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Critical purpose essay

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Blue Gold World Water Wars Essays and Research Papers. The Movie Blue Gold - World Water Wars is based on the book written by critical purpose essay Maude Barlow and . Tony Clarke. In this report, I will try to put some the descriptive essay good points about and the most examples of critical misinformation. Maude Barlow is National Chair of the Council of Canadians and egypt essay Tony Clarke is Executive Director of the Polaris Institute, another Canadian organization. Both Clarke and critical essay Barlow are featured prominently in the film, which is directed by Sam Bozzo. What I Liked • Visually impressive • Discussion. Desalination , Drinking water , Water 1545 Words | 4 Pages. the natural resources, the world will cease to turn. In that event, can anyone still depend on the sun to rise?

Imagine a world . in which there was a shortage of water . Although lakes, oceans, rivers, and bays are natural resources, they are not everlasting. This world would become dry and cracked. Trees wouldn’t be able to grow; therefor oxygen would become scarce and rare. Imagine this horrifying land where eventually, the world runs out of water . That is the essay how education world we live in today. Critical Purpose Essay! The scary. How To Write Security! Drinking water , Human , Third World 916 Words | 3 Pages. ? Water conflict is a term describing a conflict between countries, states, or groups over an access to water resources.[1][2][3] . The United Nations recognizes that water disputes result from opposing interests of water users, public or private.[4] A wide range of water conflicts appear throughout history, though rarely are traditional wars waged over water alone.[5] Instead, water has historically been a source of tension and purpose a factor in conflicts that start for other reasons. However, water conflicts. Freshwater , Hydrology , United Nations 1561 Words | 5 Pages. Disabled: World War Ii and Refugee Blues. “Disabled” by Wilfred Owen to that of civilian in “Refugee Blues ” by W.H Auden The poem “Disabled” written by in a high school Wilfred Owen speaks about the . affects of war and the tragic loss of an individual who happens to be a soldier. The poem contains many connotations of loss, tragedy, cruelty, depression and the contrasting point of view from different people towards the person.

However, the poem “Refugee Blues ” is also based on the theme of war , and talks about many things in critical purpose, relation to loss, tragedy. Australia , English-language films , League of Nations 941 Words | 3 Pages. Water Crises of the World : We Are Not Immune Jeremiah Concelos Understanding Our Global Village Prof. Descriptive Of A! Ian Matthews March . 26, 2012 Water is the basis of all life form on purpose essay the planet, a fact that is undeniably truth. From wildlife to essay concert, human life, to critical purpose, nature, to machinery, nothing is, was or ever will be without water . It essentially fuels all things created on our planet, and the planet itself. This is no secret; it comes as common knowledge to every form of life on the planet, even those in. China water crisis , Deficit irrigation , Drinking water 2279 Words | 5 Pages. World War II April 15, 2012 World War II was a part of the effect of World . A Scientific Discussion Section! War I. According to World War 2 Info, “the origins of the Second World War are generally viewed as being traced back to the First World War .” ( World War 2 2012) World War 2 happened between 1930s to the mid 1940s in critical purpose, Europe and Asia. In Europe, the war began on essay concert September 1, 1939 when the critical essay Nazi Germans led by high need Hitler invaded Poland.

On September 2, 1945; the war ended with the relinquishing of Japan. In the critical early 1930s in. Adolf Hitler , League of write security Nations , Nazi Germany 1117 Words | 4 Pages. ? California was a land where the American Dream came true for many. Before the gold rush, California was under the . Mexican rule since 1821. California’s population mainly consisted of about 6,500 Californios, 700 Americans and 150,000 Native Americans. Most of the critical essay Californians lived on vast ranches granted to them by the Mexican government. New settlers, mainly Americans, started moving into California for land and trade. Mexican control over essays need school California weakened following. California , California Gold Rush , Gold 1528 Words | 9 Pages.

I am personally convinced that gold is the most valuable commodity in the world , but my conviction flows from gold's physical . properties as opposed to its status as a reserve currency. On the one hand, logic dictates that gold is an anachronism in terms of its role as a reserve currency - because the amount of gold per capita has been decreasing over the years as the critical purpose essay world's population has expanded faster than new gold has been mined. There is essay simply not enough gold - either in existence or, probably. Central bank , Currency , Ethics 998 Words | 3 Pages. Water is a human right, not a commodity. It is the essence of critical essay life, sustaining every living being on report incident the planet. Without it we would have no . Critical Purpose! plants, no animals, no people. However, while water consumption doubles every twenty years our water sources are being depleted, polluted and exploited by multinational corporations. Water privatization has been promoted by corporations and international lending institutions as the solution to the global water crises but the only one’s who benefit from water.

Bottled water , Drinking water , Tap water 2196 Words | 7 Pages. Report! World War II Martyna Purvis U. S. History Daniel Vogel November 18, 2012 Abstract The . World War II, was a global military conflict that, was in terms of lives lost and destruction, was the essay most devastating war in human history. Essay! The World War II began in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French first started but grew to include most of the purpose essay nations of the world . It ended in 1945, leaving a new world order that was dominated by the United States. Adolf Hitler , Germany , League of Nations 1207 Words | 4 Pages. World War 2 ID/Sigs Totalitarianism: a concept used to describe political systems whereby a state regulates nearly every . aspect of public and private life. Fascism: an authoritarian nationalist ideology focused on solving economic, political, and social problems that its supporters see as causing national decline or decadence.

Nazism: the ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party under Adolf Hitler, and the policies adopted by the dictatorial government of Nazi Germany. Adolf Hitler , Empire of Japan , Fascism 1006 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Of A! The Gobal War This paper will identify major historical turning points during War World II and through the 1970’s . while analyzing the impact the war had on America’s current society, economy, politics and critical purpose essay culture. I will also discuss why America in the late 1930’s wanted to stay out of the European conflict that became WWII, which is essay on happiness one of the greatest debates of all time. We examine the important role that women played in winning the war and what outcomes came from their hard work that impacted. Adolf Hitler , American Civil War , Franklin D. Roosevelt 1581 Words | 5 Pages. Japan’s development after the Second World War . 1. The real situation after World War After . the World War II ended, Japan was one of the defeated countries. She was left with a lot of damages, especially the two cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki which suffered serious atomic bombing.

Severe food shortages were common; the economy was almost totally paralyzed from wartime destruction, rampant black marketeering and runaway inflation; few Japanese had any money but there really wasn’t anything to. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and critical Nagasaki , Economic growth , Economics 934 Words | 4 Pages. ?The War of the World Niall Ferguson argues throughout The War of the World that “the twentieth . century was the most violent global century in history, due to economic volatility, ethnic conflict, and empires in conflict”. Ferguson argues this point by presenting concepts such as the Sino-Japanese War , the Holocaust, World War I, World War II and on teaching need the Armenian Genocide. However, as Ferguson presents these ideas to argue his view, he does so in purpose, a manner that portrays him as a revisionist. About How Education! One.

Adolf Hitler , Archduke Franz Ferdinand of critical purpose essay Austria , Genocide 1123 Words | 3 Pages. Shrapnel Shards on Blue Water Analysis. The Struggle of Cultural Assimilation: An Analysis of Cultural Clash in “Shrapnel Shards on of a concert Blue Water ” In “Shrapnel Shards . on purpose essay Blue Water ” by Le Thi Diem Thuy, the narrator expresses her longing for Vietnam, her home country, and how she feels that she and other Vietnamese people represent “fragmented shards” in the American culture- isolated members of a foreign culture. On Happiness! She portrays her emotions almost as if she is pursuing an actual person by using the pronoun “you” in the first stanza to. Assimilation , Cambodia , Cultural assimilation 1075 Words | 3 Pages. The Influence Of World War And World. Purpose Essay! ?The Influence of how to write report incident World War II and critical purpose World War II WANG Jing MScPP TD2 Abstract: This article talk . about how World War ? and World War ? impact Europe. Paper Section! Describe it through three aspects of critical purpose essay political, economic and cultural. Key words: World War I, World War II ,Europe, History, Culture 1. Introduction World War I and World War II were the and success war mainly battlefield in Europe but spread to the world ad last for years in history. It has a very profound influence on Europe's economy, political and culture. Purpose Essay! Asia , British Empire , Europe 1236 Words | 4 Pages. serving on the front-line (trench rapids, snipers, shelling), it is possible to essay on happiness, distinguish major battles (or pushes) whose names have gone down in history . Critical! as some of the bloodiest conflicts ever waged.

There were many battles that took place during the war but the most remembered were the five major battles. Those battles are, The Battle of Marne (1914 and essay how education is important 1918), The Battle of Verdun (1916), The Battle of Ypres (1914, 1915, and critical purpose 1917), The Battle of the descriptive essay Somme (1916), and The Battle of Cambrai (1917). Battle of the Somme , British Army , First Battle of Ypres 926 Words | 3 Pages. ? War (Attracting the reader)Do you think there is a” just war ” in the history of world ? Do you think it is the . only way to solve problem by war ? (Providing background) Different people have different opinion. Herbert hover, who is the 31st President of the United States have ever said:” Whether you have to fight for justice or not, war is a crime! “In his opinion, whether the war is just or unjust, it is cruel, and the death is critical essay inevitable. Marxist thought, making clear the essay thesis nature of critical purpose war is the necessary. Communism , Global conflicts , Korean War 1092 Words | 3 Pages. Issue: The short documentary, Blue Gold , presented an in a high need issue of critical purpose essay our planet’s water supply.

Our planet is made out . of about 70% of water . However, less than 1% of that water is actually drinkable. The issue is that water is write security incident becoming scares and due to lack of rain, the precious water begins to dry out. Critical Purpose Essay! As the water source rapidly declines, the corporations saw that as a chance to make profit. Therefore, we are forced to buy overpriced water . Summary: Blue Gold did a great job representing the. Desalination , First World , Second World 618 Words | 2 Pages. Consequences of World War Two, and Whether They are Still Felt by Today’s Generations. Consequences of World . War II in the Past and Present World War II has been a pivotal factor in descriptive concert, transforming the world as we see it today. It was a six-year period which is characterized by hunger, family separation, bombing, and horrendous war crimes in a relatively prosperous European region. The objective of this essay is to highlight two of the most significant consequences of the War on the world as a whole. Critical Purpose! Great power , League of Nations , Soviet Union 859 Words | 3 Pages.

THE WAR OF THE WORLDS Jonathan P. Benitez IV-LopezJaena English-Mrs.Sanchez Introduction The War of . the about is important Worlds (1898), a science fiction novel by H. G. Wells, is the essay first-person narrative of an unnamed protagonist's (and his brother's) adventures in London and the countryside around London as Earth is invaded by egypt Martians. Written in 1895–97,[2] it is one of the earliest stories that details a conflict between mankind and an extraterrestrial race. The War of the Worlds has two parts. Earth , Martian , Martian Manhunter 2571 Words | 7 Pages. World War III (abbreviated as WWIII, also known as the Third World War ) is the critical hypothetical future . successor to how to write a scientific section, World War II (1939–1945). In fiction, the war is often suggested to be nuclear and extremely devastating in nature. This war is anticipated and planned for by military and critical purpose civil authorities, and explored in fiction by many authors all around the world . Concepts range from purely conventional scenarios or a limited use of nuclear weapons to the destruction of the planet. With the development. Cold War , Cuban Missile Crisis , Global conflicts 1271 Words | 5 Pages. Water , is essential to all forms of life. Water plays a huge part in our lives whether you realize it or not.

It ties in with . Write Security Report Incident! many different factors, some being political, social, environmental and critical ethical. Singapore has her own water issue as well. Science plays a major role in today’s world this also includes issue of water and essay the benefits and limitation science can provide for essay, Singapore in her water issue. Water is extremely vital for on teaching high, our survival. Purpose! According to security report, ( Water Partners International. Desalination , Drinking water , First World 1252 Words | 4 Pages. Blue Gold This is a documentary about the critical ever increasing water crisis in our world today; what . is causing it, the consequences, and write a scientific discussion how to critical purpose, stop it. Ecologists everywhere began to take notice of the “desertification” of our planet and essay and success the dire consequences ahead if it is purpose not stopped. How To Write! The urgency of critical essay this issue is one that cannot be brushed off because it is not us destroying solely the planet we live on, but destroying our chances of survival on how to write a scientific paper section it. Desertification of the earth is caused.

Agriculture , Irrigation , Overpopulation 575 Words | 2 Pages. World War II and critical essay the War on essay how education is important Terror. ? World War II and the War on purpose essay Terror Throughout America’s history there have been a handful of essay about . wars that the United States has been a part of. We have proven that we are a strong country and purpose that we can handle anything that comes our way. Along our journey, we have encountered our share of issues: moral, ethical and constitutional issues, specifically in World War II and the War on Terror. We have seen our leaders lead our country and take us to become one of the most powerful countries in. 2003 invasion of Iraq , George W. Bush , Iraq War 1778 Words | 8 Pages.

Final Project Blue Mountain Spring Water , Inc. Three Year Marketing Plan III. Blue Mountain Spring . About How Education Is Important! Water I. Critical Purpose Essay! Opportunities ( external factors) A. The opportunity to ultilize the latest technology for distribution and marketing. B. Expand outside of regional markets to other select markets but avoid mass marketing C. Blue Mountain has no debt therefore it can expand its RD (research and in a need school development) to increase public knowledge about health benefits of purified water versus tap. . Bottled water , Drinking water , Market segmentation 1068 Words | 4 Pages. The response, through music, to World War Two, particularly in the concentration/death camps throughout Europe The Second . World War was a very sensitive time in the world , especially Europe, but one of the few benefits was the music that came out of it, there was the music that was written about certain events of the purpose essay war , the music that evolved during the war , and the music by the Jewish community (i.e. The Holocaust), especially in in a high need school, the concentration camps. The Holocaust was unequivocally. Eastern Bloc , Global conflicts , Jazz 1367 Words | 4 Pages.

First World War Essay World war one cannot emanate any war but itself; it yielded . a drastic jump in critical essay, the technological weaponry and tactics, had soldiers live day in and day out while scarifying the true horror of trench warfare, and had citizens being pressured by their government through propaganda. World war one had many different nations in Europe involved, and the Unites States. The war lasted for and success, 5 years, as it started in 1914 and ended at 1919. On June 28, 1914, the heir to purpose essay, the Austro-Hungarian. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Battle of the Somme , Chlorine 1447 Words | 5 Pages. The main cause of World War Two was the failure to how to write, bring a just peace between nations after the end of World . War One. Many argue that the main cause was the critical rise to power of Adolf Hitler in Germany. The end of World War I left Germany feeling humiliated and defeated.

In order to restore their national honor and pride, Germans voted Hitler into and success, power and he tried to critical, conquer Europe. Germany’s humiliation was mainly caused by the Treaty of Versailles. Despite the opinions of many different people. Adolf Hitler , Germany , League of Nations 1560 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Global Effect of World War 1 European Civilization: The First World War has change the . Descriptive Of A! aspect of European civilization. The government was transformed to fight a total war . Purpose! The war changed the egypt essay thesis European union socially, politically, economically, and purpose essay intellectually.

European countries channeled all of their resources into total war , which resulted in enormous social change. World war one had devastating effects on Europe. The Great War demolished the Austria-Hungary Empire and the Russian. Armistice with Germany , League of Nations , Paris Peace Conference, 1919 787 Words | 3 Pages. A Yellow Raft in Blue Water Michael Dorris Christina Penh Mrs. DiTanna AP English Alternative Assessment Answer: . Essays On Teaching In A Need School! Discuss the three female protagonists and the men in their lives.

How are their lives determined by the circumstances of their birth and critical subsequently by the men they “chose.” Michael Dorris divides the novel A Yellow Raft in Blue Water into three sections narrated by three different Native American women: Rayona, Christine, and Ida. First introduced is teen-aged Rayona, whose. A Yellow Raft in Blue Water , African American , Book 724 Words | 3 Pages. War of the Worlds ? War of the how to write section Worlds ' is a Sci-Fi Thriller. Extra-terrestrials have launched a . global crusade on our planet and they wish to exterminate the human race and use the planet for their own sinister reasons. The director Steven Spielberg incorporates many film techniques in order to portray the drama of the story. Some of these techniques include costumes, lighting, and sound. Critical Purpose! All of how to write security these techniques add to the drama and purpose help convey the story and the characters' identity to the viewer. 2005 albums , Cinematic techniques , Drama 889 Words | 3 Pages. World War Ii the American Experience.

World War II: The American Experience HIS120 Date World War II: The American Experience It is . no known secret that America attempted to reframe from becoming a part of what was projected as being a major war which started with the on teaching high need school European culture. Historians believe that the purpose second war was a contribution of the Great Depression which caused for how to write security, America to seize from their investments in Europe. Purpose! This caused for a struggle of power in essay, Europe which provide an critical purpose opportunity for Hitler and Stalin. Allies of essay is important World War II , Axis powers , Nazi Germany 2571 Words | 7 Pages. Critical Essay! The privatization of fresh water creates a global system of ‘have and have not’s Water privatization creates a . world where people ‘have’ access to water and those whom ‘do not have’ access to essays high school, fresh water . Water privatization schemes throughout the world have a track record of exceedingly high prices, creation of water monopolies, and deteriorating quality and critical purpose service and this does support the global system that water privatization creates of essay on happiness and success have and have not’s. Water privatization can negatively. 2000 Cochabamba protests , Bolivia , Hydrology 1598 Words | 4 Pages. ? The beginning of World War II. The contestants in WWII were divided into two groups, the Allied Powers and the Axis Powers. The . following countries were in the Allied Powers: Soviet Union,United States,Britain, China, France, Poland, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The Axis Powers consisted of the following: Germany, Japan,and Italy.

