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AQA GCSE Statistics Coursework Watch. Form Style Thesis! span Follow 0 followers 6 badges Send a private message to Lumos24520. Well you can start off by collecting data from the professional kolkata two websites that you should already know (if you don't tell me and i'll give you their names), collect population, unemployment in form thesis general, unemployment in males, in system management females and form writing, whatever else you need for thesis information your hypothesis. Then you have to writing do a sample and choose an and contrasting two different, appropriate sample size to make your data more manageable. Oh also what i forgot to form say was along with your hypothesis you also have to yagami essay do a method which is form thesis basically a plan of thesis system, what you're going to form writing do in writing kolkata the courework. Style Thesis Writing! After all that you can start drawing graphs and yagami, doung calculations but without the data you won't be able to do either! Hope this helped!! span Follow 1 follower 0 badges Send a private message to EliseWoods. Form Style Thesis! span Follow 0 followers 6 badges Send a private message to Lumos24520. Hey, I finished my controlled assessment task last week and raito, have a written assessment on form style thesis writing, my result tomorrow, do you have any idea how i could answer the yagami question Suggest two different things that you could have done to extend or develop your investigation.
Write down how one of these would have added to style writing your task? I really don't know what I could answer for raito this question because I feel that i have done all that i could. Thanks. Thesis Writing! span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to suaadh. span Follow 16 followers 11 badges Send a private message to Fbiemad. Online Professional Kolkata! I am doing IGCSE AQA which is the form thesis writing same topics as GCSE. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to and dissertation services or PhysicsNoob. We have a brilliant team of style thesis, more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on and dissertation or, The Student Room, helping to form style thesis make it a fun, safe and curry application essay, useful place to form style thesis hang out. Exam And Dissertation! 0 new posts Negative effects of form style thesis, PORN on exam and dissertation services or, our society Started by: webwolfwizard Forum: Society Replies: 41 Last post: 1 minute ago GCSEs 9-1, what to form style writing look for? Started by: SophiejoLouise Forum: GCSEs Replies: 0 Last post: 1 minute ago Civil Service Fast Stream- Summer Diversity Internship 2018 Started by: Airmed Forum: Public sector Replies: 11 Last post: 1 minute ago A way to call a landline without a phone? Started by: pandaseattoast Forum: Technology and do my homework, computers Replies: 2 Last post: 2 minutes ago Can I take the style legacy A-Level Math in and contrasting animals 2018 and the new FM in style 2019? Started by: TheTroll73 Forum: A-levels Replies: 1 Last post: 2 minutes ago The Tesco thread.
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Form And Style In Thesis Writing Pdf - …
Hardware and Firmware Issues in Using Ultra-Low Power MCUs. Rev 2: May 2015 - Added link to style writing Low Power Design article. Rev 4: March 2016 - Added section 12 about write comparing animals watchdog timers. Today many of style thesis writing us are building ultra-low power embedded systems that must run for years off a battery. Thesis Information System Management? The idea is that these systems are nearly always in a deep sleep mode, waking from time to time to do something before going back to sleep. Many vendors of microcontrollers (MCUs) claim their products can run like this for decades from a coin cell.
These claims are mostly bogus. This report describes the style thesis writing hardware and firmware issues one must consider when designing very low-power coin-cell products. There are a lot of nuances; even decoupling capacitor selection can hugely influence battery life. You'll also find data from which one can predict what sort of battery lifetimes are achievable here. Because the report is online professional resume writing services kolkata, very long and covers a number of related subjects, not everyone may need to read the entire thing. Here's a roadmap so you can get to the sections important for your design efforts: Background -- Do read this.
It gives a bit of form thesis information about coin cells, and then shows how the thesis information basic assumptions made by MCU vendors are completely off-base. Style Thesis Writing? They talk about how long a system can sleep; we care about how much work can be done when it is awake. Three critical points are made in this section: first, coin cells aren't good for more than ten years , second, MCU sleep currents are almost irrelevant , and third, a system running for ten years off a CR2032 battery can only consume 2.5 uA on average . On Typical Specifications -- Many MCU vendors make glorious claims about low current consumption and quote astonishing numbers. Dig into thesis information management the datasheets and it's not uncommon to find these as typical specifications. Style Thesis? I investigated what typical means. The result: never, ever, use a typical specification as design guidance . CR2032 Behavior -- How does a coin cell behave in these very low-power applications? No one seems to know, so I took a ton of data. The results are surprising and thesis information system management, bode ill for long-lived systems. You may find that less than half the battery's advertised capacity is actually available in form style thesis writing, a real system . Leaks and Drains -- The MCU is raito, not the style thesis writing only power consumer on a board.
Even the capacitors leak -- a lot. This section examines other, usually neglected, sources of leaks that may profoundly affect your design. Decoupling, and Using a Capacitor to Boost Vdd -- Pick the wrong decoupling capacitor and write and contrasting, your system will discharge the thesis writing battery in a short time. And, given that an or ultra-low power system sleeps most of the time and wakes for only milliseconds, can we use a capacitor's time constant to keep Vdd high enough to power the system during the brief time it is awake? Hint: the answer is no. Running Fast to Save Power -- The vendors recommend running the MCU as fast as possible to form writing get back to college essay sleep quickly, as the total power consumption will be less than running at form thesis writing, a slow clock rate. While that is true, it is naïve.
There are other factors to watch out for. This section is important for firmware designers. Dropping Vdd to Cut Current and Increase Battery Life -- You might get some benefits by online professional resume services kolkata, reducing Vdd to the MCU, but there are some caveats. Most Brown-Out Reset Circuits Don't Work -- Don't use the MCU's brown-out circuit . It will not perform as you would expect in most cases. An alternative is presented. Firmware people take note.
Reverse Battery Protection -- Careful design means making sure a battery installed backwards won't cause problems. Alas, the usual fixes create more problems than they solve. UL Coin Cell Requirements -- UL is very strict about using coin cells. Here are the rules, and their implications. Battery Droop Over Time -- With a load on writing, a coin cell the voltage decays for a while. and then, oddly, stops. Figure on another 10% loss of raito capacity due to droop . Watchdog timers - How does one manage a watchdog when sleeping most of the form thesis time? Summary Reviews of tools to profile low-power systems. This isn't really in homework, this report; this is a link to my web site's reviews.
Another great resource on these issues is Low Power Design by CMicrotek. It covers other important issues about these applications, and is highly recommended. There's a sleep current war raging between MCU vendors. Marketing glitz and web pages are the guns; white papers are the ammo, which is being broadsided with increasing frequency. Form Style Thesis? Much of yagami essay what is claimed is probably true, but more than a little of it is form writing, misleading and/or irrelevant.
It's truly remarkable just how little current is management, needed to keep a processor alive today. In the deepest sleep modes even some ARM parts claim just 20 nA (nanoamp) of consumption. That's a mere 0.02 microamp, a number that boggles the form writing mind. In the desktop world CPUs suck over 100 amps while active, so I salute the comprehensive and dissertation MCU community for achieving such astonishingly-low figures. First, some context. In the trenches of this war lie the lowly CR2032, a typical coin cell that's oft-quoted as the canonical battery for extremely-long-lived systems. A CR2032 has about 225 mAh of capacity (quoted capacities vary a little depending on thesis, the vendor), which means it can source one mA for 225 hours. Comprehensive Exam Services? (Note there is some dependency on capacity vs. how fast one discharges the battery). Style Writing? Its nominal voltage is 3.0, perfect for these 1.8 to 2V min MCUs, and the discharge curve has a sharp knee. They are considered dead at 2.0 V, which is confirmed by my experiments.
Here's data for a number of batteries, all from one batch from the same vendor, discharged at a 0.5 mA rate: Batteries discharging at a 0.5 mA rate . Some of the vendors claim their MCUs can run for 20-30 years from a single CR2032. That's may be true in theory, but not in exam and dissertation services, practice. The first question one must ask is: are the batteries rated for form, those kinds of lifetimes? I contacted a number of curry essay battery vendors. None guarantee shelf lives over thesis, ten years. One vendor said: Not recommended for use after shelf life expires as the chemicals in yagami, the battery break down and it loses power a lot quicker, and style thesis, there can be corrosion or leakage. It's poor engineering practice to comparing animals use a component beyond its rated specifications. For this discussion I'll assume that the maximum achievable lifetime of a system powered by a CR2032 is style writing, 10 years , because that's the life guaranteed by the battery vendors.
Though the war is all about battery lifetime of a mostly-sleeping system, that's irrelevant for design engineers. The right question - which no one seems to be asking - is: how much useful work can the system do while awake ? Useful work translates into a lot of things (clock rate, instruction set efficiency, etc.), but is ultimately bounded by how much current the system (MCU and other components) can consume while awake. Thesis? It's is the budget a design engineer has to work with, and cannot be exceeded (on average). Doing the math, I came up with the following curve, which assumes a ten year battery life for a cell with 225 mAh capacity. It shows the number of mA available while awake, as a function of time spent sleeping and amount of current consumed while sleeping. The bottom curve is a system that uses 2 uA while sleeping; the top is one using 20 nA. mA available as a function of sleep time and sleep current. For systems that sleep the vast majority of the time, the following chart blows up the data at the right side of the graph above: Here's the key takeaway: Sleep currents are almost irrelevant . Thesis? Take two MCUs, one that needs 20 nA while sleeping and another that consumes 200 nA. The available awake current is just about the same in both cases.
Even one that sucks a microamp while sleeping gives results not much different from an MCU needing an order of magnitude less. If the system (MCU plus everything else) draws a microamp or less when sleeping we find: If your system sleeps 99% of the time you only have a 0.24 mA budget while awake. This means the system is awake 36 seconds per hour over ten years before the battery is depleted. And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 0.24 mA. If the system sleeps 99.7% of the time you have 0.8 mA available and excuses not to, are awake 11 seconds per hour. And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 0.8 mA. At a 99.97% sleep time there's 8-10 mA available during wake times, and form thesis, the system is yagami raito, awake 1 second per form style thesis writing hour.
And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 8-10 mA. It's useful to think about a total system current budget. For a CR2032 with 220 mAh of capacity running for ten years the calculation is simple: x-amps is the average current consumed by college, the system over a decade, and style thesis writing, works out to write two different animals 2.5 uA. Integrate the current used during sleeping and waking times; if it averages more than 2.5 uA the battery won't last ten years. Another way of looking at this, as we'll see later, is thesis writing, that, since the and contrasting system sleeps most of the form style thesis writing time, the parasitic drains (sleep current plus other circuit drains) cannot exceed 2.5 uA . Check out the electrical specs of an ultra-low power MCU. Clearly we're really concerned with the current used in various modes. Surprise! Many only services, give typical (i.e., no worst-case) specifications. It wasn't always this way. Form Style Thesis Writing? Here's an example from TI's 1976 TTL Databook for the 7447A BCD to seven segment decoder/driver: Note that all of the specs have a max or min number, and the data shows what conditions those numbers apply to (e.g., Vol is with Vcc-MIN, Vih=2, Vil=0.8, Ioh=-200 uA).
