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BizTalk Server and WCF Integration. Atul Gupta (Infosys Technologies Ltd) Amit Praful Shah (Infosys Technologies Ltd) Jitendra Pal Thethi (Infosys Technologies Limited) September 17, 2007. This article describes the different approaches available to expose and consume Windows Communication Framework (WCF) services from BizTalk Server 2004 (BTS04) and BizTalk Server 2006 (BTS06). Code samples for integration of a WCF service with BizTalk Server 2004 are available here and for integration with BizTalk Server 2006 here. With the November 2006 release of .NET Framework 3.0, the wait is ap english free response essay, finally over for software professionals. The core components of this managed code programming model – Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) and Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) – has revolutionized the thesis adviser, way software is programmed. This article focuses on the different options available for ap english response, communication between WCF and BTS06. While much of the discussion will also be applicable to BTS04, any discrepancies in implementation for BTS04 will be highlighted.
There is a WCF Adapter for BTS06 is available on the CodePlex Web site. An out-of-the-box adapter will be shipped with BizTalk Server 2006 R2 which may be released by the end of September 2007. An overview of the resynthesis plugin, R2 WCF Adapter's capabilities is available at the following blog post. To try out the R2 WCF Adapter, download the BizTalk Server 2006 R2 Beta from the Microsoft Connect site. However, you may need to integrate existing BizTalk-based applications with WCF to do the same. In this article we present various options to achieve interoperability in ap english free essay cases where upgrading to english placement essay prompts BizTalk Server 2006 R2 is not possible. The article merely outlines the approaches and does not deal with them in an exhaustive manner. Nor does it provide a benchmark to compare the approaches.
You need to evaluate and free choose one among the suggested techniques after taking into account the gimp resynthesis, needs of your application. Note: If you are upgrading to BizTalk 2006 R2, then working with WCF Adapter will be ideal due to the ease of use, deployment and essay management it offers. Overview of WCF and BTS06 Technologies. Before getting into the specifics, it may be useful to get an overview of WCF and BTS06. If you are already familiar with these technologies, you may skip the introductions and bibliography source proceed to the section on free essay, 'WCF Service Used as Reference'. WCF is Microsoft's unified platform used for rapidly building secure, reliable and for tots essay interoperable distributed applications. WCF combines the earlier disparate programming models into 2007 ap english free response essay a single service-oriented programming model. In the science coursework, world before WCF, software developers had to pick from numerous technology choices in order to create and expose services that could be consumed in a distributed environment. While developers chose web services for interoperability and Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) for reliable messaging, they used Enterprise Services for transaction management, .NET Remoting for high performance systems and Web Service Enhancements (WSE) for secure messaging, resulting in the same logic being duplicated when the component had to 2007 essay be exposed over multiple channels.
At a high level, every WCF service consists of the following three parts: The Service Contract that defines 'what' the service does and bibliography a service class that contains the implementation for the service. Configuration files consisting of bindings (the 'how' part) and endpoints (the 'where' part) that define the way clients access the WCF service. These configuration files are independent of implementation. The binding specifies how a client communicates with the service in terms of transport and other attributes. The endpoint specifies the address at which this service is exposed to clients. A process that hosts the service implementation so that it can be invoked from 2007 ap english response essay, client applications.
The following diagram depicts a WCF service being invoked by a client: Figure 1: WCF Communication. Given below, are a sequence of steps that need to be followed for implementing and making a WCF service available for consumption. As with all service-oriented development, we follow a contract-first development model for WCF services. Two types of contracts need to bibliography online source be specified: Service contract: This contract defines the ap english free essay, interface of the service, which is the set of operations that are implemented and exposed by the service. The service contract uses a specific attribute viz [OperationContract] to gimp resynthesis define the ap english, operations.
The code snippet given below shows how the class and method definitions are decorated with attributes to indicate the service contract. In the following example, the service contract (interface ICalculator) exposes two operations Add and Subtract, each of which expects 2 ComplexNumber input parameters and return a ComplexNumber as response. Data contract: Every service call will typically have a set of data elements that will be passed as input parameters and a output that is returned from the call. The data contract helps in formalizing this data exchange. Gimp Plugin? The data is typically modeled as a class or struct and is given attributes that define the contract. The data contract controls the way the request object, which is passed as a parameter to the service call, is serialized and hence controls the 2007 ap english free response essay, SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) message format that flows on the wire. English Placement Test Prompts? An example of a data contract is given below.
Note that the DataContract and ap english free essay DataMember attributes are used to decorate the class ComplexNumber, which is the data entity passed as input and output to the Add and Subtract operations in the service contract defined above. Plugin? Once the service and data contracts are defined, you need to create an implementation for the service. This is response, done by first defining the placement essay, class that will implement the interface in the service contract. The actual business logic for the operations is then included in the method implementations. As mentioned earlier, the service is implemented independent of the transport or address over which the service is eventually exposed. This is possible because in 2007 free WCF, the transport and address details are specified as attributes in external configuration files. To configure end points exposed by WCF services, it is mandatory to define the following details for each endpoint: Contract: The contract is the interface or the service contract that the service implements. Bibliography? In the sample shown below, the endpoint is configured to expose the 2007 free response essay, ICalculator service contract. Binding: The binding specifies the protocol over which the service can be accessed along with attributes that define security, reliability and other requirements.
Address: The address is the physical URL where the service can be located. The key advantage of this configurability is that though the service is implemented just once, it can be accessed over multiple endpoints, each defining a unique combination of address and bibliography online source binding. A sample configuration for ap english free, end points is as follows: The final step is to host the service in a process. For this, there are multiple options – Internet Information Services (IIS), Windows Activation Services (WAS) and managed Windows service. A service may also be hosted in a managed Windows application such as Windows Forms applications, console applications, etc. The following links provide more details about.NET Framework 3.0 and bibliography online WCF: BizTalk Server is an ap english free response essay integration product from Microsoft that enables enterprises to automate, deploy and monitor business processes. It offers Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), Business Process Management (BPM) and B2B integration capabilities. The BizTalk Server features can be categorized into two main areas—messaging and toys orchestration, which are described below.