The Allied Powers during WWII were those that opposed the Axis Powers. At the beginning of war , Britain and the Commonwealth Nations stood almost alone, but the. Adolf Hitler , Allies of World War II , Axis powers 1303 Words | 5 Pages. World War II DBQ After the deaths of 37,508,686 soldiers by the end of World War I, . Europe was a mess. Critical Purpose Essay! Countries had been dissolved and rearranged, governments had fallen and been replaced, and economies were thriving then crashing, all as a result from egypt essay thesis World War I. One of the main goals at the end of World War I was to prevent another tragedy like World War I from happening again. Clearly that did not happen, as World War II still happened, causing over critical essay 50 million deaths. The repercussions. Adolf Hitler , Fascism , Germany 2347 Words | 6 Pages.

Central Asia’s Cold War ? WATER AND POLITICS IN UZBEK-TAJIK RELATIONS PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 217 September 2012 . Shairbek Juraev American University of Central Asia (Bishkek) At the end of 2011, Louise Arbour, head of the essay about is important International Crisis Group (ICG), listed Central Asia among the top ten crisis areas in the world and critical purpose essay a region that has the egypt essay thesis potential to see war in purpose essay, 2012. This turned out nearly prophetic. Within several months, the already-troubled relations between Uzbekistan and. Afghanistan , Central Asia , Iranian peoples 1888 Words | 6 Pages. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION.

No country enters a war without a reason. United States in of a, not an exception. It entered the World . War Two after a tragic Pearl Harbor. It was necessary to stand up and answer to critical, Japanese at that moment. What were United States reasons for entering the World War I? Is there a connection between Russian February Revolution and how education President Woodrow Wilson decision to enter the critical purpose essay Great War ? Of course, it could not be a soul reason for declaring a war to how to security report incident, Germany; Zimmerman Telegram and German. Allies of World War I , Russia , Russian Empire 1322 Words | 4 Pages. The Aftermath of World War II Introduction: World War II ended with the surrender of the Axis . powers. A week after Adolf Hitler committed suicide, Germany surrendered, on May 7th to the Western Allies, and on May 8th to the Soviet Union in 1945.

Japan was able to critical, pull through for few months, but soon atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and how to write paper section Nagasaki by the USA on critical purpose August 6th and 9th respectively. This finally convinced the Japanese Government that they had no choice but to surrender. The. Allies of write report World War II , Cold War , French Resistance 1476 Words | 6 Pages. World War I Outline: I. Introduction A. What were the major power of the critical purpose war B. The reasons for which . I find this topic to be of interest to myself C. How To Write A Scientific Paper Discussion! The research question that I will be answering: What new inventions did the purpose essay war encourage D. Thesis statement II. Background A. Shed a light on the history of the war B. Gives examples for the start of the war and how this may influenced the people III. Inventions A. Flamethrowers B. Poison gas . American Battle Monuments Commission , Barbed wire , Central Powers 2362 Words | 6 Pages. ? World War One was a brutal and on teaching high need school deadly war that introduced the critical purpose beginning of the modern war tactics. . No one thought this First World War to blow up the way it did- most expected the war to end quickly, however, this clearly was an unrealistic expectation. Men and boys were eager to volunteer for war when it first began, unaware of the horrors that went along with the trench life and scarring moments on the battle field. Between the battles, travels, diseases, unsanitary living, and descriptive essay expansion on weapons. Barbed wire , Battle , Combat stress reaction 1143 Words | 3 Pages.

World War I World War I was a time of struggle for Europe. Many factors lead to purpose essay, great . On Teaching In A High Need! tensions in essay, Europe, sparking the need for a war . This war , otherwise known as “The Great War ”, occurred in 1914 until 1918. It had many famous battles, such as the battle of The Somme, a battle of essays in a high many casualties, especially for the British. The war was mainly fought between the members of purpose essay The Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) and write the members of The Triple Entente (Great Britain, France. Belgium , German Empire , Schlieffen Plan 2343 Words | 7 Pages. breathable atmosphere, a suitable climate, availability of water and also because of its ideal distance from the sun, due to critical purpose, which it receives . the how to write security report incident perfect amount of heat and light to allow human life to be sustained. But humans aren’t taking care of our exclusive mother earth and are busy in polluting the earth. Pollution is mainly caused by humans which is the introduction of contamination into the natural environment it may be in air, water , soil.

Air pollution is caused due to smoke and dust. Smoke. Carbon dioxide , Earth , Global warming 993 Words | 3 Pages. F indifference to frustration G upset to anger H calm to nervousness J nervousness to calm ______ 3. When the pilot describes a . world that turns “from white to black, then back to white again,” he is essay referring to — A facing the clouds, which are all white, and essay is important then facing the dark English Channel B a world full of good people and evil people C being awake and critical purpose essay aware of himself and then losing consciousness D the difference between the English and. England , English Channel , France 791 Words | 3 Pages. War in how to security report incident, the Modern World War has fascinated the minds of the greats throughout history.

Its concepts and . Critical Purpose Essay! understandings have been passed on to us through the few surviving works of those, whose lives were touched by war , in an ancient archive. Some saw war as an ordinary, inevitable phenomenon that has a place among natural order of human lives (Jacob Walter), while others interpreted it as devastating and descriptive terrible deviation from the natural order of things (W.T. Sherman). Over the course of. Agriculture , Human , Humans 1152 Words | 3 Pages. By Raphael Wixted The First World War was a conflict between 1914 and 1918 that was said to critical purpose, be the essay concert war ‘to end all . wars ’. Critical Purpose! The immense global involvement from nations spread over thesis five continents resulted in the largest conflict than any war since. Of the total death toll of purpose ten million, 60 000 were Australians.

This loss however, was justified to descriptive concert, an extremely limited extent. A number of arguments are clearly visible to critical essay, demonstrate this point, the first being that the essay thesis war itself was the result of intentionally. Austria–Hungary , Belgium , Bosnia and critical purpose essay Herzegovina 1582 Words | 4 Pages. World War 1 DBQ Prior to the start of World War 1, several countries in Europe were fixated on being . the dominant country in Europe, seeking to hold the top position on egypt essay the social hierarchy among the European nations. After the Age of Imperialism, many Europeans took great pride in their countries’ growth and critical purpose essay prosperity. The most powerful countries in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century were becoming wealthier due to how to security report, the trade from African colonies, while other countries (without income. Belgium , England , Europe 1180 Words | 3 Pages. Masculinity and purpose essay World War II The image of write security report Man has changed throughout time.

Dominant constructions of masculinity, which are . basically attempts to stabilize gender identity, are developed within the dynamics of shifting cultures and societies. The male stereotype, which is still prevails nowadays, started rising at the end of critical eighteenth – beginning nineteenth century in write paper, Europe with a great concentration on the male’s body. The stereotype made the world look at man more like a type rather than an. Critical Purpose Essay! Gender , Gender identity , Gender role 2248 Words | 6 Pages. The World Is Blue Reflection Essay. Harper 4/10/2012 “The World is Blue ” Sylvia Earle Review . and analysis by: Kylee Luckett “It is our choices. that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities.” -Albus Dumbledore They say only a few will ever speak loud enough to be heard over the other seven billion voices on the planet. Today someone is shouting. Screaming off of the essay and success pages of “The World is Blue ” is Sylvia Earle, National Geographic Society’s. Exxon Valdez oil spill , Ocean , Oil spill 1791 Words | 5 Pages. Germany would fight their last major battle against purpose essay the Allied Forces in the summer of on happiness and success 1918 in the Second Battle of the critical purpose Marne.

This was the essay on happiness and success last major . offensive that Germany would fight in World War I. Critical Essay! This battle was supposed to be the battle that turned the tide for Germany but, it ultimately led to their downfall. It began on the Month of July 15 and lasted until the 5th of how to a scientific paper discussion section August 1918 and it brought a comeback plan devised by purpose essay Erich Lundendorff the how to Chief of Staff for Germany. Critical Essay! The plan called. 1918 , Allies , Allies of World War II 1377 Words | 4 Pages. Causes of the Second World War I believe Hitler’s actions and the appeasement that followed it are the discussion key reasons for the . outbreak of World War 2.Hitler’s foreign policy was firstly German need more Lebensraum and secondly to unite all German speaking people under one Reich in a Pan-German Empire. He did this in 2 phases: Phase 1 - 1933-1937 – Cautious Expansion Phase 2 - 1937-1939 – Aggressive Expansion Phase 1: In 1933 Hitler. Critical! Adolf Hitler , Germany , League of Nations 1443 Words | 4 Pages. America and need school World War I Jeff Clark HIS/125 5/12/13 Michele Riley When war erupted in purpose essay, 1914, the United . A Scientific Section! States attempted to remain neutral and was a proponent for the rights of neutral states. Isolationist foreign policy was encouraged by Congress's apprehensions about giving other countries a political door into US policies and the cultural melting pot of the United States' population. In spite of these factors, the United States did enter World War I, as a result of critical purpose several events.

In. Allies , Belgium , Charles Mangin 969 Words | 3 Pages. i?am, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas ) is a proposed independent statethat Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to . create in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Tamil Eelam has no official status orrecognition by world states though sections of the Eelam were under de facto control of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) for most of the2000s. The name is derived from the ancient Tamil name for Sri Lanka, Eelam. TAMIL PERIOD The Jaffna kingdom (1215-1624. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sinhalese people 1792 Words | 5 Pages. the worst decisions that human kind has ever grasped on.

We take a glimpse of the essay world around us and see nothing but hatred, detestation and . greed surrounding our human lives. The main factor for purpose, revulsion to be brought up is the power that leaders want to take hold of today and so they create a diversion, such as an example like the World War I and in this case, the rivalry between Germany and France. However, war isn’t about a battle being won through force or cupidity, to on teaching in a high need, regain a land such as. Feeling , Global conflicts , Napoleonic Wars 1996 Words | 5 Pages. Tri-State Water Wars | The Issues of the Tri-State Water Wars | Almost for twenty tears, . Georgia, Alabama and Florida have been fighting over the amount of water in Apalachicola Chattahoochee Flint and the Alabama Coosa Tallapoosa (ACT) river basin that passes through their borders. Georgia wants plenty of water for metro Atlanta so they can keep growing. The downstream users Alabama and Florida wants enough water flowing for their own economic goods.

But none of these state wants to stop fighting. Apalachicola River , Chattahoochee River , Drainage basin 1119 Words | 4 Pages. The Blues is critical a musical form and genre, which originated in South America within the African-American communities. It originated near the essays need end . Critical Essay! of the 19th century, and was rooted from spirituals, work songs, field hollers (which are very similar to on happiness and success, work songs, but some do not have lyrics), shouts and purpose rhymes. The blues form in jazz, rhythm and blues and rock and egypt roll; and each is characterised by a specific chord progression, the most common being the twelve bar blues . Purpose! The blues notes, are played or. On Teaching High Need School! Bass guitar , Blues , Delta blues 1357 Words | 4 Pages. Total War During The World Wars The term total war came into critical purpose, realization during the how to security first and . second World War . President Franklin Roosevelt (2004) stated, “When our enemies challenged our country to purpose essay, stand up and fight, they challenged each and everyone of us. And each and every one of us has accepted the egypt essay thesis challenge” (pg. 86). Total war involved the commitment of an entire nation and to the extent of all the participating nations, almost the entire world . The World Wars were much greater.

Atomic bombings of critical Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Nuclear weapon 1032 Words | 3 Pages. World War 1 to World War 2 Comparison. Fitzsimons 1 How were the essay United States goals in World War I similar or different to the United States goals for fighting in . Iraq and Afghanistan? The United States goals in World War I and Iraq and Afghanistan are very different, and this is purpose essay partly because they are in totally different time periods and the technology is very different. Egypt Essay! World War I took place from purpose essay 1914-1918 (Strachan 1), whereas the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan started in 2003 and essays need school are still going (Deese 1), although many of. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Al-Qaeda , Canada 2090 Words | 6 Pages. Women of purpose essay World War I and essay how education World War Ii.

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ns essay AFGHANISTAN: THE MAKING OF U.S. Critical Purpose Essay? POLICY, 1973-1990. by Steve Galster. The year was 1979. The country, of course, was Afghanistan.

And one decade later, some people who had believed in that message were celebrating one of the most sensational U.S. victories in the history of the Cold War: the withdrawal of 100,000 demoralized Soviet troops from Afghanistan, marking the first time that the Red Army had withdrawn under fire from a nation it had occupied since World War II. The Afghan socialist revolution, it seemed, had failed. At the how to write incident, headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Director William Webster and his euphoric Afghan Team toasted ten years of effort and a multi-billion dollar project to support the anti-communist, Muslim Afghan rebels, in what had become the CIA?s largest and most successful covert operation ever. On Capitol Hill, Congressman Charles Wilson (D-Texas), a legislative champion of the critical essay, anti-Soviet guerrillas, boasted that the how to write paper discussion, United States had learned in Afghanistan that it could reverse Soviet influence anywhere in the world. And at critical, the White House, President George Bush hailed the withdrawal as a watershed in U.S.-Soviet relations. Six thousand miles away from the celebrations, however, the war in Afghanistan raged on. Washington and Moscow?s clients, using U.S. and Soviet-supplied weapons, continued their internecine struggle for power, adding more civilian casualties to the 1 million who had already died. Although peace had broken out between the superpowers, the legacy of their long and bitter rivalry lived on in the rocket-prone city of Kabul, Pakistan?s crowded refugee camps and the war-ravaged villages in the Hindu Kush mountains. The Relevance of Afghanistan. How is it that this underdeveloped, tribal-based country, tucked deep inside the rugged crossroads of Asia and deemed strategically insignificant by the United States for decades, became a battleground for the bloodiest superpower proxy war of the of a concert, 1980s? What stimulated the United States to develop a sophisticated insurgency support operation for a rebellion led by Islamic religious leaders and fought by mountain tribesmen?

What was the nature of the debate among U.S. officials and critical purpose essay, congressmen as to what the rebels, beset with ethnic, tribal and personal rivalries, could accomplish against the armed forces of the Soviet Union? What effect did this war have on Pakistan, the most important U.S. ally in South Asia, which played a crucial role in the war by providing sanctuary for the rebels and 3 million Afghan refugees? And what lessons have the U.S. intelligence and defense communities drawn from the Afghan conflict and applied to the emerging U.S. strategic doctrine of Low-Intensity Warfare? Why did the Soviet Union spend ten years, billions of dollars and 15-20,000 lives trying to prop up a government that seemed constantly on the verge of collapse? Was Moscow?s intervention, as some have claimed, originally part of a grand design to seize oil fields and essay thesis, warm water ports in the Persian Gulf region, or merely a move to protect a new socialist government in critical a country contiguous to its sensitive southern border? Why did Mikhail Gorbachev eventually call the Red Army home, leaving the Afghan government to fend for descriptive essay of a concert itself against formidable odds? And how did the Afghan government manage to critical purpose essay, hold onto power without Soviet protection? No student, professor or journalist trying to answer these and the many other questions related to the Afghan war can do justice to their research without reviewing some of the thousands of pages of State Department cables from Kabul, Peshawar, Islamabad and Washington; intelligence reports from the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA); correspondence between Congress and the executive branch; field reports from Agency for International Development (AID) officials in Pakistan; and other previously classified materials found in this document set. An overview of U.S. On Teaching School? policy during Afghanistan?s last 17 turbulent years both provides some context for approaching these questions and demonstrates the usefulness of these materials to those trying to answer them. The Tenets of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan.

Although Afghanistan experienced massive changes between 1973 and 1990--four coups, the intervention and withdrawal of the Soviet armed forces, the exile of one-third of essay its population as a result of the war, and one million deaths?U.S. policy toward Afghanistan throughout this period actually remained the same: to prevent excessive Soviet influence. Specifically, this meant denying the Soviet Union a foothold in and success Afghanistan from which to launch aggressive actions in the region. Afghanistan by itself was of little importance to the United States. But the area around it?the Persian Gulf and the sea lines and critical, ports of the Indian Ocean?was deemed critical, and U.S. policy toward Afghanistan consistently reflected a regional policy that sought strong and friendly ties with Iran and Pakistan. Hence, the two factors shaping U.S. policy in Afghanistan also remained consistent: the U.S. perception of Soviet goals in Afghanistan, and the balance of power in the region. Until the fall of the Shah of Iran in 1979, the United States was able to project its power into South Asia and protect its interests there with confidence.

In exchange for massive military assistance, the Shah provided the essay concert, United States with access to military bases and intelligence facilities, helping to safeguard the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf to critical essay, the free world while preventing potential Soviet advances toward the Gulf or Indian Ocean. At the same time, Soviet relations with Afghanistan did not appear to threaten U.S. interests. Essay? Since the USSR shared a long border with Afghanistan and because the purpose essay, United States enjoyed friendly ties with the other states in the region, U.S. officials viewed Soviet policy in Afghanistan as part of a defensive strategy. Essay And Success? A National Intelligence Estimate written in 1954--one year after the United States helped restore the critical purpose essay, Shah to his throne in Iran?stated that Soviet attention to Afghanistan is part of a general effort to counter recent Western (particularly US) gains in the Middle East-South Asia area.(2) Washington decided, in other words, to treat Afghanistan as a buffer state. Throughout the 1960s and the 1970s, relations between Moscow and Kabul grew stronger, as the USSR became one of Afghanistan?s largest sources of foreign aid.

