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DTE Energy Sr. Easy Vacations. SAP ABAP/4 SRM Consultant. April 2007 -- Nov 2007. SAP SRM, XI 3.0 SAP R/3. Interface -- ALE, IDoc BAPI. • Part of Capability Development team SAP SRM 4.0 wherein was involved in master data setup; understanding and thesis deploying the business process flow in PDP and easy essay Sourcing scenario. • SRM Centralized Contract Management (Contract Data distibution in national backends systems). • Sales Order Create (Inbound: Message type ORDERS) -- When a Order is topic sentence paper placed in the Web; Tibco receives the data in a flat file and convert it into IDoc format. The IDoc is send to SAP to easy on summer, create sales order in transaction VA01. The below customizing has been done in the inbound Interface.
• Basic type ORDERS05 has been extended to accommodate extra data points (Shipping type, Credit card CVV, Encryption scheme key, Tax Exempt ID and Customer /Seller Email ID) • Check for customer number existing in SAP. If the customer is new, call BAPI function module “BAPI_CUSTOMER_CREATEFROMDATA1” to create a customer and assign the newly created customer number to dissertation, structure DXVBAK of enhancement VEDA001. Easy Essay On Summer. For an existing customer call BAPI function module “BAPI_CUSTOMER_CHANGEFROMDATA1” to essay of dental, change the address. • Adding new catalogs and on summer functionality, Approval hierarchies, Workflow, IDOC s, and interfaces to SAP R/3. Guarantee methodologies and retrolisthesis tools integration and feedback for enhancements. • SAP R/3 MM Procurement (Release 4.7 or higher) with respect to requisitions and purchase orders and their respective release strategies and interaction with R/3 A/P (Req-to-Pay Process). • Design and development of outbound and inbound interface programs for creating PO, Contracts in SRM system once the Inbound IDOC is triggered and in on summer turn data is journal of economic essays replicate R/3 system.
It is end to end data transfer from Non-SAP system to SRM and then to SAP R/3 system. • SAP BC and easy vacations XI communications protocol, utilizing XML or EDI and ALE for data exchanges and Digital Certificates in a B2B e-procurement environment. • Good communication skills to provide first line end-user support, resolving day-to-day issues, in addition to performing system upgrades/enhancements, and configuring new functionality and business processes. • System Study and Requirement specification including complete data inputs, end-user requirements, reporting format finalization, design of various reports. Coding, testing implementation. Assist the phd thesis operators / end -users for day-to-day operations problems. • (SAP s E-Procurement Software). SRM 5.0 configured in Classic Scenario posting to R/3 4.7 Enterprise. • Centralized Contract Management in SAP SRM (Global Outline Agreements distribution in R/3 backbends and central contracts in SRM Server) Environment: SAP ECC 6.0, ABAP/4, SRM, SD, FI and on summer MM.
Barnes Nobles SAP XI ABAP/4 development consultant Jan 2006 to March 2007. SAP XI 3.0, SAP R/3 SRM. • The project included SAP R/3 backend integration, online cataloging, and partner integration. XML was used as the data format and the Internet as the transportation medium. • Supply relationship management (SRM) software with several enhancements, including live auctions and supplier portals.
• Design and development of outbound and inbound interface programs to thesis in linguistics, third party systems using Intermediate Documents (IDoc) and Application link Enabling (ALE) tools. Application integration was done using both synchronous asynchronous communications. • Hands on SAP interface work included BAPI, IDoc, ALE config, user exit, custom RFC primarily in on summer PP, PP-PI MM modules (version 4.6C). • Involved in SAP XI implementation 3.0 in quarterly SRM MM, Modules. Designed and developed XI interfaces, defining Integration processes in BPM and essay on summer vacations developed complex multi-mapping programs utilizing XI (3.0) Integration Builder. • Involved in the configuration of SLD by creating software components, technical systems and business systems, creating message interfaces, message mapping, activating and testing of Integration Repository objects. • Involved in configuring Sender adapters, Receiver adapters, Sender agreement, Receiver agreement, Receiver determination and Interface determination in of economic Integration Directory. • Extensive experience in XI adapters (File, IDOC, RFC, JDBC, SOAP, HTTP and JMS). • Estimate requirements for functional designs required for easy essay on summer, development including interfaces, enhancements, reports and workflow. • Decided specific integration approaches for various legacy systems based on parameters like - type of journal essays, systems, amount of data to be exchanged, frequency of data.
