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Biological Perspective Essays and Research Papers. Writing Process? ‘The diversity of perspectives in psychology is an Obstacle to understanding’ In psychology there are many different and apposing . For Journalism Internship? perspectives such as biological , evolutionary, socio-cultural and social constructionist, to name a few. This essay will examine these different views and approaches in psychology in writing process relation to sex and gender as well as development. It will look at the advantages and the disadvantages of having many perspectives to draw on when looking at these two diverse areas. Carleton Master Thesis? Developmental psychology , Evolutionary psychology , Gender 1568 Words | 4 Pages. Writing? Thesaurus definitions for: * Conflict * Perspective * Formed/shaped * outcome HATSUE AND ISHMAEL’S PERSPECTIVES . And Professional Goals? ON WORLD WAR 2 Throughout our lives we take on certain views on events, situations and people in our lives. These are formed from the positive or negative outcomes of experiences that we encounter.
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ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE The Ethics Awareness Inventory is recommendation paper assessment of thesis process a person’s ethical perspective . Recommendation For Research? This report is tool that . analyzes the way a person perceives what is right from wrong. The report focuses on a person’s judgment and writing, how he or she makes ethical decisions. This report shows how a person handles conflicts ethically. The report can be used to enhance a person’s outlook and approach on ethical issues. I am in agreement with the report because I make my ethical decisions based upon obligations. Electrical Engineering Master Ottawa? Business ethics , Ethics , Morality 718 Words | 3 Pages. Changing Perspective Linda Collazo PSY/220 May 29, 2011 Abigail McNeely Changing Perspective People, . especially diverse people of thesis contemporary times commonly look at other people, situations, or life events with different perspectives . Sometimes looking at other people, situations, and life events with different perspectives cause people to make snap judgments without factual knowledge. Contributors such as personal beliefs, religion, culture, mood, personality, and relative. Apartment , Genetics , Multiracial 1094 Words | 4 Pages. ourselves so we are aware of what changes the job resume, world has gone through and what people have faced within the past.
Not only this, but studying history will . hopefully allow us to come closer to why certain events occurred and via the analysis of multiple perspectives we may be able to come to conclusions for why specific decisions were made and writing, possibly theorize what the alternate reality may have been. But why is download this so important for us? Studying history will hopefully allow us to writing, avoid making mistakes we. Fascism , Historian , History 1347 Words | 4 Pages. Illustrations Basic Principles Of Perspective Drawing For The Technical Illustrator By Kevin Hulsey Perspective Basics . A thorough understanding of the principles of 1-Point and 2-Point Perspective is carleton electrical master ottawa essential to creating an accurate, and visually appealing piece of art. A lay-person with no technical understanding of the principles of perspective drawing will nonetheless have an writing process, intuitive negative reaction to a piece of art in letter internship position which something is amiss. Using the thesis writing process, perspective techniques shown in the. Book of Optics , Cartesian coordinate system , Illustration 1162 Words | 5 Pages. INDIVIDUAL ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE In an attempt to obtain a clearer awareness of my own ethical perspectives , I completed the . Ethics Awareness Inventory. This inventory presented me with several questions into what I valued most and least as moral values.
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The Shakespearean tragedy ‘Julius Caesar’ and thesis writing, Rob Sitch’s film ‘The Castle’ are two such pieces of literature that examine a range of conflicting perspectives . Unity English? Humans are innately biased and self-interested, and it is thesis process our inability to separate a situation. Augustus , Cicero , Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Essay? Brunelleschi's Demonstration on the Principle of Perspective. Thesis Writing Process? Brunelleschi made a rediscovery of the concepts and principles of one point linear perspective , which he used intensively and extensively for . the ornamentation of for journalism his architectural ventures. Before Brunelleschi, others had understood the thesis process, importance of perspective , but up until then, no one had succeeded in devising a mathematical formula for carleton electrical master ottawa, one point perspective . His discovery, use, and demonstration of one point linear perspective proved to be a major turning point in Renaissance art and architecture, and. Filippo Brunelleschi , Florence , Florence Cathedral 2172 Words | 6 Pages. Conflicting Perspectives - Snow Falling on Cedars. Intro: When determining ones perspective , you must take into account a person’s cultural, social background as well as their personal . experiences along with many other factors. Although these factors are so important, human nature ultimately dictates that bias and process, self-interest contribute to these perspectives eventuating in download conflict with another.
These ideals are represented through the character construction and narrative style displayed in David Gutterson’s “Snow Falling On Cedars” and the. Atticus Finch , Black people , Harper Lee 993 Words | 4 Pages. Thesis Writing Process? conflicting perspectives support this statement? Manipulation is present in any representation, as a result of an authors inherent bias . towards their own perspective . This bias causes an and its types, author to attempt to influence the perspective a reader will take on process, the text, whether this influence is intentional or otherwise. Geoffrey Robertson is one such author, whos collection of job resume essays titled The Justice Game contains a number of techniques in order to sway readers to support his perspective on the legal. Capital punishment , Death row , Geoffrey Robertson 1063 Words | 3 Pages.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective. Andrea Marshall July 21, 2011 Psych 14 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective According to theorist Sigmund Freud, there are . three perspectives a person may have that can shape their behavior; the “Id”, “Ego”, or “Super-Ego”. Each of these personalities can have a drastic affect on a person’s decisions, attitude, and ultimately their relationships with others. Thesis Process? One person can have the majority of their personality based on just one of these factors, or they can have a mixture of. A Great Way to Care , Jacques Lacan , Mother 1215 Words | 3 Pages. First-person Narrative and Individuals Perspective. of changing perspectives in today's world. You are listening to Erin Carrot and joining me in essay english the studio is Karen Finch, a youth worker . from the Campbletown area, who specialises in adolescent psychology. Welcome to the program Karen.
K.F. Thank you, lovely to be here. Host Also joining us via the telephone is Mr Graeme Anderson, from the writing process, department of immigration, who will be sharing his thoughts on how learning of other's experiences can change an individuals perspective . Welcome to . Change , Colloquialism , Experience 1357 Words | 4 Pages. Perspectives of Horses of the for research, Night by writing process, Margaret Lawrence. of perspectives . The significance of an individual's perspective changes by influences from people around and the change of age. . We would create fantasy worlds in which they live when life does not seem to download job resume, go their way. In order to escape from reality is sometimes necessary as it enables ones creativity to thesis writing, grow and dreams to paper, go on, but when a person escapes too much from reality they may start to lose track of their lives and collapse and break down at the end. From two different perspectives of. Thesis Writing Process? A Good Man Is Hard to Find , English-language films , Meaning of life 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Melina Marchetta Explores the Idea of and professional Changing Perspectives Through Her Characters in 'Looking for Alibrandi'. Process? How Does She Achieve This? Changing perspectives is defined as the change of how an individual sees something or someone.
Melina Marchetta uses changing . perspectives in a variety of master ottawa thesis ways in her novel ‘Looking for Alibrandi’, highlighting that change is a lifelong process because no one is thesis process ever completely mature or knowledgeable, and that it can be unexpected and subtle or gradual and natural. Marchetta demonstrates this concept of change through her characters and certain events, experiences, perspectives and essay, people they associate. Change , Feeling , Fiction 1259 Words | 4 Pages. Thesis Process? thinking is cover internship a lot more than merely following a format for construing a paper, challenging assumptions, and observing different . perspectives , to name a couple of biggies. It is still all a matter of what and how - the writing process, important, elusive dimensions rooted in download job resume values and abilities. You could for instance follow the pattern below and still praise some proto-Nazi perspective . The following six parts may be viewed as a rough outline for a research paper.
They also constitute the thesis process, six dimensions that. Bias , Critical thinking , Logic 688 Words | 3 Pages. Electrical Engineering Master Thesis? English Essay Wilfred Owen, through his poems, shows the harsh reality of human conflict and contrasts the writing process, portrayal of these conflicts with the reality. . Owen purpose is to challenges our thoughts and perspectives on carleton thesis, war to show its true effects and writing process, stop the glorification that it receives in society. This can be seen in his poem Dulce et Decorum Est as he causing us to question whether it really is sweet and decorous to die for ones country by cover letter internship position, showing the reality of war through his personal experiences. Civilian , Dulce et Decorum Est , Grammatical person 836 Words | 3 Pages. Piero Della Francesca and the Use of Geometry in thesis writing His Art. compelling display of how the essay, best painting inevitably requires more than a little mathematics. Piero is noteworthy for thesis, us today because he was keen to job resume, use . perspective painting in his artwork. He offered the world his treatise on perspective painting entitled, De Prospectiva Pingendi (On the perspective for painting). The series of perspective problems posed and writing process, solved builds from the simple to the complex: in Book I, Piero introduces the idea that the apparent size of the essay on personal and professional, object is its angle subtended. Baptism , Euclidean geometry , Flagellation 1401 Words | 4 Pages. ******** Choice 2: The struggle to restore honour and certainty Various text creators explore the ways that individuals are affected by honour and . certainly. In some cases, a specific “outlet” – music, sports, artistic endeavours – can restore perspective , and help people to regain their “balance” of what is and isn’t a priority in their lives.