The United States, while working to minimize Soviet influence, raised few objections. In 1962, the descriptive essay concert, State Department reasoned that US fostering of active hostility toward the USSR [could] only serve to weaken Afghanistan?s ability to survive.(3) In 1976, the critical essay, annual State Department Policy Review stated that Afghanistan was a militarily and politically neutral nation, effectively dependent on how to security report incident, the Soviet Union. Still, it concluded that the United States is not, nor should it become, committed to, or responsible for the ?protection? of purpose essay Afghanistan in any respect.(4) The balance of power in the region favored the United States, and no significant Soviet threat to that balance was seen emanating from Afghanistan. This set of circumstances?which in U.S. policy parlance is described as regional stability?changed dramatically in 1979. In A Need? The Shah of Iran abdicated his throne in January, allowing an critical, anti-American, Islamic government to take power. Ten months later, the Soviet Union deployed 100,000 troops to Afghanistan, putting the Red Army within striking distance of both Pakistan and a potentially vulnerable Iran. Essay Of A? The balance in the region had shifted. Soviet policy in critical purpose Afghanistan, which was previously perceived as benign, was suddenly described by on teaching school, the White House as the critical essay, gravest threat to world peace since World War II.

The Early Years: 1973-1978. To gain a full understanding of these changes, one needs to go back to the early 1970s when the power of essay Afghanistan?s monarchy was waning. Afghanistan at this time was one of the most underdeveloped countries in critical purpose essay the world. In 1974, the World Bank estimated Afghanistan?s per capita GNP to be $70, ranking it 73rd among a list of 83 underdeveloped countries.(5) To make matters worse, Afghanistan suffered a terrible drought in essay 1971-1972. Foreign aid, from purpose, such countries as West Germany, Iran, the United States, and especially from the USSR, helped alleviate the security, country?s economic woes. Foreign aid alone, however, could not resolve Afghanistan?s emerging political conflicts. Many Afghans, particularly the progressive urban elite, had grown impatient with the country?s leader, King Zahir Shah. The king had ruled Afghanistan (sometimes as only purpose a titular head) since the age of 19, when his father was assassinated in 1933. The United States was aware that political discontent was on the rise in the country. In 1971, the on happiness and success, U.S. Embassy in Kabul reported that [t]here has been increased leftist activity which can be attributed to increased disillusionment and frustration with the existing social/economic conditions and the apparent inability or unwillingness of the leadership to tackle boldly the nation?s problems.(6) Perhaps the critical essay, most disgruntled and organized of the country?s leftist groups was the People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).

The PDPA had been founded in 1965 by a group of 30 Afghans in Kabul. Its political orientation was Marxist, with many of essay is important its members looking to Moscow for guidance and inspiration. Many PDPA members, in purpose fact, had studied or received military training in the USSR. During its early years, the PDPA was torn by quarrels and essay on happiness and success, plots between its two leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Babrak Karmal. The two leaders agreed on the basic objectives of the party, including a number of socialist political and economic reforms. They both also complained of Afghanistan?s backward nature, pointing not only to purpose, its underdeveloped infrastructure but also to report, a maldistribution of purpose essay wealth and on teaching in a high school, land which, they claimed, was perpetuated by traditional tribal and religious customs.

Taraki and Karmal disagreed, however, over how to remedy these problems. Taraki and his followers argued for radical socialist reforms using whatever means necessary to implement them; Karmal and purpose, his supporters advocated the gradual introduction of socialist change, working within the state system, incorporating along the way different elements of Afghan society. Egypt Thesis? Karmal and several colleagues had even served as parliamentary members during the purpose essay, king?s rule, earning themselves the nickname royal communists. In 1967, Karmal split with the party and formed his own faction, also called the PDPA, but usually identified by the name of its newspaper, Parcham (banner). Parcham continued to strive for the same kinds of socialist reforms pursued by Taraki?s rival PDPA faction, Khalq (masses), also named for its newspaper, but the two competed for power nevertheless. By the early 1970s, Karmal had all but abandoned his non-confrontational, almost cooperative approach toward the government. The Zahir Administration had shut down the Parcham newspaper, quashed Parcham demonstrations, and arrested party members and put them in jail. In response, Karmal increasingly sang the same anti-monarchy tune as the Khalqis. Parcham and Khalq were not the only groups opposed to the Zahir Shah Administration. The king?s cousin and essay and success, former prime minister, Mohammad Daud, had his eyes on the royal palace, as did several other former officials and relatives of the king.

Realizing that a race was on essay, to replace Zahir Shah, Daud, along with members of the essay concert, military and Parcham, coordinated a takeover attempt. On July 17, 1973, while the king was vacationing in Italy, Daud, along with key military officers and the minister of interior, who was a Parcham sympathizer, launched a successful, nearly bloodless coup, declaring an end to the monarchy and the beginning of a republican government. The exact nature of Daud?s relations with Parcham during this time is still not clear. Did the two agree on political objectives for Afghanistan, or did they merely create a marriage of convenience? In any event, after ousting the royal family, Daud initiated some of the progressive reforms which his leftist supporters had demanded. His commitment to a reformist program and to his early backers was shortlived, however. Essay? Over time, Daud consolidated his personal power by purging the government of leftists, replacing them with members of his own powerful Mohammadzai clan. He also sought more economic independence from the Soviet Union by exploring closer ties with Iran and the United States. He was careful, however, never completely to shun the Soviet Union. As the CIA noted, Daud was happiest when he could light his American cigarettes with Soviet matches.(7) The U.S.

Embassy in Kabul observed that Daud, in his changes, was leaning neither left nor right, but Daudward. In pursuit of personal power and a more independent foreign policy, Daud managed to how to write paper section, alienate Afghanistan?s socialists, moderates and essay, religious fundamentalists. It was the latter which initially proved to be Daud?s most militant opponents. While some Afghans were being influenced by write security incident, Marxism, others were diligently studying the Koran. Many of these Afghans entered Kabul University?s faculty of Islamic law, while others pursued their Islamic studies in Egypt where they came into contact with and were influenced by purpose, the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization which seeks the imposition of strictly Islamic governments in all Muslim countries.

Some of those Afghans who studied in paper Cairo, such as Burhanuddin Rabbani, Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, came back to essay, Kabul determined to essay on happiness, galvanize opposition first to Zahir Shah and then Mohammad Daud, both of whose governments they criticized as corrupt and un-Islamic. This group of Afghans wanted to integrate modernization and Islam to counter the disruptive influence of both capitalism and communism. Rabbani recruited from Afghanistan?s Muslim Youth Organization and helped form the Islamic Society party, Jamiat-i Islami. Jamiat organized anti-government protests and other Islamic dissident activities. When Daud cracked down on Jamiat activists, Rabbani and purpose essay, other Muslim leaders fled for the Afghan countryside and eventually to Pakistan where they received arms to essay how education is important, fight the Daud government. U.S. officials knew very little about purpose these Afghan rebels and doubted they could pose a serious threat to the Daud Administration. Some of the names listed in State Department cables were those of people who, years later, would receive covert aid from the United States in how to report their jihad, or holy war, against the Soviet Union. But it was Pakistan, which had its own reasons to fear Daud, that helped these rebels get their start.

Especially alarming to the Pakistanis was Daud?s pursuit of a popular cause called Pashtunistan. Roughly half of purpose essay Afghanistan?s population are ethnic Pashtuns, including Daud and discussion, practically every other leader in Afghanistan?s history. Millions of Pashtuns also lived on purpose essay, the other side of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, an artificial line drawn by essay of a, the British during the height of purpose their colonial rule in India. These Pashtuns, living in Pakistan?s Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), looked forward to the day when they would join their ethnic brethren in controlling their own homeland, Pashtunistan. Since Pashtuns dominated Afghan politics, they could only essays in a gain from pursuing such a goal, and Afghan leaders, in turn, won favor among Afghan Pashtuns for pursuing it. What was appealing to Daud and critical essay, other Afghan leaders, however, represented a real threat to Pakistan. Essay? Pashtunistan, if ever realized, would cut deeply into the NWFP by annexing a good portion of critical Pakistan. Even if the border with Afghanistan remained intact, calls in Kabul for Pashtunistan always had the potential for stirring unrest in Peshawar and other parts of Pakistan?s frontier. Essay? Expatriate leaders such as Rabbani, an ethnic Tajik, and Hekmatyar, an Islamist who sought to unite Afghans belonging to all ethnic groups through Islam, provided Pakistan with a minor tool for keeping Daud off balance if he chose to pursue an aggressive Pashtunistan policy. Meanwhile, as Islamic fundamentalists rebelled against Daud?s atheistic reforms, Daud continued to purge more leftists from the critical, government, banned political opposition in 1975, and strengthened ties with Iran and the United States. The United States welcomed and encouraged Daud?s new foreign policy moves.

In 1977, the State Department, remarking on Daud?s closer ties to Iran, stated that he had made significant contributions to the improvement of egypt thesis regional stability?thereby helping to fulfill another principal U.S. objective.(8) The Saur Revolution. Despite U.S. approval, Daud?s authoritarian rule had alienated too many at home. In particular, PDPA members, Parchamis and purpose, Khalqis alike, had grown impatient with Daud and essay on happiness and success, were anxious to critical purpose essay, see him removed from power. Khalq members criticized their Parcham rivals for having deluded themselves into thinking that the PDPA could have worked with Daud after supporting his takeover. How To Write Security Incident? By 1977, Khalq and Parcham formally agreed to bury their differences and united to form one People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan; Soviet pressure reportedly played a role in the unification. Further PDPA infiltration of the military, especially by Khalqis, put the party in a good position to influence events if and when Daud lost his grip on power. That day came on April 17, 1978, when Mir Akbar Khaibar, a member of the PDPA and a vocal critic of Daud, was assassinated, possibly by Daud?s minister of critical purpose essay interior.

Thousands of mourners turned Khaibar?s funeral into an anti-government rally which prompted Daud to clamp down further on write security, the PDPA, arresting numerous party members. Essay? His response provoked PDPA supporters in the military to take action. On April 27, the military in collaboration with the PDPA overthrew Daud, executed him, and replaced his republican government with a socialist one, which proclaimed the coup as the beginning of the Saur [April] Revolution. Prelude to Intervention. The socialist and pro-Soviet bent of the new government caused U.S. officials some concern as they wondered whether Moscow had played a secret role in how to write report incident the PDPA takeover. U.S. Critical Essay? Embassy officials in Kabul, however, detected no Soviet hand in the coup and suggested a cautious approach to the new government. These officials recalled that while Daud had been busy consolidating his personal power and pursuing new foreign ties, he had neglected the domestic reforms that many Afghans, particularly the progressive intellectuals, had demanded.

Also, religious leaders and intellectual, or Islamists, including those who had already taken up arms against Daud, had been neglected or repressed. Essay Thesis? The PDPA was in a better position than the Islamicists to seize power because of its stronger influence over the military and critical purpose essay, within the capital city, Kabul. The Khalq-Parcham unity was apparently not very solid. The new government, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), was dominated by Khalqis, due mostly to Khalq control of the military. Soon after the April takeover, Khalq?s two main leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and in a high, Hafizullah Amin, quickly consolidated Khalq rule by critical purpose, imprisoning a number of their Parcham rivals while sending others off to foreign diplomatic posts.

Meanwhile, they moved quickly to implement radical secular reforms, ranging from marriage decrees to land reform laws. A treaty of friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union was signed in and success December 1978, which brought more Soviet aid and advisors to Kabul. The Khalqi reforms served to essay, ignite strong opposition from most of the deeply traditional and Islamic population. The security of rural women, for example, often depended on a sizable dowry, which was significantly reduced under new marriage laws. The land reforms, which were meant to essay, help small farmers, were opposed by many for having alienated them from their former landowners, on whom they had always relied for help in growing and selling their crops. A number of disenfranchised landowners along with many religious leaders either took up arms against the Taraki-Amin government or left the country. Some Afghans fled to Pakistan to join the Islamic Afghan dissidents such as Rabbani and Hekmatyar. Critical Essay? Some of the more prominent new rebels included: Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, who came from a well-known family of Sufi leaders, had ties to the royal family, was related to a prominent PDPA official (a valuable connection for most rebels), and on happiness, formerly taught Islamic law in Kabul; Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, who was also tied to the royal family, was a Pir, or spiritual leader, and who until his departure from Kabul owned a Peugeot car dealership; Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi, who came from a prominent religious family and served in purpose essay parliament in the 1960s where he criticized secular influence in Afghanistan, physically attacking, at one point, another member of parliament, Babrak Karmal.

There were other rebel leaders operating in the Afghan mountains or out of Pakistan. An important one, Yunus Khales had escaped from Afghanistan in 1974 after writing a book that criticized the egypt essay thesis, Daud Administration. Unlike some other rebel leaders, Khales depended more on his genuine tribal support than his religious aura to purpose, galvanize Afghans in concert his home province of Nangarhar to purpose essay, oppose the new government in essays on teaching need Kabul. These leaders, along with Rabbani, Hekmatyar, and another who joined in 1980, Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, formed their own parties and would eventually unite to form the Sunni Islamic Afghan rebel alliance, or the Peshawar Seven as they would later become collectively known as. These party leaders called for a jihad, or holy war, against critical, the PDPA. Many other Afghan dissidents helped lead the on happiness, charge against the Kabul government, including numerous commanders in the Afghan mountains, like Ahmad Shah Masoud. The Shiite Afghans also played an important insurgency role in the western half of Afghanistan. Some of the Shiite parties based their operations in Iran where they received support from Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?s government. It was the Peshawar Seven, however, who would grab the world?s attention, partly because the essay, government of incident Pakistan, the host to most rebels and refugees and the foreign journalists writing about purpose them, chose to recognize their parties as the only legitimate ones in Pakistan. The United States, in the meantime, had found itself facing a policy dilemma with the PDPA?s ascension to power in Afghanistan.

This dilemma was summed up in how to paper discussion a secret memorandum to Secretary of State Cyrus Vance following the April takeover: We need to take into account the mix of nationalism and communism in essay the new leadership and seek to avoid driving the regime into a closer embrace with the Soviet Union than it might wish. Yet the memo also pointed out about various factors favoring a hard-line approach to the new government: [A]nti-regime elements in purpose Afghanistan will be watching us carefully to see if we acquiesce in or accept the and success, communist takeover. Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and critical essay, others of our friends in the area will see the situation clearly as a Soviet coup. Essay On Happiness And Success? On the domestic front, many Americans will see this as an extension of purpose Soviet power and draw the parallel with Angola, Ethiopia, etc.(9) As a result, the United States compromised, maintaining correct relations with the government while keeping channels open to the opposition. As dissatisfaction with the PDPA mounted within Afghanistan, however, the United States grew increasingly uncomfortable with the new government and its radical reforms. To make matters worse, in how to write security report February 1979, the U.S. ambassador, Adolph Dubs, was taken hostage by anti-government Shiite Muslims who demanded the release of a political prisoner. Afghan police clumsily stormed their hideout, and Dubs was killed in the ensuing shootout. Essay? Afghan authorities stonewalled U.S. requests for essay and success an independent investigation of the killing. Congress in turn refused to replace Dubs with another ambassador and threatened to cut aid to the DRA.

In March 1979, Afghans in the western city of critical purpose Herat responded to rebel calls for a jihad by massacring hundreds of DRA officials and thesis, Soviet advisors who were in charge of introducing the critical essay, women?s literacy program there. Afghanistan was beginning to draw attention from the outside world, including Washington. How To Security Report Incident? At the White House, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski warned President Carter that the Soviet Union, with its hundreds of advisors in Afghanistan to assist in reforms and counterinsurgency operations, had territorial designs on Afghanistan and possibly the whole South Asia region. Brzezinski and others worried that the USSR might take advantage of its presence in Afghanistan in order to critical, influence events in neighboring Iran or Pakistan, two traditionally pro-American countries that for years had helped safeguard U.S. interests in the region, namely access to oil and the containment of the Soviet Union. If the DRA were able to consolidate its power, Brzezinski argued, then the write, Soviet Union might turn Afghanistan into a launching pad for aggression in purpose the region. Weeks after the Herat uprising and while President Carter was absorbed by the Iran hostage crisis, Brzezinski pushed a decision through the Special Coordination Committee (SCC) of the National Security Council (NSC) to be, as he put it, more sympathetic to those Afghans who were determined to preserve their country?s independence.(10) Although deliberately vague as to what this meant, the evidence indicates that Brzezinski called for moderate covert support for Afghan dissident groups which had set up headquarters in Pakistan. Some, such as forces under the command of Rabbani and Hekmatyar, had been operating out of Pakistan without much outside aid for years. According to a former Pakistani military official who was interviewed in 1988, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad had asked Pakistani military officials in April 1979 to recommend a rebel organization that would make the best use of U.S. Write Incident? aid. The following month, the critical essay, Pakistani source claimed, he personally introduced a CIA official to on teaching high, Hekmatyar who, while more radically Islamic and anti-American than most Afghans, headed what the Pakistani government considered the most militant and critical purpose, organized rebel group, the essay and success, Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar).(11)

Freedom of Information Act requests for records describing these meetings have been denied. But CIA and State Department documents seized by Iranian students during the takeover of the U.S. Purpose Essay? Embassy in how to write security report Tehran in November 1979, reveal that, starting in April 1979, eight months before the Soviet intervention and critical essay, immediately following Brzezinski?s SCC decision, the United States had, in fact, begun quietly meeting rebel representatives. Although most of the cables and memoranda released to date show that U.S. Write Security Report Incident? officials politely turned down rebel requests for U.S. assistance, others reveal CIA support for anti-DRA demonstrations and close monitoring of Pakistani military aid for rebel parties based in Pakistan?s NWFP. Brzezinski?s decision to critical purpose essay, help the rebels was curious in light of Soviet activities in Afghanistan at the time.

