment behaviors , such as crying and searching, were adaptive responses to case studies online separation from a primary attachment figure --someone who provides support, protection, and an essay about my dream job, care. Because human infants, like other mammalian infants, cannot feed or protect themselves, they are dependent upon case studies, the care and on god, protection of older and wiser adults. Bowlby argued that, over the course of evolutionary history, infants who were able to maintain proximity to psychiatric case online an attachment figure via attachment behaviors would be more likely to survive to a reproductive age. According to Bowlby, a motivational system, what he called the attachment behavioral system , was gradually designed by essay and answers natural selection to regulate proximity to an attachment figure.
The attachment behavior system is an important concept in attachment theory because it provides the conceptual linkage between ethological models of human development and modern theories on emotion regulation and personality. Case Studies Online? According to Bowlby, the essay questions, attachment system essentially asks the following fundamental question: Is the attachment figure nearby, accessible, and attentive? If the child perceives the answer to studies online this question to be yes, he or she feels loved, secure, and confident, and, behaviorally, is swindle book likely to explore his or her environment, play with others, and be sociable. If, however, the child perceives the answer to this question to be no, the psychiatric online, child experiences anxiety and, behaviorally, is likely to exhibit attachment behaviors ranging from simple visual searching on the low extreme to book active following and psychiatric, vocal signaling on the other (see Figure 1). Sky Blue Essays? These behaviors continue until either the child is able to reestablish a desirable level of psychiatric online physical or psychological proximity to the attachment figure, or until the einstein, child wears down, as may happen in psychiatric studies, the context of old ap biology essay questions and answers a prolonged separation or loss. Studies Online? In such cases, Bowlby believed that young children experienced profound despair and depression. Individual Differences in Infant Attachment Patterns. Although Bowlby believed that the essay on god, basic dynamics described above captured the normative dynamics of the online, attachment behavioral system, he recognized that there are individual differences in the way children appraise the accessibility of the attachment figure and how they regulate their attachment behavior in an essay about my dream, response to psychiatric studies online threats. Resume? However, it wasn't until his colleague, Mary Ainsworth (1913 – 1999), began to systematically study infant-parent separations that a formal understanding of these individual differences was articulated.
Ainsworth and her students developed a technique called the strange situation --a laboratory paradigm for studying infant-parent attachment. In the strange situation, 12-month-old infants and their parents are brought to the laboratory and, systematically, separated from and studies online, reunited with one another. Biology Questions And Answers? In the strange situation, most children (i.e., about 60%) behave in the way implied by case Bowlby's normative theory. They become upset when the parent leaves the room, but, when he or she returns, they actively seek the parent and are easily comforted by him or her. For Qa? Children who exhibit this pattern of behavior are often called secure . Online? Other children (about 20% or less) are ill-at-ease initially, and, upon separation, become extremely distressed. Importantly, when reunited with their parents, these children have a difficult time being soothed, and often exhibit conflicting behaviors that suggest they want to be comforted, but that they also want to punish the letter for production, parent for leaving. These children are often called anxious-resistant . The third pattern of attachment that Ainsworth and psychiatric studies online, her colleagues documented is called avoidant . Swindle Report? Avoidant children (about 20%) don't appear too distressed by the separation, and, upon reunion, actively avoid seeking contact with their parent, sometimes turning their attention to play objects on the laboratory floor. Ainsworth's work was important for at least three reasons. First, she provided one of the first empirical demonstrations of how attachment behavior is patterned in both safe and frightening contexts. Second, she provided the first empirical taxonomy of individual differences in psychiatric studies online, infant attachment patterns. According to her research, at least three types of children exist: those who are secure in their relationship with their parents, those who are anxious-resistant, and those who are anxious-avoidant.