Others explore how imbalances in honour and certainty may enhance negative feelings, which must be dealt with; perhaps through escape, or confrontation. Choice , Face , Individual 1373 Words | 5 Pages. Writing? Preparing for Teaching and Learning 1.1 Evaluate at least two perspectives on your own role and responsibilities. Pollution And Its Essay? To define my role and process, . perspectives of my roles as a tutor I need to carleton electrical master ottawa, consider several factors, in what context has the question been asked, to whom is the respond directed and deciding what aspects of my role relevant within my answer They might just as well have asked, What is your own bias on thesis writing process, this?, for each perspective is really a particular bias, based on how you ‘see’ the issue. Consciousness , Education , History of education 913 Words | 3 Pages. to record employees start and end time for essay, each work day. This was a unilateral decision by BA to introduce the swipe card because the staff was not . adequately consulted. (Palmer, Dunford, amp; Akin, Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach, 2008) As a result of the unilateral decision, BA’s employees went on a 24-hour strike which caused major problems for thesis writing, BA. BA had to cancel its services, which left 10,000 passengers stranded. Download? It was apparent that there was a lack. Change management , Introduction , Management 926 Words | 3 Pages. is conflicting perspectives in the text?
Throughout the entire film we see the different perspectives that each character has . and how their lifestyles have ultimately shaped this. Each character shares their own point of view of writing life and around the muslim unity, meaning of the truth. This tends to cause some conflicting actions toward one another. Martin is a blind man who has viewed the thesis process, world through sound and descriptions of the events occurring all around him his entire life. His perspective of the outside.
Belief , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Download Job Resume? Francisco Goya, The Third of May: Visual Elements. distance between them. Perspective - I see linear perspective with the thesis, vanishing point in the background where the land and . the sky meet. I also see a vanishing point where the hill meets the men that are witnessing the execution. There is and professional one more vanishing point where the sand meets the thesis, hill. Goya does a good job in carleton electrical engineering master thesis this painting of creating a one-point perspective . Everything seems to get smaller as you look up the painting. I see some atmospheric/aerial perspective in this painting in the.
Color , Dead Men of Dunharrow , Emotion 1993 Words | 5 Pages. Question #1: Why do sociologists need different theoretical perspectives to explain marriage and thesis writing process, family behavior? Why isn’t one . perspective sufficient? The reason why one perspective is not sufficient in sociology is because there are all kinds of different perspectives that can explain and describe a certain subject and there are too many different types of opinions, variables, situations, etc. to only have one type of theoretical perspective in sociology. Page 57, Question #2: Virtually every practical. Family , Marriage , Perspective 977 Words | 2 Pages. accounting from different perspectives , discuss some advantages and disadvantages of creative accounting, and explain a real life example of . creative accounting. Electrical Ottawa Thesis? Through these paragraphs I hope to also touch upon some of the ethical issues involved in engaging in creative accounting practices. Definitions of Creative Accounting From Different Perspectives Blake (1998) provides four definitions of thesis writing creative accounting provided from different perspectives . The first perspective was written by a business. Goals? Accountancy , Accountant , Asset 1007 Words | 3 Pages. Philippines.
But I was wrong. The article dealt more about how wrong the Filipinos over-glorified Rizal and how the construction of Rizal as a National Hero . is poorly constructed. So, the ultimate question then is this: Did Constantino shift my perspective about Rizal? I feel that the information that I got from the thesis, article are additional information about Rizal and how should we treat him. I did not feel that this is an effort to overthrow Rizal because if we think about pollution and its types it, Constantino saved Rizal. Anticipatory repudiation , Breach of contract , Hero 953 Words | 3 Pages.
Green Mountain Resort Dissolves the Turnover Problem. away from thinking about what is going on from an alternative perspective ? We can draw several conclusions about the statement if we only writing, . draw upon one particular frame, then this will take us away from thinking about what is going on from an alternative perspective . When a problem is cover letter viewed from different perspectives we get a different view of the problem as well as different suggestions for solving the problem. From the perspective of the consultant, the turnover problem had its advantages. Perspective , Problem of evil 673 Words | 3 Pages. Writing? Principle of Management Course: My Experiences. are three different perspectives that are used to analyze an organization. There are three different perspectives used to . view organizational behavior and processes: Strategic-Design, Political and Cultural.
Initially, I was looking at download the organization and the process of management from the political perspective . This perspective deals with the use of power and influence throughout the writing, organization. However, I also had to learn about the strategic- design perspective , which dealt with the. Paper? Facilitator , Intelligence , Learning 1791 Words | 5 Pages. Writing? How does Wilfred Owen reveal his personal perspective in order to present a view on for research paper, the challenges of life? Throughout his poetry, War Poems . and Others, Wilfred Owen exposes his prominent opinion on the challenges of life and more specifically war. War is a life-changing obstacle for not only countries but also the thesis writing process, men who are forced to on personal, go into writing process war and the innocent men, women and children who are forced to essay, be inextricably involved with the devastating outcomes. Owen reveals this idea of the thesis, challenges. Challenge , Life , New Universe 894 Words | 3 Pages. Muslim Unity Essay? biases. Our “intuitive” judgment can betray us.
As with optical illusions, intuitive judg- others may see it more as a major risk to be managed). Thesis Writing Process? . Considering the cover for journalism internship position, issue through multiple frames—a “fresh lens”—can help provide important alternative perspectives . Thesis Writing? Beware of four common biases that can undermine good judgment (unwittingly): ments—by even the most seasoned professionals—can fall prey to cognitive illusions, undermining good judgment. As discussed in unity essay english the COSO paper, being aware of thesis writing judgment. Audit committee , Board of directors , Committee of goals Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission 753 Words | 3 Pages. use of perspective . The use of lines is evident again when looking at the fine detail in the trees that surround this scene. On, a side note, . the thesis writing, tree that the old man is unity english holding on to appears to be minerature in size, as if her is this evil giant. Perhaps this is meant to symbolize their dominance and her vulnerability. Massys placed the buildings in the background so they are proportional to the balanced figures in the foreground.
Also, it looks as if there is use on linear perspective , especially. Book of writing Optics , Composition , LOOK 1126 Words | 3 Pages. Unity Essay? objects Value: the use of lights and darks Linear Perspective One-Point Perspective : all parallel lines in writing process an architectural . space recede to cover for journalism internship, a single vanishing point “facing a flat surface” Two-Point Perspective : “facing a corner or edge” Perspective Foreshortening: Diminishing in size of forms in space as they move away from the thesis writing process, viewer to accurately depict spatial proportion **book wrong on Foreshortening** Atmospheric/Aerial Perspective non-linear means for giving illusion of depth – usually. Color , Composition , Drawing 683 Words | 3 Pages. subordinates. We find it challenging to overcome the weaknesses because we don't want to dilute the associated strengths in the process of pollution and its types essay addressing the . weaknesses. Yet, we can develop perspectives and work on writing, them over a period of time to for research paper, address their negative fallout. Writing Process? Go ahead and share a weakness using this perspective . It won't ever harm you.
FAILURES Don't use a phony failure experience. Weakness, Setback and recommendation paper, Failure Achievements are easy to write. Setbacks, failures and weaknesses. Failure , Failure rate , Management 667 Words | 3 Pages. the power of empathetic feelings. When we feel empathy we feel other peoples emotional distresses. Writing? We try to feel sympathetic towards the situation or the . person. When empathy comes into play we try to download, solve the problem and take the other persons perspective on writing, the problem.
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Experiences have a strong ability to influence and effect an individual’s perception of reality very quickly. Writing? This can be due to many things it can be seen in the book in the passage where Scout rolls in on personal a tire when she stops she is right in front of the Radley steps and she has a perspective that only she gets. By the Way , Change , Harper Lee 986 Words | 3 Pages. i know why the thesis process, caged bird sings character analysis. 9 83 Reading Skill: Analyze Perspectives Though autobiographies are written in first-person point of goals view, they often reflect two . different perspectives . • the perspective of the writer at the time he or she experienced the events • the perspective of the writer looking back on writing, the events years later. Directions: you read the selection, use the chart to record Angelou’s observations about Mrs. Flowers from both her childhood and adult perspectives . An example has been done for you. . Autobiography , Human , People 510 Words | 2 Pages. Twelve Angry Men highlights the importance of seeing things from more than one perspective . Discuss. Reginald Rose’s play Twelve Angry Men . emphasises the importance of seeing things from more than one perspective . Set in engineering master thesis a New York jury room in 1957, Rose highlights how important it is that the jury discuss all of the evidence from the case in detail and from multiple angles. Representative of this notion is the 8th Juror who is willing to acknowledge alternative views or interpretations. From. Circumstantial evidence , Court , Evidence 974 Words | 3 Pages.
Interrelating the Ps The relationships between the above definitions can be more involved than that. Some consider perspective to be a . plan (Lapierre), others describe it as giving rise to writing process, plans. Hedberg and Jonsson claim that strategies, by muslim unity essay, which they mean more or less well integrated sets of ideas and constructs are the causes the mold streams of decisions into patterns. It is also described as the framework to determine the actions of the organization. Honda’s strategy was not to go.
Competition , Organization , Perspective 609 Words | 3 Pages. conflicting perspectives represented in the texts you have studied? In your answer refer to Snow Falling on Cedars and ONE related text of your . choosing A conflicting perspective is a point of view of thesis writing process either one or more people that is generally subjective which presents a form of opposition in opinion. Essay? The novel, ‘Snow falling On Cedars’ composed by David Guterson in 1995 and the film ‘Crash’ composed by thesis, Paul Haggis in 2005 represents the concept of conflicting perspectives in different. Academy Award for Best Picture , Cedar , Conflict 1694 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment 2.1 Profitel Inc. Which perspective of leadership best explains the problems experienced in this case? Chapter 12, Leadership . In Organizational Settings, discussed five perspectives of download job resume leadership – (1) competency, (2) behavioral, (3) contingency, (4) transformation, and (5) implicit. The competency perspective of process leadership best explains the problems experienced by Profitel. Profitel had many years of extreme profitability and minimal competition.
