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English as official language of us essay

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benjamin mays essays Place of Birth: Epworth, South Carolina, United States. Occupations: educational administrator, government official. In addition to english as official language occupying the writing president's office at of us essay, Morehouse, Benjamin Mays (1894-1984) wrote, taught mathematics, worked for the Office of Education, served as chairman of the Atlanta Board of Education, preached in a Baptist church, acted as an cover advisor to the Southern Christian Leadership Council, and was a church historian. African American scholar Benjamin E. English As Official Language Of Us Essay? Mays was among the first generation of people of color to be born into freedom in the southern United States. Still, he was forced to battle racial discrimination and economic hardship in the drive to obtain an education. Later, during his 27 years as president of Atlanta's Morehouse College, one of the country's leading black educational institutions, he worked to provide African American students with the academic and letter style social opportunities for which he had fought so hard. Among the essay many distinguished Morehouse graduates he inspired were former mayor of Atlanta, Andrew Young; Georgia state senator Julian Bond; and chapter thesis civil rights legend Dr. English As Official Of Us Essay? Martin Luther King, Jr. According to Frank J. Prial of the New York Times, King once described Mays as his spiritual mentor and . intellectual father. During the early 1960s, having entered the third decade of his presidency of Morehouse College, Mays played an important role in the integration of Atlanta by helping students organize sit-ins at lunch counters and essay field other segregated facilities. He later held a prominent position on the Atlanta Board of Education.

Throughout his life, Mays maintained that education, personal pride, and as official of us peaceful protest were the most effective weapons in the war against racial bigotry. To me black power must mean hard work, trained minds, and argumentative perfected skills to perform in a competitive society, he wrote in his critically acclaimed autobiography Born to Rebel, published in 1971. The injustices imposed upon the black man for centuries make it all the more obligatory that he develop himself. There must be no dichotomy between the development of one's mind and a deep sense of appreciation of one's heritage. An unjust penalty has been imposed upon the Negro because he is english as official of us black. The dice are loaded against him. Knowing this, as the Jew knows about anti-Semitism, the black man must never forget the necessity that he perfect his talents and potentials to writing the ultimate. Found Fulfillment in Academic Achievement. The youngest of eight children, Benjamin Mays was born in Epworth, South Carolina, in language essay, 1894, and raised on meaning of critical, an isolated cotton farm. As Official Essay? At that time, the maximum school term for black children was only four months--November through February--so he and his brothers and sisters spent most of the year helping with the planting and picking.

Mays was an avid student, however; thanks to early lessons from his elder sister, Susie, by the time he arrived at the one-room Brickhouse School at the age of six, he already knew how to a rose for emily argumentative essay count, read, and write. Of Us Essay? He quickly became the star pupil there and for emily argumentative wept whenever bad weather kept him at home. As Official Of Us? Church provided another outlet for his talents. At the age of of critical thinking, nine he received a standing ovation from the Mount Zion Baptist congregation for his recitation of the Sermon on english of us essay, the Mount. The people in the church did not contribute one dime to help me with my education, he recalled in Born to Rebel. But they gave me something far more valuable. They gave me the thing I most needed. They expressed such confidence in me that I always felt that I could never betray their trust, never let them down.

Mays needed all the encouragement he could get. During his childhood, mob violence against blacks was rampant, and brutal lynchings were a common occurrence. Among his earliest memories was that of a group of white men with rifles riding up to his home on writing, horseback and demanding that his father remove his cap and bow down to english as official language essay them. Cover Style? As a child my life was one of frustration and doubt, he recalled in Born to Rebel. Nor did the situation improve as I grew older. Long before I could visualize them, I knew within my body, my mind, and my spirit that I faced galling restrictions, seemingly insurmountable barriers, dangers and pitfalls. When Mays expressed a desire to language of us continue his education beyond the elementary level, his father responded with anger and disdain.

At that time, it was believed that the only honest occupations for black men were farming and sentences to essays preaching. Education, his father maintained, made men both liars and fools. Eventually Mays overcame his father's objections, however, and enrolled at the high school of as official language of us essay, South Carolina State College at Orangeburg. He graduated in 1916 as valedictorian. Determined to prove his worth in the white man's world, Mays resolved to leave his native South Carolina and continue his education in New England. How could I know I was not inferior to the white man, having never had a chance to compete with him? he wrote in Born to Rebel. Mays spent a year at Virginia Union University and obtained letters of recommendation from cover letter, two of his professors before gaining admission to Bates College in Maine. He began his studies there as a sophomore in english as official of us essay, September 1917.

Summer work as a Pullman porter--as well as scholarships and loans from the college--helped him pay his way. At Bates, where he was one of only a handful of black students, Mays was surprised and heartened to find himself treated as an equal for the very first time. Chapter Thesis? Both his academic gifts and his enthusiastic participation in extracurricular activities quickly made him a campus leader. After graduating with honors in 1920, Mays completed several semesters of graduate work at english language of us essay, the University of a rose, Chicago. He then accepted an invitation from Morehouse College president John Hope (whom he happened to english as official language of us meet in the University of Chicago library) to teach higher mathematics in chapter thesis, Atlanta. He arrived at Morehouse in 1921, and remained there for the next three years, teaching math, psychology, and religious education. In 1922 he was ordained a Baptist minister and assumed the pastorate of nearby Shiloh Baptist Church.

He returned to the University of Chicago in 1924 to complete work on as official language essay, his master's degree, and ten years later received his doctorate in ethics and Christian theology. Encountered Anger and Racism in Atlanta. Mays's positive experiences as a student at Bates College had filled him with a new sense of pride and optimism. But the Atlanta he encountered in the early 1920s was a tense and angry place, where streetcars, elevators, parks, waiting rooms, and even ambulances were segregated; where Ku Klux Klan rallies and cheapest dissertation lynchings were everyday facts of life; where people of as official language of us essay, color were prohibited from voting; and where the only high school education available for African Americans was provided by chapter thesis, private academies connected to as official essay the all-black colleges. The return of black soldiers from Europe at the end of World War I had only served to heighten racial tensions in the city. It was in good introduction, Atlanta, Georgia, that I was to english as official language essay see the chapter thesis race problem in greater depth, and observe and experience it in larger dimensions, Mays wrote in Born to Rebel. It was in Atlanta that I was to english of us find that the essay psychology invention field cruel tentacles of race prejudice reached out to invade and distort every aspect of Southern life. After completing his master's degree at the University of Chicago in 1925, Mays spent a year teaching English at the State College of South Carolina at language of us essay, Orangeburg. The following year, he and his wife, Sadie Grey, a teacher and cover social worker whom he had met in Chicago, moved to Florida, where Mays took over the position of language of us, executive secretary for the Tampa Urban League. Two years later, he was named national student secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), based in Atlanta.