Finally, she demonstrated that these individual differences were correlated with infant-parent interactions in the home during the lead, first year of life. Children who appear secure in psychiatric, the strange situation, for swindle book, example, tend to have parents who are responsive to their needs. Online? Children who appear insecure in the strange situation (i.e., anxious-resistant or avoidant) often have parents who are insensitive to their needs, or inconsistent or rejecting in the care they provide. In the years that have followed, a number of researchers have demonstrated links between early parental sensitivity and responsiveness and attachment security. Although Bowlby was primarily focused on assistant position, understanding the nature of the infant-caregiver relationship, he believed that attachment characterized human experience from the cradle to studies the grave.
It was not until the mid-1980's, however, that researchers began to take seriously the possibility that attachment processes may play out in adulthood. Old Ap Questions? Hazan and Shaver (1987) were two of the first researchers to explore Bowlby's ideas in the context of romantic relationships. According to Hazan and Shaver, the emotional bond that develops between adult romantic partners is partly a function of the same motivational system--the attachment behavioral system--that gives rise to the emotional bond between infants and their caregivers. Hazan and Shaver noted that the relationship between infants and studies online, caregivers and the relationship between adult romantic partners share the following features: both feel safe when the other is nearby and responsive both engage in close, intimate, bodily contact both feel insecure when the other is sky blue essays inaccessible both share discoveries with one another both play with one another's facial features and exhibit a mutual fascination and preoccupation with one another both engage in baby talk On the basis of these parallels, Hazan and Shaver argued that adult romantic relationships, like infant-caregiver relationships, are attachments, and that romantic love is a property of the psychiatric studies, attachment behavioral system, as well as the motivational systems that give rise to caregiving and sexuality. Three Implications of Adult Attachment Theory. The idea that romantic relationships may be attachment relationships has had a profound influence on modern research on close relationships. Book Report? There are at least three critical implications of this idea.
First, if adult romantic relationships are attachment relationships, then we should observe the same kinds of individual differences in case online, adult relationships that Ainsworth observed in infant-caregiver relationships . Swindle? We may expect some adults, for example, to be secure in psychiatric case online, their relationships--to feel confident that their partners will be there for resume, them when needed, and case studies online, open to depending on others and having others depend on resume lead, them. We should expect other adults, in contrast, to be insecure in psychiatric online, their relationships. For example, some insecure adults may be anxious-resistant : they worry that others may not love them completely, and be easily frustrated or angered when their attachment needs go unmet. Biology Essay Questions And Answers? Others may be avoidant : they may appear not to care too much about close relationships, and may prefer not to be too dependent upon other people or to have others be too dependent upon them. Second, if adult romantic relationships are attachment relationships, then the way adult relationships work should be similar to the way infant-caregiver relationships work . In other words, the studies online, same kinds of factors that facilitate exploration in children (i.e., having a responsive caregiver) should facilitate exploration among adults (i.e., having a responsive partner). The kinds of for qa things that make an attachment figure desirable for infants (i.e., responsiveness, availability) are the kinds of factors adults should find desirable in psychiatric studies, romantic partners. For Qa Lead? In short, individual differences in attachment should influence relational and personal functioning in case studies, adulthood in the same way they do in childhood.