As competitors entered into the. Fiedler contingency model , Intelligence , Leadership 638 Words | 3 Pages. influenced my reading. This gives different perspectives and gives different biases throughout each perspective . Both heart of . darkness and things fall apart tell stories of and critique the nature of European colonization in Africa in the 1800s. Story tellers of each are significantly different although having some similarities between each story. As both story tellers are created differently, a different narrative view also can be seen and thus a separate perspective of European colonization is presented. Types Essay? Africa , Chinua Achebe , Colonialism 477 Words | 2 Pages. | | |*The writer’s perspective is well-developed and clearly stated. | . | | |*The topic written about is controversial and thesis, timely. | | | |*All three sources contribute to the essay in a meaningful way, and provide multiple perspectives on | | | . Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages. realised 4. An Emergent Strategy: which is/was not intended but realised The Planning Perspective Here, the assertion is that strategy . must be explicitly formulated before implementation, and ottawa thesis, that only thesis process, planned actions are strategy. Further, the argument is that unintended actions cannot be called strategy but 'muddling through'. Thus the motto for organisations is Think before you act. Muslim Essay? This perspective suggests that implementation requires careful allocation of responsibilities, resources.
Management , Perspective , Planning 518 Words | 3 Pages. ?The ramifications of an individual’s discovery can change their perspective of themselves and the world. The implications of one’s discovery . can, to some extent, transform their views on themselves and thesis writing, the world around them. Perspectives may be shifted by the experiences that one encounters, or be affirmed as a result to cover letter, one’s exposure to the truth. In the prescribed text, Go Back to Where You Came From, a reality TV series directed by Ivan O’Mahoney, this notion is demonstrated through two opposing. Thesis? Boat people , Concept , Daniel Keyes 1170 Words | 3 Pages. the first relates to job resume, perspective and mathematics. The second and third parts describe what a painting should consist of to thesis writing, be made ideal. This . is often referred to as the historia, which means the recipe to a perfect painting.
Alberti’s perception on beauty issues from the mind which gives harmony to art forms, the hand which informs the strength, sensitivity and delicacy of the figure and finally nature which forms the characteristics of the figure. The use of perspective is to compose a picture. Filippo Brunelleschi , Florence , Leon Battista Alberti 2300 Words | 6 Pages. change in his life which results in his perspective and point of view being altered. This metaphor provides the audience with an internship position, understanding . that the boy has gone through a negative transformation to a positive transformation. This relates to the concept of change as the thesis writing process, poet has gone through a sudden shift in his life to better himself for the future. The poem “My father began as a god” by Ian Mudie also shows the concept of change and changing perspectives . In the early stages, the poet idolised. 2001 albums , Change , Linguistics 1144 Words | 3 Pages. Frieda’s Fizz Balanced Scorecard Analysis. intangible measures provide better focus on the organization’s long-term strategies. This paper is an attempt to essay on personal goals, analyze Frieda Fizz decision to utilize a . balanced scorecard as they expand into thesis new geographic areas.
The strengths and weaknesses of each perspective are discussed along with the pros and cons of using such an approach. It is recommended that Frieda Fizz use this tool through its expansion phase, keeping in mind that whether such an for research paper, approach succeeds or not depends on organizational support and. Thesis Process? Balanced scorecard , Better , Business process 1163 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Phrases PHRASES TO SHOW DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES Looking through the cover letter for journalism internship, lens of … Adopting a more macro perspective … . In the larger scheme of things … In the long run/short term … In the political realm… Looking at the (economic) aspect of … PHRASES TO INTRODUCE ALTERNATIVE VIEWS One may argue that … Critics claim that … Naysayers decry… (E.g. Naysayers decry the loss of culture in society) Ultra pragmatists / conservatives / radicals / luddites may assert that … While [Subject/Example]. Argument , Argument map , Critical thinking 524 Words | 3 Pages. flowers in our life that we do not water… 2. Fountain – Art has to be something unusual to stand out, a different interpretation or a different intent by . the thesis writing, artist himself. A good art in my perspective is something that is more than normal, more than the daily life or even something that changes my perspective looking at the world and this surely is creativity. And if anyone could take a urinal and make it a fountain why didn’t they, why only Duchamp?
3. Untitled – A blank piece of canvas may. Aesthetics , Art , Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1104 Words | 3 Pages. the King's daughter. Although Laurent de La Hyre chose a scene from a well known biblical story (which was typical during the Counter Reformation), it was . his portrayal of the scene itself that makes it unique from other artworks. With his use of perspective , captivating colors, and his arrangement of delicately posed figures, the overall composition of The Finding of Moses gave me a sense of confusion and emotionalism that allowed me to connect to it on a very humanistic level. Painted with oil on. Job Resume? 17th century , Color , Emotion 950 Words | 3 Pages. How Is Conflict Shown in thesis writing process the Atonement by Ian Mcewan. Paper? In employing a different ‘’centre of writing consciousness’’ when telling the story from a narrator’s perspective , the thesis, point of view of characters . usually shifts to different opinions. Thesis Writing? Atonement by Ian McEwan, uses this style in his mode of letter for journalism position narration to successfully build the story around the narrator, Briony and then shifts to Cecelia’s perspective allowing the responder to consider the ambiguity and reliability of Briony as a narrator. As a post–modern ‘coming of age’ text, we are never given the satisfaction. Ian McEwan , Maniac , Narrative 1203 Words | 3 Pages. illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface.
In linear perspective , the most common type, all parallel lines or . Thesis Writing Process? surface edges converge on one, two, or three vanishing points located with reference to carleton electrical thesis, the eye level of the viewer (the horizon line of the picture), and writing process, associated objects are rendered smaller the essay and professional, farther from the viewer they are intended to seem. Atmospheric, or aerial, perspective creates the illusion of writing distance by the greater diminution of color intensity. Florence , Fresco , Leon Battista Alberti 947 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis Essay on engineering master thesis, Coronation of the Virgin. blocking the view of anything behind it (overlapping), the blur of detail of the far off mountains (atmospheric perspective ), and the use of . linear perspective . If a line is drawn from the thesis, top and bottoms of the buildings, the resulting lines will converge on a single point in the distance. The lines, called orthogonals, converging on a vanishing point are components of linear perspective . This drastically increases the appearance of depth within an artwork. Muslim English? The Coronation of the Virgin is writing proven. Art , Color , Eye 1023 Words | 3 Pages. professional and client perspectives . And Professional Goals? This definition is the professional perspective from the BACP: ‘Counselling takes place . Writing? when a counsellor sees a client in a private and cover letter for journalism position, confidential setting to explore a difficulty the client is having, distress they may be experiencing or perhaps their dissatisfaction with life, or loss of a sense of direction and purpose.’ (BACP, 2009) It is important professionals understand the meaning of thesis process counselling and types, have a professional perspective so they work in a. Counseling , Definition , Nursing 1174 Words | 4 Pages. COM 537 Week 6 Communication Plan Final Proposal. Write a persuasive proposal submission of no more than 700 words to the CEO of thesis writing process Best Game Productions.
Complete the following in your persuasive proposal . submission: Describe the project in pollution terms the CEO can understand. Consider the CEO’s perspective , needs, and thesis, style of communication. Usepersuasive communication to convince the CEO to take your suggested approach to solve Best Game Productions’ dilemma. The CEO must perceive the project as something the essay, company needs. Considerthe. Audience , Bias , Communication 651 Words | 3 Pages. Detecting Media Bias Leah Reich HUM/114 June 13, 2013 Vincent Vera Detecting Media Bias To detect bias in a news story, people should investigate . Writing? whether the download, story is clear and accurate, has supported facts, has considered alternative perspectives and writing, worldviews, has any hidden questionable assumptions, and whether or not there were any questions ignored while others were emphasized. Essay? Making critical evaluations and distinctions of news stories is important because the author writing the. Process? Bias , Confidence , Critical thinking 693 Words | 3 Pages.
Indians by Jane Tompkins: How Bias Affect Ones Concept of pollution History. History Whenever you are in any educational situation, you are subject to perspectives and bias of the instructors. In an essay . entitled Indians, by process, Jane Tompkins, it discusses how different biases may reflect upon one's concept of history. It is imperative to realize that when learning, which generally involves someone's concept of history, we are consequently subject to for research, that person's perspectives that may be a result of their upbringing. In the essay Tompkins regarding history. Belief , Bias , Debut albums 778 Words | 3 Pages. Writing Process? composition presents them focally alone, without any other people, and centered with the horizon.
They gaze towards the viewer and dominate the picture . spatially, by being on what seems to be a separate plane from the background which has a linear perspective . Much of the characteristics of the girl's facial features remind me of Leondardo DiCaprio's drawings because she has similar eyebrows, and has very perfectual body features like that of the High Renaissance. On a side note, the clothing worn by.
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3/19/13 Narrative Descriptive- Essay #2 This is a story about the most important decision that I have . ever taken in my entire life . I received Jesus in and its, my heart as my Lord and Savior. He is my Redeemer. I did not have a very fortunate upbringing even though my mother had some money to provide for my needs. Process! There was food on the table, but she could not handle the stress of life very well. Therefore, she was very strict and paper, harsh with rules and punishments. Family , Father , God 1404 Words | 3 Pages. Economics in My Life When I was first given this assignment I was extremely perplexed at how I would even begin to finish it.
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What is Autocratic Leadership? How Procedures Can Improve Efficiency. Autocratic leadership is vital in many workplace environments. This style is necessary within organizations and companies that demand error-free outcomes. While autocratic leadership is one of the writing process least popular management styles, it’s also among the download most common. The autocratic leadership process generally entails one person making all strategic decisions for subordinates.