The messaging engine deals with parsing, sending/receiving, translating, and 2007 free essay routing of messages to thesis rotating and from applications. It enables users to receive messages and ap english response route them into a business process or send out a message from the process. The orchestration engine deals with modeling and executing processes, and provides a tool to design and implement business processes. BizTalk orchestration thus helps manage overall application business logic. Messaging and thesis adviser orchestration are used together; with messaging providing the ap english free essay, receipt and delivery capabilities that orchestration rely on. The diagram below shows the english placement test, important components of BizTalk server: Figure 2: BizTalk Server Architecture. Other important BizTalk server components include: Business Rules Engine (BRE): The BRE allows one to ap english free response create a set of business rules as policies and evaluate data based on these rules. With this, business rules are maintained outside of the business process, but can be invoked from within the process. This makes the systems easier to english test prompts configure and maintain. Business Activity Monitoring (BAM): The BAM component makes it possible for the extraction of relevant information from business processes as they are executing and hence to monitor the processes in 2007 free response essay real time.
Business Activity Services (BAS): The BAS portal, along with some of the components in BizTalk, enables the management of gimp resynthesis plugin interactions with trading partners. It also helps integrate an enterprise's business processes with those of the 2007 response essay, partners. BizTalk allows you to create 'send' and 'receive' port gateways through which external applications can exchange messages with BizTalk. The ports can be configured to use a set of adviser letter transport protocols and application adapters that are shipped with BizTalk Server. With these adapters, BizTalk can exchange messages over multiple channels such as files, MSMQ, HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SOAP, IBM MQ, etc. Application adapters, which can directly interact with packaged applications like PeopleSoft, SAP, Oracle Apps, etc, are also available. Additionally, BizTalk can understand both positional/delimited and XML message formats. It has a mapping engine that can help transform messages from one format to another.
The flow of a message through BizTalk is shown in the diagram below: Figure 3: Message flow in BizTalk Server. Since BizTalk has HTTP and SOAP Adapters, it can interact with web-based applications, especially web services. The BizTalk Server interacts with services in the following two ways: BizTalk process orchestrations can be exposed as Web services. In such a case, external clients can invoke the orchestration by making SOAP/HTTP calls. BizTalk can consume Web services by ap english free, using the SOAP Adapter. Rotating? More information on BizTalk Server 2006 is available at the following URLs: BizTalk Server 2006 Home. The WCF Service Used as Reference.
This article uses the following WCF service to explain BizTalk-WCF integration options: In the above service, a Product ID is the ap english, input parameter expected by the GetStockInfo() method. For Tots? The logic will query the Product Table to retrieve current stock details for the Product ID. The return value is an integer indicating the current stock available. Both BizTalk Server and WCF are technologies that provide significant value by free response essay, themselves. However, a combination of the test essay, two provides the broadest possible spectrum of connected system scenarios – both brokered and un-brokered – using open standard protocols.
BizTalk provides business process orchestration, message transformation and 2007 free response business activity monitoring through designers and visual tools. WCF provides a unified framework for building secure, reliable and transacted web services. Ocr Gcse Coursework? The following sections will describe options for integrating BizTalk with WCF services. Consuming a WCF Services from BizTalk: Use the WCF Adapter. Currently in ap english free essay CTP, it will be released with BizTalk 2006 R2. WCF service exposed over basicHttpBinding and bibliography online source consumed from ap english response essay, orchestration.
WCF service exposed on wsHttpBinding endpoint. BizTalk communicates with the placement test essay prompts, service using a WSE Adapter in response essay a secure and reliable mode. WCF Service endpoint on msmqIntegrationBinding. BizTalk consumes the service using an MSMQ Adapter. BizTalk consumes service using a wrapper around the WCF proxy and invokes through BizTalk orchestration. This mechanism is used when a transport adapter corresponding to a particular type of WCF binding in BizTalk, e.g. netTCPBinding , is not available in BizTalk. Exposing BizTalk orchestration as a WCF service having a basicHttpBinding binding. The following table shows the options for thesis adviser letter, communication between BizTalk Server and a WCF service for various system-provided WCF bindings. These options are mapped to the features of each binding and indicate whether they are retained or are no longer available on selecting a given option. Use the following table to select the option that satisfies all features required in your scenario: Options for Communication. Correlation and Duplex Channel.
Orchestration using Send shapes bound to endpoint on HTTP Adapter. Wrap WCF Proxy as a .NET assembly. Orchestration using Send Shapes bound to endpoint on WSE Adapter. Ap English Essay? Wrap WCF Proxy as a .NET assembly. Orchestration using Send shapes bound to endpoint on WSE Adapter. Wrap WCF proxy as a .NET assembly. Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly.
Wrap Service in a .NET proxy assembly. As MSMQ endpoint. Requires additional transformation. Thesis Rotating? Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly. As MSMQ endpoint. 2007 Response Essay? Requires additional transformation. Wrap service in resynthesis a .NET proxy assembly. Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly.
Table 1: Options for BizTalk – WCF integration. The following business case sample may help you understand the working of response essay BizTalk and WCF: A user receives an invoice from a file receive location using the File Adapter. BizTalk forwards this invoice to the WCF service to enquire about the stock availability based on the Prod ID mentioned in the invoice. WCF returns the stock status to BizTalk and writes to an output file location using the File Adapter. Accessing WCF Services from BizTalk Server. WCF Service with BasicHttpBinding binding, consumed from BizTalk. In this technique, the SOAP adapter is used to facilitate the communication. BizTalk consumes the WCF service by making a web reference to the WCF service exposed over banner, basicHttpBinding . The basicProfileBinding conforms to 2007 ap english essay WS-I Basic Profile 1.0 standards.
The SOAP Send Adapter can be used to for tots essay interface with such an essay endpoint. In order to consume a service that uses BasicHttpBinding : Add a web reference to the WSDL at endpoint address. This creates the necessary web port and the multipart messages that need to be exchanged between BizTalk and bibliography online source WCF. Transform source messages to request schema messages. Such messages can be sent from orchestrations. The following is the 2007 ap english free response essay, detailed sequence of steps to be followed for consuming a WCF service exposed over the BasicHttpBinding : Create a new web site using the WCF service template as shown below: Figure 4: Creating a new WCF Service project.
An important snippet of the web.config file for basicHttpBinding is as follows: It defines the service contract of the thesis rotating banner, WCF service and the binding information for 2007 free response, basicHttpBinding . Resynthesis Plugin? Refer to the MSDN site for more information on basicHttpBinding . Figure 5: Adding a web reference to the WCF service. The web port type and multipart messages are automatically created after addition of the web reference as seen in ap english free essay the orchestration view. Logical ports can now be added to the orchestration design surface. The WCF service can be invoked from the orchestration by plugin, passing the request message type to the port and subsequently receiving the response. Ap English Free Essay? Note: The steps remain the same when consuming the WCF service from resynthesis, BizTalk Server 2004 or BizTalk Server 2006.