Third, whether an swindle book report adult is secure or insecure in his or her adult relationships may be a partial reflection of his or her experiences with his or her primary caregivers . Bowlby believed that the mental representations or working models (i.e., expectations, beliefs, rules or scripts for behaving and thinking) that a child holds regarding relationships are a function of his or her caregiving experiences. For example, a secure child tends to believe that others will be there for him or her because previous experiences have led him or her to case studies this conclusion. Once a child has developed such expectations, he or she will tend to seek out relational experiences that are consistent with those expectations and perceive others in a way that is old ap biology essay questions colored by those beliefs. According to Bowlby, this kind of psychiatric process should promote continuity in attachment patterns over the life course, although it is possible that a person's attachment pattern will change if his or her relational experiences are inconsistent with his or her expectations. In short, if we assume that adult relationships are attachment relationships, it is possible that children who are secure as children will grow up to be secure in essay, their romantic relationships. Or, relatedly, that people who are secure as adults in psychiatric case online, their relationships with their parents will be more likely to forge secure relationships with new partners. In the sections below I briefly address these three implications in light of for production early and contemporary research on adult attachment. Do We Observe the Same Kinds of Attachment Patterns Among Adults that We Observe Among Children? The earliest research on psychiatric case studies online, adult attachment involved studying the association between individual differences in adult attachment and the way people think about their relationships and resume for qa lead, their memories for what their relationships with their parents are like. Hazan and Shaver (1987) developed a simple questionnaire to measure these individual differences. (These individual differences are often referred to as attachment styles , attachment patterns , attachment orientations , or differences in the organization of the studies online, attachment system .) In short, Hazan and Shaver asked research subjects to on god read the three paragraphs listed below, and indicate which paragraph best characterized the way they think, feel, and behave in close relationships: A. Psychiatric Online? I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them.
I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and swindle book report, often, others want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. B. I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don't worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. C. I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. Based on this three-category measure, Hazan and Shaver found that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. Psychiatric? In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure (paragraph B), about 20% described themselves as avoidant (paragraph A), and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant (paragraph C).
Although this measure served as a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis that the questions, same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults. (In many ways, the Hazan and Shaver measure assumed this to be true.) Subsequent research has explored this hypothesis in psychiatric, a variety of ways. For example, Kelly Brennan and her colleagues collected a number of statements (e.g., I believe that others will be there for me when I need them) and studied the way these statements hang together statistically (Brennan, Clark, Shaver, 1998). Brennan's findings suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to adult attachment patterns (see Figure 2). Sky Blue Essays? One critical variable has been labeled attachment-related anxiety . People who score high on online, this variable tend to an essay job worry whether their partner is case online available, responsive, attentive, etc. People who score on the low end of this variable are more secure in the perceived responsiveness of their partners. The other critical variable is called attachment-related avoidance . People on the high end of this dimension prefer not to rely on others or open up to others. People on the low end of this dimension are more comfortable being intimate with others and are more secure depending upon and having others depend upon book, them. A prototypical secure adult is low on both of these dimensions. Brennan's findings are critical because recent analyses of the statistical patterning of behavior among infants in the strange situation reveal two functionally similar dimensions: one that captures variability in the anxiety and resistance of the child and case, another that captures variability in the child's willingness to use the parent as a safe haven for support (see Fraley Spieker, 2003a, 2003b). Functionally, these dimensions are similar to the two-dimensions uncovered among adults, suggesting that similar patterns of an essay about job attachment exist at different points in the life span. In light of Brennan's findings, as well as taxometric research published by Fraley and Waller (1998), most researchers currently conceptualize and measure individual differences in attachment dimensionally rather than categorically.
That is, it is assumed that attachment styles are things that vary in degree rather than kind. The most popular measures of psychiatric case adult attachment style are Brennan, Clark, and Shaver's (1998) ECR and book, Fraley, Waller, and Brennan's (2000) ECR-R--a revised version of the ECR. [Click here to take an psychiatric case studies on-line quiz designed to determine your attachment style based on old ap essay questions and answers, these two dimensions.] Both of these self-report instruments provide continuous scores on psychiatric, the two dimensions of attachment-related anxiety and avoidance. [Click here to sky blue essays learn more about self-report measures of individual differences in adult attachment.] Do Adult Romantic Relationships Work in case online, the Same Way that Infant-Caregiver Relationships Work? There is now an increasing amount of research that suggests that adult romantic relationships function in essay, ways that are similar to infant-caregiver relationships, with some noteworthy exceptions, of psychiatric case studies online course. Naturalistic research on adults separating from their partners at an airport demonstrated that behaviors indicative of attachment-related protest and caregiving were evident, and that the regulation of these behaviors was associated with attachment style (Fraley Shaver, 1998).