Although it has fallen out of writing process favor in recent decades, the autocratic leadership style is still prevalent. The reason is simple: It works. Read on to learn more: The short answer: “My way or the highway.” There are many contemporary examples of leaders who prefer the “my way or the highway” technique. The autocratic style was made famous by certain military and political leaders, sports coaches and Industrial Age icons. These autocratic, or authoritarian, leaders come to mind: U.S. Gen. Recommendation Paper? George C. Patton Green Bay Packers coach Vince Lombardi Standard Oil founder John D. Rockefeller U.S. President Richard M. Nixon.
In the 1970s, the thesis writing process autocratic style became less popular compared to other contemporary leadership theories. This was partly due to The New York Times’ publishing of the Pentagon Papers and The Washington Post’s Watergate expose, which led to Nixon’s resignation. Autocratic leadership has received a ton of criticism due to numerous factors. Here are three: Historically, autocratic leadership has been associated with tyrants and dictators who used authoritarian means to cajole and threaten underlings into performing tasks. Autocratic leadership has become the fallback position for managers of people who lack skills, training and engineering ottawa experience. Motivational leadership styles are more suitable for environments with experienced staff. Thesis? Some people are uncomfortable working for autocratic leaders because they feel it epitomizes authoritarianism, even if it’s the most suitable management style for training inexperienced staff or implementing consistent quality control processes.
Autocratic derives from the words auto (Greek for self ) and cratic , which implies rule . Autocratic leaders often view themselves like automobile engines that drive people under their tutelage or command, whether it’s a mayor of a large city, a company CEO or an agency director. It may seem incongruous to think of download autocratic leaders as self-driven. Thesis Writing Process? But if their role in muslim unity essay business, government or other organizations is to drive others to perform at their best and accomplish tasks without making mistakes, then the description is thesis process appropriate. Why are autocratic leaders considered authoritarian? The term authoritarian, often used in conjunction with autocratic, seems more appropriate to describe leaders who make decisions with little or no input from others. But if you compare autocratic leaders to democratic and laissez-faire leaders, the download job resume definition makes sense. Autocratic leaders don’t often illicit opinions or expertise from the people who report to them, as do democratic and process laissez-faire leaders.
Instead, autocratic leadership implies one person makes all the download job resume decisions for a group, team or assembly. In this context, autocratic leaders have ominous responsibilities. Not only thesis writing are they expected to make all the decisions, they’re expected to make all the right decisions. History paints a colorful picture of autocratic leaders. Although some — like Attila the Hun, Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin — were maniacal tyrants, many autocratic leaders were innovators who revolutionized industries and advanced societies.
The combination of english progressive ideas, self-determination and autocratic leadership led to writing some of history’s most significant events. These include: The rise of the Roman Empire under Julius Caesar The settling of the U.S. Colonies thanks to John Smith The popularity of the automobile due to Henry Ford. Ford, who helped perfect assembly-line manufacturing and economies of for research paper scale, is one of the clearest examples of an thesis autocratic leader who changed society. Download Job Resume? Although Ford remains a controversial figure as an authoritarian industrial magnet, he created hundreds of thousands of jobs and raised wages for assembly-line workers. At the opposite extreme, Huey Long and Richard Daley — political bosses of Louisiana and Chicago, respectively — gained immense popularity in their states even as they violated all kinds of laws, including, reportedly, murder. President Abraham Lincoln is writing sometimes categorized as an autocratic leader because of the recommendation for research paper many autonomous decisions he made throughout the Civil War.
Although Lincoln did not exhibit many of the authoritarian characteristics of autocratic leaders, American history demanded a bold president who was willing to make difficult and unpopular decisions from 1861 to 1865. Lincoln rose to the occasion and became the autocratic leader the United States needed at the time. Other historic examples of autocratic leaders: Genghis Khan King Henry VIII Queen Elizabeth I Napoleon Bonaparte Father Junipero Serra Queen Isabella I. Examples of autocratic leadership.
Discipline, preparation and victory are three pillars of autocratic leadership. Thesis Writing Process? These objectives are present on essay all successful football teams — from the Alabama Crimson Tide to the New England Patriots. Outstanding gridiron coaches such as Bill Belichick, Bear Bryant, Bill Parcells and thesis Woody Hayes belong on the list of autocratic leaders. None of these coaching legends managed their football programs with democracy in mind, yet all succeeded fabulously in their careers. In addition to sports, autocratic leadership works well in essay environments that require near-perfect accuracy, such as manufacturing. The autocratic, or authoritarian style, is necessary with staff that need training quickly and efficiently.
Fast-food enterprises frequently fall under this category. Autocratic leadership is writing also common in professions where life-and-death decisions occur. Think ambulatory care and hospitals, police, military personnel and unity english fire departments. Autocratic leadership in the music industry. The music business is often overlooked when it comes to thesis autocratic leaders.
Whether it’s the job resume maestro of the Boston Pops orchestra or the lead guitarist for a chart-topping band, every successful music ensemble requires a leader to thesis writing maintain consistency and longevity. Two unlikely contemporary examples of popular bands with autocratic leaders are Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers and the Eagles. Petty, a Florida native and the leader of his self-titled band, is an infamous perfectionist. As a leader, he is job resume autocratic and demanding. Petty is writing credited with single-handedly leveraging record labels to share a larger take of the profits, from which today’s music artists still benefit. Petty is also unabashed about his decision to dismiss the founding drummer from his band for what amounted to essay and professional goals a perceived lack of commitment. Glenn Frey, a Michigan native turned permanent Arizona resident, co-founded the Eagles.
Frey has a reputation as an autocratic leader who espoused the “my way or the highway” style throughout the Eagles’ successful, if rocky, road to stardom. Process? Frey makes no apologies for his belief that he and co-founder Don Henley were the engines that drove the Eagles to fame and fortune. Examples of autocratic leadership in business. Contrary to popular opinion, most enterprises are well-suited for download the autocratic leadership style at thesis, some level. Although start-ups are often best launched under a transformative, democratic or laissez-faire style of leadership, most businesses later benefit from autocratic leadership. This doesn’t mean mature businesses must switch to pollution and its types essay a top-down autocratic leadership style. Process? It means that autocratic leaders are often recruited to improve efficiencies within specific departments. The founders of many of today’s successful companies learned from industry innovators — including Wal-Mart’s Sam Walton, McDonald’s Ray Kroc, and Oracle’s Larry Ellison — that autocratic leadership is muslim unity english necessary to writing streamline processes, grow their customer base, and pave the way for long-term survival.
Other industries well-suited for for research paper autocratic leadership: Restaurants: People go to thesis writing restaurants with big expectations. Whether it’s a fast-food chain or an upscale establishment, customers expect consistent service, well-mannered hosts and efficient servers. Whether they order the combo burger and fries or a seven-course gourmet meal, customers expect their food to be good. Dining establishments need an autocratic leadership style to meet these expectations. Even the most cheerful and lively restaurant runs on recommendation paper slim margins that can tolerate minimal mistakes.
Manufacturing: The LCD TV business took decades to perfect through a combination of trial-and-error RD and autocratic leadership. To meet consumer demand for affordable thin-screen TVs, LCD manufacturers endured significant rejection rates of liquid crystal display panels. Thanks to the implementation of tight quality control tolerances, achieved through autocratic leadership, today’s consumers can buy large-screen TVs for $499 that cost upwards of $5,000 in the 1990s. Aerospace: Autocratic leadership that emphasizes error-free processes leads to safety and affordability in aerospace manufacturing. Considering the millions of commercial, cargo and thesis process NASA flights that launch and land safely every year, the aerospace industry deserves credit for consistent passenger safety. Their successes would not be possible without autocratic leaders and innovators. Most successful business and pollution types essay political icons exhibit a variety of leadership styles. This makes it difficult to label them as strictly democratic, laissez-faire, transformative or even autocratic leaders. Nevertheless, plenty of process leaders stand out as having autocratic leadership characteristics. These executives, publishers, producers, directors and coaches display authoritarian traits that contribute to their success: Lorne Michaels: One of the 20th century’s most influential figures, Michaels changed television comedy and altered American culture in subtle and extraordinary ways.
As creative producer of NBC’s “Saturday Night Live,” Michaels launched hundreds of and its essay comedians’ careers, from writing Dan Aykroyd and letter for journalism internship position Gilda Radner to thesis writing Eddie Murphy and cover letter for journalism internship position Will Ferrell. Michaels’ instinct for tapping into America’s pulse and his ability to thesis writing process get the most out of talent are unrivaled on TV. He is known as a demanding producer, but he exemplifies the best traits of an autocratic leader. Roger Ailes: The president of the Fox News Channel has a reputation as an autocratic leader dating to the late 1960s, when he worked as an muslim essay english advisor to writing process President Nixon. Download Job Resume? Ailes began his career in television broadcasting before migrating to political consulting. Ailes joined media mogul Rupert Murdoch’s launch of the Fox Entertainment Group in thesis writing process the late 1980s. Although controversial and authoritarian, Ailes is an accomplished executive who redefined news broadcasting for the 21st century through his autocratic leadership style. Helen Gurley Brown: The former editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan magazine is notable for muslim essay many things, not least of which was her ability to consistently turn a profit in publishing for more than three decades. Thesis Writing? Brown moved to New York City early in her career and on personal blended in process immediately. Carleton Electrical Master Thesis? She assumed the helm of thesis process Cosmopolitan and revolutionized the women’s fashion market, leveraging her position to reflect and influence American culture.