In 1930 Mays left this post to direct a study of black churches in the United States for the Institute of Social and Religious Research in New York City. Letter Style? He and a fellow minister, Joseph W. Nicholson, spent 14 months collecting data from some 800 rural and urban churches throughout the country in english language, an effort to identify the church's influence in the black community. Chapter Thesis? Among the subjects addressed were the education and training of english as official of us essay, ministers, the cheapest churches' financial resources, and the kinds of religious and social programs offered. The results of the study were published in 1933 under the title The Negro's Church. In a review for the periodical Books, NAACP executive secretary Walter White described the report as one of the few examinations of this sort and an important achievement in language of us essay, its understanding of good, all the social, economic and as official other forces which have made [the black church] what it is. Mays would focus on the vital importance of the black church in American society in a host of other writings published in the 1930s and 1940s.

In an article appearing in the summer 1940 issue of Christendom, he maintained that the black church was largely responsible for keeping one-tenth of America's population sanely religious in the midst of an environment that is, for the most part, hostile to psychology invention mathematical it. Worked to Strengthen Black Colleges. In 1934 Mays became dean of the School of Religion at Howard University. During his six-year tenure, he succeeded in strengthening the faculty and facilities to such an as official language of us extent that the school achieved a Class A rating from the American Association of Theological Schools. This made it only the of critical second all-black seminary in of us essay, the nation to receive such accreditation. During this period, Mays traveled widely, attending church and YMCA conferences around the world and earning an international reputation for academic excellence. His wife, Sadie, accompanied him on a rose for emily argumentative, most of his trips. Mays was named president of Morehouse College in July of 1940, exactly 19 years after he had begun his teaching career there. In Born to Rebel, published some 30 years later, he reflected upon the ineffable energy and english as official of us spirit of the sentences to essays place.

I found a special, intangible something at Morehouse in 1921 which sent men out into life with a sense of mission, believing that they could accomplish whatever they set out to do, he wrote. This priceless quality was still alive when I returned in 1940, and for twenty-seven years I built on what I found, instilling in Morehouse students the english as official essay idea that despite crippling circumscriptions the essay psychology field sky was their limit. While president of Morehouse, Mays fought for the integration of english as official language, all-white colleges but remained an outspoken advocate of predominantly black institutions, such as Morehouse and Howard. Meaning? If white America really wants to improve Negro higher education, it would do well to language of us essay recognize the fact that it will not be adequately done by allowing black colleges to thinking die the slow death of starvation, he wrote in as official language, Born to Rebel. His steadfast devotion to academic excellence helped Morehouse become one of only good introduction to essays four Georgia colleges to as official language of us essay be approved for a chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa honor society. Inspired Civil Rights Activists. Perhaps Mays's greatest influence was on the individual students he encountered both in the classroom and through the college chapel. His greatest honor, he later said, was having taught and inspired Martin Luther King, Jr., the college's most celebrated alumnus. During Morehouse commencement ceremonies in for emily argumentative essay, June of 1957, Mays honored Dr. King for his leadership in the 1956 Montgomery Bus Boycott by conferring upon english essay, him the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters.

King later became a member of the Morehouse College board of trustees. Mays also convinced two of sentences to essays, Georgia's brightest African American politicians, Andrew Young and Julian Bond, to seek public office. Mays became even more directly involved in the civil rights movement in 1960 when he agreed to help students from Morehouse and other Atlanta colleges organize peaceful protests throughout the city--an action which, after 18 months, resulted in language of us, the integration of the Atlanta public school system. Prial remembered Mays in a New York Times obituary as a voice of moderation in the critical years of the civil rights movement. He attacked white liberals who paid only lip service to racial equality, but he [also] criticized . black extremists for undermining attempts at chapter thesis, unity between races. After his retirement from Morehouse College in as official language, 1967, Mays served as a consultant for a variety of governmental, educational, civic, and religious organizations, and in good introduction sentences to essays, 1969 he became a member of the Atlanta Board of Education. He remained on the board until 1981. During this time he also produced his powerful autobiography, Born to Rebel. In his preface, Mays described the book as the story of the of us lifelong quest of a man who desired to be looked upon first as a human being and incidentally as a Negro, to be accepted first as an American and secondarily as a black man. Of Critical Thinking? J. B. Cullen of Books called it a condemnation of the white treatment of the blacks in the United States and a story that should be read by as official language, everyone.

Prior to his death in 1984 at the age of 89, Mays wrote dozens of scholarly articles on racial, educational, and religious issues, spoke at more than 200 universities and colleges, and received some 45 honorary degrees. The Life and Times of Benjamin E. Chapter Thesis? Mays (1894-1984) At the english language of us time of Mays's birth: Grover Cleveland was president of the United States Audiences viewed the a rose for emily argumentative world's first motion picture Alfred Dreyfus was convicted of treason Republic of Hawaii was proclaimed American railroad workers began general strike At the time of Mays's death: Ronald Reagan was president of the United States Henry, son of Prince Charles and Lady Diana of Wales, was born Britain agreed to return control of language of us, Hong Kong to China in 1997 Indian president Indira Gandhi was assassinated 10,000 Cherokee attended first council meeting in 146 years The times: 1830-1914: Industrial Revolution 1898: Spanish-American War 1914-1918: World War I 1939-1945: World War II 1950-1953: Korean War 1957-1975: Vietnam War 1982: Falkland War 1983: American invasion of Grenada Mays's contemporaries: Harry Truman (1884-1972) American president Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) German chancellor and führer Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) American writer Ralph Bunche (1904-1971) American diplomat and Nobel laureate Yuri Andropov (1914-1984) Soviet leader Ralph Ellison (1914-1994) American writer John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) American president Ella Fitzgerald (1918-1996) American jazz legend Malcolm X (1925-1965) American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) American clergyman and civil rights leader Selected world events: 1909: NAACP was founded 1929: U.S. stock market crash started Great Depression 1933: Congress passed Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal 1941: Japan attacked Pearl Harbor 1955: Martin Luther King, Jr. led bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama 1965: U.S. made formal alliance with South Vietnam 1969: Neil Armstrong was first person to walk on the Moon 1970: Maya Angelou's I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings was published 1974: Richard Nixon resigned from office 1981: IBM introduced its first personal computer. books Mays, Benjamin, Born to Rebel: An Autobiography, Scribner, 1971. Salley, Columbus, The Black 100, Citadel Press, 1993. periodicals Best Sellers, April 15, 1971. Black Enterprise, May 1977, pp. 26-29. Books, March 26, 1933. Christendom, Summer 1940. Christian Science Monitor, April 17, 1971. Ebony, July 1954, p. 27; January 1961, p. 48; June 1965, pp.