WCF Service Exposed on WsHttpBinding Endpoint. WCF services exposed using a wsHttpBinding are secure, reliable and interoperable. These services implement WS-Reliable messaging for reliability and WS-Security for message-level security. A WSE-enabled adapter is required to call services exposed using wsHttpBinding . Microsoft has released a BTS04-compatible WSE 2.0 Adapter which can be used for 2007 ap english essay, communication. However, currently, there is no BTS06-compatible adapter for WSE 3.0 available from Microsoft.
One can either write a custom adapter or use a third-party adapter like the one provided by TwoConnect. Bibliography? The WSE 2.0 Adapter, available for BTS04, can be used for interfacing. The supported standards are WS-Security (user / password token, Kerberos and X509) and WS-Reliability. More details are available on the MSDN web site. The WSE 2.0 adapter can be downloaded from here and 2007 response the SP1 is available here. A detailed walk through on using the WSE 2.0 adapter is available in this TechNet article. TwoConnect has published a WSE 3.0 Adapter to online interface with WCF services exposed using wsHttpBinding endpoint. 2007 Ap English Free Response Essay? You can find more details on toys for tots, the adapter at free http://adapterworx.com/cs/products/wse3.0.aspx. For connecting to essay WCF using the WSE 3.0 Adapter from TwoConnect, follow the steps given below: Create and publish a WCF service according to the steps listed in response the basicHttpBinding section. An important snippet from the web.config file is as follows:
Figure 6: Referencing WSDL URL information in bibliography online source the Schema Generation Wizard. Free Response Essay? Figure 7: Specifying the web methods in the Schema Generation Wizard. WCF Service Endpoint on MsmqIntegrationBinding. Ocr Gcse Science? MSMQ bindings cover asynchronous message-based, inter-process communications using the MSMQ infrastructure. 2007 Free Response? MSMQ provides the infrastructure to send messages across machines in a secure and reliable environment and in a transactional scope. This messaging pattern helps build scalable applications as the number of blocked and wait threads is minimal. The sample described in toys essay this section, works as follows: BizTalk receives an invoice. 2007 Ap English Free Response? It submits the message using an MSMQ Adapter to the private MSMQ queue present on a remote system where the WCF service is hosted. The WCF service picks up the message from the MSMQ queue, finds out the stock status, updates the message, and letter posts it back to the same queue. BizTalk picks up the message from the queue and posts it to a send location using the File Adapter. The WCF service is hosted inside a console application.
Define the service contract as shown below: Note the use of the ServiceKnownType attribute. Free Essay? This helps expose .NET Types to letter the service so that they can be serialized and de-serialized when required. InvoiceType is a class with fields having one-to-one mapping. The source schema elements are present in 2007 free response the BizTalk message. Also note that since the message is passed to the WCF service over thesis rotating banner, MSMQ, the parameter type of SubmitInvoice OperationContract will be of type MsmqMessage. This class is marked with the Serializable attribute so that the objects of 2007 ap english free response essay this type can be serialized and de-serialized when required. Biztalk has send and receive ports that send and receive a message from MSMQ using the MSMQ Adapter. Adviser? The port binding is set to the specify later option. After deployment, set the properties of the send and receive ports for MSMQ bindings from the BizTalk Explorer as follows: Figure 8: Configuring the MSMQ Send Adapter.
The above figure shows the 2007 ap english free, property window for english test prompts, the send port using MSMQ Adapter. Note that we have specified the name of the destination queue and response essay set the thesis, transactional property of the queue to true . Figure 9: Configuring the MSMQ Receive Adapter. The above figure shows the property window for the receive port using the response essay, MSMQ Adapter. Ocr Gcse Science? The queue name has been specified and the transactional property is set to true . In case of BizTalk Server 2004, the free response, MSMQ Adapter needs to be downloaded. The adapter can be downloaded from toys for tots essay, here. The steps specified above can be used when working with BizTalk 2004 and to interact with a WCF service using MSMQ.
WCF Service Endpoint on NetTCPBinding. NetTCPBinding uses the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) channel to interact with the client and service. 2007 Free Response Essay? There is resynthesis plugin, no BizTalk adapter for TCP, hence the 2007 free essay, only option available while using the netTCP-bound endpoint is to employ the proxy pattern discussed below. NetTCPBinding supports a duplex channel of communication – the service calls on english placement essay, the client interface to return the response without the client needing to listen explicitly. In order to execute a sequence of process steps as a transaction, the expression shapes should be in atomic transaction scope. Any exceptions occurring on the service call would show up as scope exception, which will also abort the ambient transaction. NetTCPBinding supports transport-level and message-level security as defined by the binding configuration. NetTCPBinding can work in scenarios where both client and service are on .NET. 2007 Ap English Essay? The working of source this sample for consuming WCF service exposed over free, a NetTCPBinding is thesis, as follows: Define and implement the service contract as shown earlier.
Create a console application to host the WCF service. Generate a proxy class using svcutil.exe against the service contract defined earlier by running the svcutil.exe tool as shown below. The assumption here is that the service is exposed at the URL http://localhost:8000/Service.svc. The URL should be replaced with the actual address of the service. svcutil.exe *.wsdl *.xsd. A proxy class and configuration file will generated.
Note: We have tested the sample in this article using BizTalk 2006, not BizTalk 2004. While the steps for both are the same, working with WCF on a BizTalk Server 2004 machine will require installation of the .NET framework 3.0. 2007 Response? This is because a reference has to be added to a project that contains code generated using WCF. Note: We are hosting the service at port number 8000 and exposing the service endpoint at port 9000. Note: In the following code snippet, we are specifying the transport-level security and the credential type: The app.config is as follows: In this approach explained above, we have a reference to the WCF proxy inside BizTalk. We are invoking the WCF-exposed service using the Expression shape.
The recommended approach is to send the message from BizTalk in plain XML format to a .NET wrapper class. This class will create a .NET object from within its implementation and then call the WCF proxy. The transformations will be done in BizTalk but the deserialization will be handled in the .NET assembly. Message translation is best handled in BizTalk via the mapper and the rich set of functoids. Hence, we recommend translating messages required by the WCF service within BizTalk using the Mapper. However, the WCF service may expect and return a .NET Type and not an XML.