Brown was known as a task master in a business that thrives on recommendation getting things done with minimal corrections. John Chambers: The chairman of Cisco Systems, Chambers assumed the CEO position of a relatively unknown Silicon Valley company that made telephone switches. After 25 years, Cisco evolved into an estimated $47 billion company that dominates the networking industry. Today, Cisco stock is one of a handful of bellwether holdings used to thesis measure the U.S. economy. Cover Letter Internship Position? This was accomplished under Chambers’ autocratic leadership in thesis writing which no detail was purportedly too small for his attention. Ridley Scott: In an industry where box-office receipts measure success, Scott remains one of the few Hollywood directors whose films are profitable and critically acclaimed. A short list of his films includes “Blade Runner,” “Alien,” “Thelma Louise,” “White Squall,” “Gladiator,” “American Gangster,” “Prometheus” and his recent “Exodus: Gods and for research paper Kings.” Scott, who began his career as a graphic designer, has a reputation as a perfectionist. Actors are expected to know their lines, positions and cues before the camera starts rolling. Tony La Russa: The retired manager of the Oakland Athletics, St. Louis Cardinals and Chicago White Sox, La Russa is one of Major League Baseball’s winningest coaches.
La Russa, who earned a law degree and thesis writing process was admitted to cover for journalism internship the Florida state bar, is thesis writing process ranked third in engineering master thesis MLB coaching history with 2,728 victories. La Russa won three world championships, six league championships and 12 division titles during his 33 seasons coaching baseball. On the field, La Russa came across as laid-back, but he was constantly strategizing and studying players. Quotes about autocratic leadership. These leaders have reputations as being hands-on perfectionists.
Here are some quotations that reflect their autocratic leadership styles: Vince Lombardi : “Leaders aren’t born, they are made. And they are made just like anything else, through hard work.” Henry Ford : “Quality means doing it right when no one is looking.” Tony La Russa : “There are always distractions, if you allow them.” Napoleon Bonaparte : “Men are moved by two levers only: fear and self-interest.” Ridley Scott : “I think, at the end of the process day, filmmaking is a team. But eventually there’s got to recommendation for research be a captain.” Michael Bloomberg : “Nobody is going to delegate a lot of power to a secretary that they can’t control.” Ray Kroc : “You’re only as good as the people you hire.” Alfred Hitchcock : “If an actor comes to me and wants to discuss his character, I say, ‘It’s in the script.’ If he says, ‘But what’s my motivation?’ I say, ‘Your salary.’” Roger Ailes : “Audiences are shifting. Platforms are shifting. Ages are shifting. Thesis Writing Process? It’s better to for research be in writing process charge than to have to react to change.” Gordon Ramsey : “Kitchens are hard environments and they form incredibly strong characters.” Lorne Michaels : “To me there’s no creativity without boundaries. If you’re gonna write a sonnet, it’s 14 lines, so it’s solving the problem within the cover letter for journalism container.” John D. Rockefeller : “I do not think that there is any quality so essential to success of any kind as the quality of perseverance.” Autocratic leadership case study: Blue Cross of California.
Leonard D. Schaeffer considered himself an autocratic leader when he became CEO of process Blue Cross of California in paper 1986. At the process time, the company was a fiscal disaster, the lowest performing of all the Blue Cross plans around the muslim United States. His job was to turn it around. Thesis Writing? Schaeffer described his experience in an article in Harvard Business Review: “The Leadership Journey.” Here’s an excerpt: “When a business needs to change relatively quickly, it’s much more important to just make a decision and get people moving than it is to take the time to conduct a thorough analysis and muslim unity essay english attempt to influence others to thesis come around to download your way of thinking. Therefore, I would define the autocratic leader not as someone who bullies others needlessly but as the managerial equivalent of an emergency room surgeon, forced to do whatever it takes to save a patient’s life.” Schaeffer eventually abandoned the autocratic method even though he had used it effectively earlier in his career. Likewise, students who gravitate toward this style can learn how to adapt and thesis writing process perfect their leadership techniques as times change. Autocratic leadership style requirements. Autocratic leaders typically make all major decisions on their own, with little or no input from job resume others.
Extreme authoritarian leaders often insist on making even minor decisions. Leaders needing to control minute tasks often are derided as micromanagers. Although the military traditionally encourages superiors to make unchallenged decisions, civilian organizations may not respond to this leadership style much longer. The first formal study of leadership, including the thesis writing process autocratic style, is credited to Kurt Lewin and others in an article that appeared in the “American Journal of english Sociology” in writing the 1930s. Lewin and his colleagues found autocratic leaders:
Generally do not solicit or accept input from others for decision-making purposes Make all company or group decisions Mandate all workplace methods, policies and procedures Can exhibit a lack of trust in the advice, suggestions, ideas and decision-making ability of cover internship position others. Autocratic leadership has pluses and writing process minuses. The prevailing view is that the style depends on the ability of one person while disregarding the and its types essay input of thesis writing process other skilled people. Still, many workplaces can benefit from essay autocratic leadership. Who works well under autocratic leaders? Individuals who march to the beat of their own drum generally don’t work well under autocratic leaders. By comparison, people who can successfully lead a couple dozen diverse, figurative drummers to stay in sync and keep rhythm without missing a beat make excellent autocratic leaders. Watch this video of band members who recognize the important role each plays to benefit the thesis writing cohesive whole. For Journalism Internship Position? Then ask yourself if a precision drumming ensemble could be achieved without the benefit of writing process autocratic leadership: How to and professional leverage the writing process autocratic style to manage successfully. After centuries as the standard management style, autocratic leadership can still succeed in download job resume the contemporary arena if leaders keep the following in mind:
Respect subordinates . Thesis Writing Process? Exhibit fairness, objectivity and show respect for co-workers. They will see or feel it. Leaders’ respect for others engenders mutual respect, which helps defuse workplace discord. Muslim Essay English? Communicate and explain . Process? Most employees realize autocratic leaders expect them to obey rules and follow procedures. Communicating details helps staff understand the rules. In turn, they are less likely to rebel and more likely to cooperate. Practice consistency . Employees respect fairness and unbiased treatment. In light of the potential distrust that autocratic leadership may foster, treating all staff consistently generates trust and download job resume earns respect. Allow opinions . Encourage staff to express themselves. Permitting employees to writing offer suggestions is a valuable component of success among autocratic leaders.
Even if ideas aren’t adopted, people appreciate the freedom to share their thoughts. Advantages and disadvantages of autocratic leadership. The autocratic leadership style has many variations. Carleton Electrical Engineering Thesis? It can range from strict authoritarian military leaders, as exemplified by Napoleon and Patton, to thesis modern manufacturing department directors. At its worst, autocratic leadership can be stifling, overbearing and demoralizing. At its best, the autocratic style is liberating for people who work well with clear directives under leaders who understand exactly what people do and why their roles are important. For anyone placed in a position that requires an and its autocratic leadership style, it’s helpful to identify pitfalls that can cause staff to question whether it is the right approach. Here are some advantages and disadvantages to the autocratic leadership style:
Effective when decisions must come quickly, without time to consult others Prevents businesses or projects from becoming stagnant because of writing process poor organization or lack of leadership Keeps individuals, groups or teams from missing important deadlines During stressful periods, autocratic leaders can be more effective, and their teams appreciate their leadership. Invites potential abuse by overly powerful personalities Can stifle staff and discourage team creativity Modern employees may not react well to authoritarian leadership Can discourage open communication between leaders and carleton ottawa subordinates. Benefits of autocratic leadership. Exceptional leaders adopt the style that fits their vision, behavior and personality. The autocratic leadership style still works well in thesis writing some institutions, such as the unity military, manufacturing, restaurants and thesis companies with aggressive sales quotas. The downside of autocratic leadership.
Autocratic leadership isn’t as prevalent as it once was for several reasons. These include: Better-educated workforces and the growth of knowledge-based industries that encourage decision-making at all levels Mentoring as a leadership style, popular among millennials who generally frown on authoritarians Democratic, laissez-faire and transformative leadership styles that incorporate many levels of decision-makers. The upside to autocratic leadership. As we move further into the 21st century, now is unity essay a good time to writing reassess the age-old benefits of letter internship position autocratic leadership. People who dislike this style often point to its demoralizing “my way or the highway” mentality. But we shouldn’t be quick to thesis writing process abandon autocratic leadership when it’s appropriate. Even creative businesses — such as advertising, product design and for journalism position social media firms — reach a point when autocratic leadership is necessary. When a marketing campaign, advertising program or product design moves into the launch phase, for thesis process example, its success or failure hinges on precision timing. That’s where autocratic leadership comes into play.
Whether it’s an athletic shoe company like Nike or a social media powerhouse like Facebook, autocratic leadership is sometimes vital. Autocratic leaders help guarantee deadlines are met by training people properly to assume responsibility for their respective roles and to essay goals reach their goals. At the end of the day, autocratic leadership shares the same objectives as other styles. It’s all about achieving success.
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14 Skills and Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Process! Hansen, Ph.D., and Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on your Resume. Deals with acting in a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and work activities, which is recommendation, seen as a sign of maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. Writing Process! How to describe this skill on your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to download professionalism. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and writing, optimal business relationships.
Deals with openness to new ideas and carleton electrical engineering ottawa, concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to thesis process carrying out multiple tasks or projects. How to pollution and its types essay describe this skill on thesis writing, your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to letter for journalism new ideas. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and process, will keep at it until they solve the problem and get the job done. How to describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks. 5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. Paper! There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and ready to writing process work, and essay goals, who will take responsibility for writing, their actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. How to describe this skill on essay and professional, your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an excellent work record.
7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and process, who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. Letter For Journalism Internship Position! Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in yourself and what you can offer employers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is writing process, always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to work independently, with minimal supervision. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision.
No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. Download Job Resume! Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an openness to thesis writing grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and carleton electrical master thesis, quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is some debate about whether leadership is something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and manage your co-workers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards.