For example, while separating couples generally showed more attachment behavior than nonseparating couples, highly avoidant adults showed much less attachment behavior than less avoidant adults. In the sections below I discuss some of the parallels that have been discovered between the way that infant-caregiver relationships and adult romantic relationships function. Cross-cultural studies suggest that the secure pattern of book report attachment in infancy is case universally considered the most desirable pattern by mothers (see van IJzendoorn Sagi, 1999). Biology And Answers? For obvious reasons there is case studies online no similar study asking infants if they would prefer a security-inducing attachment figure. Adults seeking long-term relationships identify responsive caregiving qualities, such as attentiveness, warmth, and sensitivity, as most attractive in potential dating partners (Zeifman Hazan, 1997). Despite the swindle book report, attractiveness of secure qualities, however, not all adults are paired with secure partners. Some evidence suggests that people end up in relationships with partners who confirm their existing beliefs about psychiatric case, attachment relationships (Frazier et al., 1997).
Secure base and safe haven behavior. In infancy, secure infants tend to be the most well adjusted, in the sense that they are relatively resilient, they get along with their peers, and are well liked. Similar kinds of patterns have emerged in research on adult attachment. Overall, secure adults tend to be more satisfied in their relationships than insecure adults. Resume? Their relationships are characterized by greater longevity, trust, commitment, and interdependence (e.g., Feeney, Noller, Callan, 1994), and they are more likely to use romantic partners as a secure base from which to explore the world (e.g., Fraley Davis, 1997). A large proportion of research on adult attachment has been devoted to uncovering the behavioral and psychological mechanisms that promote security and online, secure base behavior in on god, adults. There have been two major discoveries thus far.
First and in accordance with attachment theory, secure adults are more likely than insecure adults to seek support from psychiatric case studies online their partners when distressed. Furthermore, they are more likely to provide support to their distressed partners (e.g., Simpson et al., 1992). Second, the attributions that insecure individuals make concerning their partner's behavior during and following relational conflicts exacerbate, rather than alleviate, their insecurities (e.g., Simpson et al., 1996). Avoidant Attachment and Defense Mechanisms. Recent research on adult attachment has revealed some interesting complexities concerning the relationships between avoidance and defense. Although some avoidant adults, often called fearfully-avoidant adults, are poorly adjusted despite their defensive nature, others, often called dismissing-avoidant adults, are able to use defensive strategies in an adaptive way. For example, in an experimental task in which adults were instructed to discuss losing their partner, Fraley and Shaver (1997) found that dismissing individuals (i.e., individuals who are high on for qa, the dimension of attachment-related avoidance but low on the dimension of attachment-related anxiety) were just as physiologically distressed (as assessed by skin conductance measures) as other individuals. When instructed to suppress their thoughts and feelings, however, dismissing individuals were able to do so effectively. That is, they could deactivate their physiological arousal to some degree and psychiatric case online, minimize the attention they paid to attachment-related thoughts.
Fearfully-avoidant individuals were not as successful in suppressing their emotions. Are Attachment Patterns Stable from Infancy to Adulthood? Perhaps the most provocative and controversial implication of letter position adult attachment theory is psychiatric case that a person's attachment style as an adult is shaped by his or her interactions with parental attachment figures. Biology Essay And Answers? Although the idea that early attachment experiences might have an influence on attachment style in romantic relationships is relatively uncontroversial, hypotheses about the case online, source and degree of overlap between the two kinds of attachment orientations have been controversial. There are at swindle least two issues involved in considering the question of stability: (a) How much similarity is there between the security people experience with different people in their lives (e.g., mothers, fathers, romantic partners)? and (b) With respect to any one of these relationships, how stable is psychiatric case studies security over time? With respect to this first issue, it appears that there is a modest degree of overlap between how secure people feel with their mothers, for example, and how secure they feel with their romantic partners. Essay? Fraley, for example, collected self-report measures of one's current attachment style with a significant parental figure and a current romantic partner and found correlations ranging between approximately .20 to psychiatric case studies .50 (i.e., small to swindle moderate) between the two kinds of attachment relationships. [Click here to take an on-line quiz designed to assess the similarity between your attachment styles with different people in your life.]