Admittedly, in the olden days just a few pages were enough to fully document a part. Information Management? Today a thousand page datasheet isn't uncommon. Properly characterizing a component isn't easy. Here's another datasheet -- it's from a box of Entenmann's donuts: These are worst-case specs.
They are guarantees. Style Thesis? Contractual terms between Entenmann's and comprehensive exam and dissertation or, the buyer. You know what you're getting. Here's some sleep current consumption data from an form MCU datasheet: Typical (+25C): 0.01 uA.
Typical (+60C): 0.04 uA. Maximum (+85C): 2 uA. Maximum (+125C): 10 uA. What does that mean? The range covers three orders of magnitude. Decades ago one of comprehensive and dissertation services my mentors taught me to never use a typical spec; always design for worst case. That has been good advice which I've only violated in circumstances where some other data was available or a wide distribution of form thesis writing values was acceptable. TI agrees. Their datasheet for the LPV521 op amp states: Typical values represent the most likely parametric norm at and dissertation services or, the time of characterization.
Actual typical values may vary over style writing, time and thesis information management, will also depend on the application and style thesis writing, configuration. The typical values are not tested and are not guaranteed on yagami essay, shipped production material . (Emphasis added). So how does one interpret the form style thesis current consumption data listed earlier? My first reaction is to use the max (+85C) number as that is, presumably, guaranteed. But that's 200X the online professional resume writing kolkata room-temperature typical value. While there's really not enough data to form style thesis use for curve fits, an exponential trend line fits pretty darn well, which is hardly surprising given that much of the current is consumed by reverse-biased P-N junctions (think of the Shockley diode equation). But that's mixing typ and max values, a proverbial conflation of apples and oranges. I have always assumed typical represents an average, or the most-likely value in write an essay two different animals, some probability distribution function. But does it? I contacted tech support of several semiconductor vendors and form style thesis, asked what typical means.
The responses were hardly enlightening. Energy Micro (now owned by Silicon Labs) was the first to reply. Thesis System Management? They said: A typical for Energy Micro's specs is the mean value of the devices measured. So [it's] not really dependent on the standard deviation. Most CMOS characteristics have a normal distribution, so mean and median are pretty much the same thing. That mirrors my expectation, but since bigger standard deviations implies a wider range of values the mean doesn't tell us much about what to expect.
Yet the datasheets for Energy Micro's ultra-low power MCUs offer (as of this writing) only typical current consumption values. TI weighed in soon after. 'Typical' values in datasheets are not taken from form style probability functions. These are taken from multi-lot characterization testing with the mode being considered the 'typical' for exam services or, a give[n] set of characterization parameters (temperature, Vcc, etc). That's interesting but not terribly helpful. Thesis Writing? The mode alone tells us nothing about what kind of values one can expect. And TI, like most vendors, only lists the typ value (no min or max) for thesis information system management, some parameters on at least some of their MCUs so we don't get even a sense of the distribution that can be expected. Microchip responded: Typical' is the average of our characterization data. They then referenced a datasheet that says These parameters are characterized but not tested. Data in 'Typ' column is at 3.0V, 25C unless otherwise stated.
These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Freescale replied with a link to a Kinetis data sheet. Section 3.8 reads: A typical value is a specified value for style, a technical characteristic that: * Lies within the range of excuses not to do my homework values specified by the operating behavior. * Given the typical manufacturing process, is form, representative of that characteristic during operation when you meet the typical-value conditions or other specified conditions. Given that typical is yagami raito essay, representative of that characteristic one might assume this means one can expect the style part to behave much like the specified typ data. But the example shown on that datasheet just a few lines later rates a current with a min of 10, typ of online 70, and max of 130 uA. The standard deviation is enormous. Thesis? The typ value teaches nothing about the range of online resume values to expect (though, in style writing, that example, the min and max tell us everything we need to know; wise engineers will create a design that works properly over that entire range).
March 2015 Update: Freescale's latest datasheet for their KL02 Cortex M0+ MCUs now states: “The maximum values stated in system, the following table represent characterized results equivalent to the mean plus three times the form style thesis writing standard deviation (mean + 3 sigma)” The listed power consumption numbers are given as max values. That's useful engineering data! Kudos to Freescale. NXP told me: We have not seen a universal definition of write comparing and contrasting two different animals 'typical', though it has been one of the style most commonly used terms in the industry and product. One interpretation would be that 'typical'#157; represents 'material that comes from our production process under standard SPC (statistical process control.)' Again, this is interesting and useless, at least for practicing design engineers. In 2013 an FAE from yagami essay a large semiconductor vendor told me some of their typical numbers are really marketing tools.
Does that mean they can change with the competitive landscape? Our competitor just dropped their typ specs; we better do the same! The bottom line is that the meaning of a typical spec is devoid of engineering value. If a spec isn't guaranteed, it's not a spec, it's an aspiration. Min/max specs are guarantees. Typical is not. It's time for us to rise up and demand better data! Power to form style thesis writing the processors! (Well, I guess we want to professional writing services minimize power to the processors in these applications). Some vendors take their MCU's sleep currents and form style thesis writing, divide those into a CR2032's capacity to get huge and improbable lifetimes. But how do coin cells really behave in yagami, these low-power applications? No one knows!
Even the battery vendors provide only the slimmest amounts of form style thesis data for systems that go from a deep sleep to needing power for a handful of ms. So, I discharged many CR2032s with complex loads applied for short periods of time and have acquired millions of data points. Nine-cell battery profiler using an ARM controller board. Transistors switch different loads on each battery to run various current and time profiles. Loads are low tempco, 1% resistors. An A/D reads battery voltages and Vce of the transistors. A precision reference and software calibrates the college entire analog path.
The following results are for style, 42 batteries from Duracell, Energizer and Panasonic (including other experiments detailed later, I discharged roughly 100 coin cells). For each vendor I ran two groups of cells, each group purchased months apart from distributors located in distant States, in and dissertation services, hopes that these represent different batches. (The devices are not marked with any sort of serial or batch numbers). First, the style weird part. Our local grocery store sells these cells for up to $5 each. Yet Digi-Key only wants $0.28 for a Panasonic and $0.40 for an Energizer -- in excuses do my, singles. Duracells are harder to form style thesis writing find from commercial distributors, but I paid about excuses not to a buck each from on-line sources (e.g., Amazon).
I found little battery-to-battery variability (other than one obviously bad Panasonic and one bad Duracell), little vendor-to-vendor difference, and likewise different batches gave about the same results. What parameters matter? Chiefly, capacity (how many milliamp-hours one can really get from form thesis writing a cell), and online professional writing services kolkata, internal resistance, which varies with capacity used. All of the vendors say dead is at thesis writing, 2.0 volts. The following graph shows the average voltage for not to, the batteries from each vendor, as well as the worst-case voltage from each vendor, as they discharge at a 0.5 mA rate. Style Thesis? The curve ascending from left to right is the cumulative capacity used. By the time 2.0 volts is reached the yagami raito capacity variation is in the noise. I found it averaged 233 mAh with a standard deviation between all results of 5 mAh.
Energizer and Duracell's datasheets are a bit, uh, optimistic; Panasonic says we can expect to get 225 mAh from a cell, which seems, given this data, a good conservative value to use. But in practice you won't get anything near that 225 mAh. It's useful to style model a battery as a perfect voltage source with an internal series resistance, as follows: As cells discharge their internal resistance (IR) goes up. Actually, this is write an essay comparing and contrasting, not quite correct, despite the claims of all of the published literature I have found. Other results detailed later in this report shows that there's something more complex than simple resistance going on, but for now IR is close enough. The next chart shows average IR for each vendor's products, plus the IR's standard deviation. Internal resistance and its standard deviation. So what does this all mean to form a cautious engineer?
The IR grows so quickly that much of the battery's capacity can't be used! First, the average IR is not useful. Conservative design means using worst case figures, which we can estimate using the do my homework measured standard deviation. By using three sigma our odds of being right are 99.7%. The following graph combines the form thesis writing IR plus three sigma IR. Depending on exam, the load, the drop across the battery's internal resistor will reduce the form style voltage delivered to the system, as shown: Voltage delivered from not to do my homework battery depending on load. If a system, when awake, draws just 10 mA 88% of the battery's capacity is available before the thesis voltage delivered to the load drops to 2.0. It's pretty hard to build a useful system that only needs 10 mA. Some ultra-low power processors are rated at yagami essay, 200 uA/MHz with a 48 MHz max clock frequency -- almost 10 mA just for the CPU. With higher loads, like any sort of form style thesis writing communications, things get much worse.
Bluetooth could take 80 mA, and even Bluetooth LE can suck nearly 30 mA. At 30 mA only online resume writing services, 39% of the thesis battery's rated capacity can be used . An optimist might use two sigma and suffer from 5% of his systems not working to spec, but that only increases the excuses not to homework useful capacity to 44%. The battery will not be able to form thesis writing power the not to homework system long before it is form style writing, really dead, and long before the system's design lifetime. And long before the time MCU vendors cite in their white papers. (Some MCUs will run to 1.8 volts, so vendors might say my cutoff at raito essay, 2.0 is thesis, unfair.
Since battery vendors say that 2.0 is dead I disagree. Excuses Not To? And, even if one were to run to form style writing 1.8V there's less than a 5% gain in useful capacity.) The microcontroller doesn't live in a vacuum; it's part of the system. Other components draw power, and it's the design engineer's job to excuses homework evaluate those drains. Some may be surprising. I have a lot of evaluation boards here; many are designed to show off the style thesis long-battery-life aspects of a particular processor. It's interesting to examine the designs.
I put one of the boards under a microscope and looked at some of the ancillary parts. Two Different Animals? There's a 22 uF decoupling capacitor. Thesis Writing? No real surprise there. It appears to be one of those nice Kemet polymer tantalums designed for high-density SMT applications. The datasheet pegs the cap's internal leakage at 22 uA. Comparing Two Different? That means the style thesis writing capacitor draws a thousand times more power than the typical value cited for the dozing CPU. In fact, the cap alone will drain the battery in under a year! Engineers may argue that 22 uF is a really high value. But that's what the silicon vendors suggest.
Silicon Labs application note AN0002 Rev 1.36, dated 2013-9-16 describes how they'd like to see an ultra-low power MCU decoupled. Over 20 uF is online resume writing, required. A capacitor has parasitics, and in simplified form looks like this: Usually the ESR (equivalent series resistance) is thesis, pretty low; for do my homework, caps that are not wound ESL, too, is low. Style? One would hope that Rleak would be infinity.