165-72; July 1971, pp. 88-94; August 1971, p. 52; December 1977, pp. Cheapest Dissertation? 72-80. Jet, August 3, 1992, p. English Language Of Us? 24. New York Times, March 29, 1984, p. D23. Meaning Of Critical Thinking? New York Times Book Review, April 25, 1971, pp. 47-48.

Washington Post, March 29, 1984. other Benjamin E. As Official Language? Mays, History on Video (30-minute biographical tape), first televised on Black Entertainment Television, 1992.

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English as official language of us …

Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis and as official language Modern Economics. Hyman Philip Minsky (b. 23 September 1919, d. 24 October 1996) was best known for his Financial Instability Hypothesis of the business cycle, which emphasized the dynamics of business investment finance as a recurring cause of macroeconomic instability (Minsky 1972, 1980). During a boom, the expansion of debt-financed investment spending causes initial “robust” financial structures to evolve into “fragile” financial structures, and it is essay psychology field, this evolution that ultimately brings the expansion to an end. In the subsequent contraction, typically some fragile financial structures collapse while others are refinanced into essay, more robust financial structures, thereby creating the preconditions for renewed expansion. A central reason for policy intervention in this boom-bust process, Minsky emphasized, is the ever-present danger that the contraction will get out of control and spread into a system-wide debt-deflation. In this way, a normal business recession can become instead a deep and cover long-lasting depression, such as happened in 1929-1933 when debt deflation brought down the US banking system and ushered in a depression that did not end until World War II, notwithstanding all the attempts of Roosevelt’s New Deal.

Wartime public spending and wartime public debt finally did succeed in recreating the robust financial preconditions for renewed economic expansion in the immediate postwar decades. As Official Of Us. But over time, once private debt had a chance to build up for a while, robust financial structures again evolved into fragile structures, and instability returned starting in about 1966. Unfortunately, the return of instability coincided also with the ascendancy of a new interventionist orthodoxy in economic theory which, extrapolating from the entirely unusual circumstances of the immediate postwar, attributed business fluctuations not to changing financial structures but rather simply to fluctuations in aggregate demand. According to this new orthodoxy, incipient downturns could and should be countered by appropriate government fiscal and monetary policies. Government spending could maintain aggregate demand directly, and/or tax cuts and subsidies could stimulate private consumption and cheapest writing investment indirectly, so as to of us essay maintain aggregate income near the level of full employment. In the short run, this policy orthodoxy achieved its stated goal, but in chapter thesis, the longer run it acted to block the natural process of restoring robust finance, with the english, consequence that an sentences to essays increasingly fragile financial structure served as an increasing obstacle to capital investment and language essay hence also to robust economic performance.

Because of government intervention there was no debt deflation and no great depression, but rather stagnation and inflation during the decade of the 1970s. Finally, the extraordinary tight monetary policy of 1979-1982 under Paul Volcker turned the tide and created the financial precondition for renewed expansion in the decade to follow (Minsky 1986). However, the argumentative essay, subsequent expansion was different from the immediate postwar, because the financial preconditions were different. What followed after Volcker was a new kind of institutional arrangement that Minsky called “money manager capitalism”, driven by english of us essay, a new breed of institutional investors in pension funds, insurance companies, and meaning of critical mutual funds. Unlike the immediate postwar, long-term capital development of the nation was off the table, replaced instead by the pursuit of short-run financial portfolio returns.

In effect, tight monetary policy had succeeded in creating a parallel banking system, focused more on as official language of us essay real estate and housing speculation than on meaning increasing business productivity. Minsky viewed the financial crisis of 1987 as a first crisis of this new system. He did not however live to see the global financial crisis of 2007-2009, which the english as official essay, press dubbed a “Minsky Moment”. Minsky got his start in economics at the University of Chicago, where he enrolled in style, September 1937 in the middle of the english essay, Great Depression. There is writing, no reason to doubt Minsky’s own assessment that two Chicago professors, Oscar Lange and Henry Simons, were the english essay, most significant early influences on his thought (Minsky 1985). The inspiration to study economics came from Lange, who was at that time working out a synthesis of Marx and neoclassical economics that he called market socialism. Henry Simons was the source of dissertation writing Minsky’s lifelong interest in finance, as well as the idea that the fundamental flaw of english modern capitalism stemmed from its banking and financial structure. Minsky took the lesson that capitalism could be stable if, first, large-scale capital investment were owned and financed publically rather than privately and, second, smaller scale private business were financed with equity rather than debt. After a three-year interruption for for emily argumentative essay, war service (Papadimitriou 1992), Minsky continued his education at english language essay Harvard University where he fell in with the young Keynesians who gathered around Alvin Hansen. Essay Field. However it was Joseph Schumpeter, not Hansen, who was the more important influence.

A “conservative Marxist”, as Minsky would later characterize his mentor, Schumpeter’s earliest work on english language essay the Theory of Economic Development (1912) had emphasized the importance of money creation by the banking system as the crucial source of a rose argumentative entrepreneurial finance. Banks can and do lend by creating deposits, which serve as purchasing power that entrepreneurs use to acquire the real resources they need in order to make their future plans into present realities. This mechanism, according to Schumpeter, is the source of the dynamism of capitalism, just as it is also, according to Simons, the source of capitalism’s instability. Minsky’s 1954 PhD thesis “Induced investment and business cycles” represents his attempt to insert his concerns about finance into english as official language of us essay, the then-standard Hansen-Samuelson accelerator-multiplier model, which has no finance in it. Viewed in retrospect, the of critical, more fundamental contribution Minsky made in his thesis was to conceive of ordinary business firms as akin to banks, insofar as they can be seen fundamentally as cash inflow-outflow operations that confront both solvency and liquidity “survival constraints” (1954, p. As Official Language Of Us. 157-162). From this point of view, the natural accounting structure for the economic system is of critical thinking, not the National Income and english language essay Product Accounts, which served as the empirical basis for the Hansen-Samuelson model, but rather the newer Flow of Funds accounts developed by American institutionalist Morris Copeland (1952). In effect, Minsky’s mature Financial Instability Hypothesis would build on this alternative empirical basis, though Minsky goes beyond the Flow of good Funds accounts to language of us essay emphasize the time-dated pattern of cash commitments embedded in the structure of outstanding debts of various kinds (Minsky 1964). A final, but crucial, early formative influence was Minsky’s experience as a participant observer at a major Wall Street brokerage house, where he learned about new developments in the Federal Funds market and the use of repurchase agreements (Minsky 1957). He concluded from that experience that the goal of using monetary policy for psychology invention mathematical field, aggregate stabilization was probably illusory on account of the as official essay, attendant financial innovation. Cheapest. The central bank could try to limit the supply of public bank reserves, as a way of holding back expansion, but the result would only be to encourage banks to develop their own private mechanisms for economizing on scarce reserves.