In such a case, converting the XML message is toys essay, best done in the .NET assembly, helped by the rich serialization and deserialization support available in 2007 the .NET Framework. The following table summarizes the same: Recommended (use BizTalk Mapper) Not recommended. Is an implementation overhead. Exposing BizTalk Orchestrations as WCF Services. The following sample describes how a BizTalk orchestration can be exposed as a WCF service. The steps are: Convert the orchestration to a web service using the orchestration Web Services Publishing Wizard. Modify the web service to a WCF service by manually editing the code contents of the web services as described in the 'Configuration' section below. Create a BizTalk project containing the orchestration which is to be first exposed as a ASMX web service. The orchestration process is as shown below and the actual code is present in the attached sample code: Figure 10: BizTalk Orchestration to be exposed as WCF service.
Note that the bibliography online, orchestration has a public request response port through which it will interact with the web service. 2007 Free Essay? Figure 11: BizTalk Web Services Publishing Wizard. Figure 12: Selecting the BizTalk assembly to coursework be exposed as service. Free Essay? Figure 13: Selecting Orchestration Port that is to be exported. Figure 14: Specifying properties for ASP.NET web service project. Note that the service name inside the services tag should be the fully qualified name, i.e. with namespace, and should match the service in coursework the WCF service (.svc) file. http://localhost/Invoice_Proxy/Invoice_InventoryProcessWS_Port_2.asmx BTS as WCF service. These services can now be consumed from a client. The sample code has been tested with the ap english free essay, WCF binding set as basicHttpBinding. To add a web reference to bibliography source a WCF service in a BizTalk project, we need to create the service using the File New Web Site option and select the WCF service template. Response? WCF service cannot be created using New Project option. If Visual Studio is unable to create code files when adding web reference to test the WCF service created, it could be a proxy authentication issue.
Check the 2007 response essay, proxy settings for the browser under Tools Internet options Connections LAN Settings. To view the application errors and to adviser letter fully trust the target assembly, add the 2007 response, following sections under the web.config file for all scenarios: When sending messages from BizTalk to MSMQ we need to set the bibliography, target namespace property of the schema to 2007 ap english free blank . If an instance of the toys essay, schema is generated with the target namespace property specified, the 2007 ap english free response, WCF service is unable to process the message it picks up from MSMQ. For e.g., we can have a schema as follows: And not as follows: Refer to this blog entry for more details. When consuming a WCF service with wsHttpBinding from BizTalk 2004, the WSE 2.0 Adapter is banner, unable to understand the ap english free, WSDL generated by the WCF service. The WSE 3.0 Adapter depends on .NET Framework 3.0 which has to be installed on science coursework, the BizTalk 2004 system. It should solve the issue of consuming a WCF service with wsHttpBinding from 2007 ap english response, a BizTalk 2004 application. Creating services using Service-Oriented principles is letter, key in ap english response many software projects and WCF is essay, a very good framework for such a task. It enables developers to write the service logic once and expose the service over various endpoints which can use different bindings like web services, MSMQ, TCP, etc. Microsoft BizTalk Server can then be used to orchestrate the services and implement business processes. This article presented options for enterprises that use BizTalk Server 2004 or BizTalk Server 2006 and wish to 2007 ap english free response expose or consume WCF services from BizTalk.
However, enterprises should look to upgrading to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 that will have native support and out-of-the-box adapters for communicating with WCF services. The options given in this paper are meant for scenarios where an upgrade to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 is not possible. Atul Gupta is Principal Architect with Microsoft Technology Center, Infosys. He works on BizTalk Server 2006, BizTalk Server 2006 R2 and Windows Presentation Foundation from .NET Framework 3.0 stack. Amit Shah is an Architect with Microsoft Technology Center (Infosys Technologies Ltd). He is currently working on the creation of thesis letter integration solutions on the Microsoft platform using technologies like BizTalk Server, .NET Framework 3.0, Office SharePoint Server 2007 and SQL Server 2005. Free Response Essay? Jitendra Pal Thethi is Principal Architect with Microsoft Technology Center, Infosys. He is based out of Redmond and part of the Catalytic IT Solution Sales team and also the Infosys-MS Alliance team. Sarathy Sakshi is a test lead in the Connected System Division of Microsoft and is based in Redmond, WA. He has worked in various areas of ocr gcse science BizTalk server and ap english free response essay has most recently been working on the WCF Adapter.
Yumay Chang is a Technology Development Manager in the Enterprise Partner Group at Microsoft. She leads the thesis banner, partner strategy on SOA and Business Process Management and supports partner in their adoption of Microsoft technologies.
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Ap English Literature And Composition Free Response…
oedipus homework Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and 2007 ap english free response do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to plugin read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on 2007 ap english, Aristotle's ideas about gimp resynthesis tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started.
Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an 2007 army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris.
We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the test essay British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. 2007? An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and gimp resynthesis marry his mother. To thwart the ap english response prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to placement essay kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness.
Laius and 2007 ap english response Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. Essay? It may have been introduced to explain the 2007 free response essay hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. Toys? He gave the ap english response essay baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of resynthesis plugin Corinth couldn't have a baby of free their own. So they adopted the thesis adviser foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Free Essay? Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.
Oedipus visited various oracles to toys for tots essay find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the ap english free oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. Plugin? In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge.
In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of 2007 ap english free response Thebes. Some versions say that the placement essay rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and free response he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the english placement Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and 2007 ap english they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens.
The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the thesis adviser fall of Oedipus, to 2007 ap english free attend his funeral, and he beat all the plugin people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the ap english response essay Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for english test the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for 2007 ap english free response essay grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about banner Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the essay passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of gimp resynthesis pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes.
A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come.
Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. 2007 Ap English? Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of source gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for 2007 free a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and placement a lot on the background of the story. The author is ap english free with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination.
If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to thesis rotating be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. 2007 Response? In our own world, most predictions by placement prompts supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to 2007 free response essay tell each other about the thesis letter rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of 2007 ap english response psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in adviser Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of 2007 ap english free response essay religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity).
People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie.
Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this.
He could not believe that he was loved by rotating banner God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from 2007 ap english free response New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for coursework salvation.
John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and 2007 response that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of gimp plugin cruel destiny. Free? Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and for tots essay became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against ap english free, those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by prompts the laws of karma.
Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to 2007 ap english free decide for yourself whether this is rotating banner good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in 2007 ap english free response secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and ocr gcse science Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and free response the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Toys Essay? Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not?
Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to ap english free essay have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of online fiction. 2007 Ap English Response Essay? Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of ocr gcse coursework physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to 2007 response essay take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of for tots essay two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and ap english essay that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions.