Alas, that's far from true. For decoupling capacitors, Rleak is essentially a resistor from the coin cell's positive terminal to ground. For all of the years the MCU is sleeping, Rleak is discharging the battery. Section 5 of this report gives more information about selecting decoupling capacitors; a poor selection is guaranteed to drain the battery in a short period of excuses time. Form? Tantalums leak far too much to use as decoupling capacitors. Most MLCCs won't work, either. Use the advice in that section to online resume services kolkata specify the form right decoupling parts. There is good news for thesis information system, designers: if the batteries start failing at the five or seven year mark, probably no one will remember who is at form thesis, fault. What about other sources of leaks? For instance, does handling parts leave finger oils behind that can drain a battery? A lot of on-line pundits bloviate that the leakage problem is a big factor; experience shows that the more an Internet poster asserts that X is an indisputable fact, the more likely it's not. (A century and a half ago, Charles Darwin noted that ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge.) This is engineering, not speculation, so I decided to run some experiments to see how significant these leaks are in a digital circuit.
But how to do so? Clearly, to write comparing animals get meaningful data one must measure these drains to a resolution much better than the 20 nA (nanoamps) or less some of the MCUs use while sleeping. One could use a DMM to form style writing measure leakage in ohms. They often only go to 40 Mohms, which at 3 volts would represent about a 100 nA leak. Exam And Dissertation Services Or? That's too crude. The uCurrent tool can resolve to a single nA, which is probably adequate, but at 1 nA it generates only a single mV, which is form writing, pushing the resolution of most DMMs pretty hard. So I built a sample and curry college essay, hold circuit (SH). A high quality polypropylene 1 µF capacitor feeds a very high impedance op amp follower. Form Style Thesis Writing? Put a component whose properties you want to measure around the cap, charge it up, and yagami raito, watch the discharge curves by reading the op amp. Sample Hold circuit to test for very low leakages.
I used an LM662 op amp, which has a 2 femtoamp (typical - no max is listed) input bias current. Style Thesis Writing? One fA is a miniscule 10 -15 amps, a millionth of a billionth of an amp, or about 6000 electrons/second, so its effect on the capacitor is minimal. The amplifier's inputs and excuses do my, the cap's connection are all made in the air. A Cortex M3 controller with a 12 bit A/D reads the amplifier periodically, as well as temperature and humidity sensors, and shoots the results to a PC via USB for logging. Measuring the time constant with a 10 Mohm resistor across the writing capacitor proved the circuit worked as expected.
I then charged the cap and, with no load other than the op amp, took data for two days to characterize the circuit. Yagami Raito? The results are summarized in the following graph. The 12 bit A/D is at form style thesis writing, the extreme end of its resolution so each data point is the average of 5000 samples. Clearly the writing services voltage is highly dependent on temperature. We heat with a wood stove, and this data was taken during a very cold few days in January. The dips bottomed out in the morning as the house cooled all night; they veered up when I restarted the style thesis fire. My goal was to measure the resolution of the circuit, but the results are very hard to interpret as it's tough to separate out the temperature effect. Has it discharged at thesis information system management, all? Plotting voltage against temperature:
The voltage across a capacitor that is discharging over form style thesis writing, time is: Where V0 is the initial voltage on the cap and t is the elapsed time. An Essay Comparing Two Different Animals? Taking the natural log and rearranging we get: R is the effective resistance that bleeds charge from the style thesis writing capacitor. Some of that resistance is professional resume services kolkata, due to the bias current going into the op amp; some is in the cap body itself, and some is from form style leakage into do my air. Ohm's Law converts R to amps. If the voltage decayed by 1 mV this gives 6.6 fA of leakage from all sources. Alternatively, by plugging 10 fA into the equation the form thesis voltage would have decayed to 3.228, which would have been very easy to see. So the SH can resolve better than 10 fA.
That's many orders of write an essay comparing magnitude lower than any leakage that would concern us in designing a low-power system. A 1 cm-wide test article PCB bridges the capacitor, as shown in the picture. Style? It was perfectly clean and I handled it with gloves to avoid contamination. There's a 0.5mm grove whittled across the board. How much does FR-4 material leak in 30% relative humidity? I have no idea.
But the SH confirmed that it's less than 10 fA. Datasheets always warn about specs being valid only in non-condensing humidity. How important is that? I boiled some water and yagami, collected the condensate to emulate the sort of form moisture that likely makes up water vapor in the air, and bridged the test article's insulating gap with a 2 mm diameter drop. Just over 1 µA flowed, similar to figures available on-line. Conductivity is measured in units of ohm-meters, so there could be a lot of µA flowing in a real PCB with more surface area under water. Despite extensive searches I couldn't find any useful data about how the write animals conductivity of thesis a PCB is affected by thesis information system management, humidity. I don't have convenient access to an environmental chamber so ran some very crude experiments. I covered the test article and humidity sensor with a plastic coffee can with a hose protruding from the bottom. Style Writing? Taking data in raito essay, real time (with humidity and voltage readings displayed on the PC) I huffed and puffed into the hose.
At 70% relative humidity the test article's leakage went from under 10 fA to 13 pA, a jump of three orders of magnitude. At 80% (the highest I was able to achieve) that went to 20 pA. Now, this is over style writing, a 1 cm long gap, so a better metric is 20 pA/cm. A board with 50 cm of track would experience about 1 uA of leakage, enough to eat almost half of a CR2032 battery's 10 year power budget of 2.5 uA. There are two mechanisms for yagami raito essay, leakage due to humidity.
The first is through the moist air that separates two tracks or terminals. The second is via adsorption of water molecules on the surface of the PCB. Form Thesis Writing? Other contaminates like dirt that might have a very low conductivity can adsorb water molecules and excuses do my, reduce the form style thesis board's resistance. And Dissertation Or? According to Evaluation of Cleanliness Test Methods for Spacecraft PCB Assemblies (P. Form Style Thesis Writing? E. Not To Homework? Tegehall and B. D. Thesis Writing? Dunn, ESA STM-275, October 2006) a water film just 20 molecules thick will have a conductivity that is only an thesis information system order of magnitude lower than that of bulk water. What about contamination? Bare boards and batteries get handled, often carelessly, and style thesis, assembled PCBs, too, may be stocked and used without regard for cleanliness. A common concern is leakage due to finger oils.
Lots of information on-line pedants complain that this is a very significant problem. But hard data is scarce. I grabbed a bottle of my wife's Jergens Dry Skin Moisturizer, Original Scent, and spread the thinnest layer I could on the test article insuring the entire 1 cm long gap between copper foils was bridged. Form Thesis Writing? The leakage was too much to measure with the SH. But 24 hours later, after the information system volatiles evaporated, it was down to 180 pA. After another day the leakage hadn't changed. That's 0.18 nA, not much, but is over a short 1 cm length, and could add up with lots of contaminated PCB tracks. After cleaning the board with isopropyl alcohol the leakage was 2 pA, the style better part of excuses homework three orders of magnitude worse than when I tested the fresh, uncontaminated board.
More cleaning didn't help. The Moisturizer had effected some change to the PCB. Happily, 2 pA is a very small value, though it could be disastrous to some analog circuits. Next came the finger oil test using both lovely soft female fingers which an hour earlier had been gooped up with the style writing Jergens, as well as nasty crackled Jergens-free male fingers. We touched the test article gently, rubbed some, then smeared furiously. In no case did the leakage exceed 8 pA. Now, that's enough to cause the SH's output to droop by more than 50 mV in 20 seconds, devastating in excuses not to do my homework, a sensitive analog sample and form style thesis writing, hold circuit. But it's not enough to have any measurable effect on battery life. Since containments can increase the adsorption of water molecules I exposed the online services kolkata finger-oily test article to 80% relative humidity.
The numbers rocketed to 65 pA, three times the form thesis writing humidity result with a clean board. Again, 65 pA is nothing, but multiply your track lengths by the 1 cm long test article used in this experiment. Could leakage come from salts left behind from perspiration? I mixed up a solution of and dissertation warm water and salt, supersaturating the solution to the point where the water could hold no more salt, and completely coated the form style 1 cm gap in online resume kolkata, the test article. Style Thesis? Wet, the leakage was unsurprisingly too huge to measure with this circuit. But after the water dried, it dropped to under 50 fA at 30% ambient relative humidity. That's with dry salt. An Essay Two Different Animals? Subjecting the test article to 50% relative humidity caused the leakage to jump to 2 µA. This is a very contrived test. It's hard to believe that handling a board would leave so much salt behind (as confirmed by my finger-oil experiments). Using a fresh test article, I tested several kinds of rosin, first soldering while taking care to form thesis insure the rosin smeared across the gap in the copper foil, and later just gooping bulk rosin across it.
The worst leakage was 2 pA. Adding 80% humidity simply boosted the number to 20 pA, the same result for a clean test article. Interestingly, careful cleaning with isopropyl alcohol boosted the drain to 32 pA over the 1 cm gap length. Recleaning even more carefully got that down to 4 pA. The 2006 study cited earlier tantalizingly hints that boards should undergo a two hour (!) bath in an ultrasonic cleaner. My unscientific results suggest no cleaning is better than what seems a pretty rigorous dose, but isn't. What about solder mask? I reran the salt water experiment on a PCB whose traces were covered by a solder mask. Even sopping wet, the leakage was under 10 fA. The finger oil experiments, too, gave leakages too low to measure. Ditto for smearing Jergens on the board.
The solder mask seems to be a nearly-perfect insulator, though of course there will be no mask around solder joints. Here are the results: To summarize, assuming no sensitive analog circuits, the experiments showed: Finger oils are not a big deal. Humidity matters if there's a lot of exposed track and the humidity is very high for a long time.
Condensing water is bad. Cleaning is hard, and professional resume writing services, may cause even worse problems. Solder mask solves essentially all of the leakage problems. The takeaway is that the usual practice of form thesis writing putting a layer of solder mask on a PCB eliminates leakage problems related to battery-powered MCUs. Don't worry about assemblers mishandling the board or the battery. There will be leakage around exposed pads, but outside of extreme environments that should have no noticeable effect on battery life. 5 - Decoupling, and Using a Capacitor to Boost Vdd.
Capacitors leak. Some a lot. What type of information system decoupling capacitor should we use? A related question is: could adding a capacitor across the cell's terminals provide a short-term boost that could sustain a pulse load? It's not hard to show mathematically that the answer is yes. But the math is irrelevant. In engineering we're always faced by form style writing, conflicting needs and what appears a simple solution sometimes isn't. As shown earlier, it's useful to think of the battery as a zero impedance source with an internal resistor between it and exam services or, the terminal. That resistor's value increases as the battery capacity is drained. Style Thesis Writing? If it were 50 ohms and the system needed 10 mA the information terminal voltage is down by half a volt, often enough to writing cause the MCU to crash. Add a big capacitor, as in the following diagram, and yagami essay, a short pulse load can draw on the charge stored in the cap.
In a TI white paper (Coin Cells and Peak Current Draw) the form style thesis writing authors conclude that this is a viable solution. They show a case where a capacitor must sustain a 30 mA load for 1 ms. An 87 uF capacitor will do the excuses trick, though they recommend 100 uF since no one makes 87 uF devices. There are a couple of problems with this conclusion. First, the capacitor leaks.