The Fed Funds market and the repo market were already doing that as early as 1957. In later years, non-reservable bank certificates of deposit, and eventually a parallel system of non-bank finance, would go even further (Minsky 1966). With each additional step the link between policy tools and macroeconomic outcomes became further attenuated (Minsky 1969, 1980). The Financial Instability Hypothesis. At the very center of Minsky’s conception of what makes a financial structure robust or fragile is the relationship between the time pattern of cash commitments and english of us essay the time pattern of expected cash flows. A firm with cash flows greater than cash commitments for good, every future period is said to english as official of us essay be engaged in “hedge” finance, because the unit can meet its commitments from mathematical its own resources. As Official Language Of Us. So-called “speculative” financial structures expect cash flows greater than interest payments on outstanding debt, but also anticipate the need to refinance the principle at maturity. That makes the firm vulnerable in of critical, the event that refinance turns out to be unexpectedly expensive or even unavailable. So-called “Ponzi” financial structures are even more vulnerable since they anticipate cash flows insufficient even to cover interest payments, so refinance depends on capital gains in the underlying investment as well as general financial conditions. The core idea of the Financial Instability Hypothesis is that there is a built-in tendency for the system to shift over time from robust “hedge” financial structures to fragile “speculative” and “Ponzi” financial structures. A central driver of this tendency is the apparent cheapness of short term finance relative to english as official language of us long term finance, a consequence of liquidity preference which means that wealth holders are willing to accept a lower yield on assets that are more readily (or imminently) turned into current cash.

Thus it is meaning thinking, always tempting to finance long-lived capital assets with short-term debt, planning to english as official language roll over the debt at maturity into another short-term debt. That temptation pushes firms from hedge to speculative finance. The temptation is always there, but in essay psychology mathematical field, the immediate aftermath of a contraction that has visibly involved the english as official language essay, collapse of fragile financial structures, both borrowers and lenders are able to resist the temptation. Essay Psychology. Liquidity risk is on as official language essay their minds. Meaning Of Critical Thinking. Thus, it is only gradually over time that robust financial structures give way to english as official language essay fragile financial structures, as evidence accumulates that giving in to temptation is once again a profitable strategy, for both borrowers and lenders. Eventually it seems to be safe, and margins of safety begin to erode in the pursuit of higher expected gain. In Minsky’s mature work, a key mechanism leading to this erosion is the positive feedback between investment spending and business profits, which Minsky took from the work of Kalecki (1971).

When investment spending is strong, aggregate demand and psychology invention mathematical hence aggregate business profits are also strong so that business cash flows exceed expectations, proving more than sufficient to meet existing cash commitments. Thus the lesson is learned that previous caution was excessive, and thus the road is opened for a shift to more fragile finance. And of course the same mechanism works the opposite way on the way down, as lower investment leads to lower profit than expected and hence greater than expected difficulty in meeting cash commitments. Minsky’s discovery of Kalecki, probably during his sabbatical year 1969-70 at language essay St. Johns College in Cambridge, England, was crucial also for shifting Minsky’s view of good to essays Keynes. Back at Harvard, the Keynes that Minsky had learned was supposed to be about a liquidity preference theory of money demand, which interacted with an exogenously fixed money supply to set the rate of english as official language of us interest.

There was nothing much in that Keynes for Minsky, with his Simons-Schumpeter vision of integral role of elastic bank finance for business investment, a commercial loan model of the (endogenous) money supply rather than Keynes open market operations (exogenous) money model. Field. By contrast, although Kalecki’s Marxism was not the conservative type favored by english essay, Schumpeter, it was a familiar frame and it was through that frame that Minsky found his way to Keynes. In his subsequent book John Maynard Keynes (1975), Minsky finally embraced Keynes in words that could apply equally to himself: “The knowledgeable view of the operation of finance that Keynes possessed was not readily available to academic economists, and those knowledgeable about finance did not have the skeptical, aloof attitude toward capitalist enterprise necessary to chapter thesis understand and appreciate the english language of us, basically critical attitude that permeated Keynes’s work” (p. 130). In the end, Minsky came to think of cheapest dissertation his own financial instability hypothesis as a completion of Keynes’ work by filling in the details of the financial system, the “logical hole” (p. Language Of Us. 63) that Keynes left out in his own academic formulations. Reading Keynes with his new understanding that Keynes, like himself, was always looking at the world through the lens of banking—the “Wall Street” or “City” view–led Minsky to formulate what he called his “two-price theory of investment”. Contra the quantity theory of letter style money, monetary conditions do not drive the as official language of us, price of output; but they do drive the price of meaning thinking capital assets. The kind of liquidity-stretching innovations that banks use to overcome central bank constraint (as Minsky 1957) not only enable them to provide the english as official, investment finance demanded by their business clients, but also operate directly to stimulate that demand through their effect on cover letter style the price of existing capital assets. Specifically, creation of private liquidity to satisfy demand for as official, liquidity preference lowers the premium required to hold illiquid capital assets, and hence drives up their price.

Subsequently, a widening gap between the letter, price of existing capital assets and the current output price of new capital assets provides incentive to add new capital assets to english of us essay the old, which is investment. This “Keynesian” asset price mechanism offers yet another path leading from robust finance to fragile finance. Minsky’s Simons-Schumpeter-Kalecki-Keynes view of the good sentences, world put him at odds with the postwar monetary Walrasian orthodoxy of Patinkin-Tobin-Modigliani. As Official Of Us. Whereas orthodoxy emphasized the use of monetary policy to “control” aggregate fluctuation, Minsky always emphasized instead the “support” function as lender of last resort in a crisis and market maker in letter, normal times. Regular engagement with market participants through the discount window would, Minsky thought, allow the central bank to shift the balance a bit toward hedge finance by favoring robust structures in its collateral policy. Toward that end, he urged widening access to english as official the discount window in introduction sentences, normal times to include a broader cross-section. This divergence from orthodoxy on policy reflects a deeper methodological divergence.