According to of a concert, declassified documents and this author?s interviews, Soviet officials thought the Khalqi leadership was moving too fast with its reforms and urged Taraki and Amin to moderate the pace of change and broaden their political base by including non-communists in the government. This approach, however, was more amenable to Parcham leaders who, unfortunately for Soviet officials, were not in power. Essay? When Khalq leaders sidestepped Soviet advice, Moscow sought other means to on happiness, induce political change, meeting with former members of the monarchy and essay, other non-communists to seek their participation in write incident the DRA government. Soviet and other East bloc diplomats in critical essay Kabul kept the U.S. Embassy informed of their efforts. The ruling Khalqis, particularly Hafizullah Amin, had little use for Soviet counsel. The government responded to the growing opposition with increasing brutality, and the PDPA?s base continued to narrow. Amin, who as the how to report incident, defense minister was in charge of the failed counterinsurgency operations, became the focus of Soviet frustrations.

State Department intelligence learned that, in August 1979, Moscow had decided there was no practical alternative in Afghanistan to the rule of Taraki and Amin but that Soviet officials had resolved to support the purpose essay, more moderate Taraki against Amin. In the same month, a high-ranking Soviet military official, General Ivan Pavlovskiy, led a fact-finding mission to Afghanistan to assess the essay and success, stability of the government. In September, Taraki, on his way home from a Nonaligned Movement conference in Cuba, stopped in Moscow where he and Soviet officials reportedly discussed Amin?s future. Amin, perhaps sensing a coup, had Taraki arrested upon his return and executed him soon after. In October, General Pavlovskiy returned to Moscow and presented the Politburo with a grim picture of the situation below their border.

The Khalqi government had lost control of 23 of Afghanistan?s 28 provinces to various rebel forces. Left with Amin, the Soviets drew up plans for critical military action. By late November 1979, Soviet forces were moved to the Soviet Union-Afghanistan border. Warsaw Pact forces were also placed on an advanced state of readiness. Two Soviet battalions were quietly flown into an airbase near Kabul during the first week of essay thesis December, laying the groundwork for what was to follow. Critical? On Christmas Eve 1979, tens of on happiness thousands of Soviet troops riding in tanks and critical essay, armored personnel carriers stormed across the Amudarya River into the rugged Afghan countryside, while thousands more flew into the Kabul, Bagram and Shindand air bases, bringing with them exiled Parcham leaders, including Babrak Karmal, who had been hiding in Moscow. Within days, Hafizullah Amin was assassinated and replaced by Karmal who formed a new Parcham-led government. Superpowers and Doctrines of Hegemony. The Soviet invasion symbolized, ironically, the limits of Soviet influence in Afghanistan. Unable to stabilize the government through political means, Moscow attempted to how to a scientific paper, do so with military force, much the same as the United States had done years before in Vietnam. To many observers in Washington, D.C., however, Afghanistan was beginning to look like another pawn on purpose essay, the Kremlin?s chessboard.

The invasion coincided with the decline of U.S. influence in Iran and other Third World countries such as Angola and Mozambique in 1975, Ethiopia in 1977 and Nicaragua in in a high school 1979 where pro-Soviet governments had seized power. It also coincided with an election year in which President Carter was coming under attack from critical purpose essay, conservatives for failing to egypt essay thesis, prevent these Soviet gains. Many of these U.S. observers argued that the global balance of power, particularly the critical purpose, geostrategic balance in descriptive essay of a South Asia, had shifted in favor of the Soviet Union. The new dominant U.S. Critical Purpose Essay? perception of essay thesis Soviet foreign policy, as evidenced by Afghanistan, was that it was expansionist in nature: the Brezhnev Doctrine of protecting socialist allies, U.S. conservatives claimed, had been logically extended to include expanding Soviet influence beyond the Warsaw Pact. This view was best summed up in a Defense Intelligence Agency report issued days after Soviet troops entered Afghanistan: The key motivation that propelled Moscow?s move was to bring its long-standing strategic goals closer within reach.

Control of Afghanistan would be a major step toward overland access to the Indian Ocean and to domination of the critical essay, Asian sub-continent.(12) Reasoning that aggression unopposed becomes a contagious disease, President Carter warned the Soviet Union on January 23rd, 1980, that [a]n attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region [would] be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the U.S. and [would] be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.(13) Journalists labeled this powerful warning the Carter Doctrine. Since, however, the United States was neither interested in nor prepared for a war with the Soviet Union in Afghanistan or the Persian Gulf, Carter looked for alternative ways to slow down a potential Soviet drive and make Moscow pay a heavy price for its intervention. He called for on happiness international economic sanctions against critical essay, the USSR and a boycott of the Olympic games being held in essay thesis Moscow, sought military access agreements with several South and Southwest Asian countries, and provided more covert aid to the mujahidin. Not all U.S. officials believed that the Soviet intervention was part of an expansionist drive. While no declassified documents reveal any criticism of rebel military aid, some officials subsequently recalled in this author?s interviews that they had advocated quiet diplomacy with the Soviet Union in purpose essay order to write security, provide the Kremlin with a way out of what they believed was a political and military miscalculation.(14) Moscow had its own critics as well. According to interviews with Soviet officials, days after the intervention, Soviet foreign affairs advisors pleaded with the Kremlin leadership to purpose essay, withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. These advisors did not believe the egypt essay, intervention was worth ruining d?tente with the United States, Europe and China.

What is more, the purpose, deeply traditional and Islamic Afghans, in their opinion, were not yet prepared for socialism.(15) Cold War attitudes, however, prevailed in both Moscow and Washington. A combination of fear, pride and superpower obligations caused the leader of the free world and the vanguard of socialism to struggle violently over a destitute country the size of Texas for the next ten years. Political vs. Military Solution. Carter?s reaction to the Soviet invasion received widespread approval among policy-makers. Hard-liners, including Carter?s opponent in the 1980 presidential elections, Ronald Reagan, had warned numerous times that the Soviet Union was on essay and success, a roll in the Third World and had to be rolled back. Moderates thought the intervention, regardless of its purpose, was an egregious act for which the USSR should pay a price. All agreed that the Soviet Union should withdraw from purpose essay, Afghanistan. The question was how to convince Moscow. Congressional conservatives opposed negotiations, distrusting the Soviet Union?s willingness to negotiate in good faith. According to their view, the USSR would not withdraw unless and until it felt the costs of essays on teaching in a school its occupation.

Most U.S. Critical Essay? moderates and liberals fell into line with their conservative colleagues, supporting covert aid to the Afghan rebels, with virtually no one advocating diplomacy as a means of resolving the conflict. The State Department believed that the rebels could probably continue tying up some 85,000 or more Soviet troops but that they were fragmented, lack[ed] effective national leadership, and certainly [could not] force a Soviet withdrawal.(16) After minimal deliberation at the White House, Carter opted for a two-track approach, supporting moderate levels of covert aid while seeking a forum for a negotiated settlement. Carter?s loss to Reagan in the 1980 presidential election signalled the end of the negotiation track. The new president favored a distinctly hard-line policy toward Afghanistan. Reagan sought to make the descriptive of a, Afghan rebels and other anti-communist insurgencies the critical, centerpiece of the egypt essay, Reagan Doctrine, an aggressive initiative designed to increase the cost of Soviet support for Third World socialist governments. While few believed that the Afghan rebels could force a Soviet withdrawal, Reagan and his advisors hoped to critical, tie Soviet troops down in Afghanistan?s Hindu Kush mountains until the cost of occupation became unsustainable. The key to this objective was Pakistan. Since the overthrow of Mohammad Daud, Pakistan had played host to thousands (and eventually millions) of high need school Afghan refugees and rebels who had fled their war-torn country for make-shift tent villages in essay the Northwest Frontier Province and Baluchistan. Without the cooperation of Pakistan?s military government, led since 1977 by Gen. Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq, the rebels would have had no sanctuary from which to launch their operations. The Carter Administration had cut aid to Pakistan in 1977 because of concerns about its nuclear program and General Zia?s disdain for security report incident human rights and democracy.

There was ample evidence to suggest that Pakistan was actively developing an atomic bomb. Critical Purpose Essay? In addition, the Carter White House, with its public emphasis on respect for and success human rights as a precondition for foreign aid, was forced to respond to Zia?s well-known history of brutal and dictatorial actions. The general had originally attained power by critical purpose essay, overthrowing Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Essay Thesis? After promising elections within 90 days of the takeover, Zia postponed them indefinitely and eventually had Bhutto executed. To the United States, however, Zia?s record of human rights abuses paled in significance when compared to purpose essay, the Soviet move into Afghanistan. Literally days after the Soviet invasion, Carter was on the telephone with Zia offering him hundreds of millions of and success dollars in economic and military aid in purpose exchange for cooperation in helping the rebels. Essay How Education Is Important? Zia accepted this quid pro quo, but his government remained wary of critical purpose Washington?s stated commitment to protect Pakistan from possible Soviet strikes across its border. The Reagan Administration was able to egypt essay thesis, gain Pakistan?s confidence by offering a huge, six-year economic and critical purpose, military aid package which elevated Pakistan to and success, the third largest recipient of U.S. foreign aid. Critical? The Reagan White House had equal success in is important persuading Congress to accept Zia as a new ally.

The conservative, Islamic general who was still pursuing a nuclear weapons program and seemed uninterested in ever holding elections was now a fellow freedom fighter boldly in charge of a front-line state. Although Zia spoke in concert with U.S. objectives of supporting Afghan self-determination and opposing the critical purpose essay, Afghan puppet government, he and his military had their own agenda in Afghanistan. Zia chose to favor the more radically Islamic rebel groups who, in some cases, were no more popular or representative than the how to a scientific discussion section, PDPA. He was able to divert a disproportionately large share of U.S.-supplied weapons to these groups, especially the most radical one, Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar). Later in the war, this would cause significant problems for the rebel movement. Whether the United States blindly yielded to critical purpose, Zia?s favoritism of the fundamentalists or was in connivance with it is still in essay about question.

The relationship between the CIA and Pakistan?s Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), the arm of the military responsible for distributing CIA-purchased weapons to the rebels, is not well-documented. This author?s interviews with Pakistani officials indicate that U.S. officials in Pakistan were continually advised by critical, ISI officials that Hekmatyar?s Hizb-i Islami was the most effective rebel organization, although some officials from Pakistan?s Foreign Ministry apparently differed with that assessment. Many secular Pakistanis outside of the government worried that foreign aid for report Afghan fundamentalists such as Hekmatyar also served to bolster the conservative Islamic forces in Pakistan, including the military. Available documents and chronology show that during the ten-year Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, U.S. officials developed a stronger relationship with Pakistan?s generals than with either the foreign ministry or the civilian opposition. Congress and Covert Aid.

Afghanistan presents a unique case of congressional involvement with a covert aid program. Essay? Whereas a divided Congress often impeded the Reagan Administration?s efforts to aid the contras in Nicaragua, congressional hard-liners, riding a wave of bipartisan support, consistently and successfully pushed for more covert funding for the Afghan rebels than the White House ever requested. Hence, the debate regarding Afghan aid was relatively narrow in scope although not without tension. While everyone seemed to support Afghan self-determination and a Soviet-free Afghanistan, several members of descriptive essay of a concert Congress, backed by conservative lobbying groups, criticized the administration for not pursuing vigorously enough a mujahidin military victory over the PDPA. It was the critical essay, CIA, ironically, that cautioned against too much covert aid for the rebels. Officials from on teaching high, CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, including Deputy Director John McMahon, warned Congress that too large a military support operation for the rebels might provoke Soviet retaliation against Pakistan and would certainly be subject to leakages and corruption. The CIA was especially resistant to critical purpose, calls for providing the mujahidin with U.S.-made weaponry. Traditionally, the Agency purchased foreign, usually Soviet-styled, weaponry in essays on teaching in a need school order to plausibly deny U.S. involvement if the need arose. Throughout the essay, Afghan war, the CIA purchased Soviet-designed weapons from Egypt, China and elsewhere and transported them to Pakistan. Cables reveal that Chinese and Egyptian AK-47 rifles and SA-7 anti-aircraft missiles arrived in Pakistan as early as 1980.

This covert purchasing process not only egypt essay thesis covered U.S. Purpose Essay? tracks, but ensured the essay on happiness, availability of weapons that were compatible with the kind captured by the rebels from their Soviet-supplied enemies. In 1984, Congress passed a resolution, introduced by purpose essay, Senator Paul Tsongas (D-Massachusetts) and Congressman Don Ritter (R-Pennsylvania), which called for effective U.S. How To Write Security Report? material aid for the rebels in their fight for freedom from foreign domination. Several legislators, particularly Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-Texas) and Senator Gordon Humphrey (R-New Hampshire), tried to use the Tsongas-Ritter resolution to increase the size and quality of the essay, rebel covert aid program. While Washington and write paper, Moscow poured more weapons into Afghanistan, United Nations officials relentlessly pursued a diplomatic solution to purpose, end the war. In 1982, the U.N. Secretary-General, Javier P?rez de Cuellar tasked Diego Cordovez to find a way for the United Nations to mediate a political settlement in Afghanistan.

For the next six years, Cordovez shuttled back and forth from New York to South Asia to the Soviet Union and to how to write, Geneva. He tried to convince the numerous parties to the conflict?the Afghan government, the various rebel groups, the Soviet Union, Pakistan, the United States and Iran?to narrow their differences so that they could agree on purpose essay, a set of egypt essay thesis principles or conditions under which the Soviet military would withdraw from Afghanistan. Essay? Cordovez and his U.N. colleagues brought Pakistani and Afghan government representatives to Geneva on numerous occasions to discuss conditions for a political settlement. Since Pakistan did not recognize the Afghan government as legitimate, Cordovez literally had to move back and essay on happiness, forth between hotel rooms because Pakistani officials refused to critical purpose, sit at the same table with the DRA representatives. Compounding Cordovez?s difficulties was a strong sense of mistrust between the superpowers. On a number of occasions it appeared that Pakistan and Afghanistan were ready to sign an agreement that would prohibit Pakistan from allowing material aid for paper the rebels to pass through its territory in exchange for a Soviet withdrawal. One or both sides, however, would consistently pull out at the last minute, raising suspicions that either Washington or Moscow was unsatisfied with the timing or conditions of the accord. To most U.S. Critical Purpose? officials, these U.N.-sponsored proximity talks looked hopeless or even frightening. In March 1983, Under Secretary of State for is important Political Affairs Lawrence Eagleburger reportedly expressed alarm at the prospect that the following round of Geneva negotiations might result in a settlement.

About the critical purpose essay, same time, Charles Cogan, then the CIA?s official in charge of thesis covert operations in Afghanistan, told a journalist that Pakistan was not about to sign Cordovez?s proposed Geneva Accords at the next round or ever. He added that President Zia accepted the U.S. view that Pakistan?s security is best assured by keeping the Russians tied down [in Afghanistan].(17) On Capitol Hill, similar sentiments were voiced and more rebel aid was appropriated. Until the Soviet archives are open it will be impossible to determine how the U.S. hard-line approach affected Soviet policy toward Afghanistan. Was Moscow supporting U.N. efforts as a smokescreen for its strategy of essay subjugating the mujahidin, as Wilson, Humphrey and how to write, others argued? Or did increased U.S. Critical Essay? aid for the rebels cause the USSR to security report, dig in essay deeper, suspecting that the United States was not interested in a political solution? Wilson and Humphrey eventually succeeded in galvanizing congressional backing for a stronger rebel military force in Afghanistan. Despite signs of in a corruption in both the military and humanitarian aid programs as early as 1982, Congress ultimately provided nearly $3 billion in covert aid for the mujahidin, more than all other CIA covert operations in the 1980s combined. By 1987, the United States was providing the rebels with nearly $700 million in military assistance a year, more than what Pakistan itself was receiving from Washington. In 1984, Wilson used his powerful position on the House Intelligence Committee to tack on purpose, an additional $50 million for Afghan covert aid and convinced the CIA to purchase high-quality, Swiss-designed Oerlikon anti-aircraft missiles, which could pierce the essay how education, heavy armor of the USSR?s most formidable counterinsurgency machine, the Hind Mi-24 helicopter.

The CIA went even further in 1985, purchasing the sophisticated British-made Blowpipe anti-aircraft missiles. Critical Essay? And in 1986, due to pressure from several congressmen and a number of bureaucrats at the State and Defense departments, the CIA provided the mujahidin with U.S.-made Stinger missiles, the most effective shoulder-held anti-aircraft weapon in on teaching in a high the world. It was the first time the CIA had provided U.S.-made weaponry as part of a covert insurgency support operation, and the legislative branch was largely responsible. As a congressional staffer later put it: We finally broke the Agency?s virginity. Refugees and U.S. Policy.

The dislocation of critical purpose essay 3 million Afghan refugees in essay on happiness Pakistan?one of the most tragic results of the purpose, war?was something Congress, the White House and the international community could all agree on: they needed massive assistance. Ultimately one-third of Afghanistan?s pre-war population fled the country, testifying to the destruction and chaos caused largely by essays on teaching high, heavy Soviet/Afghan government aerial bombing. For political as well as economic reasons, the United States urged other countries to contribute to the refugee cause. In 1981, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad asserted that if funding for the refugees were too visible, it would damage the credibility of the critical purpose, mujahidin by focusing attention on descriptive, U.S. influence in the Afghan insurgency.(18) Dozens of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were willing to help the refugees and rebels as long as they were provided with the necessary resources to do so. The United States channeled a significant amount of aid through favored NGOs and urged other countries to either aid the same organizations or to contribute to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In the end, no matter who distributed the aid, much of it ended up in the hands of rebel parties, providing them with significant political leverage over the millions of critical purpose Afghan exiles. In addition to the humanitarian grounds for providing aid to the refugees in Pakistan, the United States also sought to alleviate political and economic pressure on Islamabad and to help maintain a support structure for the rebels. Essay Of A Concert? In 1982, the CIA predicted that the presence of Afghan refugees in Pakistan would help generate political unrest and critical, retard economic development until the end of the century.(19) While many Pakistanis demonstrated great hospitality and tolerance for the refugees, others despised their presence.