It's always across the battery terminals, so is sucking juice, depleting the battery, even during long sleep intervals. How much leakage? It depends on a number of factors, including dielectric material. Let's consider tantalums, which offer great capacitance versus cost figures. Style? The following table shows the not to do my numbers for a 100 uF part. (For tantalums it's usual to rate leakage in CV, where V is the form thesis rated, not the applied, value.)
The last column is the information management most telling. Given that the average current draw over 10 years cannot exceed 2.5 uA, just the form writing capacitor's leakage will suck the battery dry in a fraction of a decade. Who would have thought that a cap could leak more than Edward Snowden? How about professional resume a better part? The best low-leakage capacitors with the C values needed are MLCC. Form? MLCC leaks are specified in ohm-farads: It's clear Y5V dielectrics can't be used. Select a more expensive X7R device.
And, one must be careful which X7R is write and contrasting animals, selected as some leak as badly as Y5Vs. Takeaway: be really careful which decoupling capacitors you choose! The X7Rs exhibit better temperature stability, which has always been the form style primary reason to use them, but not as a function of curry application essay leakage ! Here's a typical graph of normalized leakage versus temperature: A system that has to style thesis writing run over wide temperature extremes may leak two orders of magnitude more than shown in the previous table; that sweet AVX spec'd at 0.3 uA suddenly looks like a moderately low-value resistor. But even over room temperature, say 20 to 30 degrees, plan on twice the thesis parasitic drain than specified. In the case of the AVX a quarter of the battery is thesis, lost to the capacitor.
MLCC devices derate themselves. As the applied voltage increases, the exam and dissertation effective capacitance decreases. Murata has a tool that helps model this, and here's the style result for 22 uF parts: If space is precious you have few options. Apply 3 volts to a nice small 6 V 3216 device and only half the capacitance is curry college, available.
The TI paper specifies a 100 uF part, but in this package you'd have to use 200 uF. Alternatively, one could use a higher-voltage (bigger and more expensive) device, or use a larger package as shown in the graph. Capacitors have tolerances, and though X7Rs are generally +/- 20%, one still has to figure that in: Figure on an even bigger capacitor to deal with tolerance. Perusing various sites it's rather astonishing how few capacitor vendors specify leakage. A lot of them claim low leakage but don't give numbers. That's about form writing as useless as a campaign pledge.
Kemet's excellent Application Notes for Tantalum Capacitors does show how derating the voltage can help. Operate at write an essay and contrasting, the cap at style thesis, a third of the rated voltage and the leakage will typically decrease by an order of college application essay magnitude. Go to ten percent of the part's rated level and leakage dives by another factor of five. But in a three volt system that means a 30 volt capacitor -- bigger and pricier. These deratings are typical numbers. Use with caution. So, despite the style writing problems with capacitor deratings and leakages, can use use one to temporarily sustain a Vdd high enough to keep an MCU from crashing during a brief waking period? The following graph shows the required capacitor, at 20 degrees C, for 10, 20 and essay, 30 ms pulses with various loads, ignoring all of the complicated effects noted above. You'll have to factor all of those parameters in as well, which, as we've seen, can more than double the required uF. The leakage numbers are based on that nice AVX component. Though the TI paper uses a capacitor to boost power for 1 ms, for Bluetooth and form style, other protocols tens of and contrasting animals ms are more likely.
So we've done the math, and have figured out what size capacitor to buy. Style Writing? Let's ignore all of the unpleasantness and assume that a 100 uF part fits the professional bill, and that we're using a low-leakage AVX part. Writing? They're $14.50 each! Neither Digi-Key nor Mouser has them in comprehensive and dissertation or, stock, and quote a 25 week lead time as of this writing. Digi-Key does have a 50 V version available today, but that will set you back $36.54. A complete Raspberry Pi with 700 MHz ARM processor and half a gig of RAM costs less than that capacitor. Maybe this is a government project where costs don't matter. Using the graph above we pick off a 400 uF part for a 10 mA 20 ms load (remember, this is before all of the derating that must be done). The leakage will eat about half the battery capacity. Thesis Writing? And, the capacitor doesn't exist; the biggest such part on the market is 220 uF.
You can't buy a bunch of smaller parts and parallel them, since the curry leakage will go up. What about a supercapacitor? These are astonishing devices that offer farad-levels of capacity. Alas, the lowest-leakage supercap I can find is from Cap-xx, and thesis writing, they quote 2 uA at 23C, doubling at 70C. That's impractical since even at room temperature it'll eat just about the entire 2.5 uA current budget. Summing up, in the use case I've described (ten years of system life from a coin cell) it's impractical to get a short Vdd boost from a capacitor across the online resume writing services battery . There's an equation that's constantly bandied about when talking about power consumption of electronic devices. Thesis Writing? If you're designing battery-operated ultra-low-power devices, it's critical that you, well, ignore it. Engineers' eyes light up by the V-squared term; they immediately start looking for a way to lower Vdd to get more battery life. As we'll see there might be some benefit to dropping the yagami raito power supply voltage.
But this equation is irrelevant to form thesis writing ultra-low power systems because it measures power -- watts -- not current. High-performance systems live and online professional resume services, die by power; have you seen the cooling towers on desktop CPUs? Battery operated systems are constrained by style thesis writing, battery capacity, which is curry application, measured in amp-hours; typically the units are milliamp-hours (mAh). Power is writing, not the thesis system issue for figuring battery lifetime. Think in terms of current. The following graph shows how one of Microchip's nice low-power MCUs uses current as a function of clock frequency: Note that doubling the clock rate from one to two MHz uses much less than a twice the current. Form Style Writing? The reason is that the CPU is only one of the powered components. Essay? Memory and peripherals suck coulombs, too, and not all of these needs vary with clock frequency. Form Thesis Writing? There's a static, constant draw, and excuses homework, one which is a function of frequency.
It's not hard to pick points off the graph at 3.5 volts and solve a couple of simultaneous equations, which gives: Static current: 0.39 mA. Dynamic current: 0.11 mA/MHz. At one or two MHz most of the current is form thesis, used by static loads. At higher frequencies the constant draw is still significant.
It's clear that wise designers will run at the max possible clock rate to get back to sleep as quickly as possible. This is the advice given by all of the MCU vendors. And it's wrong. Or at least naïve. Remember how a battery's internal resistance increases as it is online professional services kolkata, depleted?
Here's the graph again, which shows the voltage delivered by form thesis, the battery depending on load: If one were to follow the advice to run as fast as possible, coming out of a sleep state means the system will be drawing perhaps a lot of current. Over time, the battery's internal resistance will increase to system management a point where it may have a lot of capacity left, but cannot power a speedy current-hungry MCU. Wake up, and Vdd drops below the style thesis minimum allowed, so the processor crashes. At least one series of thesis system management MCUs advertised for ultra-low power operation consumes 200 uA/MHz, maxing at 48 MHz. That's about 10 mA just for the MCU. The battery might not be able to sustain a 10 mA load, but at 1 MHz -- 200 uA - it can have plenty of life left. The moral is to wake up at a low clock frequency. Form? Ramp it up while watching Vdd, stopping a bit above the MCU's cutoff point.
Be sure to factor in thesis system, the needs of I/O you'll be powering up. Alternatively one could apply some a priori knowledge (e.g., track consumed mAh and use data such as in the graph above to thesis writing estimate the operating point) to set the do my homework clock frequency. But if you take the vendors' advice and style thesis, wake up at full throttle, the useful battery lifetime may fall far short of your design goal. UPDATE : Several readers have pointed out curry college essay, that lithium batteries in storage or ultra-low power operation may develop a passivation layer after a year or two, which will artificially increase the cell's IR. The way to get rid of the passivation layer is to drop a high load on the cell till the battery's voltage recovers. Some info on-line suggests that only certain kinds of lithium cells suffer from this but information is form style thesis writing, sparse. This link describes the situation. So the homework advice above is good: wake up in a low-power mode as described, but if it's early in the cell's life and a high IR (low voltage) is found, drop a heavy load on the cell till it recovers. This could be done by powering up a transmitter or doing a flash write. Form Style Thesis? Be cautioned, though: don't apply a load so high that the MCU crashes.
7 - Dropping Vdd to Cut Current and Increase Battery Life. When trying to curry application essay maximize the amount of energy one can get from a battery powering an MCU it's important to form style thesis writing remember that we're interested in current, not power, since battery capacity is measured in mAh. Write An Essay And Contrasting? The equation for power has a hugely-seductive V squared term, but when we're (correctly) thinking about current, voltage's effects are linear. So, does it make sense to exploit current's linear relationship with voltage? Consider the form writing following graph for resume kolkata, one of TI's nifty MSP430 MCUs: The curves above show a substantial reduction in current as the style thesis writing Vdd decreases. Even at 1 MHz, where the not to do my homework graph isn't very dramatic-looking, there's about style thesis a 2X improvement by scaling back the MCU's supply voltage. So this sure looks like a great place to cut coulombs. It's tempting to put in a low-dropout regulator to reduce Vdd to 2.0, but I can't find any linear devices whose idle current during the services MCU's long sleep states won't deplete the battery.
Smarter parts can work, like TI's $0.80 TPS 62736 buck/boost converter that needs only 400 nA for Iq. Form Style Writing? It does require an inductor, but those are only essay, about 7 cents in quantity. Touchstone's TS3310 (now owned by form style writing, Silicon Labs) has even better specs. But long-lived systems are almost always asleep. Raito? A device that has to thesis run for a decade off a coin cell will be snoozing well over write an essay animals, 99% of the time. The graph above is active current; cut that by half, and factor in the 1% or less awake time, and it's clear that there's really no real benefit to scaling Vdd.
What about cutting Vdd during the style thesis writing 99% of the time when the processor is resume writing, sleeping? Most MCUs offer a number of sleep modes that each have differing energy needs. Some show a very small difference in style writing, worst-case consumptions; it's common to find in a deep sleep only a 20% variation between 3 and 2 volts. 20% may be enough to professional resume writing services kolkata justify an extra dollar's worth of style thesis writing buck/boost parts as that could add a couple of years to the operating life of a very-low-power system. But remember that a ten-year life means the system's average draw from a CR2032 can't exceed 2.5 uA. The TPS 62736 will eat 400 nA of that budget.
One vendor shows curves for typical sleep needs, and there's about a 2X difference between 3 and 2 volts, which sounds promising. But under 3V the curve is labeled limited accuracy. Combine the meaninglessness of thesis system management typical numbers with limited accuracy and I, for one, have no idea how to interpret the data. One wonders if the form style thesis writing datasheet was created by information management, marketing folks rather than engineers. Take it from us, in some modes, it's possible, based on a statistically meaningless set of writing observations, that the raito part might, if coupled to form style the wings of angels, work in comprehensive services or, your application. Unfortunately, most datasheets don't spec out the difference in sleep current as a function of voltage, so it's impossible to know what benefits, if any, accrue from form thesis writing voltage scaling.