12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and thesis process, organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to work with others in pollution and its types essay, a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. Thesis Writing! How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. And Professional Goals! Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and traits you need to succeed in the workplace? and writing, they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into carleton ottawa, your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for writing, job-search success.
See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to job resume begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from writing, LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer.
Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over pollution essay, 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the thesis process job you want. Dr. Randall S. For Journalism Internship! Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is thesis writing, founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of unity essay, EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com.
He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the thesis writing country. Finally, Dr. Muslim Essay English! Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years.
Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at thesis, [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in english, the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into thesis writing, the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on essay, GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for writing, a long time, but you do not have to job resume go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and thesis writing, Job-Hunting Blog.
Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and carleton electrical engineering ottawa thesis, job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Thesis! Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for types essay, Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the 
Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of process, a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.
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copy pasted essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and writing process His Legacy , edited by C. J. Job Resume. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it.
I don't. He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the writing process, old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. Recommendation For Research Paper. He's worked out a mathematical method for finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'.
W.M. Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and thesis writing process Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the master, Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2)
This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and thesis writing process an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. It is difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to for research the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House. A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the thesis, fire, such as the famous story of carleton engineering master thesis Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in writing, nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the job resume, most detailed source of thesis process information about the fire and the damage inflicted by it is cover letter position, a report by a parliamentary committee established to investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. Writing Process. The first was 'A Narrative of the pollution, Fire. and of the Methods used for thesis process preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of recommendation for research Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in writing, summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. And Its. In one sense, they overstate the amount of damage. Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for consultation today.
In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. Writing. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss. This manuscript is not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in muslim english, the fire. Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of thesis St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and the water used to put out the fire caused staining. Unity Essay. The drawing of writing process King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the pollution and its types, catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by thesis writing process, a random roll call of some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to recommendation for research a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta.
One of writing process these, now Cotton Charter XIII. 31a, was the only one with the unity english, Great Seal still attached. In the heat, not only was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for thesis writing the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of pollution essay Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. Process. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of cover for journalism internship Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented.
It is a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an process, incomparable source for the history, literature and for research art of medieval and thesis writing process Tudor England. On the morning after the fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House.
Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the position, fire had rushed from his house nearby to help save the manuscripts. Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in thesis writing, descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and the collation of muslim some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of thesis process many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. Download Job Resume. It is thesis writing, therefore worth describing in some detail the procedures adopted by Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts.
The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in download job resume, the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Thesis Writing. Animal fat had been drawn out from the master thesis, vellum by process, the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle. One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an and its types essay, irradiated armadillo. Writing Process. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the water used to extinguish the recommendation for research paper, blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over process a week after the fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to clean the goals, leaves and wash them in an alum solution. Writing. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the formation of mould.
The leaves were hung on lines to types essay dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the thesis writing process, leaves. The worst affected were dried in front of a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on carleton electrical engineering master ottawa lines in groups of thesis writing two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Pollution And Its Essay. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and Parchment by the Heat of the writing, Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for download a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made. Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. Thesis Writing. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry.
Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of unity essay Books, and writing process some entire Books have been made up out of and professional them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of thesis writing process Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in download job resume, the same Order, that they were in before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed.
It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire. Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and thesis without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carleton master thesis, carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about process a third of the volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the electrical engineering master ottawa thesis, collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on washing lines by an illiterate artisan. Thesis Writing Process. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of a series of carleton electrical engineering ottawa intermediaries between the modern scholar and process the original Cotton library. Job Resume. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on writing process the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Job Resume. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to thesis 1731 was one of pollution types growth and development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the collection to its pre-fire state. Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate.
In the writing, case of the essay, Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and change as successive curators have sought to process restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is carleton electrical engineering thesis, little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the writing process, Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the job resume, Cottonian Manuscripts at thesis writing, Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of essay on personal twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. Thesis Writing Process. In the on personal and professional, climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for writing process each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in job resume, Westminster School for another twenty years. During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of process Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of essay antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and historian of the thesis, Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49)
The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the electrical engineering master thesis, new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to thesis writing process examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by age and infirmity from executing the duty of his post in his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to visitors. It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the most confused part of the muslim essay, collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the thesis writing process, committee seemed satisfied with what it found.
They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for essay on personal a library. is dry and writing secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the recommendation for research, depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the writing, Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to pollution and its types essay accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and thesis process it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to for research Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library.
In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of thesis Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in unity, the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries. They declared that the manuscripts in thesis writing, ten of the job resume, presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Writing. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and muslim will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and writing Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact.
This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the download job resume, other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to thesis trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'. These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by essay on personal and professional, the fire to thesis the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the and its, extension of that hue, which the writing process, fire extracted from the volumes wrote on unity essay english vellum, having rolled the edges of thesis writing process most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to carleton electrical master ottawa numberless shoals of worms and thesis writing other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and thesis Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in writing, the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and unity essay english sufficiently described'.
This necessitated an examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and writing parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. Types. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta. This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the writing process, damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. Download. no. Thesis. 16 at the bottom'. For Journalism Internship. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for thesis writing their rareness or workmanship'.
The most interesting part of pollution essay this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'. These were the thesis, fragments which Whiston and essay his colleagues had been unable to thesis process place in 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is carleton master thesis, not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to thesis the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in letter for journalism internship, the same order in which the thesis writing, manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'.
It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'. The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the internship position, manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for thesis the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to recommendation paper the Museum. Thesis Writing Process. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to recommendation paper remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in thesis writing, the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. Goals. 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62)
In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of writing restoring the leaves of carleton electrical engineering ottawa vellum books damaged by fire. Mores was authorized to examine the writing, damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by electrical, Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. Thesis Process. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and job resume the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.
It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the thesis, Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to recommendation for research paper make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in process, Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. Muslim Essay English. These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the thesis writing process, fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by Vertue. In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to recommendation a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of thesis writing Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol.
There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the download job resume, Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the Septuagint said to thesis process have been found in the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. They were only master thesis finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of thesis writing process his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there. More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. Job Resume. In 1928, the thesis writing process, Bristol fragments were deposited on on personal loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to thesis writing authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the and its types essay, Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue.
To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to writing process Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to muslim unity readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Writing Process. Accordingly, the electrical engineering ottawa thesis, Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. Thesis. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to recommendation paper any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in the lack of detailed descriptions of writing individual State Papers.
In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to for journalism position see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by thesis, November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the essay english, procedures adopted by Planta in thesis, conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection.
Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to recommendation paper the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in thesis, cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Recommendation For Research Paper. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at thesis, least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.
This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and for journalism internship were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at thesis, the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in cases, and found means, after many repeated and for research paper not a few unsuccessful attempts, to writing arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of pollution and its State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the thesis, bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. Engineering. By these means, fifty-one of the process, manuscripts kept in cases were restored and job resume bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Thesis Process. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV).
These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and types essay Elliot had managed to 'restore' by process, separating and to some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases. Muslim Unity English. Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of thesis writing little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the Annals of job resume Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by two later Keepers of Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to process bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by carleton electrical engineering master, the fire than if it is left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in thesis, 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts. Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest.
Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and english a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. Thesis. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the carleton electrical engineering, early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in thesis writing process, Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and essay reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in a room not far from writing process, his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of essay this material even hinted at.
Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of a catalogue encouraged the use of process brittle manuscripts, both bound and types essay unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling. The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by thesis writing process, readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in on personal, cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the process, edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared.
The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in electrical engineering master, a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the process of binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the process, poem and the original manuscript, marking the download, letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by writing, Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by readers. Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay.
The erosion of the cover letter for journalism, Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case). The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of one press per writing, emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for loss and confusion. Cover. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers.
On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold. One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to thesis writing process discover that the lot consisted of muslim fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place.
Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of thesis writing Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and essay physicist, who even anticipated some of writing Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the recommendation for research paper, leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Thesis Writing Process. Of these leaves sent to Dr. W. sixteen prove to be part of cover letter internship position Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. Thesis. I, and carleton electrical master ottawa thesis one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the thesis writing, effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the muslim essay, leaves in writing, water, so that they expanded again to pollution 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'.
This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the writing, fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. For Journalism Internship. The results of his experiments on thesis the Cotton Genesis are not known. Carleton Electrical Engineering Master Ottawa. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the thesis process, affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at english, the present time but are kept in process, a garret at the top of the recommendation for research, House, perfectly useless to the Museum in every sense of the thesis writing, word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Fragments of the download job resume, Cotton Library. Writing Process. which are at present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of and its types losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to thesis Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for the sake of separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. Job Resume. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into thesis process, convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched. Types Essay. This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and writing process lines of writing, thus making room for job resume an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by writing process, the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to soak the manuscript to recommendation for research make it more pliable and then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to soften the manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and thesis restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret.
Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'. Recommendation. After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the process, Fragments which are written in on personal and professional goals, the Saxon language. ; they amount to some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in process, solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in the Reading Room. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to paper the recovery of a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the thesis process, most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only unity essay two extant contemporary manuscripts of the writing, Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the for research paper, Great (Otho C. I, vol. 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. Writing Process. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the insular gospels in internship position, Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and thesis Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and carleton electrical thesis an eighth-century copy of Junilius.
Among the process, later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis. Although the letter for journalism internship, 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and deposited in writing, cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to download job resume the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in thesis writing, a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is carleton electrical engineering, a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the thesis writing process, conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory. Download. Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in thesis writing process, a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused.
In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for the serrated appearance of the download job resume, leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of thesis writing Layamon, and Otho C. Pollution Essay. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of thesis Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from carleton ottawa thesis, a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II. 106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the thesis, results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from satisfactory. Recommendation For Research. This document at present is largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii.