With respect to the second issue, the stability of one's attachment to one's parents appears to be equal to a correlation of about .25 to case .39 (Fraley, 2002). There is resume lead only one longitudinal study of which we are aware that assessed the link between security at case studies age 1 in the strange situation and sky blue essays, security of the psychiatric case, same people 20 years later in their adult romantic relationships. This unpublished study uncovered a correlation of .17 between these two variables (Steele, Waters, Crowell, Treboux, 1998). The association between early attachment experiences and adult attachment styles has also been examined in cover letter for production assistant position, retrospective studies. Hazan and Shaver (1987) found that adults who were secure in their romantic relationships were more likely to recall their childhood relationships with parents as being affectionate, caring, and accepting (see also Feeney Noller, 1990). Based on these kinds of psychiatric case studies, it seems likely that attachment styles in the child-parent domain and attachment styles in sky blue essays, the romantic relationship domain are only psychiatric case, moderately related at best. What are the implications of cover position such findings for adult attachment theory? According to some writers, the most important proposition of the theory is studies that the attachment system, a system originally adapted for the ecology of infancy, continues to an essay job influence behavior, thought, and feeling in psychiatric case studies, adulthood (see Fraley Shaver, 2000). Old Ap Essay? This proposition may hold regardless of whether individual differences in the way the system is organized remain stable over a decade or more, and stable across different kinds of intimate relationships.
Although the social and cognitive mechanisms invoked by attachment theorists imply that stability in attachment style may be the rule rather than the exception, these basic mechanisms can predict either long-run continuity or discontinuity, depending on the precise ways in which they are conceptualized (Fraley, 2002). Psychiatric Case Studies Online? Fraley (2002) discussed two models of continuity derived from einstein essay attachment theory that make different predictions about long-term continuity even though they were derived from the same basic theoretical principles. Each model assumes that individual differences in attachment representations are shaped by variation in psychiatric online, experiences with caregivers in early childhood, and that, in turn, these early representations shape the quality of the einstein essay on god, individual's subsequent attachment experiences. However, one model assumes that existing representations are updated and psychiatric case studies, revised in light of essay new experiences such that older representations are eventually overwritten. Mathematical analyses revealed that this model predicts that the long-term stability of individual differences will approach zero. The second model is similar to the first, but makes the additional assumption that representational models developed in the first year of life are preserved (i.e., they are not overwritten) and continue to influence relational behavior throughout the life course. Analyses of psychiatric case studies this model revealed that long-term stability can approach a non-zero limiting value. The important point here is that the principles of attachment theory can be used to einstein essay on god derive developmental models that make strikingly different predictions about the case studies, long-term stability of individual differences.
In light of this finding, the existence of long-term stability of individual differences should be considered an empirical question rather than an assumption of the theory. Outstanding Questions and Future Directions for sky blue essays, Research on Adult Attachment. There are a number of case online questions that current and resume lead, future research on psychiatric studies online, attachment needs to address. For example, it is probably the biology questions, case that, while some romantic relationships are genuine attachment relationships, others are not. It will be necessary for future researchers to studies find ways to better determine whether a relationship is actually serving attachment-related functions. Second, although it is clear why attachment behavior may serve an important evolutionary function in infancy, it is not clear whether attachment serves an important evolutionary function among adults. Third, we still don't have a strong understanding of the sky blue essays, precise factors that may change a person's attachment style.
In the interest of improving people's lives, it will be necessary to learn more about the factors that promote attachment security and online, relational well-being.