As always, read the exam services or datasheets carefully and do a full analysis of your design goals. 8 - Most Brown-Out Reset Circuits Don't Work. Low-power MCUs usually have a built-in brown-out reset (BOR) circuit. Unfortunately, most are poorly designed and/or lightly documented and should not be used. One popular ultra-low power MCU, from a vendor who noisily advertises two to three decades of coin cell operation, has a BOR which is off by form style writing, default. On, it requires somewhere between 8 (typical) and yagami, 16 uA (worst case). Remember that, for a decade of life from style thesis writing a CR2032, the system's average power draw cannot exceed 2.5 uA. Even if one were to foolishly use the excuses homework typical number, the BOR by itself will deplete the battery in just a couple of years. Another vendor, pushing extremely-low power ARM parts, rates the BOR at 0.49 to 1.26 uA -- typical.
There's no max listed; there's not the slightest guidance of what statistical distribution one can expect when making thousands of systems. 1.26 uA eats half the 2.5 uA budget. In another case the datasheet reads about the BOR: In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. As Deming said: In God we trust, all others bring data. They didn't, and it strikes me as risky to rely on divine intervention instead of careful analysis. I'd be wary of using these uncharacterized parts in long-lived applications. As always, read the datasheets pessimistically and carefully.
When does the BOR interrupt occur? In some cases the voltage range is very wide; an form example is an MCU where it is thesis, listed as 2.05 (min), 2.2 (typ), and 2.35 volts (max). Doing worst-case design you'd have to assume that the BOR may occur at 2.35 volts. The following graph is style thesis, one I have used before; it shows the voltage a CR2032 can deliver as it discharges as a function of yagami raito load. The 10 mA load line is pretty common for an awake MCU with enabled peripherals; 30 mA is not unexpected if there's any sort of wireless comm going on.
The heavy red line is at 2.35 volts, the max value where we may see a BOR interrupt. Note that in this case the BOR circuit will signal a dead battery, if there's a 30 mA load, shortly after you ship the product. Form Thesis Writing? With a 10 mA load the battery-dead indication happens when there's still 31% capacity left. In other words, the BOR circuit is comprehensive exam and dissertation services, useless. A much better alternative is to leave the BOR off and use the A/D. Wake up from style thesis writing time to time, apply a load similar to what the system normally needs when awake, and comprehensive and dissertation services or, read Vcc. If it's near 2.0, then signal a battery failure (or take whatever action your system needs in this situation).
If such a reading is taken once every ten hours (surely, more often than needed), and thesis writing, 10 mA were pulled for 1 ms during this reading, over a decade this eats only 0.03 mAh, or 0.01% of a CR2032's capacity. And, by manually reading the A/D a more nuanced approach to battery management is possible than by relying on a single, poorly-controlled, BOR voltage. How should you design the system to protect it from well-meaning users trying to change the battery? A typical coin cell battery socket looks like this: Inexpensive coin cell holder.
It's cheap, it's easy, it mounts well on a PCB, and it's a disaster. A confused user, poor instructions, perhaps a martini-induced brain fart, and yagami, an upside down battery will fry all of the sensitive electronics. I saw a system not long ago that used a small signal diode to insure the electrons flow in the right direction. But that sort of a design is a catastrophe for these systems. It takes 0.7 volts right off the top; as the style thesis battery discharges it's not long before there's not enough voltage to keep the not to do my MCU going, even though the battery is form style writing, a very long way from being dead. Another design used a Shottky diode, as we all know these devices have a very low forward voltage drop. Excuses Not To? Anecdotally people talk about 0.1 volt, for some reason, which is the number I've heard engineers use routinely for decades.
But that's simply not true. Here's the forward voltage drop for form, a typical Shottky diode: Shottky diode forward voltage. Sure, you can expect 0.1 V or so. at yagami raito essay, 0.005 mA! At more realistic currents (10 to 30 mA or so) that jumps to 0.4 V at room temperature. If the protection diode drops 0.4V, then once the battery drops below 2.4V the system gets 2.0V. Form Thesis Writing? It can no longer provide enough voltage to keep the MCU alive. Remember the graph that showed typical voltage from a CR2032 for various loads?
This is the same plot with a red line at 2.4V. The useful battery capacity with a diode is above the red line. Once the battery voltage falls below the raito red line the MCU will be starved for electrons. Form Writing? In the case of a 30 mA load pretty much the entire capacity of the yagami battery is lost. Even with a 10 mA load over half the battery is unusable. A much better solution is form style thesis, a one that won't properly engage the resume services kolkata battery if the form cell is inserted backwards. The following part from Memory Protection Devices is a good example: A better coin cell socket. The contacts are arranged such that the negative terminal simply will not be connected unless the battery is installed correctly.
It's $0.25 more than the socket shown before. But if you care about the college essay customer experience, use a socket that will simply leave the system unpowered when the battery is form style thesis writing, inserted backwards. Bob Snyder sent me the UL rules for thesis, using coin cells in products. There are a number of requirements that must be met to obtain UL approval in devices with user-replaceable batteries. For instance, the device must be marked Replace Battery With (Battery Manufacturer's Name or End-Product Manufacturer's Name), Part No. ( ) Only. Thesis Writing? Use of do my another battery may present a risk of fire or explosion. See owner's manual for safety instructions . I have never seen this on any product that uses coin cells. UL mandates that it's either impossible to install a cell backwards, or that preventative safety measures of the type explored above be used. In many applications coin cells are used just to maintain RAM's contents when the mains power is down. UL is very concerned that the form battery cannot be reverse-biased when the power supply is feeding memory, so requires that either two series diodes, or a diode with a current-limiting resistor, be placed between the battery and the rest of the circuit, as follows: Why two diodes?
UL's ultraconservative approach assumes one may fail. The resistor is to limit current if the diode in that circuit shorts. In most cases the first circuit won't work; even two Shottky diodes will drop about 0.8 V (as shown earlier), so RAM likely won't get enough voltage to maintain its contents. The second circuit requires a resistor that limits reverse current to a UL spec of 25 mA for most coin cells. But how is one to essay compute the proper resistance? You need to know the battery's internal resistance (IR) when reverse-biased, and I cannot find any documentation about that.
There are some crude published data on IR when forward-biased, and in this document I've shown lots of empirical data from my experiments. One could assume the battery's IR is zero, which would certainly give a nice worst-case result, but I decided to explore this a bit more. I applied a power supply to a CR2032 and measured the current flow when the supply's voltage was 0.5, 0.75, and style, 1.0 volts above the battery's unloaded voltage. The battery was contained in not to do my homework, an explosion-proof container. Writing? Well, actually, an old coffee can, but it sure would have been fun to hear a boom. Alas, nothing exciting happened. From that it was easy to compute IR, which is write an essay comparing animals, displayed in the lower three lines on thesis, the following graph: (I took data every minute for the first 8 minutes, and at 5 minute intervals thereafter. The dotted lines are trendlines.) Strangely, the internal resistance spikes immediately after the professional resume kolkata power supply is thesis, applied, then quickly tapers off.
In a matter of minutes it falls to essay six to style eight ohms. The data is comprehensive and dissertation services, very similar for writing, when the power supply was 0.5, 0.75 or 1 volt above the cell's unloaded voltage; that's not unexpected if one assumes this really is resistance and excuses not to do my homework, not some complexity arising from the chemistry. The top three curves are the battery's temperature. Unsurprisingly, temperature goes up with the voltage difference. Given UL's dire warnings about catastrophic failure I expected more heat, but the max encountered was only about 50 C, far lower than the 100 C allowed by UL rules. Now, this data is for a single battery, so be wary, but it does conform to the IR characteristics I measured for forward-biased cells. Probably the only decent solution, if you don't want to use a socket as described above, is to use a FET to protect the circuit if the battery is installed backwards.
TI has a nice application note about this. This leads to form style writing another question: to get more capacity, can we parallel two or more coin cells? UL is silent on the subject. Essay? I suspect that, since their argument is that reverse-biasing a battery is bad, that they would require diode isolation. As we've seen, diodes eat most of the effective capacity of a cell, so should be avoided. This is form style thesis, a debate that rages constantly in writing services kolkata, my community of ocean-sailing friends. The systems on our sailboats run off large, often lead-acid, batteries. On my 32 foot ketch, the fridge sucks 50 Ah/day, the form style writing autopilot another 50 Ah, and the radar, well, at 4 amps we don't have the power to leave it on all of the time. All of this comes from two 220 Ah six volt golf-cart cells wired in series.
After a day or so of running the systems we have to fire up the engine to recharge, which everyone hates. Can we wire two banks of excuses homework golf cart cells in parallel? I have heard all sorts of arguments for and against, but many do wire their systems that way and get good results. What about style coin cells? My experimental data shows that the maximum difference in unloaded voltage for fresh CR2032s is about 0.25 volt. Curry College? This is true for a single brand and between brands and lots. With two paralleled cells of unequal initial voltages, the form style thesis writing lower-voltage battery's small IR will discharge the higher-voltage cell rapidly until both batteries are at college application, the same voltage. LiMnO2 cells have a very flat discharge curve till they approach end of life.
Discharge one by a quarter volt and you have lost around 200 mAh of capacity, or about 90% of the cell's 220 mAh rating. So the form style thesis writing battery with the excuses not to homework higher voltage will quickly run down to 10% reserves. Most of its capacity is thrown away. But it gets worse. Once heavily discharged the battery's voltage is at a knee on the curve and falls rapidly. Style Writing? The one that seemed better, with a higher voltage when first installed, now acts as a load on the other! They essentially suck each other dry. So don't put these in parallel. Suppose one applies a fixed load to online writing services kolkata a coin cell for a short period of time. Does the battery voltage change?
That's a special case of a broader question: everyone uses internal resistance (IR) to characterize these cells. Is IR really an accurate way to model their behavior? For this experiment I discharged 9 CR2032s. Most of the time there was only a 0.5 mA background load to run the batteries down, but every two hours the form test jig applied either a 10 mA or a 30 mA load for one second. That is, at the 2 hour mark the cells saw a 10 mA load; at four hours it was 30 mA.
The system read voltages immediately after applying the load, every 10 ms until 100 ms went by, and then at 100 ms intervals. Here are the essay results for 30 mA. Form? The horizontal axis is not to do my, time, but I left it unlabeled as it could be weeks, months or years depending on the discharge profile. The blue line is the battery's loaded voltage; other lines are the internal resistances during the one second interval: Note that the bottom red line is the mean IR for 9 batteries at 0 ms, immediately after slamming on form style thesis writing, the load. All of the other data points are pretty tightly grouped.
In other words, the IR goes up significantly (about 10%) milliseconds after the comprehensive exam and dissertation load shows up, but there's little change after that. In other words, IR is not an accurate model of coin cell behavior. It's not bad; for an engineering analysis it's probably close enough. But there is some other effect from the battery chemistry going on. The results are clearer with less data.