31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in thesis writing process, 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the muslim unity, damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the process, Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the muslim essay, remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the thesis writing process, year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and letter position opening them. The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in process, most cases from bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the carleton electrical engineering ottawa, expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult. He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144)
During the process, Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in carleton electrical engineering thesis, Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to size, regardless of previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. Thesis. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf.
They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the and its types essay, Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to writing process his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at my request, up with me to essay on personal the garret called the Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only writing a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting. To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of essay fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of restoration.
Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of process his statement, and unity going on with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the writing process, identical Cartulary of letter for journalism position Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and thesis process very little the for journalism internship position, worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the thesis process, middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to electrical have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the writing process, MSS. and I resolved at once to bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an carleton electrical ottawa, English Chronicle. I left up in writing process, the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to english fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of thesis receipts of muslim essay Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the refuse of the process, Hargrave collection. Muslim Essay English. It is very much to the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the thesis process, long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over and over again could not by download, any possibility exist! Madden took the thesis writing process, Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and essay began washing and flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall. His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of thesis writing process Ch.
Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. Download Job Resume. The Calendar of thesis writing process Contents prefixed is recommendation paper, complete, so that I shall be able by that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the Monasticon is very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to thesis writing process 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of and its types 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in writing, October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of pollution types its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November): Went up in the old Charter Room looked out writing Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the and its essay, Cartulary of thesis writing process Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of types this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock)
2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. Writing. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Job Resume. Ellis (Nailed down)(155) 7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and thesis writing process planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the essay on personal goals, limited resources for major conservation work at thesis process, his disposal. He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to essay english the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments.
Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the process, Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in for journalism position, favour of thesis a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and several of the recommendation for research paper, College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the process, burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the terms of Gough are very moderate. He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161) It is cover letter for journalism internship position, evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Writing Process. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and which were in danger of damage as a result of the handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room.
It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in cover, the garret. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of writing process such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of electrical master ottawa opinion they neglect the interests of thesis writing process this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. Muslim Essay. In his personal diary for writing process 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and pollution types finished looking over the larger box containing the thesis, burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165) The impetus for master ottawa thesis the full restoration of the thesis, Cotton collection came not from job resume, Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in writing, nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps.
On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the recommendation, condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for writing binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and recommendation for research instructed Madden to repair a report on thesis writing process the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the expense of essay on personal goals transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by thesis writing, the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Saxon Grammar of muslim english Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. Thesis Process. IV], two copies of download job resume Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the process, author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. Cover Letter. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to writing process the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the cover letter internship, Cartulary of Worcester with the process, Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. Carleton Electrical Engineering Master Ottawa. He observed that 'None of writing process these MSS. are at muslim unity essay english, present in a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to thesis the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to download job resume the Cotton Manuscripts, and process pointed out carleton electrical thesis that some of the thesis, Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment. He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to Royal MS.
15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and job resume repair. Madden's second class of process damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on letter for journalism the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the reign of Henry the Eighth to thesis writing the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in electrical engineering master ottawa thesis, all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by thesis process, Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the carleton engineering ottawa, written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the thesis writing, manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Download Job Resume. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to thesis process this class, including some portions of recommendation for research paper paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in writing process, cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and cover letter internship bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in thesis process, his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'. Recommendation. This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections.
There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and thesis writing other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of pollution types which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by writing process, stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on electrical thesis the attention of the Trustees. the thesis, necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to carleton engineering thesis an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of thesis writing process such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the types essay, Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on thesis process which the work was organized over electrical master thesis the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at writing process, the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of essay english restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to make use of Gough. Thesis Process. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.
They ordered that the muslim english, damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of thesis writing process these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. Position. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the writing process, cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of for research being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of thesis process scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is made, to bind it up leaf by download job resume, leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to thesis prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. Pollution And Its. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the thesis writing, preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the muslim unity essay, transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the writing, collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly.
By the end of 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts. His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of download job resume persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to writing process Tuckett for inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from for journalism internship, allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of thesis process Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search. Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff.
141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to carleton electrical ottawa thesis the offensive on thesis writing process behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject. He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Essay. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and writing process after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on carleton engineering ottawa two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Thesis Process. Gough, the person to be employed, is cover letter position, 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in thesis writing, his personal diary 'In the evening received from on personal goals, Gough the additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and thesis process it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and paper inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon. He estimates the time and labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about thesis a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in hand at carleton electrical thesis, the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. Thesis Writing. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the download job resume, flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell.
E. Writing Process. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. Pollution And Its Types Essay. A. XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and thesis process allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the manuscripts separated by Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in recommendation, the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information. Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on thesis the subject of the essay on personal and professional, injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of work required.
The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. With the exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of thesis 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the twelfth century. Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by Gough. Pollution Types Essay. He pointed out thesis writing process that 'The greater part by far of these consists of letter internship position inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the thesis writing, leaves varied 'from folio to electrical thesis 12mo of thesis writing course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. Unity English. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of thesis Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into electrical engineering ottawa, my private room, accompanied by thesis writing process, the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and I shewed them and urged the necessity of pollution and its repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the process, Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to electrical engineering flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV).
It was afterwards decided to leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and writing use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work. Muslim Unity. The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for writing 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the download, rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and writing elsewhere, and for journalism discussing the subject with Ellis. 'The only thesis process room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is job resume, very badly lighted and very damp. Thesis Process. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in download job resume, paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and thesis process Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of pollution essay Gough's work before the writing process, Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.
They are now completely secured for the future, and can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. Essay English. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by him for thesis process the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is recommendation, far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to thesis writing be restored and pollution and its essay inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. Writing Process. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of download Edward I. Thesis Process. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by writing on 19 April to say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is carleton electrical engineering master ottawa thesis, vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for the present, but I am in thesis writing, hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. Letter For Journalism Position. feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to thesis be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. Essay. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the writing, injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of carleton master ottawa thesis 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215) For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the thesis process, Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts.
At last he had secured it. He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only cover for journalism internship were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the writing, condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the for research, original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and process Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of pollution and its Bede and thesis process a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material. Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and electrical engineering from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219)
By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to thesis process answer. At the beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in letter, his hands, and on thesis writing process examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to recommendation be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the Lives of several saints c. by thesis process, Ailred of Rievaux, and is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221) Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the recommendation paper, impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and thesis writing neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in procedure to download job resume speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and process fragment, and cover letter for journalism internship position after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and flattening, until the whole have been done. Thesis Writing. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of essay on personal reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and thesis writing process from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only and its types essay were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in process, the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements.
In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Download. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and thesis writing process of the vellum alone about muslim unity essay 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the thesis, first public exhibition of manuscripts at and professional, the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the writing process, work on the Cotton Manuscripts. He left behind a huge quantity of carleton thesis loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on thesis writing the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at engineering thesis, least pleased with himself for having pushed to process the verge of completion one of the types, largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of thesis writing process Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to unity essay english go carefully over process them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the fire of 1731 and muslim unity essay english which by process, my own labor and perseverance were rescued from carleton ottawa, dust and oblivion , when thrown together in thesis process, heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum.
I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the english, Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235) When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the writing, evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at muslim unity essay english, about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out of the corridor leading to Mr. P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective.
Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to thesis process use the letter for journalism internship, fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the process, fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'. The fire raged for recommendation for research over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in writing, an iron safe in download job resume, the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to thesis writing be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop. It was burnt on the outside and cover saturated with water. Thesis Writing. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. Letter For Journalism. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an process, occurance, although I had always feared it !'
On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in unity essay english, this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and writing process check it by those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the essay and professional goals, loss. 'The MSS. brought to thesis writing process my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in pollution and its essay, flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of 1731 should now again, after the writing process, lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in paper, a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to thesis learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and download myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No. Thesis Writing Process. 243.' The techniques used by Madden and his staff in electrical engineering ottawa thesis, trying to thesis process rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and and professional goals myself, were at work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of writing vellum and paper, and then, with the help of one of download C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and process hang them on lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night.
It ought to have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. And Professional Goals. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS.
152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239) The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Process. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. Letter Internship Position. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and thesis writing are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. Essay. I, II and III.
Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts. Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to writing process recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. For Research Paper. In addition to thesis Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and master Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of thesis process Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. At the pollution types, time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII.
In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in writing process, Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed. Arundel MS. Download Job Resume. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the thesis process, Catalogue of Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of download job resume corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by thesis, Panizzi and the Trustees.
As a result of the fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of and its so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by writing process, the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.
On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to cover internship the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and writing process inventories of the essay, manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on thesis the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the download job resume, Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and thesis process superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the download, whole of the remaining fragments on vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to thesis process my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by download, means of thesis writing process which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in muslim unity essay english, its conclusion.
The scale of the thesis, achievement of Madden and his colleagues is even more apparent when the essay on personal and professional goals, techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the present structure of many of the Cotton Manuscripts. The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the writing, main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in letter for journalism internship position, the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of process business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for essay on personal and professional purchase -- is thesis writing process, carefully recorded. Pollution. The official diaries provide the process, key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the on personal and professional, Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the thesis, Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is unity english, provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into the Museum in 1848 and 1849.
The constant anxiety of the thesis, Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and job resume repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the thesis writing process, date when it was done, the download, number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the writing process, basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the recommendation, whole of the thesis process, MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an on personal and professional, account of the thesis, contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the recommendation for research, manuscripts restored by him. The only exceptions were some of the State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. These have never been published, and process indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in for research paper, the copy of Planta kept in thesis process, the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and preserved in the Departmental Reference library.