Cables from Pakistan reveal violent clashes between Pakistani border tribes and Afghan refugees over scarce resources and political, religious and personal differences. Essay And Success? Some disgruntled tribes even took weapons and critical purpose, money from the Afghan government to disrupt rebel supply lines into Afghanistan. In fact, the Afghan government?s infiltration of essay Pakistan and the rebel parties was extensive and proved key to its survival. The government?s ministry of state security, known as KHAD, sought to buy or rent the loyalty of critical Pashtun tribes who inhabited the Afghanistan-Pakistan border area (the tribes often inhabited both sides of the essays on teaching high need, border). Weapons and money were doled out to tribal militia who in critical turn interdicted rebel supply operations based in Pakistan. Some tribal leaders responded to essay, Kabul?s material aid with political support, attending government jirgahs (assemblies) and other PDPA-sponsored activities. President Zia tried to undercut the Pakistan-based tribes? support for essay the Afghan government by, among other means, conducting selective anti-narcotics sweeps through their home areas. Kabul?s strategy, however, continued to be successful, and ultimately contributed to the rise of Najibullah, the KHAD?s director and the man responsible for this counterinsurgency campaign, to the leader of the DRA in 1986. Other kinds of counterinsurgency operations, including Soviet/Afghan government aerial search-and-destroy missions, as well as insurgency tactics, such as the mujahidin?s hit-and-run attacks on government-held garrisons and cities, were some of the principal causes of the refugee flow into Pakistan. But it was the aerial bombing that inflicted the most damage. Congress, determined to counter what it called a Soviet depopulation campaign, called for an aggressive cross-border humanitarian aid program.

The Agency for International Development (AID) was tasked with implementing this unorthodox program. The objective of essay is important AID?s Cross-border Humanitarian Assistance Program (CBHA) was to provide Afghans inside Afghanistan?civilians and rebels alike?with the means to survive without having to purpose essay, flee to essay thesis, Pakistan. The mass exodus of purpose essay Afghans had been putting too much pressure on Pakistan, and the empty Afghan villages left the rebels with little material or moral support inside the country. AID funds went toward building hospitals and schools, growing crops, and putting money in the pockets of local residents. The AID reports are actually some of the richest documents in thesis the collection, describing the situation inside the normally inaccessible parts of war-torn Afghanistan and illustrating some of the bizarre politics of the mujahidin. As part of a pro-insurgency operation, the program was unique and critical essay, controversial. AID was being used to essay, maintain and build up the critical purpose, rebels? infrastructure.

As one U.S. advisor explained to this author in Pakistan: We borrowed a lesson from Mao. The Soviets were trying to drain the essay, sea to kill the fish [rebels], so we?re trying to keep the sea filled.(20) Public Diplomacy and the First Casualty of War. In addition to critical essay, providing the rebels with military and humanitarian aid, the United States provided psychological support. In 1983, a unique National Security Decision Directive, number 77, was signed into action to about how education is important, coordinate U.S. Essay? government agencies to enhance U.S. Essay? national security and counter anti-American propaganda through public diplomacy. U.S. officials had their work cut out for them in Afghanistan where media coverage was hindered by critical essay, war and propaganda. To overcome these obstacles, the National Security Council, in essay and success keeping with NSDD 77, formed the inter-agency Afghan Working Group, which met twice a month to discuss ways of purpose increasing media coverage of the war and generating sympathy and essays, support for the mujahidin. News coverage of the war was indeed limited, especially when one considers that this was the longest war in purpose essay Soviet history, the largest CIA paramilitary operation since Vietnam, and, with 1 million dead Afghans, the bloodiest regional conflict in essay the world at the time. Nevertheless, no major American newspaper saw fit to station a reporter in Peshawar, Pakistan, the base of rebel political and military operations, and American television crews rarely ventured up to the Khyber Pass for a glimpse of the war.

A major reason for this, of course, was the risk involved in essay reporting a guerrilla war, especially this one. A journalist who wished to go inside faced a number of hazards ranging from contracting a serious disease to the chance of being killed in an air raid or ambush. What coverage there was tended to school, be biased toward the mujahidin. Several factors explain this. Foreign correspondents and stringers who did go to Peshawar or managed to go inside with the rebels encountered thousands of uprooted Afghans who all had horrific stories to tell about essay losing homes and relatives to thesis, Soviet/Afghan government counterinsurgency operations. Indeed, craters from critical purpose, Soviet bombs marked the essays on teaching in a need, landscape, villages were often emptied of their inhabitants, and many Afghans who found their way to Pakistan walked the streets with artificial limbs, victims of land mines. In addition, the Afghan government often proved to be an critical purpose, unreliable source of how to write a scientific discussion section information, causing Western journalists to rely heavily on U.S. officials for details of the war.

The DRA in 1980, for example, reported how Walter Cronkite (apparently confusing him with Dan Rather) on a visit into Afghanistan had ordered the execution of two Afghans?Islamic style. That same year the critical purpose essay, DRA expelled 18 Western journalists for how to biased coverage. Critical? When the government allowed journalists to return to the country in how to a scientific paper 1986, the purpose, journalists discovered in Kabul another side to the story: victims of rebel land mines and indiscriminate mujahidin rocket attacks on report incident, the capital. Thus, for much of the war most reporters found it physically and journalistically safer to rely on Western diplomatic sources in Pakistan, the cover for U.S. officials at the Consulate in Peshawar or the Embassy in Islamabad. Despite the pro-mujahidin slant of Western news coverage, however, U.S. officials still complained of its limited nature. In 1985, Senator Humphrey sought to purpose, remedy that problem. He pushed legislation through Congress that tasked the United States Information Agency (USIA) to egypt essay, teach Afghan rebels how to film and write about their jihad.

The USIA subcontracted Boston University?s School of Communications to train Afghans in Peshawar to become television and newsprint journalists. This program stirred controversy, drawing criticism from professors at the university and several American journalists who called the exercise in public diplomacy a government propaganda operation. Documents on the project, which went forth despite the criticism, show how the United States worked with rebel parties, Pakistan, a CBS cameraman and several private organizations to increase and purpose essay, improve coverage of the war. The United States was also able to influence coverage by taking advantage of Western journalists? inability to cover the war extensively first-hand. Once a week, a USIA officer in Islamabad would read to foreign journalists portions of a Situation Report originating from the Embassy in Kabul. How To Security Report Incident? These Sitreps were to purpose, serve two purposes. Essays On Teaching In A High Need? They provided U.S. officials at home and abroad with detailed information on the political and essay, military situation in essay on happiness Afghanistan. They also formed part of the Afghan Working Group?s press and public information strategy to punch holes in purpose essay the Soviet news blackout. The press, however, was usually allowed to hear only the first several pages of the Sitrep, which gave a relatively simplistic overview of the situation in the country, paying special attention to government human rights abuses and mujahidin military gains. The following 20-25 detail-filled pages of the essays on teaching high need, many now declassified Sitreps depicted a much more complicated and bizarre war being fought on critical purpose, more levels than just that of Soviet-backed communists against freedom-fighting Muslims. Beyond the refugee camps and press conferences in Pakistan, a real and very destructive war was going on inside Afghanistan.

Cables from in a school, Kabul, AID cross-border reports, DIA summaries and journal articles by the few reporters who bravely ventured into war zones reveal how pockets of mountain tribesmen, toting Chinese automatic rifles and U.S. Stinger missiles, went up against critical essay, well-armed Soviet and Afghan government forces. Rebel hit-and-run attacks, assassinations of on happiness PDPA members, car bombs, rocket attacks on government-held garrisons and essay, cities and other guerrilla tactics were met with massive aerial bombardments, mine-sowing operations, bribes and civic action campaigns from Kabul. Places like Paghman, Khost, the Panjshir Valley, Sarobi, and Jalalabad, where the mujahidin continually bogged Soviet forces down, became familiar names to observers of this war just as Hue and Khe Sanh had in Vietnam, where for years Viet Cong rebels tied down U.S. and South Vietnamese troops. But as fierce as they were, the high, Muj were not the Viet Cong. It is purpose essay true that U.S. military aid improved the rebels? battlefield performance. How To A Scientific Discussion Section? One Pentagon report claimed that Stingers forced more tactical and air support changes in the last quarter of 1986 and the first quarter of critical 1987 than in the previous 7 years of the conflict.(21) Also, more and essays high school, better land mines allowed the rebels to disrupt Soviet supply lines and ground communications, which were already hampered by the lack of railways and good roads. No matter how much military, humanitarian, or psychological support the United States provided them, however, the mujahidin remained fractious. It was not uncommon for one rebel group to critical purpose, turn its guns on another. The United States was well aware of rebel infighting even before the Soviet intervention.

In 1979, rebel leaders confided to U.S. officials that they likened the idea of a dissident provisional government to how to write report incident, putting five different animals in the same cage.(22) Saudi Arabia managed to stimulate some rebel unity by withholding aid from the various mujahidin parties until they agreed to critical, coalesce and form a united opposition front. Yet foreign aid often did more to egypt essay thesis, divide the rebels than to unite them. The Saudi government, which deposited many of its contributions into critical purpose a CIA Swiss bank account, also gave direct support to several fundamentalist groups. Some of these groups practiced Wahabbism, a puritanical brand of thesis Islam which was alien to the majority of Afghans. Iran supported the purpose essay, Shiite rebels, who played an important military role in essay about how education the western part of the country but were left out of essay power-sharing arrangements made by the Sunni alliance in Peshawar. Is Important? For its part, the Pakistani military doled out a disproportionate amount of CIA-purchased weapons to Hekmatyar?s radical Hizb-i Islami party, which often used the arms against rival rebel groups. The lack of unity impeded rebel attempts to overthrow the PDPA. The more moderate, or traditionalist, rebel groups, such as those led by Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, proposed finding a unifying leader, and they had a candidate: former king Zahir Shah.

In July 1987, a poll conducted among Afghan refugees by the independent Afghan Information Center indicated popular support for Zahir Shah as an alternative head of purpose state for Afghanistan. Hekmatyar and other leaders denounced the poll as propaganda by egypt essay thesis, the monarchists. But U.S. officials had evidence from their own observations and conversations that many Afghans might unite around the former king for an interim period if only to help find a more expedient way to negotiate a Soviet withdrawal and an end to the war. Critical Essay? Many Afghans also believed that the king, who they conceded could have been a stronger leader during his 40-year reign, was someone they could rally around to security report incident, oppose the unpopular, but powerful, Hekmatyar. Diego Cordovez and his U.N. team also recognized the king as a potential key to critical purpose, a settlement and kept in regular contact with Zahir Shah?s representatives at his Rome residence. Pakistan, however, refused to grant Zahir Shah a visa and kept a close eye on pro-Zahir activities. How To Report? Pakistan?s President Zia and his supporters in critical purpose essay the military were determined to put a conservative Islamic ally in power in Kabul. U.S. officials and private experts yielded to write a scientific paper discussion section, the Pakistani military?s objective, some supporting it, others rationalizing that the king?s return would do little good. Some of these officials argued that as a result of the war, Afghanistan had experienced a social change: political power, they claimed, had shifted away from the tribal leaders, the maliks, and the king?s Mohammadzai clan and toward the mujahidin commanders and their political/religious leaders in critical essay Peshawar.

The Soviet presence and Islam, they reasoned, had united Afghans of different tribes and ethnic groups to fight a common enemy. Essay Of A? That unity was soon put to a test. On February 8, 1988, Mikhail Gorbachev surprised the world by announcing that the purpose essay, Soviet Union would withdraw its 100,000 troops from descriptive essay of a, Afghanistan. Three days later, in critical purpose the midst of egypt thesis celebrations in Peshawar, Professor Sayyid Majruh, the man responsible for conducting the controversial Afghan Information Center poll that had shown substantial support for Zahir Shah, was assassinated in critical purpose essay his office. Of A Concert? His death, still a mystery, was soon followed by a string of critical essay assassinations and egypt thesis, acts of intimidation against other Afghan intellectuals who shared one basic sentiment: they were almost as opposed to critical purpose, a fundamentalist government in Afghanistan as they were a communist one. Divisions among anti-government Afghans would only widen further. The Geneva Accords and the Soviet Withdrawal. In some ways the fragmented nature of the rebel movement worked to essay of a, its advantage for purpose essay much of the war. The USSR could find no central rebel base of operations to bomb, no one strategy planning meeting to on happiness and success, infiltrate, no single popular leader to negotiate with?or eliminate.

The mujahidin?s steady harassment came from critical purpose essay, all directions in how to section this war without borders. Gen. Boris Gromov, the last commander of the Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan, boasted on critical purpose essay, his last day in the country that [n]o Soviet garrison or major outpost was ever overrun.(23) In this guerrilla war, however, that proved irrelevant. By late 1986, the Kremlin decided that the war had become too costly. Hundreds of thousands of Soviet men had rotated in a scientific discussion section and out of critical service in Afghanistan and brought home all the signs of a losing, unpopular struggle: low morale, criticism of the government?s Afghan policy, drug and alcohol abuse, and more.

The war also hit home in other ways. Billions of rubles were spent on Afghanistan instead of the crumbling Soviet economy. In the troubled Central Asian republics, Soviet Muslims had come into contact with the Afghan jihad when, at various points during the war, rebel bands crossed the sensitive Soviet border to foment unrest among the essay of a, Islamic population. The impact of the Afghan war on Soviet Muslims? later demands for independence remains unclear. The Soviet Union was also changing its approach toward the Third World.

Gorbachev and his advisors, faced with staggering economic problems, thought that previous Soviet administrations had given too much unconditional support to Third World governments, some of which seemed to rely more on Soviet aid than broadly based domestic support. Gorbachev decided to tie future foreign assistance to certain understandings, one being that the recipient government had to concentrate on building a broad base of support before implementing social and economic reforms. Afghanistan, which enjoyed a special position in Moscow?s strategy to protect the Soviets Union?s sensitive southern border, was no exception to Gorbachev?s new Third World policy. In December 1986, Gorbachev informed Afghan President Najibullah in Moscow that the essay, Soviet military commitment to his government was limited.(24) Najibullah returned to Kabul and immediately launched a policy called national reconciliation, an effort to broaden the government?s political support base. Write Security Report? He announced a cease-fire and purpose, an amnesty for armed oppositionists.(25) But the war went on. Documents show that some U.S. officials in Moscow, Washington, D.C., and Kabul remained unconvinced of Soviet intentions to withdraw for quite some time.

In some cases, suspicions of Moscow?s ultimate objectives lingered until the very end of the on teaching in a high need, Soviet pull-out. In November 1988, three months before the withdrawal was to be completed, a top official in the U.S. Embassy in Kabul claimed that the Soviet leadership might cancel their pull-out to prevent Najibullah?s government from unraveling. Although most of his colleagues disagreed, the critical purpose essay, diplomat?s suspicion illustrates a point: U.S. policy toward Afghanistan right up to the end of the Soviet occupation was based on a deep mistrust of Moscow?s goals, a mistrust which continued well after the withdrawal. Policy-makers argued that if Moscow succeeded in keeping the PDPA in egypt essay power, then excessive Soviet influence in Afghanistan would continue. With Iran still hostile to the United States, regional stability remained threatened. On Capitol Hill, key legislators such as Humphrey, Wilson and others also distrusted the Soviet initiatives.

Months before the U.N.-sponsored Geneva Accords were to be signed in April 1988, they galvanized enough congressional support to stop the White House from guaranteeing the agreement until President Reagan had promised to continue arming the purpose, mujahidin even after the USSR had withdrawn. Report? As a co-guarantor of the accords, the United States was obligated to purpose, cut aid to the rebels on the first day of the pull-out. Humphrey and others protested that this would leave the rebels at a military disadvantage since Kabul would continue receiving aid from Moscow. Egypt Thesis? Secretary of critical essay State George Shultz took this matter up with Soviet officials suggesting that both sides cease supplying their respective clients when the withdrawal began, a proposal he called negative restraint. The Soviet Union and Najibullah refused, unwilling to how to write a scientific discussion, accord the Afghan rebels the same legitimacy as the Afghan government. Soviet and Afghan officials, however, fearing a possible rebel onslaught following the Soviet withdrawal, tried desperately to negotiate a power-sharing agreement with the mujahidin leaders. The rebels refused, calling the critical, offer a ploy to keep the PDPA in power. Due to congressional pressure and over Soviet objections, the United States created a separate, unwritten clause to the Geneva Accords which stipulated that Washington could aid the rebels as long as the essay how education, Soviet Union aided Kabul. Critical Purpose? The United States called this stipulation positive symmetry. Other complications almost prevented the signing of the accords. At the report, last minute, after the United Nations had convinced the Soviet Union to purpose, drop its demand for a coalition government as a precondition to signing, Pakistan insisted on the formation of a rebel-dominated interim government, made up largely of rebel and other non-PDPA elements, before it would sign.

President Reagan called President Zia and assured him that the United States would stand by the rebels until they seized power, and and success, that since the USSR was probably going to withdraw with or without an agreement, Pakistan ought to sign. Critical? Besides, the White House had been advised that the PDPA would fall to the rebels shortly after Soviet troops had gone. On April 14, 1988, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan agreed?with the on teaching in a, USSR and the United States acting as their co-guarantors?to refrain from any form of purpose essay interference in each other?s territory, and to give all Afghan refugees the opportunity to return voluntarily to their homeland. For their part, the superpowers pledged to stop interfering in essay Afghanistan, with the USSR agreeing to critical essay, withdraw its troops. Except for the agreement on the withdrawal, the other elements of the accords would be rendered obsolete by how to write incident, positive symmetry. To Washington, however, that seemed not to critical essay, matter, for a rebel military victory appeared to be right around the corner. On May 15, 1988, Soviet troops began their ten month withdrawal from Afghanistan. 1. United States Department of State, The Nature of the Afghanistan Opposition, August 16, 1979. 2. David Gibbs, Does the USSR Have a Grand Strategy?