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Friendship in an Age of studies online, Economics. The Stone is a forum for biology questions and answers contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless. When I was 17 years old, I had the psychiatric case studies honor of being the youngest person in the history of New York Hospital to undergo surgery for a herniated disc. This was at a time in which operations like this kept people in the hospital for over a week. The day after my surgery, I awoke to for qa lead find a friend of psychiatric studies online, mine sitting in a chair across from einstein on god my bed. I don’t remember much about his visit. I am sure I was too sedated to psychiatric case studies online say much. But I will not forget that he visited me on that day, and cover for production sat there for I know not how long, while my humanity was in the care of a morphine drip. The official discourses of our relations with one another do not have much to say about the afternoon my friend spent with me. Case Studies! Our age, what we might call the age of economics, is in thrall to two types of essay on god, relationships which reflect the lives we are encouraged to lead.
There are consumer relationships, those that we participate in for the pleasure they bring us. Case! And there are entrepreneurial relationships, those that we invest in hoping they will bring us some return. In a time in which the discourse of economics seeks to hold us in on god, its grip, this should come as no surprise. The encouragement toward relationships of psychiatric studies, consumption is nowhere more prominently on display than in reality television. Jon and and answers Kate, the cast of “Real World,” the case studies Kardashians, and their kin across the spectrum conduct their lives for our entertainment.
It is available to us in turn to respond in a minor key by displaying our own relationships on YouTube. Or, barring that, we can collect friends like shoes or baseball cards on essay questions Facebook. Entrepreneurial relationships have, in some sense, always been with us. Using people for one’s ends is not a novel practice. Online! It has gained momentum, however, as the about my dream reduction of governmental support has diminished social solidarity and case studies the rise of finance capitalism has stressed investment over production. The economic fruits of the latter have lately been with us, but the interpersonal ones, while more persistent, remain veiled. Where nothing is produced except personal gain, relationships come loose from their social moorings. Aristotle thought that there were three types of friendship: those of pleasure, those of lead, usefulness, and true friendship. Case! In friendships of pleasure, “it is einstein essay, not for their character that men love ready-witted people, but because they find them pleasant.” In the latter, “those who love each other for their utility do not love each other for themselves but in virtue of some good which they get from each other.” For him, the studies first is characteristic of the young, who are focused on momentary enjoyment, while the second is an essay, often the psychiatric studies province of the old, who need assistance to cope with their frailty. What the rise of recent public rhetoric and assistant position practice has accomplished is to cast the first two in economic terms while forgetting about the studies third. In our lives, however, few of us have entirely forgotten about the third — true friendship.
We may not define it as Aristotle did — friendship among the already virtuous — but we live it in our own way nonetheless. Cover Letter For Production Assistant Position! Our close friendships stand as a challenge to psychiatric the tenor of our times. Conversely, our times challenge those friendships. An Essay About My Dream Job! This is why we must reflect on friendship; so that it doesn’t slip away from us under the pressure of a dominant economic discourse. We are all, and always, creatures of our time. In the case of friendship, we must push back against that time if we are to sustain what, for many of us, are among the psychiatric studies online most important elements of sky blue essays, our lives.
It is those elements that allow us to sit by the bedside of a friend: not because we know it is worth it, but because the question of worth does not even arise. There is much that might be said about friendships. They allow us to see ourselves from the perspective of another. They open up new interests or deepen current ones. They offer us support during difficult periods in our lives.
The aspect of friendship that I would like to case studies focus on an essay about my dream is its non-economic character. Although we benefit from our close friendships, these friendships are not a matter of calculable gain and loss. While we draw pleasure from psychiatric them, they are not a matter solely of for qa, consuming pleasure. And while the time we spend with our friends and the favors we do for them are often reciprocated in an informal way, we do not spend that time or offer those favors in view of the psychiatric case studies online reciprocation that might ensue. Friendships follow a rhythm that is distinct from that of either consumer or entrepreneurial relationships. This is at once their deepest and most fragile characteristic. Consumer pleasures are transient. They engulf us for a short period and then they fade, like a drug. An Essay My Dream! That is why they often need to be renewed periodically.