Whereas postwar economic orthodoxy characteristically operated within an as official of us essay intellectual frame of market equilibrium, even intertemporal market equilibrium, with abstract individual agents making rational intertemporal allocation decisions, Minsky characteristically operated closer to the lived reality that actual agents confront, namely an open-ended future that is substantial uncertain (not just risky) and a present choice set that is substantially constrained by survival constraints of various kinds. Minsky’s agents are not irrational, but rather more like Schumpeter’s constructive entrepreneurs who imagine a possible future and then use their cash inflow-outflow interface with the cover style, economic system to acquire resources in as official, an attempt to argumentative essay make that imagined future a present reality. In a world like this, it matters a lot which agents get the english as official language essay, chance to make that attempt; it matters for the capital development of the nation. Minsky’s financial instability hypothesis was designed to explain the times he was living in, not so much the chapter thesis, post-Volcker era of money manager capitalism. At the center of Minsky’s picture is business investment finance not household mortgage finance, bank lending not capital market finance, and his purview is characteristically domestic not global. English As Official Language Of Us. But the cover, analytical apparatus he developed is more general. The banking view that he took toward business investment is equally applicable to any other economic agent—we are all of us cash inflow-outflow entities, facing solvency and liquidity survival constraints. Similarly applicable is Minsky’s emphasis, at as official essay the level of the system as a whole, on the shifting match between the time pattern of cash commitments that is embedded in the existing structure of debt as compared to the time pattern of expected cash flow to fulfill those commitments.

Copeland, Morris A. 1952. Essay. A Study of Money-flows in the United States. New York: National Bureau of as official language of us essay Economic Research. Kalecki, M. 1971. Selected Essays on the Dynamics of the Capitalist Economy (1933-1970). A Rose Argumentative Essay. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Minsky, Hyman P. 1954. “Induced investment and business cycles.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Economics, Harvard University. Minsky, Hyman P. English As Official Language. 1957. “Central banking and money market changes.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 71 (2): 171-187.

Reprinted as Ch. 7 in Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1964. “Financial Crisis, Financial Systems, and the Performance of the Economy”. Pages 173-380 in Private Capital Markets. Commission on Money and Credit Research Study. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Minsky, Hyman P. 1969. “The New Uses of Monetary Powers.” Nebraska Journal of Economics and dissertation Business 8. English Of Us Essay. Reprinted as Ch. Cover Letter Style. 8 in Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1972. English. “Financial Instability revisited: the economics of disaster.” In Reappraisal of the Federal Reserve Discount Mechanism, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System.

Reprinted as Ch. 6 in good introduction sentences, Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1975. English As Official. John Maynard Keynes. Chapter Thesis. New York: Columbia University Press. Minsky, Hyman P. 1980. “Finance and Profits: the as official language, changing nature of American business cycles.” In The Business Cycle and Public Policy 1929-1980: A Compendium of Papers submitted to the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, 96th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Reprinted as Ch.

2 in Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1980. “The Federal Reserve: Between a Rock and a Hard Place.” Challenge 23 (May/June), 30-36. Reprinted as Ch. Essay Field. 9 in Minsky 1982. Minsky, Hyman P. 1982.

Can ‘It’ Happen Again? Essays on Instability and Finance. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe. Minsky, Hyman P. 1985. “Beginnings.” Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review 154: 211-221. Minsky, Hyman P. 1986. Stabilizing an Unstable Economy.

Twentieth Century Fund Report. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Papadimitriou, D. B. 1992. “Minsky on himself.” Pages 13-26 in Essays in Honor of Hyman P. English As Official Language Of Us Essay. Minsky, edited by chapter thesis, S. Fazzari and D. As Official Of Us. B. Papadimitriou. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe. 4 comments on “ Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis and Modern Economics ” Good essay by Mehrling summing up Minsky’s work. For Minsky’s view of monetary policy to work properly (use the discount window, not the open-market desk), you have to have honest and competent discount window administration. I encountered that at the two Federal Reserve Banks at for emily essay which I worked, at the times that I worked for them (1974-1994). I’ve been writing about it ever since. If you politicize the discount window, then how can Minsky’s corrective or stabilizing model work? Alas, today we might live in english as official language essay, the worst of both worlds: Politicized open-market operations (see, e.g., above-market interest rates paid on reserves and good introduction sentences to essays a subsidy rate paid on reverse repos) and a politicized discount window during the crisis (anything involving Section 13(3)).

And we haven’t even discussed foreign exchange swap lines. Perry, this is great; it widens my understanding and appreciation of Minsky. Did you mention when in Utah that you are working on english as official language essay a book? Was it on a rose argumentative essay Minsky? Re: Paul Volcker.

“So back to the 70?s, and continuous oil price hikes by a foreign monopolist. All nations experienced pretty much the same inflation. And it all ended at about the same time as well when the price of crude fell. The ‘heroes’ were coincidental. In fact, my take is of us essay, they actually made it worse than it needed to be, but it did ‘get better’ and they of course were in the right place at the right time to get credit for cheapest dissertation, that.” “Next, President Carter’s appointment of Paul Volcker to Chair the language, Fed was a disaster for chapter thesis, people in english essay, low wage jobs, since Volcker and his successors used wage rises as a criterion for evaluating whether inflation was accelerating. Chapter Thesis. So, during and after Volcker’s tenure, the Federal Reserve systematically repressed wages by raising its overnight rate targets whenever private sector wages began to rise, and cooling the economy, a policy that may or may not still be somewhere in the background of the Fed’s toolkit under Janet Yellin. In short, summarizing all of the foregoing, President Carter did not advocate strongly for fiscal policies that would create jobs, and, in addition, he opposed the efforts of many in the Democratic Congress to legislate such programs. Language Essay. This attitude toward fiscal policy was also reflected in Congress, though to a lesser degree. So, overall it has to dissertation be concluded that during the english as official language, Carter Administration, little was done by the Government to achieve and maintain full employment at a living wage. Why was the Government so opposed to doing what was necessary to achieve living wages and full employment?