The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. Adviser? I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. 2007 Essay? The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of resynthesis your free will. Ap English Free Response? When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the english test essay prompts sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4).
The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the response King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era.
His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. For Tots Essay? He is full of 2007 response succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for letter king is the 2007 free response English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of english essay prompts non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to free response do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader.
The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is test prompts suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. Ap English Essay? The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for resynthesis plugin the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer.
He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the 2007 ap english response killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to gimp plugin review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for ap english response Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of online robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to 2007 free be transferred away from banner Thebes, and has been gone ever since.)
Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and response from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of gimp resynthesis war but is 2007 ap english free response here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the thesis adviser murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. 2007 Response Essay? (Irony.)
The Chorus says that Apollo ought to plugin come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to ap english free response essay say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in banner the blind psychic, Teiresias. Response Essay? Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. Thesis Rotating? As a young man, he ran into response some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the for tots male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness.
Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to 2007 ap english free essay be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is ocr gcse coursework bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home.
Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and 2007 ap english essay calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. Adviser Letter? (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is free response a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to toys for tots essay handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the 2007 response world.
Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. Essay? The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in response a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in gimp resynthesis and accuses Creon directly of ap english free response essay planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. Thesis? They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime.
A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to 2007 ap english free response break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble.
Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Rotating? Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the ap english free response baby to die in the woods. Thesis Letter? And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by 2007 free essay robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony.
Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is english placement test essay upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the ap english new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and rotating banner Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request.
Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for 2007 fun. Bibliography Online Source? One of the men shoved Oedipus.
Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and 2007 ap english free response essay he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other.
He says he will simply leave the city, now, and ocr gcse science coursework let the plague end. Free? He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to gimp resynthesis plugin go voluntarily into exile to 2007 ap english free essay save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to letter find the last witness. 2007? Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural.
Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Bibliography Online Source? Laius was prophesied to die by ap english free essay the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to plugin obey the ap english free response essay gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for english test prompts the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. Ap English Response Essay? She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed!
Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about toys essay him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the 2007 ap english free essay news, and essay prompts says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence.
But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Free Response Essay? Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to toys essay the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for 2007 response you. Rotating? You don't have to free worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. Bibliography Online Source? because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose.
Oedipus questions the ap english essay messenger, and science coursework learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of ap english free response essay his ankles, and had given him to rotating banner the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to 2007 response essay clear this up. Send for thesis adviser the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to free essay pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. Toys Essay? (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on ap english free response essay, getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and toys essay thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. Ap English Free? But what the thesis adviser heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to ap english free essay be proud of! I'm me.
Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is source brought in. 2007 Ap English Free? He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. Gimp Resynthesis? But Oedipus insists on 2007 ap english essay, the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy.
Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Gimp? Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about ap english free essay how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of rotating banner destiny. The next scene is an 2007 ap english extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from ocr gcse science coursework inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the ap english response pin that held up her dress.
He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and bibliography online he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on 2007 ap english response essay, both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the toys essay globes from 2007 ap english response essay their sockets. Oedipus now begs to online source be taken out of the city (so that the 2007 ap english plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.
Oedipus comes in. Bibliography Online? Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and ap english free he curses the bibliography online person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. Ap English Free Essay? He is not angry, merely kind. Resynthesis? He helps Oedipus up and out of the 2007 free response city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is science dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an 2007 free response essay echo here of for tots essay Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?)
What is ap english Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in bibliography online source the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is whether the essay Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to rotating explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an 2007 ap english essay extremely capable, beloved administrator.
Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by resynthesis plugin any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. 2007 Free? They could mean that the thesis adviser dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Ap English Free Response Essay? Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune.
And at english placement essay prompts the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the ap english free response essay strength to thesis letter carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for response thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and gimp resynthesis must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for 2007 free response essay expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in thesis adviser Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the ap english dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age.
Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the resynthesis plugin gods do exist. and ap english response essay are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to plugin classify and 2007 ap english evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and adviser letter vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and 2007 free response essay theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the gimp plugin Poetics by S.H. Barber.
After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to 2007 free response essay these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in rotating banner actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place.
He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and free response people like the placement test prompts imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to 2007 free essay the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and ocr gcse coursework the actions of response essay good men. Thesis Rotating Banner? The more trivial sort imitated the actions of 2007 ap english free meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the ocr gcse coursework successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era.
He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the 2007 leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and english essay prompts added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of 2007 ap english response essay a character. Thesis Adviser Letter? Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the response chorus.
Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of toys for tots action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. Free Response? He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the source great themes of 2007 ap english free response essay life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him.
The end of the paragraph begins the thesis business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for free a laxative comes from the ocr gcse science Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on 2007 ap english response, a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Ocr Gcse Science? Aristotle points out how effective using just the ap english free response right word can be.
Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to placement test rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the ap english free response poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based.
Aristotle was a very smart person, and ocr gcse coursework the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is ap english response essay silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for online themes. I like Shakespeare, and 2007 essay like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of english essay prompts its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on 2007 ap english essay, the phoniness and meanness of human society.
Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to science terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. 2007 Ap English Response? Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to bibliography obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in ap english free response essay a godless world.
Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and letter the action not covering more then 24 hours. 2007 Free Essay? Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to resynthesis plugin make sense. But again, Tragedy is an response essay imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the events come on adviser, us by surprise; and ap english free essay the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. Toys? -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force.
Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of 2007 free these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of toys for tots suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on 2007 ap english free, the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of english test essay prompts tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the 2007 ap english free moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Science Coursework? Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of free essay this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the thesis banner character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems.
Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of free response tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. Resynthesis Plugin? (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is 2007 essay Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. Essay? A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of ap english response essay fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the test essay prompts result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out ap english free response essay, our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to science coursework serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending.
Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is 2007 ap english response essay proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at resynthesis the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and 2007 ap english essay go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the bibliography source special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and ap english free response essay indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to science coursework be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place.
This is the 2007 ap english free response essay impression we should receive from thesis adviser hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to 2007 free response essay be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class.
Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an adviser inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to ap english response aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in letter a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the 2007 free response men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of adviser people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Ap English Free? Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the adviser story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to free speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of adviser Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is 2007 ap english response said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the rotating banner excitation of the 2007 free essay feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite.
Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the ocr gcse science coursework object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about 2007 ap english response tales from science Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to 2007 free response essay fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to adviser be; Euripides, as they are. Free Response? In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue.
Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and banner Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and 2007 free response end a useful life rather than live with the ocr gcse stigma of mental illness. 2007 Free Response? Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of test essay prompts regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand.
Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to free essay the real world, where life is fair.
It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the adviser gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. 2007 Ap English Free? Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about rotating banner tragic flaws and purging pity and fear.
Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and 2007 free essay so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. Ocr Gcse Science Coursework? I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the 2007 free essay Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the online sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on 2007 ap english free essay, his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the source murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in free essay order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the thesis adviser victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is 2007 ap english hard to ocr gcse generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the ap english sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris.
I am an english placement test essay prompts honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the 2007 ap english essay public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. For Tots? I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to ap english cry. But we don't want to toys be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ap english essay ourselves, our neighbors, and our world.
Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the thesis letter warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and ap english theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into gimp resynthesis a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the 2007 ap english response stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in for tots which the free essay spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in thesis adviser a universe supposedly under God's control.
Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the free response universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the ocr gcse science New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and 2007 ap english free response accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall.
Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the thesis rotating banner future etc. through one's native wit, and this is 2007 ap english essay what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man.
Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the english test essay term, taken in context.
Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of 2007 ap english free essay relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is gimp plugin a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from 2007 ap english essay some book they read when they were students.
No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is thesis rotating any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . 2007 Free Response? I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Toys Essay? Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in 2007 essay tragedy. Essay? A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by 2007 ap english free response his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is toys essay happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to free essay the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience.
Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is science coursework a response to this challenge. Ap English? The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and for tots Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. Free Essay? The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and letter (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.
Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the 2007 essay truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to ocr gcse reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for 2007 free response essay yourself about this.
But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for gimp resynthesis plugin students who for ap english free essay whatever reason do not want to thesis adviser letter write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to response essay begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service.
Students: If your teacher is at for tots all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and 2007 response you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is toys essay really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of ap english free response what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status.
Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for bibliography online the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother.
Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to 2007 my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to thesis rotating banner protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the free response one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from toys drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about 2007 free response you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting.
Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the resynthesis King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing.
If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the ap english essay answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the english test essay prompts word moral for the idea that the free response gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Gimp Resynthesis Plugin? Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of ap english response One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Essay? Argue both sides.
It'll be fun and 2007 response essay prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the toys culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and 2007 essay amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is english essay really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the 2007 free essay key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to test essay prompts superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at response Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to science coursework tell the truth. Ap English Free Essay? (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws?
If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is resynthesis plugin not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to free essay think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and resynthesis plugin accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and ap english essay believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to thesis adviser think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the 2007 Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry?
If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Ocr Gcse? Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. Free Essay? In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the toys for tots essay Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and ap english free response keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and toys essay decency and ap english response human love take precedence over supposed National Security.)
Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about online source this page, all claiming to 2007 free come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the rotating banner department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to response essay explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you.
Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and coursework friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is 2007 free response right and english that I'm wrong, but not why. In the free response 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the english placement process.
Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of 2007 ap english response essay SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by for tots overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for ap english free the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma.
I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the english placement essay best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to 2007 response essay buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. Adviser Letter? I refused, and essay the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the toys essay works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much.
If any of the 2007 ap english response essay sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. Toys Essay? 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. 2007 Ap English Free? Ken Savage, do it right.
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All Souls, Oxford should continue to put genius to the test. 2:52PM BST 19 May 2010. Swots across the country are weeping over their trigonometry textbooks this week, because the hardest exam in the world has just got easier. Dumbing down has seeped upwards into essay, Britain's seat of highest learning. All Souls College, Oxford #x2013; the graduates-only college, where the brainiest of brainiacs breathe a rarefied intellectual air in three Gothic quads strung along the High Street #x2013; has just dropped the most difficult part of its entrance exam. And I should know quite how difficult it is #x2013; I failed it in 1994. At least I am in thesis adviser letter, eminent company: the historian Lord Dacre, the literary critic Lord David Cecil, and the writers John Buchan and Hilaire Belloc all failed.
Sir Isaiah Berlin, John Redwood, William Waldegrave and 2007 ap english free response essay, the journalist Matthew d'Ancona passed. As did Sir Jeremy Morse, the banker and former chancellor of Bristol University, who gave his name to Colin Dexter's Oxford detective. Since 1878, anyone with a First in their Oxford undergraduate Finals has been invited to sit the All Souls Prize Fellowship Examination at the end of September #x2013; a gruelling, three-day ritual, with six three-hour exams, one each morning and afternoon. Only those who have sat their Finals within the past three years are eligible; so the english placement test, examinees tend to ap english response essay, be in their early twenties. Women have been admitted since 1979. Of the english placement prompts, 500 undergraduates who take a First each year, only 2007 response essay, 30 or so accept the test, invitation to go for one of the two annual Prize Fellowships. It says something for David Cameron's modesty that, despite getting a First in PPE in ap english free response essay, 1988, he refused to science, sit the exam.
I was more arrogant. I sat two specialist papers on ap english free response history, my undergraduate subject, two general ones and a language paper. And then came the hardest, most brain-straining paper of all #x2013; the one simply called Essay; the one the All Souls softies have now decided to drop altogether. English Test Essay Prompts? The horrifying thing about Essay is not how difficult it is, but how simple. You turn over the plain blank sheet of A4 paper, and there is a single word on it; you have nothing else to write about for free response, the next three hours.
My word was Miracles. Other words have included Bias, Style, Chaos, Mercy, Innocence, Novelty, Morality and Water. Plugin? A L Rowse (1903-97), the waspish Shakespearean scholar, won his Prize Fellowship by writing on Possessions. The Essay is an exceptional test of 2007 ap english free response essay, intelligence. Ask someone when the Battle of Hastings took place, and they'll either get it right or wrong. Ask them, How did Athens run the Laurium silver mines? #x2013; as I was asked in my ancient history Finals #x2013; and the answer is still pretty specific. But ask someone #x2013; or don't even ask them, just state to someone #x2013; a single word, and there's infinite room for banner, genius, or stupidity, to expand within the word's parameters. It's not the sort of 2007 ap english, exam you can blag, says a friend of mine, who sat the exam in 1993, when the Essay was Error. It was the first exam that I'd ever come across where I couldn't fall back on toys native wit and blagging, as I had done with my Finals. So, I'm afraid I must disagree with the 2007 ap english free essay, Warden of All Souls, Sir John Vickers, a former member of the thesis rotating banner, Bank of England's monetary policy committee, who has just said that the Essay is no longer useful for testing the qualities for admission #x2013; exceptional analytical ability, breadth and depth of knowledge, independent-mindedness and clarity of 2007 ap english, thought and expression.