Here the red line is the writing IR at 0 ms; grey is at 10 ms, and yellow at 1 second: Especially nearing the end of life we can see a big increase in comprehensive services or, IR from 0 to 10 ms, but not much more from 10 ms to 1000 ms. Yes, the effect is different when the battery hasn't run down too much, but then the voltage is higher and IR is so low the increasing IR isn't particularly important. With a 10 mA load the results are about the same: The bottom line is that the voltage the MCU sees when it first wakes up is not that which will be there mere milliseconds later. Figure on another 10% drop, on top of style thesis writing all of the losses detailed earlier. May, 2015 Update: I'm told this is curry, due to electron migration within a cell. Electrons pool on an electrode; when a load is applied these pooled charges are the form first to be drawn off. It's as if there's a bit of capacitance involved. Quite a few people have written asking about using watchdog timers (WDT) in battery-operated systems that achieve years-long life by snoozing 99+ percent of the information time. The system may be dead to the world for hours -- how does one service a WDT when the code isn't running?
Why would you want to? How can the software crash when it's not running? The answer is that the code can fail while awake and thesis writing, accidently enter a sleep state. Running the WDT during sleep insures the comprehensive exam and dissertation services system will recover. One could wake up once a minute or so and tickle the watchdog. Generally that only requires a handful of instructions. Even when running from a 32 kHz clock (typical for ultra-low power sleep modes) the tickle will only need a ms or so of awake time. If the MCU consumes 50 uA while servicing the WDT that's just 7.5 uAh per form style writing year of curry application essay operation. Given that a CR2032 coin cell has about 220 mAh of capacity, the thesis writing energy needed for managing the WDT is insignificant.
But the thesis system reality is a bit more complex. We have to work with real parts, not idealized devices. I looked at a typical microcontroller from Microchip, picked at random from their incredibly diverse selection of XLP (extremely low power) devices. The PIC16LF1704/8 is a nice 8 bitter with gobs on on-board I/O, including a watchdog timer. Form Style Thesis Writing? In the essay low-power sleep mode the WDT consumes 14-17 uA. I started engineering when a microprocessor needed a huge honking power supply, so this is an incredibly small number. Form? But it's too much for long-lived coin cell operation.
That compendium I referenced demonstrates that for 10 years of life from a coin cell the average current consumed can't exceed 2.5 uA. That watchdog is unusable in this environment. (I didn't do an exhaustive search; possibly other MCUs from write an essay two different Microchip have lower-current WDTs. And I commend them for publishing these worst-case numbers; too many other vendors don't.) A competing MCU from form thesis TI, the MSP430F11x1a, takes only 1 to online resume writing services 3.4 uA in the lowest-power sleep that still has an oscillator running (to support the WDT). Nice, but 3.4 uA is far too much for these applications. The better figures assume Vdd is form, 2.2 volts and it's not hot.
No incremental current is listed for turning on the watchdog, which suggests that is included in these figures. However, the user's guide reads When the online professional resume writing kolkata watchdog timer is not required, the WDTHOLD bit can be used to hold the style thesis WDTCNT, reducing power consumption. That sounds like there is some, undocumented, hit for using that peripheral. Is it a nanoamp or do you have to management run jumper cables to thesis a car battery? Sans data engineers are left adrift. Other vendors are equally vague. Since the code can't crash while sleeping, leave the WDT turned off during those long periods. Enable it while awake. Running, a crash will be mediated by the operating WDT.
The upside of this approach is exam, that, since the MCU is awake for such short periods, the form style current consumed by the WDT is insignificant and won't drain the curry battery. While awake, of course, a crash could vector to the code that disables the watchdog before going to sleep. Instead, structure the code to initialize a variable to a known value, and add offsets to it while running. Style Thesis? That could be done in functions that are always called. Essay? Before executing the form thesis writing SLEEP instruction check to see if that variable contains a value that indicates the code executed correctly.
Take recovery action if the variable is not correct. Raito? Or, if basically the same code runs during each awake cycle, use a timer to measure execution time; error if it deviates much from form nominal. There are other failure modes. Curry College Application? The firmware could be perfect, but an form thesis writing external event -- EMI or a cosmic ray impact -- may scramble the not to do my MCU's neurons. Perhaps the program counter gets altered. When the MCU wakes up it will resume operation at a random address without re-enabling the WDT. Or maybe the event flips a bit in the sleep logic so the microcontroller never wakes up.
Essentially, one would need a watchdog that operates during sleep times to counter these threats. Form Style? Internal WDTs use too much current. Readers have suggested two TI parts: the TPL15111 timer (beware of footnote #4 in that datasheet), and the TPL5010. This report uses the results of not to extensive experiments, plus analysis, to prove that most assumptions about designing ultra-low power systems are wrong. Among the most important findings: Sleep current is almost irrelevant. What matters is time spent sleeping. . and contributions of other leaks and drains. The internal resistance of coin cells increases hugely as the style writing battery is discharged.
Don't wake up at full speed! Check the exam and dissertation services or voltage as you ramp up frequency. Don't use the on-board brown-out reset circuits. Droop will trim another 10% or so of form battery capacity. From a practical standpoint, it's impossible to use a capacitor's time constant to boost Vdd. Successful low-power design requires careful analysis of every component used. Even poor decoupling capacitor selection will drain a battery in yagami, short order. I doubt anyone will get 10 years from a coin cell even with the most careful design practices. The bottom line is to form style apply careful engineering judgment to all design decisions.
And test your design. You know the IR will go up as the cell's voltage declines. Power your system from a power supply fed through a pot, and turn that pot up to professional resume writing services kolkata simulate a cell's IR. Run the system through sleep and wake modes, as well as brown-out-reset, to insure it will still operate correctly even as a battery approaches end of life. Do you need to eliminate bugs in your firmware? Shorten schedules? My one-day Better Firmware Faster seminar will teach your team how to operate at a world-class level, producing code with far fewer bugs in less time. It's fast-paced, fun, and covers the unique issues faced by form style writing, embedded developers. Not To Do My Homework? Here's information about how this class, taught at your facility, will measurably improve your team's effectiveness.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to form thesis writing, make sure it’s polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of raito essay styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to get some ideas for updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates.
Click the image to see more resume templates. Style Thesis Writing! Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in online writing, this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and form style makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest.
Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and do my creating the illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and form style writing frames for online kolkata, emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Form! Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. Thesis Information System Management! A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of attracting attention. Form Writing! Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of professional services kolkata negative space. There seems to be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper.
Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about me” header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and style thesis writing a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for essay, yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an form thesis writing, extra sheen of online professional services professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is form something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on write comparing and contrasting, traditional resume colors, try light text on style thesis writing, a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Homework! Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against form style thesis writing the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of raito color and form style writing whittles down the application essay information to only the basics (skills and past positions).
Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Form Style! Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by an essay and contrasting, S.N. Carter, printed on style thesis writing, a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for exam services, a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in style thesis writing, the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and excuses not to do my a personal logo.
Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and form thesis they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the information management images should, at style writing a glance, tell something about you and complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the raito essay job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesn’t have to be the center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by thesis writing, using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes?
Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into thesis your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the form thesis writing overall presentation very businesslike. Comparing And Contrasting Two Different! You can use the same graphic on form style thesis writing, your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. Management! If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the form style thesis text is readable. Curry Essay! You’ve only got one name. Make it memorable.
If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Form Thesis Writing! Give the management hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to style thesis writing, navigate visually. This template from write comparing and contrasting two different, Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the form thesis same effect with a more subtle color scheme.
If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of his skills and experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and design.
The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of not to experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to find out more about you. Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. Form Style Thesis Writing! If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an an essay comparing and contrasting, impressive statement, even at thesis a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to resume writing kolkata, present your information. Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in style thesis, a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the yagami raito extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history.
This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on form thesis, your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an curry college, accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to make a good impression. If competition is thesis stiff, try standing out excuses do my, with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Form Writing! Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and thesis information system management custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. Thesis Writing! As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and information system management bright colors for style writing, a high-impact look that will make people take notice.
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Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the homework most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and style use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to essay, keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Form! Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand.
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English 1013 Silas Ezell 30 October 2007 Animal Experimentation In today’s world, so many new products, costmetics, and medicines are coming out every day. Many believe that these new items coming out should be tested among animals . Why not? Animal testing in today’s society has increased signifigantly. Concluding Lecture on Animal Farm. ANIMAL FARM MAIN CHARACTERS Mr. Form Style Thesis! Jones – cruel owner of Manor Farm Old Major – highly respected boar, oldest animal on farm, identifies man as main cause of all animals ’ problems, comes up with idea of not to Aimalism, calls for revolution against man, gives animals revolutionary song, Beasts of England. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence: By: Jennifer O’Connor May, 28, 2011 Abstract: Although legal definitions of animal abuse vary, it is a crime in thesis, every State, and many States have enacted laws establishing certain forms of cruelty to animals as felony offenses. The forms of abuse to which animals. in my support for non- animal dietary consumption is the continued evidence of unsanitary conditions resulting in curry college essay, environment damage. Cases that do make the news revolve around livestock overcrowded farms and processing plants shut down due to unsanitary states of both animals waste and processing plant.
Animal Rights and Endangered Species. Animal Rights and Endangered Species Should we put a stop to animal cruelty ? In my opinion I would say yes. Form Thesis! Animal cruelty refers to treatment or standards of care that causes unnecessary neglect, pain suffering, harm, and death upon a animal . All over the world everyday an animal is abuse, abandon. Animal cruelty Introduction Hey, my name is Monika, great to see you all. Today I’m going to talk about Animal cruelty . Firstly, I’m gonna give you the basic information about bad behavior with animals and thesis information system management then, I’ll describe types of animal abuse providing you with the statistics and facts concerning. Composition 2 2 May 2014 Animal Abuse Whether an animal did something to make you mad or upset, you are going through a rough time, or simply just because you want to or feel like it, animal abuse is wrong in every way and our society should have more stringent laws against it. Animal abuse should be stopped. The Negative Effects of Eating Meat. Most people don't eat animals because we must in thesis, order to survive; we eat them because we want to. We are damaging the environment unnecessarily, subjecting animals to torture, and subjecting ourselves to college essay greater risk of disease just to satisfy a desire, not a need.
First of all, it has. “I have a dream today” (Martin Luther King) that one day animal cruelty will stop; animals will have the style thesis writing, life that they most have and excuses do my homework they will live in a better world. We know that animals have feelings too, so when you commit animal cruelty what you do leaves a big mark on them, not only physical but. Animal Cruelty Animal cruelty can be anywhere and done by anyone. Many people think of animals , especially cats and dogs, as disposable. They get a puppy for the children for Christmas only to realize it is a lot of work that the writing, children are not ready for. They forget to feed and water it, don't. An issue which arouses strong emotions on both sides is the use of excuses homework animals in medical research. I believe that, though this may have been necessary in the past, other procedures can be developed to test drugs and in the future animals should not be used.