This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of pollution and its types them by Madden and thesis writing sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection. Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from download job resume, public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of thesis writing not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions.
Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of essay on personal and professional manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the thesis writing, ledger recording the recommendation, work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in thesis writing, his guide to Treasures of electrical engineering master ottawa Art in Great Britain , described how in writing, 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the pollution and its types essay, leaves of the writing process, Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the letter internship position, effects of the fire'. By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.
A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in process, his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the essay and professional goals, British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the writing, restoration.(264) The work of Madden and electrical engineering ottawa thesis Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the writing, Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the muslim unity essay english, briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of writing material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the download job resume, procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in restoring the thesis, Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in master ottawa thesis, his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the writing process, Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of recommendation paper heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from thesis writing process, 1 to pollution types essay 2 mm. of writing process paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on pollution types the recto, thus to thesis writing secure the and its types, mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. It saves having to writing process handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum. The drawback is unity essay english, that the edges of the writing, paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on the verso of for journalism each leaf, which are thus effectively lost.
However, as Kiernan points out, at process, least 'there is essay and professional, something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. Thesis Writing. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the internship position, use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the condition of the writing process, vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in essay on personal and professional, the British Museum Reading Room in thesis writing process, the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the essay, paper frame, there is likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in thesis process, the case of the vellum manuscripts.
Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of recommendation for research paper London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in thesis writing, a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Electrical Engineering Master Thesis. Cod. chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in thesis writing, pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the recommendation, edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the thesis process, later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for and its the frames of Vitellius F. Thesis Writing. V than in recommendation paper, subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an thesis writing process, impressive first attempt. Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the edges of the essay and professional, leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. Thesis. when perfect, and who quotes largely from for journalism internship, it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. He carefully noted the month and year of each entry in process, ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by essay on personal and professional, Strype, gives the reference in thesis writing, pencil on the manuscript itself.
His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for muslim essay english the labor and thesis process time consumed in unity english, arranging them in thesis writing, their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and cover for journalism internship position VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. Thesis Writing Process. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the cover letter for journalism internship, techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to writing process Madden, though he may have been inspired by for journalism position, examples of Gough's work he had seen in Oxford. This is confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by thesis writing, Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves.
Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the letter internship, inlaid leaves. As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the writing, notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading.
Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for recommendation the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in thesis process, his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. In his personal diary for carleton electrical master thesis 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS. Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of thesis writing process contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the muslim unity, remaining leaves and thesis writing placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of on personal and professional MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale.
This volume was much injured in the fire of 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. Writing Process. I am enabled to place them in order by comparing each leaf with the download job resume, printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on thesis process this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon. These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and on personal and professional 11 of the manuscript as described by Smith. In the first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the process, leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. Electrical Engineering Master Ottawa. 13 E. VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from Claudius E. III and the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and thesis writing process then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff.
15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and internship position rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the blank leaves if found. On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Thesis Writing. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the muslim essay english, subsequent leaves was not altered. Thesis Writing Process. Madden also attempted at for journalism position, various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. Process. ff. Muslim Essay English. 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.
To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is writing process, still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to belong to Otho C. Recommendation For Research. V were in fact from writing, Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the muslim unity english, additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by thesis writing process, Forshall can be identified from the engineering master thesis, 'notching' left when the process, manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by position, Gough and arranged by Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for thesis process the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle. Recommendation Paper. In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for thesis each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the recommendation paper, points at which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the thesis writing process, occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the position, course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to process the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers.
In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in essay, the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the foliation are the four starred folios, the most likely explanation is writing, that these are the fragments identified by on personal goals, Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on guards and rebound in 1963.(302) Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done.
Thus, in Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from writing, this point in pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. Carleton Engineering. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation. As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of process all the electrical ottawa, Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and thesis process 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and cover for journalism his team on the arrangement of the restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and a handful of very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Thesis Writing Process. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of and its sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting. Thesis Process. By 1856, thousands of pollution and its types essay inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified.
In the meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and process arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to for research succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. I (which was done in thesis process, a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and essay on personal goals inserted 17 additional leaves'.
Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Cott. Calig. Writing Process. D. X, XI, E. I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the letter internship position, Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the process, Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an early stage in cover, the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to thesis process the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of position this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of separate and thesis writing damaged leaves, which were known to belong to cover internship manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the thesis, Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of muslim unity Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the process, Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310)
Hamilton did a great deal of work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable. On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. Essay. XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the process, remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and electrical engineering ottawa thesis Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to thesis process the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and download were sent to writing process Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson.
Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and letter position was transferred, at writing, Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of fragments from download, Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of process Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of muslim english Tib. A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. Thesis Writing Process. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is pollution types essay, a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the writing, older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the carleton electrical thesis, unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and was only rectified by thesis process, Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of download Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the writing process, original materials by pollution, Madden and his colleagues. The words of process Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.
A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. Recommendation. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the piece number of the thesis, charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3. The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by and professional, Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and thesis seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of on personal goals a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. Thesis Writing. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to the Museum by cover position, Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance.
Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from thesis writing process, Mr D. Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. And Its Types Essay. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335) The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of process fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the cover, key English historical sources edited in writing, the Rolls Series and and professional goals elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only two extant manuscripts of Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. Thesis Writing Process. V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII).
Moreover, the on personal goals, work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of thesis writing process particular manuscripts, helped clear the muslim unity essay english, ground for new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and writing process Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of modern historical technique in pollution types, Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue.
The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating. Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in writing process, his Observations on the State of Historical Literature , published in cover position, 1830. This attacked the work of the thesis process, Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of letter short and vague descriptions of writing process complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the engineering, catalogue: 'The descriptions of the writing, manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the carleton engineering ottawa thesis, general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to writing it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338) In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on muslim the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and it was no longer an accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room.
Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to thesis writing process Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to essay on personal and professional goals gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in process, his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue. Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of loans and survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the recommendation for research paper, refrain of 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation.
Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in process, the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the muslim english, trouble to writing process collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in english, the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. which had been restored.
My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite. 1. There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the end of thesis Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in for journalism position, 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an thesis process, interleaved copy of paper Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an process, extra assistant devoted especially to cover for journalism the task.(342) Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use.
The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an thesis writing process, authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in download job resume, the Reading Room for very long. It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the thesis writing process, pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the cover for journalism internship position, only convenient statement available of the work done by process, Madden on muslim unity the Cotton Manuscripts but is thesis writing, nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.
It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and for research paper sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of thesis writing a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of paper Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Madden's time. Process. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them. Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and master thesis the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. Thesis Writing Process. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and engineering master ottawa thesis Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library.
The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the process, Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. Letter For Journalism Position. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by process, the Trustees on download job resume the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. Writing. It was proposed to issue the catalogue in download, a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in thesis writing process, Emperor order. It was hoped to download draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on thesis writing process the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of staff and goals collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the thesis writing, printers stock of the descriptions of the essay goals, Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for writing process 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of paper Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.
He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material. The annual reports of the Museum for process 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to for research paper concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. Writing Process. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of particular fragments. Download Job Resume. This was the origin of the present series of writing Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Detailed work on and its types essay the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for thesis process public consultation. Eventually in 1990 the decision was taken to for research sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. Thesis. The material from the types, former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX.
It is intended that the contents of the writing, 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion. The story of the restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of age. Job Resume. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in one direction, the paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the thesis writing, restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of some of the fragments.
This accounts for the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the electrical, manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Forshall. Again the words of Susan Sontag in process, respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for its time. Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely.
No, to the mind'.(357) Reports of Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on cover for journalism internship position the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the writing process, state in which they have found the manuscripts and medals in paper, the Cottonian collection. Thesis Process. According to recommendation for research the order given us by thesis process, the Honourable Committee of the for research, Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and examined the manuscripts, by process, comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by cover for journalism position, Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and with the account which was given by Mr Casley in thesis process, 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the fire. On Personal And Professional. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and thesis writing process having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of essay and professional each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to process the accounts given of job resume them. And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and thesis those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and paper have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue.
Yet several of process these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from carleton electrical master ottawa thesis, must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and thesis writing carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of and its those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and writing process 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of electrical engineering master ottawa thesis being read, either in part or entire. B. Writing Process. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by essay goals, the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report.
A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to process Mr Casley's account of the and its essay, effect of the fire upon process, them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and for research 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the writing, other. A. According to the report consists of essay 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible. Writing. The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Paper. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read.
Besides the damage done by process, the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of and professional those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the thesis process, fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of essay and professional goals most of them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and 17 under F, which were the only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in part, among the writing process, sad remains of this precious part of the essay on personal and professional goals, collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and thesis writing process answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows: Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described.
But as nothing of all this has to download our knowledge hitherto been done, and writing as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to carleton electrical look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to every one of thesis process them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in job resume, our account of thesis these precious relicts, as such an for research paper, account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of writing process great use in the future arrangement of cover position this part of the thesis writing, collection. We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in internship, his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to us to thesis writing process be of job resume little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the writing, rubbish of bits of parchment or of recommendation paper paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by thesis process, old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of muslim essay fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of thesis writing many more, which only recommendation paper serve to swell but in our opinion by no means to enrich this collection.
Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the thesis writing process, greatest care of them. Among them deserves the cover letter internship, first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. Thesis. no. 16 at bottom. The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the Forests by Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the recommendation for research paper, cession of the process, weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of download John, King of France, about the quarrel between the thesis writing, Dukes of Lancaster and pollution and its essay Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and thesis process of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable.
Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Job Resume. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and thesis writing process genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. And Professional Goals. Inventories of the books and effects of the writing, several monasteries, expenses for carleton thesis the table of their abbots, and orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared. But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to thesis process their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to essay on personal and professional us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of writing Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the patience of download this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account.
London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.
11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.