Again, it was because a majority of Government decision makers, including President Carter, believed in the gospel of fiscal responsibility and good sentences austerity. They were incapable of language of us recognizing that they could spend what was necessary to accomplish these goals, even though FDR had shown them what was possible during World War II and part of the Great Depression, and even though they had even more policy space than FDR had to deficit spend, due to the shift to of critical a non-convertible fiat currency, with floating exchange rates, and no debts in foreign currencies, completed by President Nixon in 1971.”

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5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure.

Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is especially important and meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and english as official, social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to know about the glitz and glamour of it all. It’s the perfect thing to mathematical tell them after you’re done going on of us and on about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment.

By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to cheapest dissertation writing be. Which is english where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for meaning of critical that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients.

I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to english of us be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for style ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and english as official, I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to writing be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and english as official language essay, posted them on my personal Facebook page the a rose for emily, heading Notes Girls Write . As Official Of Us Essay! Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Essay Invention Field! Bigger than just the two pictures. She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in english as official of us turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . Introduction Sentences! We photographed hundreds of women of english as official essay all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an for emily essay, extremely powerful moment for of us essay them. Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept.

Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. Meaning Of Critical! 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. English As Official Language Essay! For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to chapter thesis my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes.

It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the english as official language, first time I met the transport van I wanted to cheapest dissertation document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is tough. It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. English As Official Language! I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos.

I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to essay help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is that I have the english language, images, ready for their time, whenever that is. A Rose For Emily Argumentative! TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. English! Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and psychology invention field, save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. Of Us Essay! I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Good! Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting.

Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the better. This is one of the as official of us, few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for cheapest dissertation me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in of us the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on cover letter the original concept. English As Official! TIP: Think big.

If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in cheapest writing pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and language essay, whatever else. Meaning Thinking! This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in language essay the project. Good Sentences! This is english language essay where it is chapter thesis so helpful to have someone else help.

Someone who has no personal feelings towards the english of us essay, images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the a rose for emily argumentative, power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. English As Official Language Essay! This event is meant to a rose argumentative essay put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to language essay be selected to be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in cover the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience.

This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on english as official language essay the power of the cheapest, image and not my personal feelings. In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and english language of us, the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is of critical thinking their story. TIP: All creative work is as official language of us personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is incredibly important to cover you, or large in scale. Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t. People that know about english language of us your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all.

But above all, bring in a rose people who will be honest and english of us essay, not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. Writing! 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. English Language Of Us! Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help?

Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. A Rose For Emily Argumentative! Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the language, time to cheapest dissertation create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. Language Of Us Essay! TIP: This isn’t the cheapest writing, time to as official language of us essay be humble. Taking on essay psychology mathematical a photo essay is english language essay a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and a rose, longterm benefit. Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and as official of us, think about how it helped you. Of Critical! Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the english language of us, personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. Thinking! The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless.

Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category.

Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and of us essay, other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of chapter thesis like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country. Her photography can be viewed at or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. Language! I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4.

I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of essay psychology mathematical field my pictures. As Official Essay! Apparently, others feel the sentences, same way. I have an idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the english language of us, picture for meaning of critical #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and language, texts can help define them, giving them context and body. Style! For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in english as official a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the issue in cover style Tip #4 is common to english language essay all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. In a previous life, I was a writer and introduction sentences, editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes.

Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and language of us essay, thought-filling. Thank-you for chapter thesis telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro as official photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the meaning thinking, terracotta warriors, to language help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. Cover Letter! They are not expecting much. Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story.

A story of these volunteers as well as the english as official language of us essay, orphans and cover letter style, I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on english essay the right path and a rose essay, hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Thank you again very much. This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. As Official Of Us Essay! Thank you again for chapter thesis this great article. Really good points and very motivational to english essay get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. Cover Letter! It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the shift in focus from english language essay, 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change.

The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the path of the pipe and so tightly focused. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dissertation dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. but the dried plants and wall work, the drain beautiful and interesting. English Language Essay! The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. It took me a long time to figure out good introduction to essays how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to as official language essay having the eBook only on iPads. Photo essays in black and white.

This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: I recently made a photo essay which was published in cover a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to english language be put in context by using words to string them together. Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through.

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Essay mills: university course work to language of us essay, order. David Matthews investigates the scale and threat of the introduction sentences to essays custom essay industry. The damage contract cheating can inflict on english language, society is chapter thesis, clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in english language of us essay, their learning and cheapest dissertation, knowledge. Picture the following scenario: marking an essay by one of your more underwhelming students, you grow suspicious. You would like to be pleased by the unexpected quality of the work, but instead you feel “a twinge that a sentence is english as official language essay, too neatly framed”, as one scholar who has found herself in this position puts it. Meaning Of Critical Thinking? The analysis is superb, the writing style good - but is it too good?

It bears little resemblance to previous work by the same student: indeed, it is in a different league. But it has been through Turnitin, the academic plagiarism checker, and come back clean. Has the student miraculously improved, or are you looking at a particularly pernicious problem afflicting today’s higher education sector: the paid- for, custom-written essay? Custom essays, usually bought through websites known as essay mills, are in english as official, some ways an academic’s worst nightmare. Unlike standard examples of copy-and-paste plagiarism, they cannot be detected using software because they are “original” pieces of work - just not the student’s. They also arguably represent an even more cynical form of cheating than, for example, regurgitating unattributed passages in a piece of submitted work. For many years, essay mills have been brazenly advertising their wares online, although they are always careful not to condone customers handing in bought pieces of work, arguing that the essays purchased are intended simply as useful guides or reference material. No one knows how big the cheapest dissertation writing market in custom essays is, or whether universities are managing to of us essay, detect those students who do hand them in. There are also concerns that in an age of mass higher education and high student-to-staff ratios, lecturers are less able to good introduction sentences, get to know their students’ work, making this form of cheating more difficult to language, detect. And there are fears that the pressures of the job might encourage some academics to turn a blind eye to the practice. But perhaps the most important question is whether it is possible to prevent this form of cheating in the first place.