Journal of Peace Research , Volume 24, Number 1, 1987: p. 368. 3. United States Department of State, Elements of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan, March 27, 1962. 4. United States Department of State, Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976. 5. Maxwell J. Fry, The Afghan Economy. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Descriptive Essay Of A Concert? Brill, 1974, p. Critical Purpose? 4. 6. Essay How Education? United States Department of State, 1971 Policy Assessment: Policy Review-A U.S. Strategy for the 1970s, June 26, 1971. 7. United States Central Intelligence Agency, Mohammad Daud: President of Afghanistan, August 13, 1973. 8. United States Department of State, Afghanistan in 1977: An External Assessment, January 30, 1978.

9. United States Department of State, The Afghan Coup, April 30, 1988. 10. Zbigniew Brzezinski, Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser . New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983, p. 427. 11. Author?s interview with Pakistani military official, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 12. United States Defense Intelligence Agency, Intelligence Commentary, January 7, 1980. 13. Essay? Carter Would Fight for concert Persian Gulf; Seeks to Resume Draft Registration. Washington Post , January 24, 1980.

14. Author?s interview with present and former U.S. officials, Washington, D.C., 1988-1989. 15. Critical Purpose Essay? Author?s interview with Viacheslav I. Dashichev, Moscow, November 1988. 16.

United States Department of State, Afghanistan and Pakistan, March 1980. 17. Selig S. Harrison, Inside the how to write paper section, Afghan Talks. Foreign Policy, Fall 1988: p. 41. 18. Critical Essay? United States Department of essay State, Afghan Refugee Relief Update, November 16, 1988.

19. Central Intelligence Agency, Pakistan: Population Problems and purpose, Political Stability, November 1982. 20. Author?s interview with U.S. Thesis? Embassy advisor, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 21. United States Army, Impact of the Stinger Missile on Soviet and Resistance Tactics in Afghanistan, March 1989. 22. United States Department of State, Nature of the Afghan Opposition, August 16, 1979.

23. United States Army, Lessons from the War in Afghanistan, June 1989. 24. A Diplomatic Solution to Stalemate: Gorbachev Never Wedded to the War. Washington Post , April 17, 1988.

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HippoCampus and Advanced Placement (AP)* We are a non-profit organization and provide the content at our websites for self-improvement only critical, as part of our mission. You cannot get credit for in a high need it since we are not a school. We are not a school, so you cannot enroll in purpose a course, but individuals are welcome to use the how to write security report incident, materials for free as study aids. There is no charge for individual users at HippoCampus. You can email a comment or question directly to [email protected], or you can click the purpose essay, Comments and Questions icon in the Media Window control bar.

The icon looks like a small speech bubble. While we understand that you may need assistance with your homework, we cannot provide the paper section, answers to essay, your problems or individual assistance. We hope you can use our website as a tool to help you learn the subject matter so that you can find the write report, answers. We correlate our content to a variety of widely used textbooks so that you may choose the books you wish. You do not need to buy any of the books mentioned. More than half the use of HippoCampus occurs during classroom hours, when teachers go online to project topic lectures and show simulations launched from the HippoCampus site. Teachers can use the site as is, or can create custom playlists of topics in their custom HippoCampus page by creating a free user account. Just click the Log In link in critical purpose the top-right corner of essay, any HippoCampus page to critical, get started.

Further information can be found in the HippoCampus User's Guide. HippoCampus is not a credit-granting organization, and does not monitor, grade, or give transcripts to anyone using the essay how education, site. However, many home schooling families have used HippoCampus content to supplement or guide their home curriculum, and we welcome them as users. Purpose. HippoCampus is made possible by the members of The NROC Project, and many NROC members offer credit for courses that contain HippoCampus content. Yes, although homeschoolers should realize that the content presented is not a complete course. The content is write paper, intended to purpose, have an instructor to provide supplemental assignments and instruction. Essay On Happiness. Since there is critical essay, no teacher available through HippoCampus, the parent must take the role of instructor. We have done research to identify some very good wet lab resources for virtual schools that could also be used successfully by homeschoolers.

Here are a few of the options: Smart Science, Smart Science® virtual labs are a complete science learning system with online assessments and reports, delivery of egypt thesis, all course activities and student and essay curriculum tracking for current and prior terms. In 2007 the College Board approved AP science courses that incorporate Smart Science® AP labs as their lab components. Full sets of labs (20-30 labs per on happiness course) are offered for critical purpose essay a fee. Hands-On Labs, The science lab kits and products offered by Hands-On Labs, Inc. were specifically designed and selected by and success practicing distance educators to serve the At Home science study markets. Essay. These kits are used with web courses, telecommunication courses, home-schooling programs, and all other forms of independent study.

Students are not required to log in to, so there is no way to track student use from the public site. However, institutions that are members of the National Repository of Online Courses (NROC) have access to HippoCampus content through their school's learning management system, which can track use, assignments, and grades. No. Our Terms of how to write security report incident, Use specify that HippoCampus is provided by the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education for personal enrichment and individual instructor use only. The unlicensed use of this content by educational organizations or commercial vendors is prohibited. Unfortunately, there is no way to download the purpose essay, video from our website. As an individual user, however, you may create a custom HippoCampus page and then link to an individual topic. After you have created your custom page, there will be buttons in write a scientific paper discussion the upper right corner that allow you to view the text version (when available), bookmark, or link to the topic. Can I change the critical, size of the video window? Yes, in multiple ways.

First, there is a maximize button beneath the bottom left corner of the Media Window which will widen the screen. There is also a hide column button beneath the first column of content in the Browse Topics tab. These can be used simultaneously or independently. For some content, such as that from Khan Academy, a small button in essay thesis the lower right corner of the essay, media control bar allows the content to be shown full screen. For other content, such as Algebra I--An Open Course, right-clicking the mouse over the video content will open a menu that offers Full Screen as an option. Why won't the Environmental Science animations play? This problem occurs if you are using version 7.1.3 of Quicktime® or higher. To fix the problem, go into descriptive essay concert the QuickTime Preferences. What if my page scroll bars or submit button are not showing? Your screen resolution may be set too low. The Algebra course requires that your screen resolution be at 1024x768 or higher.

Most of the other content requires a resolution of purpose essay, 600x800 or higher. I can't find closed captioning. Isn't this a violation of 504/508 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act? Much, but not all, of the content at HippoCampus is closed captioned. How To A Scientific Discussion. Section 508 of the purpose essay, Rehabilitation Act to requires Federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology accessible to people with disabilities. The law applies to all Federal agencies when they develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology. The educational resources provided at were not procured by, and essay how education are not made available through, a Federal agency, so the law is not applicable to the content at this website. Where does the content from your site come from? All the content we provide at HippoCampus is created by other educational institutions and contributed to us to distribute as part of our non-profit mission. There is an error in the multimedia presentation.

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How do I report a course errata item? Use the Comments and Questions feature in the Media Window control bar. The icon looks like a small speech bubble, and allows you to send in a description of the error directly from the relevant piece of media. Or you can send an how to write discussion section, email to critical, [email protected] Please describe the issue as precisely as possible. If you provide your email address, we will inform you about the correction process, or ask any follow-up question necessary to and success, clarify the report. Why are there answer keys available to purpose essay, the students for the end-of-chapter tests? The tests that appear on our website are intended as open tests for self-assessment only. They are not intended to be secure tests since the answers are freely available at several websites.

Where are the answers to about how education is important, the review questions? There are answer keys available for the chapter tests but not for the review questions. The answer keys for critical purpose the chapter tests are located as a link right under the chapter test link. The audio in some videos within the Religion course are problematic. Can you fix it? This is a problem that was in essay of a the original content we received from the course developer. We have no way of fixing this at critical purpose, this time. Why aren't the lab sections in Environmental Science appearing? The Environmental Science labs require you to have Java installed on essay on happiness your computer. You can get the latest version at

HippoCampus and Advanced Placement (AP)* How are homeschoolers using HippoCampus for AP? What about DANTE and CLEP? We know a lot of homeschoolers use HippoCampus. We are often asked if homeschoolers can study the content at HippoCampus and critical then just take and pass the AP exam. HippoCampus courses were designed to essay concert, address the essay, AP College Board criteria. However, as with any teaching resource, they should not be considered a singular solution, but can be used as a good foundation for essay an AP teaching curriculum. The courses at HippoCampus have not currently been mapped to the CLEP and DANTE tests. If you wish to receive college credit for taking an AP course, most colleges will require that the course have been approved by the College Board. Critical. Schools wishing to give their students AP credit must go through the AP audit process. The same is descriptive essay concert, true for homeschoolers.

The AP Course Ledger section below gives more information about the audit process. Critical Purpose. AP Course Ledger The AP Course Ledger is a comprehensive and public registry of all courses authorized to use the AP label on student transcripts. The Ledger is an annual and culminating product of the on happiness and success, AP Course Audit, a process by which college faculty confirm that courses submitted by AP teachers and schools provide students with the essential elements of a college level experience. As an purpose, exclusively Web-based registry, the Ledger is published annually in how education is important November and updated weekly throughout the purpose essay, academic year to reflect newly authorized courses. Here is essay, a link to AP Audit information, (and you can find other links on this page to various other resources): Can schools order and administer AP Exams without completing the AP Course Audit? Yes, the purpose essay, AP Course Audit is only required for schools desiring to: Are the courses at HippoCampus AP approved? Our AP content is a good resource to help students prepare for AP exams.

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NROC members cooperate to develop and share digital resources and tools to impact college and critical essay career success. For more information about joining our efforts, please email [email protected] Is Important. Correlation to HippoCampus is a powerful competitive differentiator for your textbook. To have your book indexed and critical purpose listed at HippoCampus, please contact Gary Lopez, Executive Director, 831-642-9459, [email protected] is an Open Educational Resource that delivers high-quality academic content in middle-school and high-school classrooms during the day, and offers students study and thesis homework resources in the evenings. Purpose Essay. We welcome advertisers whose message is consistent with our educational mission and our non-profit, foundation-funded status. For details, visit the Student Messaging System page. About. Explore NROC Project Membership for Institutional Use. The same great content available for free individual use at is also available for institutional use through membership in The NROC Project . Membership fees sustain the operation of this non-profit endeavor to make quality educational content freely available to individual learners worldwide. If you are interested in purpose essay learning more about write security report, institutional use of the NROC Library within your school, district, or state, please complete the contact us form at

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At core, we are cavemen in how to security suits and dresses. Our brains are optimized for a hunter-gatherer environment where we lived in small bands of 25 to 100 individuals with limited food and information sources. Our brains (and our bodies) now live in a world that is critical essay the opposite of what we are designed to handle. This leads to essay great risk and to purpose inappropriate, outright dangerous behavior. In the past few decades, the fortunate among us have recognized the hazards of living with an high, overabundance of food (obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome) and have started to shift our diets. News is to the mind what sugar is to the body . News is easy to purpose essay digest. The media feeds us small bites of trivial matter, tidbits that don’t really concern our lives and don’t require thinking. That’s why we experience almost no satation.

Unlike reading books and long, deep magazine articles (which requires thinking), we can swallow limitless quantities of news flashes, like bright colored candies for thesis, the mind. Today, we have reached the same point in relation to information overload that we faced 20 years ago with food intake. We are beginning to recognize how toxic news can be and we are learning to take the first steps toward an information diet. This is my attempt to purpose clarify the dangers of the most toxic form of information – news – and to provide some recommendations about descriptive concert how to deal with it. I have now gone without news for critical purpose essay, a year, so I can see, feel and report the effects of on teaching high need, this freedom first hand: less disruption, more time, less anxiety, deeper thinking, more insights . It’s not easy, but it’s worth it. My good friend Nassim Nicholas Taleb was one of the first people to recognize news consumption as a serious problem. Critical? I owe most of the following insights to him. No 1 – News misleads us systematically. News reports do not represent the of a, real world.

Our brains are wired to pay attention to visible, large, scandalous, sensational, shocking, people-related, story-formatted, fast changing, loud, graphic onslaughts of essay, stimuli. A Scientific Discussion? Our brains have limited attention to spend on things that are small, abstract, ambivalent, complex, slow to develop and quiet, much less silent. News organizations systematically exploit this bias. The news media, by and large, focus on the highly visible. They display whatever information they can convey with gripping stories and lurid pictures, and they systematically ignore the subtle and insidious, even if it is more important. News grabs our attention; that’s how its business model works.

Even if the advertising model didn’t exist, we would still soak up news pieces because they are easy to critical digest and superficially quite tasty. The highly visible misleads us. Take the following event. A car drives over a bridge, and the bridge collapses. How Education? What does the news media focus on? On the car. On the person in the car.

Where he came from. Where he planned to go. Critical Purpose Essay? How he experienced the crash (if he survived). Essays On Teaching Need? What kind of person he is (was). But – that is all completely irrelevant. What’s relevant?

The structural stability of the critical purpose, bridge. That’s the underlying risk that has been lingering for a while. The car doesn’t matter at all. It could have been any car that caused the bridge to collapse. It could have been a strong wind or a dog walking over the bridge. So, why does the media cover the car? Because it’s flashy, it’s dramatic, it’s a person (non-abstract), and it’s news that’s cheap to produce. As a result of news, we walk around with the completely wrong risk map in how education is important our head. Terrorism is overrated. Purpose Essay? Chronic stress is underrated.

The collapse of Lehman is overrated. Essays On Teaching In A Need School? Fiscal irresponsibility is underrated. Astronauts are overrated. Nurses are underrated. Britney Spears is overrated. IPCC Reports are underrated.

Airplane crashes are overrated. Critical Purpose? Resistance to antibiotics is underrated. We are not rational enough to be exposed to the press. How Education Is Important? It is a very dangerous thing, because the probabilistic mapping we get from critical consuming news is entirely different from the actual risks that we are exposed to. If you watch an airplane crash on news television, it’s going to change your attitude toward that risk regardless of its real probability, no matter your intellectual sophistication. If you think you can compensate this bias with the strength of your own inner contemplation, you are wrong. Bankers and economists – who have powerful incentives to compensate for egypt essay thesis, news-borne hazards – have shown that they cannot. The only solution: cut yourself off from news consumption entirely. Out of the approximately 10,000 news stories you have read in critical purpose the last 12 months, name one that – because you consumed it – allowed you to make a better decision affecting your life, your career, your business – compared to not having swallowed that piece of news. The point is: the consumption of about how education is important, news is irrelevant to the forces that really matter in purpose essay your life. At its best, it is how education entertaining, but it is still irrelevant.

Assume that, against all odds, you found one piece of news that substantially increased the quality of your life – compared to how your life would have unfolded if you hadn’t read or seen it. How much trivia did your brain have to critical purpose digest to get to that one relevant nugget? And that is a hindsight analysis. Looking forward, we can’t even identify the value of a piece of news before we see it. So we are forced to digest everything on the news buffet line. Is that worth it? Probably not. In 1914, Sarajevo was the news story that dwarfed all other news in terms of its significance that year by a factor of write security, a billion.

But, Sarajevo was just one of several thousand stories in circulation on critical purpose that day. No news organization treated it anything more than just another politically inspired assassination. How To Write Incident? The first Internet browser debuted in purpose essay 1995. Concert? That hugely relevant piece of software, which bore such important future impact, barely made it into the press. It’s very difficult for purpose, us to recognize what’s relevant . On Happiness? It’s much easier to recognize what’s new . We are not equipped with sensory organs for critical purpose essay, relevance. Relevance doesn’t come naturally. News does. That’s why the security report incident, media plays on the new. (If our minds were structured the other way round, the media would certainly play on purpose the relevant.) The relevant versus the new is the fundamental battle of the modern man. News creates a worldview that is not relevant to you.

What does relevance mean? It means: what is important to essay on happiness you personally. Purpose Essay? Relevance is a personal choice. Don’t take the media’s view for it. For the media, anything that sells lots of copies is relevant – Darfour, Paris Hilton, a train crash in China, some idiotic world record (someone who ate 78 cheese burgers in one hour). That is why the news industry has a swindle at the core of its business (this it shares with the circus performances, Freudian psychotherapy and essay is important, palm-reading).

It sells the relevant, but delivers the new. In short, it’s a camouflage industry. Media organizations want us to critical purpose essay believe that news offers some sort of descriptive of a concert, a competitive advantage. Many people fall for that. We get anxious when we’re cut off from the critical purpose, flow of news. We fear we’ve missed something important. On Happiness And Success? In reality, news consumption is a competitive disadvantage . The less news you consume the bigger the advantage you have over others.

Afraid you will miss “something important”? Believe me, if something really important happens, you will hear about purpose essay it, even if you try to live protected from the news in essay a cocoon. Purpose? Friends and essay on happiness and success, colleagues will tell you the relevant events far more reliably than any news organization. They will do this with the added benefit of meta-information, since you know how they think. Critical Purpose? If you don’t have friends, you will learn far more about really important events and societal shifts by reading about them in on teaching need specialized journals, in-depth magazines or good books. No 3 – News limits understanding.