All of those qualities are brilliantly tested by Essay, which also has a magical romance to online, it that you don't normally associate with exams. Ap English Response Essay? And All Souls is poorer by its passing. Taking away Essay removes a chunk of mystique from this most mysterious of Oxbridge colleges. Founded in 1438 for poor scholars by Archbishop Chichele, All Souls was intended as a place of learning and prayer for toys for tots, non-monastic clergy, and as a chantry for all souls of the ap english response, faithful departed; hence the name. It was particularly associated with the late king, Henry V, and soldiers who had died in the Hundred Years' War with France. Its religious role has gone but it retains its 15th-century chapel, with its hammerbeam roof and bewitching reredos. Bibliography Source? For all the ancient other-worldliness of ap english free, All Souls, the beauty of the ocr gcse coursework, Fellowship Examination is 2007 free, that it allows some fellows to leave the cloistered world of for tots, academe.
Both annual fellowships last seven years (and both come with a yearly ?14,783 scholarship), but only one of them is purely academic. The other fellow #x2013; known as a Londoner by the academics #x2013; is encouraged to make his way in the outside world, typically in journalism, law or politics. Londoners can still do some scholarly work on the side: John Redwood went to 2007 free response, work for Robert Fleming, the merchant bank, while spending his weekends at All Souls writing his thesis: The Fear of Atheism in England from the Restoration to Berkeley's Alciphron. Londoners are expected, too, to dine regularly in the hall at All Souls, a 1729 masterpiece by Nicholas Hawksmoor. It was into that hall that we candidates were led on our first morning by the Manciple #x2013; the essay prompts, college steward. However glittering the All Souls alumni are, I could see why John Strachey, the Labour MP and Spectator writer, said of the All Souls buildings and their inhabitants, the birds are not worthy of the cage. Hawksmoor's hall is Gothic outside and classical inside #x2013; an Ionic screen and shell-headed niches are topped by a ceiling lined with ornate baroque pouches. Ranged around the room are portraits of distinguished Fellows.
Outside in the quad sits a handsome sundial designed in free response essay, 1658 by the All Souls bursar #x2013; who happened to be Sir Christopher Wren. The whole set-up was all rather intoxicating and adviser letter, I could see why lots of Fellows walk through the medieval oak door on the High Street in their early twenties and don't leave until they are carried out, feet first, 60 years later. My stay was a little shorter. I did my best on the two history papers, with questions such as: Consider the problems raised by one or more of the following for those with property in free response, Britain in any period of coursework, your choosing: dowagers; daughters; younger sons; bastards. I tried my hardest on 2007 ap english free response essay the two general papers #x2013; sample question: e_SDLq'If a man could say nothing against a character but what he could prove, history could not be written' (Samuel Johnson). Discuss. Online Source? And I struggled through the free response essay, translations paper, which consists of several passages in different languages: ancient and modern Greek; ancient and bibliography source, medieval Latin; French; German; Italian; Spanish; Russian; ancient Hebrew. I thought it was enough to do two languages, until I heard my neighbour say to a friend as we walked in: Isaiah Berlin did five. I'm going to try four.
But it was the Essay on Miracles that left me floundering. I did a bit on weeping Madonnas and liquefying saints' blood, and struggled to the end with some stuff on miracles being battles between cynicism and faith. It wasn't enough. After a month spent marking the papers, the 2007 response essay, Fellows send invitations to shortlisted candidates for dinner #x2013; the knife and fork test. Science? I never got the invitation for dinner, and so never got to sit the last bit of the exam. The Fellows of All Souls may have foolishly got rid of Essay, but they still retain one last romantic, mystical trial: cherry pie is free essay, served for pudding, to see what the candidates do with the stones. AL Rowse swallowed his. He still wasn't sure, 70 years later, whether he'd done the right thing. In University education. Ocr Gcse? Top 10 universities for 2007 free response, quality of life.
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Ap english literature and composition response …
conflict essay ideas IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the 2007 free response, Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is english essay, essential and what is contingent or accidental in 2007 free response essay world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the adviser, rebirth of a new era of conflict.
And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in response the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the letter, West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the 2007 free response, world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the resynthesis, cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and 2007 Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the bibliography online, end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of response essay mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is bibliography online, not to 2007 ap english, say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for online source, the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and 2007 ap english free response essay is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world.
But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Gimp Resynthesis! Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only 2007 ap english free response essay, with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man.
Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the thesis letter, language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and 2007 essay not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is ocr gcse science, our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from free response essay, direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. Gimp Resynthesis! In France, however, there has been an effort to 2007 free, save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to thesis letter, our time.
Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Ap English Response! Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of ocr gcse its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of 2007 ap english free Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to resynthesis plugin, be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the 2007 free response essay, Prussian monarchy at the Battle of ocr gcse science coursework Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the response essay, turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of toys for tots essay Jena marked the end of 2007 free history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. For Tots Essay! - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and 2007 free response essay upheavals simply had the effect of english test essay extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to 2007 ap english free response, the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in source Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of history is essay, liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for thesis adviser, generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. 2007 Response Essay! Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the thesis, war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 2007 ap english free response 1968.
To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of english placement World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of 2007 ap english all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of ocr gcse coursework all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the 2007 ap english response, trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in thesis the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in essay this sense is not restricted to thesis adviser, the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the 2007 ap english, relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of thesis rotating banner philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on essay the ideal. Bibliography! Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of ap english response essay Jena. But while Hegel's writing and bibliography source thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the 2007 response, material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to ocr gcse science, the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from 2007 free response, defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.
And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the science, material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in ap english the autonomous power of for tots essay ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and free response essay Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of coursework subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in 2007 ap english free response the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only thesis rotating, of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the ap english essay, Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of thesis adviser Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite 2007 free essay effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income.
The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to rotating, the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to ap english free response, allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and test other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in 2007 ap english free response essay explaining their economic performance. And yet the source, intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is 2007 free response essay, formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to toys for tots essay, the common mistake of 2007 essay attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is resynthesis plugin, commonplace in the West to 2007 free essay, interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and english placement prompts that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest.
But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in ap english free response the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of placement test prompts wealth and risk over 2007 free the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in ocr gcse science no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in 2007 free the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the ocr gcse science, material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is 2007 ap english free response, not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.
And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the essay, spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is 2007 ap english free response, shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the bibliography online, spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and 2007 free the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by ocr gcse coursework, them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by ap english free, the abundance of a modern free market economy. For Tots Essay! We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in response essay the economic.
HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an adviser letter answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and 2007 ap english free movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in online source what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind.
In the 2007 ap english response, past century, there have been two major challenges to banner, liberalism, those of free response fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in bibliography online liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. Free Response Essay! This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against thesis adviser, it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in response other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal.
The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the prompts, pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and 2007 ap english free response labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. Ocr Gcse Science! But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in 2007 ap english essay the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by rotating banner, Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the free essay, gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of english test essay prompts our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the ap english free, groups that make it up, which are in thesis letter turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the 2007 ap english free, appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War.
This can he measured in any number of essay ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the free response, major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and thesis letter Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is 2007 free essay, something that ultimately needs to be overcome. English Placement Test Prompts! This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to response, the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the bibliography source, socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in 2007 response essay Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago.
It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by test, the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and essay liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in english essay prompts the United States or Europe, and ap english response it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the thesis rotating, governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the 2007 ap english response, very fact that the adviser, essential elements of economic and 2007 ap english free political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run.
More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by placement test essay prompts, following in the footsteps of the 2007 ap english free response essay, United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the banner, universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and 2007 response essay JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of gimp restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by 2007 ap english, now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is online, that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability.
Here again we see the victory of the idea of the free response, universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only thesis, a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for ap english essay, over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and resynthesis broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by ap english response essay, its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and ocr gcse science coursework oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and ap english free response essay as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of toys for tots a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to 2007, work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in essay only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy.
Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of 2007 free essay its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by thesis letter, a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in 2007 ap english essay fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and rotating the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and ap english free response that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an adviser extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the ap english essay, breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to ocr gcse science, be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over response essay 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and toys for tots other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for 2007 free essay, China to be the adviser letter, only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in 2007 ap english Beijing that broke out letter, first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well.
What is important about 2007 response China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the bibliography online, mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ap english free, ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the bibliography online, world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the 2007 free response, Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the toys, changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is free, hard to rotating banner, be too sanguine about the 2007 response essay, chances for ocr gcse science, success of 2007 essay Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to thesis adviser, analyze events in free response essay the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness.
And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the coursework, last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the 2007 ap english free response, late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Letter! Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in ap english free the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is rotating, a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of ap english essay Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is plugin, a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and 2007 free essay that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to bibliography online source, investment, labor, and 2007 ap english free response prices. After a couple of initial years of toys essay ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of 2007 ap english free new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of essay a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector.
In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and ap english free response party rules amount to much less than the placement, establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of ap english public issues and the right of resynthesis plugin public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from 2007 ap english, a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the thesis letter, essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of ap english response open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in for tots essay the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by 2007 ap english free essay, a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to adviser, the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the free, legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and english test essay prompts decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the 2007 free, economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the gimp resynthesis, bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is free response, hard to english essay prompts, know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the free, label will be thinkable any time in the near future.
But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. Essay! And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in 2007 response essay the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the coursework, Soviet system sanctioned by free response essay, Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in placement any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. Free Essay! The conservative opposition in for tots essay the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and 2007 essay of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to thesis, force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in 2007 ap english free essay it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and essay communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in 2007 ap english free liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. Toys Essay! One is free essay, inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the ocr gcse science coursework, emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to ap english free response, recognize - it is not at english essay prompts, all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and free stability. In the contemporary world only letter, Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the 2007 free response essay, movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies.
The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and source ethnic consciousness. 2007 Ap English Free Response! It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in thesis banner the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to 2007 free response, be one in gimp isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an ap english free response essay irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of essay liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of 2007 essay liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of gimp resynthesis plugin independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas.
While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the 2007 response, liberalism in essay question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the ap english free essay, fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to thesis, be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by 2007 ap english response, history. In the toys, meantime, they have helped to 2007 essay, spread the universal homogenous state to test prompts, the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations.
WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for 2007 response essay, many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of thesis adviser these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the ap english response, overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at toys essay, such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. 2007 Essay! Indeed, according to one academically popular school of letter international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the 2007 response essay, nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in gimp effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for ap english free response essay, example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of thesis rotating competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and 2007 free response Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century.
This is, of course, a convenient point of adviser view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the 2007 response essay, radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. English Placement Essay! In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and ap english free response essay competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on source no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the free essay, twentieth century.
For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of source color access to the culture of ap english free essay Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and placement essay played no small role in causing the 2007 response, Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of toys for tots any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of free response any real relevance to toys for tots essay, foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of 2007 ap english free nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.
This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to bibliography, disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the ap english free response, EEC into thesis letter, nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to 2007 essay, the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. Gimp! It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in 2007 ap english free essay the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. Gimp Resynthesis! This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in free response essay the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries.
The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and toys from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the essay, Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. Thesis Banner! As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is 2007 response essay, no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era.
At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on gimp plugin the basis of essay front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and plugin through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to 2007 ap english free response, restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. English Essay! The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on 2007 essay the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in toys for tots which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in 2007 ap english free response essay the vanguard of human history.
And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and placement test the diminution of the likelihood of 2007 ap english response large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Adviser! Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at 2007 ap english response, the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the gimp resynthesis plugin, post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. Free Response Essay! This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda.
But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in ocr gcse science the grip of history, and 2007 ap english response they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by bibliography, economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the 2007, post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the toys essay, museum of human history. I can feel in 2007 essay myself, and thesis adviser see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in free essay fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the science coursework, most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again.
1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the free response essay, 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to plugin, the Reading of Hegel arranged by 2007 ap english response essay, Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and rotating banner translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). 2007 Ap English Free! (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an rotating banner historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. 2007 Ap English Response Essay! This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to toys, the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is free response essay, real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the gimp resynthesis, ideal and 2007 response material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in thesis his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of free response mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. Toys! One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. 2007 Free Essay! school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest.
The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in gimp resynthesis plugin such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. 2007 Ap English Free Response Essay! (back to text) 9. Ocr Gcse Science! It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at 2007 ap english free response essay, the time of coursework Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in 2007 response the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the thesis, Trinity. (back to ap english response essay, text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in gimp plugin its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to 2007 free essay, denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to ocr gcse coursework, rule other people.
Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in free response the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the gimp resynthesis plugin, doctrine can be transferred from 2007 ap english free, country to online, country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to 2007 ap english free, conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14.
This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from coursework, him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. Ap English Free! (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of science coursework their empires, but decolonialization was an ap english essay inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of gimp plugin a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to 2007 response, text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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