Asking how many custom-written essays are being bought and sold in the UK is a bit like asking “how long is meaning of critical thinking, a piece of string?”, argues Thomas Lancaster, senior lecturer in computing at as official essay Birmingham City University. For obvious reasons (including the fact that cheats do not want to be caught, essay mills operate online, and there are no official statistics), it is difficult to come by a rose for emily, reliable figures. However, Lancaster, along with his former colleague Robert Clarke, has attempted to essay, quantify the scale of the problem. The pair studied a large sample of psychology invention, essay mill sites between March 2005 and June 2013, and identified nearly 19,000 attempts at contract cheating by students. While they examined websites that could be used by anyone anywhere in english as official essay, the world, a more detailed study of 59 postings in 2011 on a rose argumentative, one website,, found 18 references to as official language of us essay, assignments at UK universities. “What we detected is the tip of the iceberg,” cautions Lancaster. No one even knows how many essay ghostwriting sites there are on the web, but five years ago Lancaster and chapter thesis, Clarke listed 158.

In addition to the online activity, there is an unknown number of language of us essay, essay writers who advertise their work offline - even on campus. “You get flyers pinned up on university noticeboards that say: ‘We’ll do your work’,” Lancaster explains. Then there are those who arrange contract essays socially, for style, friends, family members or students one or two years below them, who leave no public trace at all. Prices vary dramatically. An upper-second, five-page undergraduate history essay will set you back ?70 at the cheaper end of the market, but some sites charge in the region of ?150-?160. Language Of Us Essay? One website, which sells itself as a “premier” service, charges ?50 an hour. This may sound expensive, but it is loose change compared with the cost (particularly for international students) of having to essay psychology field, retake a year.

At the top end of the scale, postgraduate dissertations of 25,000 words cost in the region of ?2,800. Some essay writing companies are willing to provide more specific estimates of the scale of demand for their services, although the english of us essay figures are self-reported and chapter thesis, some academics say that the firms may exaggerate their popularity to attract publicity and gain more custom. Jennifer Wiss, business development manager at All Answers (which trades under a number of names on the web, including, says that the company dispatched 11,470 custom essays in 2012, of which three-quarters were ordered from english of us essay UK IP addresses. This figure is difficult to verify, but the firm’s accounts appear to be consistent with a company selling essays in such quantities. Wiss estimates that a further 4,000 custom essays are written in the UK by rival agencies each year (although students at British universities can also order from abroad).

In 2005 Barclay Littlewood, who was then chief executive of All Answers (which promoted itself as UK Essays), estimated that the business was worth ?200 million a year and boasted that it had allowed him to buy a Ferrari and a Lamborghini. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and cover letter style, thought at Royal Holloway, University of London, believes that custom-written essays are a problem, but thinks that some essay mills choose to exaggerate their size through the press “because it’s good advertising. It’s a very media- friendly problem.” Whatever the number of essays being commissioned and the scale of the english language companies involved, information gathered by writing, Times Higher Education under the as official language Freedom of Information Act suggests that the number of custom-written essays being detected and officially reported is tiny. THE asked UK universities to provide details of the number of students they had disciplined in the academic years 2011-12 and chapter thesis, 2012-13 for english essay, handing in custom essays or assignments bought from essay mills. Writing? Among the language universities that responded to the request within 20 days, just 29 students were disciplined in introduction sentences, 2011-12; in 2012-13, 30 students from 15 institutions were penalised. More than half the as official language of us essay offenders hailed from outside the UK. Some argue that the high fees paid by international students and chapter thesis, the need to write in English (if this is not their first language) create greater incentives to english language of us essay, cheat. Chasing plagiarists can be ‘too much effort’, Carroll says. In any case, she is dissertation, unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Wiss reports that for a significant number of All Answers’ customers, English is a second language.

She claims that “many of these struggle to put their thoughts and ideas across, or to interpret their course material and lectures. I believe this is why they choose to use a service like ours.” In Lancaster’s experience, both domestic and international students use essay writing services, but he believes that a particularly serious and related issue is the matter of students paying for the translation of an essay written in a foreign language before handing it in, a practice that can obscure plagiarism. As THE reported in August, some universities still lack clear policies on whether international students may use proofreaders or translators to help them with their work. The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is clear.

Graduates emerge from english language of us essay university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Lancaster even discovered one student who had attempted to introduction sentences, outsource an english language essay assignment on nuclear engineering. One of the scholar’s presentations on the subject asks: “Do you want to meaning of critical thinking, live within five miles of this person?” But there is also a more specific form of damage to the university. You need only one student to as official language of us essay, go “to a job and not be able to do it” for an employer to “write off” other graduates of that university, Lancaster argues. He believes that employers have long memories and will warn other companies that certain alumni are not to be trusted. So contract cheating “has the a rose essay effect of penalising honest students”, he adds. Given the ethical issues, who agrees to work for the sites? The companies advertise themselves as employing graduates with good qualifications: an anonymous essay writer who wrote for THE in August says he is english of us essay, a recent Oxbridge graduate who was asked to invention field, provide evidence of his qualifications and samples of his writing when applying for the job. English As Official Language Of Us Essay? Some companies claim to employ staff with at least 2:1 degrees, interview potential candidates and ask them to complete trial assignments.

Many contract essay companies justify their trade by arguing that they are simply showing uncertain students how to chapter thesis, write. “Many students just want to see how it’s done,” says Wiss, who also claims that the “vast majority” of english of us essay, All Answers’ customers do not hand in their purchased essays. This might be more convincing if All Answers did not run its essays through plagiarism checkers before sending them on to clients - a common practice in the industry. Why do this unless customers want to hand them in? Wiss claims that this is to make sure that its writers are “spending the time they are paid for on cover style, the project and not cutting corners”. In line with many in the business, All Answers tries to as official language essay, blame universities for chapter thesis, the rise of the essay mill. Language Of Us? Institutions admit international students who can “barely string a sentence together”, Wiss claims, while others are “thrown in at the deep end” when they start university. However, claims that custom essays merely help students with their own original work are “disingenuous”, according to a spokesman for Universities UK. “Such essays often cost several hundred pounds, will specify the grade they require [2:1, 2:2, etc] and are purchased invariably to meet clear deadlines,” he says.

The anonymous essay writer offers a number of clues that he says may help to alert academics to custom-written essays. Essay writing agencies generally require writers to submit their work in a standard format, he explains, often including a contents page and chapter headings, regardless of length. “If you didn’t ask your students to submit a 2,000-word essay in this format and you get a contents page, etc, then this might raise an alarm,” he says. Ghostwriters often lack access to full journal articles, and a rose argumentative, so rely heavily on first-page previews from journal sites or Google Books. “Really probe the references, because this is the weak part,” he advises. Jude Carroll, an education consultant at english of us essay Oxford Brookes University and a plagiarism expert, thinks academics should not be afraid to be aggressively “investigative” if they smell a rat. Thinking? If there are suspicions, she suggests, staff should call students in english as official language essay, and ask them to explain unusually complex words or obscure references they have used.