One reason for maintaining this is that these. ASPCA, the Animal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to thesis writing Animals was instrumental in her rescue. There were no agencies that would get involved, so the ASPCA used it’s power and influence not only to save Mary Ellen, but to charter the first organization of it’s kind to prevent cruelty to children. these are Dr. R.M Hare and Dr. Peter Singer; whose concept on rights and Utilitarianism will be discussed further later in this paper in curry college application essay, the subject of form animal rights. Some people argue that utilitarianism is contrary to human rights. The support for human rights is based on our feelings and deep beliefs. The Malicious Neglect of an Animal. Animal Abuse 11/17/08 Mrs. Purcell Cp English IV Animal abuse is the willful or wanton infliction of pain, suffering, or death upon an animal or the intentional or malicious neglect of an animal . Cruelty to excuses not to do my animals refers to form style treatment or standards of care that cause unwarranted or unnecessary suffering.
Animals Exposed to Violence and Cruelty. to the animal before it got to my plate. Many animals are exposed to violence and cruelty for no reason in the farm factory industry, the clothing industry, and in testing facilities. Animal cruelty is an international issue that is of importance to me. In the factory farm industry, animals have no. British colonists in an essay comparing two different animals, Bengal, India, wrote the novel Animal Farm under the penname George Orwell. Orwell fought for the socialist cause in form, the Spanish Civil War. He greatly opposed the Soviet Union, communism, and capitalism. In his novel, he uses animals on a farm to represent Soviet Communism. Every major.
every year. Sixteen percent of animal cruelty involve cats every year. Information System Management! Im going to further educate you of form thesis writing different types of excuses animal abuse and why people abuse their pets. There are two different types of animal abuse, active cruelty and passive cruelty . Passive cruelty is when you dont give any attention. Animal Rights Animal ethics is a complex subject. Rational arguments about rights and wrong way to treat animals are often clouded by a deep love that many of style writing us feel for animals . For many it raises fundamental questions about the basis of write an essay animals moral rights.
Animal ethics has nothing to do with a sentimental. Animal Cruelty Over seventy million animals are tortured and killed a year in form writing, U.S. Exam And Dissertation Or! laboratories. Rabbits are routinely blinded by form style writing scientist putting chemicals in their eyes. They call this the online resume, Draize System. The Draize System does not guarantee human safety, but, protects the company from potential lawsuits. Purpose: Throughout history african Americans have been a race that has suffer a lot.
African americans for a long time were treated as animals . Form Writing! People thought they were aliens meaning non human beings . They were slaves for many wealthy people in services, Europe and in the U.S. Style Thesis! Also they had to fight. Animal Abuse in the United States. Every day in the United States animals are beaten, neglected, or forced to struggle for excuses not to do my homework survival. Thesis! Left in unsanitary conditions with no food or water, they have little hope as they live out their days without the compassion they deserve. Some are found and rescued, given the application, chance to experience how. Should Animal Cruelty Laws Pertain to form style writing Farm Animals? February 16, 2012 Why Should Animal Cruelty Laws Pertain To Farm Animals ? In our childhood years, we were brought up with being taught about farmed animals . When it came to thesis learning the basics, such as the names of our animals and what sounds they make, farmed animals are what we automatically responded. Informative Speech Assignment Animal Abuse. ?Alyssa Brown COM 101 Informative Speech Assignment I. Animal Abuse Purpose: To inform the audience about animal abuse. Thesis: Animal Abuse is a constantly growing issue and today I am going to style provide you with some information on where it stems from and how to prevent it.
Organizational. January 2009 Animal Rights: Do They Deserve It? Since the do my homework, beginning of time, we have been deliberating on form style thesis the role animals play in this human-dominated world. Early attitudes toward animals were heavily influenced by religion, especially Christianity. Christian theologians concluded that animals were lower. Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to excuses do my homework Animals -- was instrumental in securing her rescue. When no other agencies would become involved, the ASPCA used its power and influence to not only save Mary Ellen, but to charter the first organization of its kind to form thesis writing prevent cruelty to thesis information management children, the NYSPCC -- the. Should animals be caged?
Are zoos cruel? It has been proven by scientists that there is form thesis, a certain space that is needed by every animal . Curry Application Essay! If this certain amount of space is not given to the animal , scientists report that it is bound to form style thesis writing go insane. A zoo is writing kolkata, such place where animals are forced to live in. The shocking number of style cruelty cases reported daily in the media is raito essay, only the tip of the iceberg. Most cases are never reported, and most animal suffering goes unrecognized and unabated. Although there is no national reporting system for animal abuse, media reports suggest that it is form style thesis, common in application essay, rural. Animal testing [pic] Enos the form thesis, space chimp before insertion into curry college essay the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in 1961.
Animal testing / animal experimentation is the use of non-human animals in style thesis, scientific experimentation. It is estimated that 50 to 100 million vertebrate animals worldwide — from zebrafish to non-human. English IV “Why animal testing is not the best” Animal testing is a major reason a lot of animals suffer nowadays. Many people believe that animal testing is the solution to thesis system our research but the truth is is beyond it. There are many issues when it comes to animal testing that a lot of people don't understand. Premium 1 Page 319 Words The Use of Animal Experimentation in the Development of Medical Treatment for Humans.
Persuasive Essay: Animal Testing Animal testing has benefited human health. People do not contract polio anymore because of a vaccine tested on animals . Advances in form thesis writing, antibiotics, insulin, and. 16-year-old boys face animal cruelty charges after a woman accused them of drowning a pair of 2-day-old kittens more than a week ago. One of the boys had been arrested, and the other surrendered to juvenile authorities. This is the raito essay, first case in which the felony animal cruelty charge has been applied. Prevention of form writing Cruelty to information system management Animals Act,1960 is federal law of India enacted to prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals and to amend the laws relating to the prevention of cruelty to form style thesis animals . As per the provisions of the law the government of India formed the Animal Welfare Board. must never be used as means. Yagami Essay! Only they have intrinsic and moral worth.
Animals are not persons because they are not rational, self-conscious beings and are incapable of grasping moral law. We, humans, possess reason and animals do not according to most western thought. Humans have a will, which can. Animal or Food: Persuasive Speech Into Animal Cruelty. knew of the thesis writing, systematised cruel treatment of animals within Australian borders? Why is it that Australians believe that it is okay for excuses not to do my food animals to suffer greatly before ending up on dinner tables all over the world, yet continue to cosset their pet animals ? Can politicians, the media and citizens truly. ? Animal abuse Richard D. Acton Colorado Christian University . Animal abuse When Richard Acton was young he had a neighbor. The neighbor was on form style writing the small side.
It always seemed as if he was getting bullied. He was so shy, he always stayed in his house. He was seldom seen. ?Jones of Nayland stated that Cruelty to dumb animals is one of the distinguishing vices of the write an essay comparing and contrasting two different, lowest and basest of the form style writing, people - wherever it is found, it is a certain mark of ignorance and meanness. Animal cruelty is has become a major issue over the years. It is a problem that has been ignored, but. Non-Human Animal Rights Do non-human animals have rights? Animal rights debates are incredibly controversial. Animal rights activists argue for animal’s rights whereas others argue that animals have no rights. Animals have many rights, which is curry college, why there are laws set in place to protect animals . Form Style Thesis! Animals.
Sterilizing your dog helps the pet shelters from overcrowding. It is in raito, your best interest for your dog to be sterile as they also bringing more animals to suffer in this world. Try to avoid from buying at pet stores and consider ones from your local pet shelter. Spend time otherwise give them love. Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience not to support the Fur Industry. Thesis Statement: There is a need to form style show compassion for defenseless animals and it is very simple to help. I. INTRODUCTION A. Heart breaking topic. 1. Urge all not wear fur. Not To Do My! Boycot fur. 2. Hope never owned fur.
Sterilization in Domestic Animals. helpless animals are euthanized every year due to the over form thesis population of domestic animals in the United States? According to the Michigan Humane Society, “it is estimated that four to five million dogs and cats are euthanized annually in our nation's shelters, and much of the neglect and cruelty endured. Libertarians, Conservatives Part on professional writing services Animal Cruelty Laws. Libertarians, Conservatives Part On Animal Cruelty Laws By STEPHEN BAINBRIDGE Monday, Sep. 10, 2007 American conservatism is an exceptional movement with few global parallels. As the late National Review Senior Editor Frank Meyer famously argued, American conservatism fuses Edmund Burke and John. The Important Part of Animal Testing in form style thesis, Medical Advances.
Animals have been used for research since there has been research itself. It has been one of the curry application essay, most debated topics of our times. Many people argue that it is style writing, unmoral to test products of any kind on animals , while many scientists believe that animal testing and experimentation is one of the only ways. Running head: ANIMAL ABUSE AND ADULT VIOLENCE Animal Abuse and Adult Violence Barbara Acosta University of application Phoenix ESSENTIALS OF COLLEGE WRITING COMM/215 SC08ELEC10 KIMBERLY KEILBACH December 18, 2008 Animal Abuse and Adult Violence Jeffery Dahmer, Albert Desalvo, Ted Bundy, and style animal abusing children. growing concept is animal cruelty . Animal cruelty simply means cruel unwarranted treatment of animals . Such treatment generally has a single point program - to subject animals and sometimes pets to college unnecessary harm and pain. One major type of thesis writing animal cruelty is services kolkata, torture. Animal cruelty is a ambiguous. Is Animal Testing a Medical Breakthrough or a Inhumane Nightmare? - Essay. Is Animal Testing a Medical Breakthrough or a Inhumane Nightmare? In this society, man is the king of animals and style thesis takes and owns whatever he pleases, this includes animal rights. All over the globe, animals are used for thesis information system experiments to test things varying from beauty cosmetics to vaccines.
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Digging Deep: A2 Personal Study time. Ah, the A2 Personal study. Form Style? For all our good intentions – get it done before Christmas; embed it throughout the year; condition students during the AS year (or earlier even) – it usually ends like this: Post-exam time and – despite the light at exam and dissertation the top of the tunnel – I’m asking students to thesis, dig a bit deeper. I’m mining for one last creative hurrah before they move onwards and upwards. Hopefully this post might help… Emma’s Personal Study was presented as a concluding essay to online writing services, her printed coursework book. What is the Personal Study? For the writing official line – and if you like untangling word puzzles – see Page 29+ of the current specification. Teachers introduce this in different ways though, with some placing more emphasis on accompanying practical work than others. Personally, I’m all for art students developing their writing and research skills, so the following notes focus on write and contrasting animals, this – the ‘continuous prose’, to form style thesis writing, coin a term from the forthcoming changes.
For current students, let’s just call it an essay and crack on. Be a minimum of 1000 words (short and punchy is better than drawn out and draining). Focus on a specific artist / photographer or art movement. Include supporting images (examples from your artist, your own work, other artworks / wider connections made). Be related to your coursework (Unit 3). Be personal, informative and inspiring. Be a labour of yagami raito love (and a pleasure for others to pick up and look at. And read, obviously). Your writing should reflect your creative nature: Provide subtle insights into your thinking, provoke interest; tempt curiosity. Use quotes and form style writing challenging questions to engage the writing services kolkata reader.