Entrepreneurship, when successful, leads to the victory of personal gain. We cultivate a colleague in the field or a contact outside of it in the hope that it will advance our career or enhance our status. When it does, we feel a sense of personal success. In both cases, there is the enjoyment of what comes to us through the medium of other human beings. Friendships worthy of the name are different. Their rhythm lies not in what they bring to psychiatric case studies online us, but rather in what we immerse ourselves in. To be a friend is to step into the stream of another’s life. It is, while not neglecting my own life, to take pleasure in another’s pleasure, and to share their pain as partly my own. The borders of sky blue essays, my life, while not entirely erased, become less clear than they might be. Psychiatric! Rather than the rhythm of pleasure followed by emptiness, or that of investment and then profit, friendships follow a rhythm that is at once subtler and more persistent.
This rhythm is subtler because it often (although not always) lacks the mark of a consumed pleasure or a successful investment. But even so, it remains there, part of the ground of our lives that lies both within us and without. To be this ground, friendships have a relation to time that is foreign to an economic orientation. Consumer relationships are focused on the momentary present. It is what brings immediate pleasure that matters.
Entrepreneurial relationships have more to sky blue essays do with the future. How I act toward others is determined by what they might do for me down the road. Friendships, although lived in psychiatric case studies online, the present and assumed to continue into the future, also have a deeper tie to sky blue essays the past than either of these. Psychiatric Studies Online! Past time is sedimented in a friendship. It accretes over the hours and days friends spend together, forming the foundation upon book report which the character of studies online, a relationship is einstein essay, built. This sedimentation need not be a happy one. Shared experience, not just common amusement or advancement, is the ground of friendship. Of course, to have friendships like this, one must be prepared to take up the past as a ground for friendship.
This ground does not come to us, ready-made. Studies! We must make it our own. And this, perhaps, is the contemporary lesson we can draw from Aristotle’s view that true friendship requires virtuous partners, that “perfect friendship is the friendship of men who are good.” If we are to have friends, then we must be willing to approach some among our relationships as offering an invitation to an essay my dream build something outside the scope of our own desires. We must be willing to forgo pleasure or usefulness for something that emerges not within but between one of us and another. Read previous contributions to this series. We might say of friendships that they are a matter not of studies, diversion or of return but of meaning. They render us vulnerable, and in doing so they add dimensions of an essay job, significance to our lives that can only arise from being, in each case, friends with this or that particular individual, a party to this or that particular life.
It is precisely this non-economic character that is threatened in a society in which each of case online, us is thrown upon his or her resources and offered only the bywords of on god, ownership, shopping, competition, and growth. It is threatened when we are encouraged to look upon those around us as the stuff of our current enjoyment or our future advantage. It is threatened when we are led to believe that friendships without a recognizable gain are, in the economic sense, irrational. Psychiatric Case Online! Friendships are not without why, perhaps, but they are certainly without that particular why. In turn, however, it is friendship that allows us to see that there is more than what the prevalent neoliberal discourse places before us as our possibilities. In a world often ruled by the dollar and what it can buy, friendship, like love, opens other vistas. The critic John Berger once said of one of his friendships, “We were not somewhere between success and failure; we were elsewhere.” To be able to sit by the bed of another, watching him sleep, waiting for lead nothing else, is to understand where else we might be. Todd May is a professor of philosophy at Clemson University. He is the author 10 books, including “The Philosophy of Foucault” and “Death,” and psychiatric online is at work on sky blue essays a book about friendship in the contemporary period. The Stone features the writing of psychiatric online, contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless.
The series moderator is Simon Critchley. Old Ap Biology Questions! He teaches philosophy at The New School for Social Research in psychiatric, New York. To contact the editors of The Stone, send an e-mail to [email protected] An Essay About My Dream Job! Please include “The Stone” in the subject field. The Stone RSS. Guiding a First Generation to College. Students who are new to America or lack college-educated parents often don’t know their options.
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