The “biggest worry” for academics who have such suspicions is that they lack proof, she says - but that is no excuse for chapter thesis, inaction. “There’s no support for the argument about proof. Students can’t question academic judgements. You don’t have to english as official language, be [100 per cent] sure, you have to weigh the balance of probabilities - and be at least 65 per cent sure,” she thinks. But for another academic, who asks to remain anonymous, launching an mathematical investigation is not that simple. “I’m ashamed to admit it but you simply don’t have the time to launch a plagiarism case,” she says. One colleague, the same academic recalls, had to “almost google every line” of a suspect essay and english of us essay, make several trips to the library to ascertain whether her fears about a piece of chapter thesis, work were genuine.

In a competitive research excellence framework environment, chasing plagiarists can be “too much effort”, she says. In any case, she is english as official essay, also unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Universities have a “real anxiety about the a rose for emily litigation culture” and english as official language of us, are “anxious” about academics exercising their judgement. When offenders do get caught, Carroll says, the punishments for handing in for emily argumentative, contracted essays are “highly variable”. She finds this worrying because penalties are a major determinant of how likely students are to english as official essay, cheat. “I believe students should be thrown out” if caught, she says. “It’s fraud.” However, according to the results of THE ’s FoI request, most students who cheat in this manner can expect to remain on their courses.

Of the dissertation 59 students who were caught handing in bought essays in 2011-12 and 2012-13, just 13 were expelled. In one case at Newcastle University, for example, an international student suspected of handing in work purchased from the site was given a “final written warning” but no other punishment. Many believe that academics’ first line of defence against custom essays is to language of us essay, set assignments that are difficult, if not impossible, to outsource. The anonymous ghostwriter advises scholars to ask their students to draw on lectures and class discussion when setting essays. “This is something that is argumentative, either less visible or invisible to english as official language of us, the ghostwriter,” he explains, and therefore much more difficult to achieve. Questions that require close engagement with a particular text are also more difficult to cheapest, outsource, he says. “Chances are I won’t be able to english as official essay, do this as well because I won’t have that book to hand. If asked to, I have a problem.” He also cautions against sending out lecture notes in electronic formats or putting them online, because this only makes it easier for ghostwriters to dissertation, give the english as official language impression of having attended courses. However, the Equality Challenge Unit points out that students with disabilities might find taking notes during lectures difficult or even impossible, and chapter thesis, some departments require academics to english as official of us, provide lecture notes to essay psychology invention mathematical, all students for this reason.

Some essay questions appear time and time again, making them easier for contract writers to complete, so one obvious piece of advice from plagiarism experts is to as official, avoid setting assignments on predictable topics such as “women in Dickens”. Scholars might also set students presentations or tests based on their written submissions, which can identify those who have not done the work themselves. In 2007, Google banned advertisements for essay writing services on its website, a move welcomed by UUK. Couldn’t the government introduce a blanket ban on the companies? A spokeswoman for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills suggests that this would be impossible under current law. “Whether a student and/or ‘writing service’ have committed an offence would be for cover letter, a court to decide and as official language essay, depend on the individual circumstances of the case,” she says. “There is no action BIS could take to address this.” Another drastic option is suggested by the tale of psychology invention field, a US professor, recounted by Lancaster, who set himself up as a contract essay writer to of us, test the of critical thinking waters, only to find one of english as official language of us, his own assignments out to tender.

He wrote it, and when one of his students handed it in, he revealed himself as the author. Wiss maintains that All Answers is “very keen to work with universities to provide a service that can’t be abused in invention mathematical field, the first place” - but only if universities agree that the company is “a legitimate source of as official of us essay, academic help”. The UUK spokesman declines to comment on a rose essay, this and says: “More should be done to clamp down on these essay companies.” He adds that the english as official body does not have any specific proposals to tackle the essay psychology invention field problem (although suggestions are welcome). So there does not appear to english language of us, be any systematic solution to meaning, essay mills on the horizon, and responsibility for detecting and dealing with the issue continues to rest with individual academics and their universities. “If academics really want to catch these essays, they are going to english of us, have to spend more time engaging with their students’ submitted work,” concludes the anonymous essay writer. Some may be left wishing that they had more time to do just that.

Nothing to meaning, hide (except your details) “Although using our service is not cheating, and you have nothing to hide if you use the english language of us service responsibly, we still take your privacy very seriously … We never share details of your order with your university.” “First class in my chemistry coursework was unbelievable. Chapter Thesis? thanks.” - Theo, Manchester. “Universities sometimes warn students against using companies like ours, which goes back to the days when the custom essay industry was underhand and untrustworthy. We’re actively involved in re-educating them and changing their perspective.” “Just wanted to send a note to say thanks. Your paper helped me get a 2:1 for my degree!! I can now apply for my Masters! Thanks ever so much!! Do you write to Masters level?” - Lucy, Stratford-upon-Avon. Set students short tests or presentations based on as official of us essay, their essays. Psychology? Ask students to write their essays with reference to lectures or class discussions. As Official? Set unusual questions or ask for analysis of set texts as this could put off potential ghostwriters.

If you suspect an essay may not be a student’s work, ask them to explain the key words, concepts and research. Cover Letter? Check references: ghostwriters often do not have access to full journals or books, so may be able to reference only the preview pages of online articles. English Language Of Us? If an essay seems overly formatted, for example, with a contents page and chapters, this could be because of a standard format used by letter style, essay companies. Google your assignment questions: you may find that they are out to tender. Click here for as official language of us, more on preventing plagiarism. Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and argumentative, save job searches Participate in reader discussions and post comments Register.

Or subscribe for language of us essay, unlimited access to: Unlimited access to news, views, insights reviews Digital editions Digital access to THE’s university and college rankings analysis Unrestricted access to the UK and global edition of the THE app on IOS, Android and Kindle Fire Subscribe. Already registered or a current subscriber? Sign in now. Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research)/Vice-President.

Research Assistant/Research Fellow in Modelling Root Traits to Bio-engineer Soil. Lecturer in Data Science - Data Sciences with Analytics. Digital Marketing and Recruitment Executive. Last week, the UK’s universities minister threatened to a rose for emily argumentative essay, fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the essay prime minister without a strong justification. For Emily Argumentative? We present three perspectives on the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the cruelty and dysfunction at as official the heart of academic science. No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over what they write for their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan.

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