News has no explanatory power. News items are little bubbles popping on the surface of critical, a deeper world. News organizations pride themselves on correctly reporting the facts, but the facts that they prize are just epiphenomena of how to report incident, deeper causes. Both news organizations and critical essay, news consumers mistake knowing a litany of facts for understanding the world. It’s not “news facts” that are important, but the threads that connect them. What we really want is to understand the underlying processes , how things happen. Unfortunately, precariously few news organizations manage to do this. The problem is that the underlying processes that govern significant social, political and environmental movements mostly are invisible. They are complex, non-linear and how to write report incident, hard for critical purpose essay, our (and the essay how education is important, journalists’) brains to digest. Why do news organizations go for the light stuff, the anecdotes, scandals, people-stories and pictures?

The answer is critical purpose simple: because they are cheaper to produce. The important stories are non-stories: slow, powerful movements that develop below the journalists’ radar but have a transforming effect. Most people believe that more information makes for write security, better decisions. Essay? News organizations support this belief. Hell, it’s in their own interest. Will the accumulation of facts help you understanding the world? Sadly, no. The relationship is actually inverted.

The more “news factoids” you digest, the less of the big picture you will understand. There is no evidence that information junkies are better decision makers. They are certainly not more successful than the average Joe. If more information leads to higher economic success we would expect journalists to be on top of the pyramid. That’s not the essay, case. Quite to the contrary. We don’t know what makes people successful, but amassing information is certainly not part of it. Reading news to essay understand the world is worse than not reading anything . What’s best: cut yourself off from write security report incident daily news consumption entirely. Read books and critical purpose, thoughtful journals instead of gulping headlines.

No 4 – News is toxic to your body. News constantly triggers the write report, limbic system. They spur the release of cascades of glucocordicoid (cortisol). This deregulates your immune system and inhibits the release of growth hormones. In other words, your body finds itself in a state of chronic stress. Critical Purpose? The effects of high glucocordicoid levels are impaired digestion, lack of growth (cell, hair, bone), nervousness and susceptibility to infections.

News consumers risk impairing their physical health. The other potential effects of news include fear, aggression, tunnel thinking and desensitization. No 5 – News is toxic for societies. First, the tendency to personalize and politicize the essay, news has a polarizing impact on democracy. Critical Purpose? Media users fall into increasingly targeted, narrowcast streams of information and, therefore, become less likely to encounter input that challenges their partisan views.

Second, humankind is susceptible to fads, hypes and hysterias. News leads to collective neurosis. As a matter of fact, every large-scale collective neurosis has been driven by news . There is no other way to generate one. Third, stories portraying acts of violence have an inordinately negative impact at how to write many levels. Psychological scars – induced by purpose, chronic stress, horrifying images and traumatic memories – do not heal easily. News adds to health costs.

No 6 – News massively increase cognitive errors. News feeds the mother of all cognitive errors: confirmation bias . We automatically, systematically filter out evidence that contradicts our preconceptions in favor of confirming evidence. In the words of Warren Buffett: “What the essays in a high, human being is critical best at doing, is interpreting all new information so that their prior conclusions remain intact.” That is the confirmation bias. News consumption, especially the ability to customize our news intake, exacerbates this human flaw. The result is that we walk around in a cloud of write, seemingly confirming data – even when our theories about ourselves and the world may be wrong. We become prone to overconfidence, take stupid risks and misjudge opportunities . News not only feeds the purpose, confirmation bias. Essays On Teaching? There is another cognitive error at play: the story bias . Our brains crave stories that “make sense” – even if they don’t correspond to critical purpose reality.

And news organizations are happy to deliver those fake stories. Instead of just reporting that the stock market declined (or increased) by 2%, they say “the market declined by how to report incident, 2% because of critical purpose essay, X ”. X can be a bank profit forecast, fear about the Euro, non-farm payroll statistics, a Fed decision, a terrorist attack in Madrid, a subway strike in New York, a handshake between two presidents, anything, really. This reminds me of how to a scientific paper discussion section, high school. My text book specified seven reasons (not six, not eight) why the critical purpose, French Revolution broke out. Fact is, we don’t know why the French Revolution broke out. And especially not why in 1789. Essay On Happiness And Success? And we don’t know why the stock market moved as it moved. Essay? There are just too many factors that go into it. We don’t know why an airplane crashed or why the oil price jumped. We don’t know. Any journalist who writes “the market moved because of X ” or “the company went bankrupt because of Y ” is an idiot.

Of course, X might have had a casual influence, but it’s far from established, and there are most likely influences that are much greater than X. To a large degree, news reports consist of nothing but stories and anecdotes that end up substituting for about, coherent analyses. I am fed up with this cheap way of “explaining” the world. Critical Essay? It’s inappropriate. It’s irrational. It’s forgery. And I don’t let my thinking get contaminated by it. No 7 – News inhibits thinking.

Thinking requires concentration. Concentration requires uninterrupted time. News items are like free-floating radicals that interfere with clear thinking. News pieces are specifically engineered to of a concert interrupt you. They are like viruses that steal attention for their own purposes.

This is not about stealing time (see reason 9). This is about the inability to think clearly when you open up yourself to critical the factoid stream. News makes us into shallow thinkers . Security Report? But it’s worse than that. News severely affects memory . »The passageway from working memory to long-term memory forms a bottleneck in our brain. While the long-term memory has an almost unlimited capacity, working memory can hold only a relatively small amount of information at critical essay a time (try repeating a 10-digit phone number if you hear it for the first time). That short-term storage is fragile: A break in our attention can sweep its contents from our mind.« Because news disrupts concentration, it actively weakens comprehension. You don’t visit Paris or speed through the Museum of Modern Art in two minutes. Why not? Because the how to a scientific paper section, brain needs spool-up time.

Building up concentration takes a minimum of critical, a 10-minute read. Egypt Essay? At minimum. If it is critical less, your brain will processes the information superficially and essays on teaching in a high need school, barely store it. News pieces are like wind hitting your cheek. Ask yourself: What are the top twenty news pieces from purpose essay a month ago (that are no longer in the news today). So, why would you want to consume something that doesn’t stick?

Even worse with online news. In a 2001 study[1] two scholars in descriptive concert Canada showed that the comprehension declines as hyperlinks in a document increase. Why? Because whenever a link appears, your brain has to at least make the choice not to click, which itself is distracting. News consumers are suckers for irrelevancy . Online news consumers are the biggest suckers. News is an interruption system.

It seizes our attention only to scramble it. Besides a lack of glucose in purpose essay your blood stream, news distraction is the biggest limitation on clear thinking. No 8 – News changes the structure of a scientific discussion, your brain. News works like a drug. It feeds compulsive information-seeking behavior (CISB). Purpose Essay? The uninterrupted supply makes us crave more.

As stories develop, we naturally want to know how they continue. With hundreds of arbitrary story lines in our heads, this craving is increasingly compelling and hard to ignore. Why is news addictive? Once you get into the habit of checking the news, you are driven to check it even more often. Your attention is set on fast-breaking events, so you hunger for more data about them. This has to do with a process called long-term potentiation (LTP) and the reward circuits in your brain. Addicts seek more of an essay about how education is important, addictive substance to purpose essay get their fix, because they need more stimulation than non-addicts to reach a satisfying reward threshold.

If you set your attention on in a other things – like literature, science, art, history, cooking, pet grooming, whatever – you will become more focused on those things. That’s just how the brain works. It’s a simple cognitive process. People used to think that our brain, the essay, dense connections formed among the 100 billion neurons inside our skulls, was largely fixed by the time we reached adulthood. Today we know that this is not the case. The human brain is highly plastic. Nerve cells routinely break old connections and form new ones. When we adapt to a new cultural phenomenon, including the write section, consumption of essay, news, we end up with a different brain. Adaptation to news occurs at a biological level.

News reprograms us. That means our brain works differently even when we’re not consuming news . And that’s dangerous. The more news we consume, the more we are exercising the neural circuits devoted to skimming and how to report incident, multitasking while ignoring those used for reading and purpose essay, thinking deeply. Most news consumers – even if they used to write paper be avid book readers – have lost the ability to read and absorb longish articles or books . After four, five pages they get tired, their concentration vanishes, they become restless. It’s not because they got older or their time schedules got denser. Critical? It’s because the descriptive of a concert, physical structure of their brains has changed.

In the words of Professor Michael Merzenich (University of California, San Francisco), a pioneer in the field of neuroplasticity: “We are training our brains to pay attention to the crap.” Hear me: Deep reading is indistinguishable from deep thinking . When you consume news, your brain structurally changes. Critical Purpose Essay? And this means that the way you think changes. Regaining the capacity for how to write incident, concentration and contemplation will take nothing but a radical news diet. News wastes time. It exacts exorbitant costs. News taxes productivity three ways. First, count the consumption-time that news demands.

That’s the essay, time you actually waste reading or watching the news. Second, tally up the refocusing time – or switching cost. That’s the time you waste trying to how to write security report incident get back to what you were doing before the news interrupted you. You have to collect your thoughts. What were you about to purpose essay do?

Every time you disrupt your work to check the news, reorienting yourself could easily waste minutes. Third, news distracts us even hours after we’ve digested today’s hot items. Essays High Need School? News stories and images pop into our minds hours, sometimes days later and essay, will constantly interrupt your train of thought. Write Discussion? Why would you want to do that to you? If you read the newspaper for 15 minutes each morning, then check the news for 15 minutes during lunch and 15 minutes before you go to purpose bed, you’re eating up substantial time.

Then, add five minutes here and there when you’re at write report work, plus distraction and refocusing-time. You will lose productive hours totaling at least half a day every week . Half a day – and for what? On a global level, the loss in potential productivity is huge. Take the critical purpose essay, 2008 terror attacks in essay about Mumbai, where terrorists murdered some 200 people in critical purpose essay an act of chilling exhibitionism. Imagine that a billion people devoted, on average, one hour of their attention to the Mumbai tragedy: following the news, watching some talking head on TV, thinking about essay about how education is important it. The number is a wild guess, but the guess is far from a wild number. Critical Essay? There are more than a billion people in India alone. Many there spent whole days following the drama.

One billion people times one hour is egypt one billion hours, which is more than 100,000 years. The global average life expectancy is today 66 years. So nearly 2,000 lives were swallowed by news consumption . It’s far more than the number of people murdered, by any standards. In a sense, the newscasters became unwilling bedfellows of the terrorists. Information is no longer a scarce commodity. But attention is. Why give it away so easily? You are not that irresponsible with your money, your reputation or your health. Purpose Essay? Why then give away your mind? No 10 – News sunders the essay and success, relationship between reputation and achievement.

Individual reputation affects how people cooperate in society. In our ancestral past, a person’s reputation was directly linked to his or her achievements. You saw that your fellow tribe member killed a tiger single handedly and you spread word of his bravery. With the advent of mass-produced news, the strange concept of “fame” entered our society. Fame is misleading because generally people become famous for reasons that have little relevance to our lives . The media grants fame to movie stars and purpose essay, news anchors for scant reason. How To A Scientific Section? News sunders the relationship between reputation and achievement.

The tragedy is that their notoriety crowds out the achievements of those who make more substantive contributions. No 11 – News is produced by journalists. Some journalists take time with their stories and try to think things through. But like any profession, and probably more so than in any other profession, journalism has its incompetent, unfair practitioners who don’t have the time – or the capacity – for deep analysis. Often, they are paid by the piece, the line, or the word. Purpose? You might not be able to tell the difference between a polished professional and a rushed, glib, paid-by-the-piece writer with an ax to grind. It all looks like news. Fewer than ten percent of the news stories are original. Fewer than one percent are truly investigative.

And only once every fifty years journalists uncover a Watergate. The rest is cobbled together from other news reports, common knowledge and essay about, whatever the journalist can find on the internet. Many journalists, in their rushed schedule, blindly copy from each other. Critical Purpose Essay? The copying and the copying of the copies not only multiplies the flaws in the stories but also the irrelevance. No 12 – Reported facts are sometimes wrong, forecasts always.

Sometimes, reported facts are simply mistaken. With reduced editorial budgets at essay of a major publications, fact checking may be an endangered step in essay the news process. The New Yorker Magazine was legendary for their fact checking. How To Write? When an article mentioned the Empire State Building, the fact checking department would go out and visually verify that, in fact, the building was still standing. I don’t know if the story is true, but it highlights a point. Today, the fact checker has become an endangered species in most news companies.

Many news stories include predictions, but accurately predicting anything in critical purpose our complex world is impossible. Overwhelming evidence indicates that forecasts by journalists and by experts in finance, social development, global conflicts and technology are almost always completely wrong. So, why consume that junk? Did the newspapers predict World War I, the about how education, Great Depression, the sexual revolution, the fall of the Soviet empire, the critical, rise of the Internet, resistance to antibiotics, the fall of Europe’s birth rate or the explosion in depression cases? Maybe, you’d find one or two correct predictions in essay on happiness a sea of purpose, millions of mistaken ones. Incorrect forecast are not only essay on happiness, useless, they are harmful . To increase the accuracy of your predictions, cut out the purpose essay, news and roll the dice or. If you are ready for depth, read books to essay of a concert understand the invisible generators that affect our world. No 13 – News is critical essay manipulative.

News is the perfect Trojan horse. Few bits of news arrive without a hidden agenda, and many news stories crop up with big obvious agendas. Our evolutionary past has equipped us with a good bullshit detector for write a scientific paper section, face-to-face interactions. We automatically use many clues to detect manipulation, clues that go beyond the verbal message and critical, include gesture, facial expression, signs of nervousness such as sweaty palms, blushing and body odor. Living in small bands of people, we almost always knew the background of the messenger. Information always came with a rich set of descriptive of a concert, meta data. Today, even conscientious readers find that distinguishing even-handed news stories from ones that have a private agenda is difficult and critical purpose essay, energy consuming. A Scientific Discussion? Why go through that? Reporting is biased. Stories are selected or slanted to please advertisers (advertising bias) or the owners of the media (corporate bias), and here is a tendency to report what everyone else is reporting, and to purpose essay avoid stories that will offend anyone (mainstream bias).

The PR industry is how to a scientific discussion section as large as the news reporting industry – the best proof that journalists and news organizations can be manipulated. Essay? Corporations, interest groups and report, other organizations would not expend these huge sums if PR didn’t work. If journalists with their natural skepticism towards powerful organizations can be manipulated, what makes you think you can escape it? Take the critical, Nurse Nayirah story. Nayirah was a fifteen-year-old Kuwaiti girl, who alleged that she had witnessed the murder of infant children by Iraqi soldiers in Kuwait, in verbal testimony to the U.S. On Happiness And Success? Congress, in the run up to the 1991 Gulf War. Virtually every media outlet covered the story. The U.S. public was in critical essay rage, which in turn pushed the congress closer to approving the war.

Her testimony, which was regarded as credible at the time by essays in a, all the media outlets, has since come to be regarded as wartime propaganda. Look back over the 20 th century and purpose, ask yourself how many atrocities could have been prevented if the majority of people would have followed a simple news diet. It’s a wild thought. There is more: Journalism shapes a common picture of the world and how to a scientific paper, a common set of narratives for discussing it. It sets the critical essay, public agenda. Hold on: do we really want the newsmakers to influence the public agenda? I believe that agenda setting by descriptive essay of a, the media is essay just bad democracy. No 14 – News makes us passive. News stories are overwhelmingly about things you cannot influence. This sets readers up to have a fatalistic outlook on the world. Compare this with our ancestral past, where you could act upon practically every bit of how to security incident, news.

Our evolutionary past prepared us to critical essay act on information, but the daily repetition of news about essays on teaching in a things we can’t act upon makes us passive. It zaps our energy. It grinds us down until we adopt a worldview that is critical purpose pessimistic, desensitized, sarcastic and write incident, fatalistic. If the human brain encounters a barrage of ambiguous information without being able to act upon purpose, that information, it can lead to passivity and a sense of how to paper, victimhood. The scientific term is critical purpose learned helplessness . It’s a bit of a stretch, but I would not be surprised if news consumption at least partially contributes to the widespread disease of depression. Viewed on a timeline, the spread of depression coincides almost perfectly with the growth and maturity of the mass media.

It could turn out to a scientific section be a coincidence, and I am skeptical about critical essay this type of conjecture, but I don’t want to leave it unmentioned. 15 – News gives us the illusion of caring. Kathleen Norris (even if I don’t share most of her ideas) said it best: “We may want to believe that we are still concerned, as our eyes drift from a news anchor announcing the latest atrocity to paper the NBA scores and stock market quotes streaming across the bottom of the screen. But the ceaseless bombardment of purpose essay, image and verbiage makes us impervious to caring.” News wraps us in a warm global feeling. We are all world citizens.

We are all connected. Egypt Essay Thesis? The planet is just one global village. Purpose Essay? We sing the “We-are-the-World” song and wave the little flame of our lighters in perfect harmony with thousands of others. And Success? It’s a glowing and critical essay, fuzzy feeling that delivers the illusion of care but doesn’t get us anywhere. Essay? I haven’t had the time to put my finger on it, but this allure for anything global smells like a gigantic chimera . Like a religion. Fact is, we are not connected because we consume news. We are connected because we trade. No 16 – News kills creativity. Things we already know severely impact creativity. This is critical essay one reason why mathematicians, novelists, composers or entrepreneurs produce their most creative works at a young age. They are oblivious to much that has been tried before.

Their brains enjoy a wide, uninhabited space that allows them to come up with novel ideas. I don’t know a single truly creative mind who is a news junkie – not a writer, not a composer, mathematician, physician, scientist, musician, designer, architect or painter. On the other hand, I know a whole bunch of viciously uncreative minds who consume news like drugs. The creativity-killing effect of news might also be owned to something simpler we’ve discussed before: distraction. I just can’t imagine producing novel ideas with the and success, distraction that news is sure to essay deliver. If you want to come up with old solutions, read news. If you are looking for new solutions, don’t read news. Go without news. Cut it out completely. How Education? Go cold turkey. Make news as inaccessible as possible.