Here are some practical suggestions: Give it a punchy title. A decent title will set out form writing, your focus in a concise, ambitious and punchy way. Raito Essay? A two-part title or question might help. Thesis? For example: Liar! Jeff Wall, photography and online writing services truth Modernism, Abstraction and form style writing the work of Barbara Hepworth Painting portraits: Jonathan Yeo and excuses not to homework Me The Human Figure: Sizing up Euan Uglow. Pretentious? Don’t worry about it.
Devise a relevant title that inspires you to then fill it’s boots. Style Writing? Exhibition titles are devised with similar intentions. Information? For example, Marlene Dumas: The image as Burden, or Robert Frank: Storylines. Tonie, who completed her A2 in writing, Year 11, thoughtfully sets her stall out. Write an comprehensive services or, introduction that leaves the reader wanting more… Your introduction should explain your interest in the subject and the personal connection that you have to this. Use it to narrow down your focus and form writing make it more specific.
For example: “ I am choosing to online professional services kolkata, focus on… (Artist / art movement) because…it astounds me how…/ I find it fascinating that…/ I’m curious to know why…/I hope to show / share / highlight / discover…”. Aim to draw the reader in with each step. Other aspects to consider: What is the relationship that you want to style thesis writing, establish with the yagami raito essay reader? For example, do you have a deep understanding of this subject that you will share? – Is your tone that of an expert sharing insights? Or, alternatively, is the reader on a journey of discovery with you? – Are you using an investigative question at style thesis writing the start that you then set out to comprehensive, answer? Introducing key aims or investigative questions. For example: “I’m particularly interested in how moving to the coast influenced the work of Barbara Hepworth; living by the sea has had a big impact on form, my own creative development…” Doing this will also help when it comes to yagami raito essay, writing a conclusion, planting markers to revisit.
To help you establish the tone of your essay producing a short film or Adobe Voice explanation can help. Thinking of the essay as a potential narration for your own documentary (which you can make if you want to) or a series of statements can also make it less intimidating. The meat in the sandwich. In this main section you might wish to: Focus on specific artworks – analyse and form thesis writing unpick these in yagami raito essay, depth, in style thesis writing, relation to your own work and experiences.
Level 1 has its place, but only write an essay comparing and contrasting animals as a foundation. You’ll need to dig deeper… Still, to demonstrate yourself as an form, art student who can “express complex ideas with authority“, there’s a need to get beyond the TECHNICAL and VISUAL to address CONTEXT and CONCEPT. When writing personal opinions there is a danger that these can be too simplistic. Yagami Raito Essay? Consider the progression in the points below: Your initial reaction – informed by instinct, taste, likes and dislikes, interest in / relevance of writing subject matter. This can offer valuable insights when justified E.g. “I like this because…”. However, just providing an opinion without explanation is a sure way to shoot yourself in the foot.
A basic / superficial understanding of wider contexts. This might demonstrate growing understanding but can be even more dangerous: “I’m interested in Cubism because I like how Picasso’s artworks are made up of cube-like shapes”; “I like Pop Art because it uses bright colours and thesis information film stars” . Not good; quiet despair. Based on a deeper understanding / complex grasp of wider contexts – demonstrating a confident stance and justified, well-informed opinions: “I’m interested in Cubism, particularly how the depiction of multiple viewpoints – stimulated by Cezanne’s explorations of form style form – revolutionised…”; “I’m interested in online resume services kolkata, how Pop Art emerged as a response to Abstract Expressionism, it strikes me as a mischievous movement that counter-balanced…” From an style writing, alternative perspective – Perhaps more of an exam or, expectation at degree level, but are you able to place yourself in sombody else’s shoes? For example, can you argue or justify an alternative viewpoint e.g. from a feminist, modern, or post-modern perspective? “Whilst appreciating Rothko’s intent to form style thesis, provoke with his Seagram Restaurant commission, I can imagine a dining capitalist might have been entirely less sensitive to the sense of claustrophobia he envisaged…” Concluding your essay. Summarise your study and show the benefits of doing it.
Revisit your introduction – specifically the aims or investigative questions set out at the start. (You do not need to have definitive answers though; reflective, new, unanswered questions can have value too). Summarise key findings that have come from your research and analysis. Offer reflective, personal opinions on your research, and writing services how this has shaped your own practical work. Share thoughts on potential opportunities for form style thesis writing future exploration – themes / artists / experiments you might explore if given more time. Include a short reflection on the process of the study itself – the research and thinking skills that you have developed.
No need to cover all of these in yagami essay, your limited word count. Identify the insights that resonate most; don’t let your hard work whimper out in these final stages. Including a bibliography. This details any resources that you have used for your essay, including websites, books, articles and videos. Try to list these as you go along rather than having to back-track. Set it out like this: Author – put the last name first. Form? Title – this should be underlined and in excuses, quotation marks.
Publisher - in a book this is form style thesis usually located on one of the first few pages. Date – the date/year the book/article was published. For example: Cotton, Charlotte, ‘The Photograph as Contemporary Art’, Thames Hudson, 2009. Can I put a bow on it? How best to p resent your essay. Your personal study can be creatively elaborated on, and some schools go to town on this. Done well this might result in complex new making in response to your research findings. And Contrasting? But there is a danger that practical responses at this point can seem ‘bolted on’, plain rushed and form thesis writing superficial.
Before we get to any bells and whistles it’s best to complete a straightforward formal essay. word-processed and double-spaced. Raito Essay? All imagery should be clearly referenced within text (e.g. Fig. 1 and form thesis then image labelled with Artist name, title, date) An appropriate cover, thoughtfully designed with imagery, the essay title and your name Ring bound with acetate cover and card back. Once this is done, if time allows, it is over to you. Raito? Why not produce a short summary film, like Becky’s below? Helpful?
Have I missed a trick? Any thoughts from students or teachers welcome in the comment boxes below. Senior Leader Teacher of writing Art Photography @DevNicely. Because my daughter is studying for AICE Diploma with one of her subject being Art Design at A level, in India, and because the teacher support in the school could have been better, I am engaged in comprehensive exam and dissertation, look out of form other online resources. Amiria Robinson was the first, and I found your blog now! Is it possible for a student to seek some guidance on a specific issue of raito Personal Study or the Coursework from thesis writing, you? If yes, how does one do it? Happy to write comparing and contrasting, try to help if she wants to email via contact page on this site.
I am currently working on my A2 personal study, i have become fascinated with soundscape/sound art, i have been looking closely at Bruce Nauman and China Blue, my online coursework is form lacking as i have just started. College Essay? I find essay’s easiest to write when i have a question to argue, and form artists to compare and contrast. Is their any chance you could get back to me with possible questions to structure my study and essay, possibly containing a link between Nauman’s work ‘days’ and Blue’s ‘scratch’ sound pieces. Comprehensive And Dissertation Services Or? Any help will be greatly appreciated! Hi, I’ve just enjoyed a careful look (and listen) through your project to form writing, date. Online Professional? These really are wonderful experiments that you have developed – subtle and emotive.
Sound Art is style thesis not something I can reflect with any authority on, however, here are a few thoughts which hopefully might help. Best intentions and all that! Would you consider both works of art that you are interested in sculptural? Obviously the space that the write comparing and contrasting animals sounds (and the visitor) occupy (and move within) are integral to the work. How important is the visual experience of these works? Neither are experienced in the dark, for example, so, decisions still made about how we see these? Both works also rely on absence – the absence of human presence, but also of a dominant visual experience. How does the audience fill these gaps? – How variable are different people’s experiences of these kind of works, in comparison to visual arts. Reflections on how we engage? Have you explored alternative visualisations of form style thesis music, for example graphic scores?
This can open up interesting avenues for alternative responses. See some examples here https://www.brainpickings.org/2011/05/06/notations-21/ I did have an AS art student who achieved full marks without completing a drawing, concentrating soley on sound and video. Do My? There are a couple of her experiments at the top of this link: http://st-peters.bournemouth.sch.uk/photo/2014/05/16/just-dont-ask-for-the-drawings-art-and-digital-media/ Anyhow, enough. Hope something helps in form writing, there! Good luck,though I doubt you need it, very impressed. Hi , in personal study if we are doing about an artist.
Should need to essay, do the reproduction of artists works or just can we use photo copies of artist’s paintings. Hi sorry, missed this comment until now. Form? You do not have to do a reproduction of an artists work, though to understand technique this might be a useful exercise. Your teacher might encourage this for that reason (obviously they are your first port of call for advice). Hi, i have chosen social documentary photography but do not know how i can respond to any of information system management my artists as they all photographed severe cases of form style thesis poverty. Will i be marked down if i do not respond?
Hi, thanks for your question and interest. It is difficult – and not my place – to comment on if you’ll be marked up or down; lots of and contrasting factors at play there. Form Writing? I tell my students (at every opportunity) to not to do my, get out and form thesis experiment as much as possible. Think carefully about what makes the photographers you are drawn to so special. Social documentary is a rich field, not limited to those living in hardship. Excuses Not To Do My? Perhaps the challenge is not to try to replicate, but to respond to similar questions that might have provoked them: What is the world around me like? Can I use photography to raise awareness / express my thoughts / to make the style thesis world a better place…? and so on, good luck. (Apologies if the reply was too late!) hi, I’m doing a personal study on an artist and i have no idea about how to start this report.It would be very kind of you to give some tips on how to and dissertation services, start a artist report. Not fully sure of what the expectations are for your ‘artist report’, it is not a term that I use so much in my own teaching. Obviously your teacher is the first port of call for help – I wouldn’t want to contradict their advice.
For what it is worth, I tend to encourage students to approach artist work / research as contextually as possible. By this I mean looking at how their particular intentions,interests,concepts,techniques etc. came to be – their key influences are particularly important, and these do not have to be limited to form, other artworks but might include world events, personal circumstances and so on. It can sometimes help to narrow focus to a particular strand or two e.g. techniques, subject matter etc. Hi, I’m struggling to pin down my personal study. Thesis Information System Management? I am really interested in anatomy and style writing how it relates to comprehensive exam services or, portraiture and the sense of “what lies beneath”. Style Thesis? I’m drawn to Michael Reedy’s work in particular but there are not many other artists working in a similar way. I know there is excuses not to a lot of anatomy in Leonardo da Vinci’s studies and thesis sketches which I have been looking at. My teacher is pushing me to look at portraiture generally – do you have any suggestions for focus?
I really want to use anatomy if I can but is there not enough in here for a personal study do you think? Hi, it’s a great theme with lots of potential. For a contextual study it is good to comprehensive and dissertation or, bring in a range of diverse connections and references, and obviously ‘anatomy’ covers structure and style form, as well as internal workings. Francis Well, a surgeon, has an excuses do my homework, interesting approach. The drawings of sculptors, in form style thesis writing, their quest to an essay comparing and contrasting two different, understand form, might also be valuable – Giacometti, Henry Moore, Hepworth (who also produced surgery drawings). Lots of opportunities to enjoy reading and researching wider.