Delete the news apps from your iPhone. Sell your TV. Cancel your newspaper subscriptions. Do not pick up newspapers and magazines that lie around in airports and train stations. Critical? Do not set the how to security report, browser default to a news site. Pick a site that never changes. The more stale the better. Delete all news sites from critical essay your browser’s favorites list. Delete the news widgets from your desktop. If you want to keep the illusion of “not missing anything important”, I suggest you glance through the summary page of the Economist once a week. Security Report? Don’t waste more than five minutes on it.

Read magazines and books which explain the world – Science, Nature, The New Yorker, The Atlantic Monthly. Go for magazines that connect the dots and don’t shy away from presenting the complexities of life – or from purely entertaining you. The world is critical purpose complicated, and there is nothing we can do about it. How To Write Report Incident? So, you must read longish and essay, deep articles and books that represent its complexity. Try reading a book a week. Better two or three. History is good. Biology. Psychology. That way you’ll learn to understand the underlying mechanisms of the world.

Go deep instead of broad. Enjoy material that truly interests you. Have fun reading. The first week will be the hardest. Deciding not to check the news while you are thinking, writing or reading takes discipline. You are fighting your brain’s built-in tendency. Initially, you will feel out of touch or even socially isolated. Every day you will be tempted to security incident check your favorite news Web site. Don’t do it. Stick to the cold-turkey plan.

Go 30 days without news. After 30 days, you will have a more relaxed attitude toward the critical, news. You will find that you have more time, more concentration and a better understanding of the world. After a while, you will realize that despite your personal news blackout, you have not missed – and you’re not going to miss – any important facts. If some bit of information is descriptive essay concert truly important to your profession, your company, your family or your community, you will hear it in time – from purpose essay your friends, your mother in law or whoever you talk to or see. When you are with your friends, ask them if anything important is happening in the world. The question is a great conversation starter. Essay And Success? Most of the time, the answer will be: “not really.” Are you afraid that living a news-free existence will make you an outcast at critical purpose parties? Well, you might not know that Paris Hilton is in jail (I don’t know, I am making this up), but you will have more intelligent facts to share – about the cultural meaning of the food you are eating or the how to, discovery of exosolar planets.

Never be shy about your news diet. People will be fascinated. Society needs journalism – but in a different way. Investigative journalism is relevant in purpose any society. On Happiness And Success? We need more hard-core journalists digging into meaningful stories.

We need reporting that polices our society and critical, uncovers the truth. The best example is Watergate. But important findings don’t have to arrive in the form of news. Often, reporting is not time sensitive. Longish journal articles and books are fine forums for investigative journalism – and essay thesis, now that you’ve gone cold turkey on the news, you’ll have time to read them. ? Imaginary Interview with Rolf Dobelli. No news, period. That sounds fundamentalist. “Don’t smoke” used to sound fundamentalist. Today, everybody understands it. “Don’t eat sugar in mass quantities because it’s toxic.” Does that sound fundamentalist? It just makes plain sense. “Don’t do news” might sound fundamentalist today, but there will come a time when this will sound as reasonable as “don’t do opium” or “use protection when you sleep with strangers.”

You say: “The relevant versus the new is the fundamental battle of the critical, modern man.” That’s too great of a claim to be taken seriously. I consider it the most fundamental distinction in today’s world. It certainly is the most important one in my life. News organizations promise to sell knowledge and insights, but deliver something way more shallow. In other realms we call this a scam. Essay About? It’s time to critical recognize this. It’s time to strip the news from the aura of relevance. News is one thing.

Relevance is something different. At times, there is an overlap – small and fragile. At most times, new and relevant things are at opposite ends. Of course, the media is paper discussion section trying hard to maintain the aura of relevance. In TV they do this with impressive trailers and essay, sounds that come before and how to write a scientific, after the news – showing airplanes landing, rockets blasting off, presidents shaking hands. The relevant versus the new : No dichotomy is more important in critical essay my life. If I had to transpose Plato’s cave story into today’s times, the shadows on the wall are the news pieces, but the real things invisible to the cave prisoner is the relevant . Now, I am not saying you should strive for relevance at a scientific paper discussion day and night. That would be a horrible life. It would be sort of a Calvinist mental prison. No, be frivolous, enjoy life, party, do the crazy, the useless – even the novel.

But do it on purpose the things that don’t matter. On the big things in life (health, career, relationships, your retirement money), stick to the relevant. It’s better to know something than not. Agree. But information is not knowledge. Facts are not understanding.

News organizations support the belief that more information makes for better decisions. They do this, because it’s in their own interest. Assume you are in charge of a big business unit. How much would you pay to descriptive essay of a know everything private about your employees, everything? Most people would propose a positive amount. I propose a negative amount. Knowing my subordinates’ political views, treatment of their children, neurotic symptoms, experiences, dreams and affairs would bias my evaluation of their performance.

This would ultimately hurt both the critical essay, organization and of a, me. Critical Purpose Essay? Often, less information is more. Isn’t it inhumane not to care about Haiti? Your shtick feels pretty cold. Is it inhumane not to on teaching in a high need school care about critical horrific things happening on other planets? The point is: You can’t care about everything in on happiness the universe, on the earth, in purpose your country, not even in your city. Nor should you. Where is the compassion? Let me state this even stronger: Caring without action it inhumane. Essay? It gives us the illusion of purpose, making the world a better place.

Truth is, we do it for and success, us. We revel in critical essay the marinade of caring. On Teaching In A High Need School? What does it change? It makes us feel good (humane if you like) but doesn’t help a thing. I don’t care about people who care. Empathy – if it remains empathy – is useless. I deeply care about critical purpose people who help.

So, let me rephrase. Isn’t it inhumane not to help Haiti – if you don’t even know about it, if you cover your eyes from of a it. The measure of your humanity is a how effective your help is going to be. With your means and skills, where can you do the most good? It might be on a global issue, but then again, it might not be. Most likely it will be on essay a local issue where you will be most effective (because you know the problem more intimately, you have a network of people to egypt essay thesis recruit from, and a more direct feedback on your efforts).

So, the first decision for you as a humanitarian is: at which problem am I most effective? Wasting your money and skills is not morally corrupt, but it is critical not very intelligent either. There is essays on teaching in a need a second thing: Fighting fires – in most cases – is less effective than prevention. The curse of prevention is that it doesn’t generate many brownie points. The people who eradicated polio are heroes, but they didn’t get much visibility.

Imagine a person in the 1980’s convincing the FAA to put locks on airplane doors thus preventing a potential act of terrorism. He would have been laughed at – by the FAA, the airlines (who would have had to carry the cost) and the pilot unions (for complicating their lives). Assume, he would indeed have prevented 9-11. How would we know about it? We wouldn’t. And consequently, there would be no presidential medal for the guy. Not award. On the other hand, rescue workers who rescue a baby under rubbles will get many more brownie points.

That’s why I am in favor of giving a Nobel Prize for prevention. But still, that’s a pretty cold view. Assume the planet Earth had double the critical purpose essay, diameter. Essay About How Education? That would make the surface four times as large. Assume four times the number of continents, countries and people. Four times the number of airplane crashes, volcano eruptions and earthquakes. Do you think the purpose, newspapers and magazines would be four times the size? No, because you still only have 24 hours in how to security a day and besides consuming news there are other things to do. The media would just cover less. Just like you shouldn’t care about everything, the media shouldn’t care about everything.

I am sure there is a lot of purpose, relevant stuff happening on other planets. I am sure there are bigger problems on other planets. For some reason we accept the fact that those things are not important. What is relevance? Ah, that’s the great freedom! Relevance is a personal choice. Many people forget that. I consider it more fundamental than the freedom of speech.

Deciding in the face of the media barrage that the earthquake in Haiti (to take just one example) is not relevant to how to security me – that is freedom! If I had to critical purpose essay put together my personal Economist edition, what would it look like? This: A report on my PSA value – embedded in an investigation about my physical and write a scientific paper discussion section, mental health status. A status report on the illness of my father. Critical Essay? The school grades of my children (if I had any). Of A? The states of my friends. The noise around my house and what do to critical essay about it. A renovation project in essay on happiness the kitchen. Vacation plans. An email exchange with a brain researcher in Shanghai. My plans for the next novel.

A talk I heard today that gave me a great insight. The question if this paper will resonate with others. What’s relevant to critical essay me has absolutely nothing to do with what’s on the global news radar. However, when people read “global news” they automatically assume that this is the relevant stuff. It’s not. That takes courage.

Don’t feel bad if 99% of the on teaching, people deem something relevant and you don’t. Relevance is a personal choice. Is global warming relevant? Only if the survival of our species (and other vertebrates) is close to your heart. It is for me.

But it doesn’t have to critical essay be so. You have the and success, freedom to make this an unimportant topic to you. You can say: As long as bacteria survive, higher-order life will develop again on essay the planet. It might take a billion or so years. But in the long-term it is conceivable that there will be consciousness again. And for write security, the large gap in between, those billion years – nobody will care, because there will be no consciousness to essay record it.

So, who cares? That’s a perfectly rational argument. Seriously, you never check news? I try not to endulge. Sometimes I do research on a topic and I land on a news site. How Education Is Important? Then it’s very hard not to scan the headlines. Even for critical essay, twenty seconds. And then you feel guilty? No, but it confirms every time that looking at news is a waste of how to write security, time.

Then I am pissed at critical purpose me. You’d put less stress on you with a more loose policy. True but the news will suck you in. It is about how education is important a drug. You can’t be a casual pot smoker. You can be a casual alcohol drinker. True, but the consumption barriers are much higher. Critical Purpose Essay? You have to how to write security incident do the critical purpose, effort to how to a scientific discussion section buy it and purpose essay, it costs money.

If you are in essays high need school a relationship you have to hide the bottles and get rid of the empty ones as quickly as possible. That’s work. Critical Essay? With news you don’t have that. News is everywhere, it slips into your consciousness automatically, and it’s free. Write Security? No hurdle. Critical Essay? That’s why you want to be extremely careful.

Also, the damage you get as a news addict is more severe than that as an alcohol addict. It’s not that news works like a drug. Essays School? It is a drug . And we are addicted to it. Opium was used as a legitimate pain relief drug in many civilizations over purpose essay the past 5,000 years. In the 17 th and 18 th centuries it became a mass addiction that destroyed entire peoples and report, economies. News used to be a legitimate source of purpose essay, trading information over the past 5,000 years. Write Incident? Today, it has become a mass addiction with dire consequences.

News consumption is a big global mania. We don’t realize it because everybody around us is doing it. Just as people in the 13 th century didn’t realize how idiotic it was to go on essay crusades or to witch-hunt. News is just one of these global manias. In a hundred years from now we will look back and say: “What in the hell were these people doing?” You had the idea for getAbstract, a company that summarizes books.

That sounds pretty much like a “news” service. I believe that the most relevant information can be found in books. Egypt Essay? Our book summaries are five pages long. That’s longer than most New Yorker or Atlantic Monthly articles. Critical? In five pages you can convey a lot of depth. But you have a point. I would not dare to write one-page book summaries, because you’d lose the depth. A one-page book summary would not be anything more than a table of contents.

So, with five pages I feel pretty good. Even then, there are many books we can’t capture the complexity of the descriptive, subject. In those cases, I suggest you read the summary first, then the entire book. People worry about the critical, stock market. It’s their hard-earned money after all. They have their retirement tied up in the market. On Happiness And Success? Isn’t it prudent if these people check the news relevant to their portfolio? No, it doesn’t make sense.

First, news will be irrelevant in 9,999 out of 10,000 cases. Second, if you find a relevant piece of news, it will be too late to react. Better to understand the long-term generators of the critical purpose, world. Then build a sensible investment strategy around those forces. News are just irrelevant trickles. Unless you are a professional trader who trades on momentum, you should leave news stories aside for write, investment decisions. But what really surprises me is essay how often people worry about the essays on teaching, stock market.

They spend hours every week analyzing the market – but they spend not a minute trying to reduce their smoking or their chronic stress. Then they fall sick and suddenly nothing else matters in their lives. When it comes to the stock market, people are unreasonably concerned with it. They have a wrong risk map in their heads. When you are dead, nothing else matters. When you are sick, nothing else matters. Not even the critical, stock market. All I am saying is this: news distorts your risk map, and that’s dangerous. So, the solution could be to have a good news filter. If you can delegate it to your personal assistant, great.

He or she might present to you the one news story per week that could have a bearing on your life. But most of us don’t have a personal assistant. We are facing the onslaught of news ourselves. The moment we start filtering news, we are consuming news. There’s just no other way. That’s why you better just stay away from it completely. You suck the fun out of life!

I want you to be aware of the risks. If you treat reading newspapers as a purely entertaining activity, then go for it. As long as you know it’s entertainment. For example, when you go to the movies, you know it’s entertainment. If you read a novel, you know it’s entertainment. But if you look at essays on teaching in a need the picture of two presidents shaking hands on critical the other side of the globe, I don’t believe you can make that distinction. Essay? There is an automatic response to news that tells you that is it something important (even if it is not), and I seriously doubt that anyone can override that reaction. Critical? By all means, have fun. But there are a million things that are more fun (and less dangerous) than surfing news websites. When did you first recognize the dangers of news consumption? I met Nassim Taleb in 2003, and we became friends.

We’ve since talked a lot about the dangers of news and how to write security, how news distorts your risk map. I realized how mindful he dealt with his news intake. He made me conscious of the subject. Critical Purpose Essay? I then started practicing the news diet and essays in a, experienced the critical, advantages. Essay How Education Is Important? And now I am happy to tell everybody who wants to listen.

But I am not proselytizing. After all the slashing and critical purpose essay, burning: What would you tell someone who wants to essay of a become a journalist after all? I think there will be no more journalists per se . The romantic notion of reporting anything from anywhere is dead. You will have two choices. A: You will be an editor of news pieces – basically paraphrasing what comes down the wire or what’s cheaply delivered to your doorstep (by press releases, blogs, others news sites, local gossip).

A horrendous way of essay, wasting your life. You’ll be slaving away in a newsroom, churning out twenty irrelevant articles per write a scientific paper discussion section, day. It’s a commodity job and critical, it pays near minimum wage. B: You will become an investigative journalist in a particular field. There are two propositions here: investigative and particular field . Let me clarify. Investigative means that you really have the balls to uncover the concert, truth.

You become a secret agent of sorts. And you better get those skills under your belt. Journalism school will not teach you that. Go and do a stint at critical a police station. Work some time as an industrial spy. How To Write Security? Master that craft. Second: You need to be deeply proficient in one particular area – be it politics, business, science, art, whatever. Study that area. And get experience. Don’t go to journalism school before you’ve worked in your particular field.

Learning to write prose is the easy part – the “investigative” and critical essay, “particular field” are much more important. Don’t expect to how to report incident uncover a Watergate. The odds are stacked against critical, you. We haven’t seen another Watergate in forty years. Technically, you have a higher chance of becoming the next U.S. president than the next Bob Woodward. Still, there are smaller Watergates to uncover – and they need to how to write discussion section be uncovered. If you have the courage and the skills, go for it. These jobs are few and far between.

Most news organizations have cut these positions completely. Don’t hire with one of these firms, since you will be on the straight path to newsroom slave. So, there will be no more space for a “general journalist”. I could be wrong, of critical purpose, course. But that’s the best of descriptive of a concert, my knowledge at this point. You make journalists out to be bad people.

It’s like saying: The ship ran on purpose essay a sand bank therefore the sailors are bad people. No. I have many friends who are journalists, editors or chief editors. They are some of the most brilliant people I know. Problem is: They happen to be imprisoned in an industry that just doesn’t make any sense.

Juggling news doesn’t make sense. News is dead for me, and I hope it will be dead for many people soon. If the publishing industry would change its mission to discussion “uncovering truth and creating knowledge”, these people would enjoy the most amazing careers. You mention that news doesn’t stick in the brain. Worse with online news, because the purpose, hyperlinks distract the reader.

How about multimedia? That should make news stick, right? Wrong. Essays On Teaching? »In a study in purpose essay the journal Media Psychology, researchers had more than 100 volunteers watch a presentation about the country of Mali, played through a Web browser. Some watched a text-only version. Others watched a version that incorporated video. Descriptive Essay? Afterward, the subjects where quizzed on the material.

Compared to the multimedia viewers, the text-only viewers answered significantly more questions correctly; they also found the presentation to be more interesting, more educational and critical purpose, more understandable.« How do you go for the relevant stuff? Be an active information consumer. Have a clear question to answer (a hypothesis about the world), then dig in and find confirming and disconfirming evidence. Look especially for disconfirming evidence. Don’t rely on low-cost information like news. In the words of Nassim Taleb: It is descriptive a very recent disease to mistake the unobservable for the nonexistent. If something is relevant to you , develop an essay, active research strategy, not a passive one. Don’t fall for media reports because of their low cost. Go out there and interview people who know.

Talk to CEOs, employees, customers, researchers, proponents and critics. Read books. Read textbooks. Read deep articles. Study research papers. Don’t be a passive information consumer who just picks up whatever floats by him.

Get your hands dirty. How To Write Security Report? But – for chrissake – stop consuming news. ? The above statements reflect the most truthful viewpoint I can achieve at critical purpose the time of this writing. I reserve the right to on teaching in a school revise my views at any time. I might even indulge in the freedom of contradicting myself. I have done so in the past and will most certainly do so in the future.

The only reason I would change my views (a switch which would undoubtedly be noticed by the “consistency police” – usually journalists with good high-school degrees) is because the new version is closer to critical purpose the truth, not ever because I would gain any personal advantage. [1] Nicholas Carr: The Web Shatters Focus, Rewires Brains, Wired, May 2010.