• Setting up the XI 3.0 system including SLD configuration, XI base configuration for on summer vacations, Profile Parameter settings -- Role of Integration Server, HTTP and RFC destinations for sentence examples for a research paper, XI Setup, connectivity of Integration server to SLD,, Queues, BPE automatic customizing etc, authorization profiles, HTTPS destinations to Business Systems. • Imported IDOCs from R/3 system and mapped the incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to be used in easy essay on summer vacations Mapping. • Imported IDOCs from R/3 system and mapped the incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to be used in tourism phd thesis Mapping. • Used BPM to configure cross component Business Processes with Receive, Send, control, block, and essay on summer vacations transformation steps. Designed various BPM patterns, built scenarios using split/merge patterns and triggering alerts. • Developed interfaces to integrate. § A legacy system to a SAP R/3 system (Outbound -- File adaptor, Inbound -- IDoc adaptor) § HTTP client to SAP R/3 (Outbound - HTTP adaptor, Inbound - RFC adaptor) Environment: SAP ECC 6.0, ABAP/4, SD, FI and examples for a MM.
Nov 2004 to easy essay vacations, Dec 2005. • Key member of the team to help the project go live and provide production support. • Developed ALV Reports as per sentence research paper, client requirement Customizing standard SAP Programs using USER EXITS producing technical document Coding and Code reviewing. • Working extensively on Legacy data Conversions, Batch Input, and BDC for various modules such as FI/CO, HR, MM, and SD. • Extensively worked with BAPIs, Injecting retail sales order from Web to SAP through BAPI. • Designing and essay on summer coding in neck the BAPI (Business Application programming Interface), ALE (Application Link Enabling) and EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) areas.
• Created/designed LSMW projects/subprojects to vacations, load MM data, created/loaded the following views: Basic, Plant, Storage, Sales, MRP, Purchasing, Account (Plant/Valuation), Costing. • Successfully created high-volume data upload programs using BDC and neck direct-input methodologies. • Testing and optimizing the code in essay terms of examples for a research paper, quality and performance. • Developed interface programs, conversion routines. • Developed custom extractors on the R/3 OLTP systems and defined the extract structures on the source and target systems. • Designed, developed and supported BW solutions based on requirements gathered from the business. • Performed extraction, transformation and loading of data into SAP BW constructs (PSA, ODS, Cubes). • Gathered business-reporting requirements, designed and developed solutions, tested/verified the solutions, migrated the on summer vacations solution to production, and of dental assitants provided ongoing support. • Designed and created new BW objects (Info packages, ODSs, Cubes, Info objects, Transfer rules, Update rules, Communication structures, Data sources).
Environment: SAP ECC 4.6C, ABAP/4, SRM, SD, FI and MM. McAfee Inc. SAP ABAP/4 development consultant. Dec 2003 to easy essay on summer, Oct 2004. • Responsible for argumentative, implementing ALE, encompassing both master and transactional data. • Maintenance of the customer distribution model (filters, conversions, etc.) • Distributing the customer model, generating partner profiles and reducing IDOCs. • Customizing and setting up of ALE on new clients / systems. • ABAP coding of ALE User and Functional Exits. • Design and development of outbound and inbound interface programs to third party systems using Intermediate Documents (IDoc) and Application link Enabling (ALE) tools. Application integration was done using both synchronous asynchronous communications. • Hands on easy, SAP interface work included BAPI, IDoc, ALE config, user exit, custom RFC primarily in PP, PP-PI MM modules (version 4.6C) • Define business process mapping, SAP R/3 business integration testing, SAP R/3 data transferring for legacy into system.
• Define and topic sentence research create functional specification for form, report, enhancement and easy on summer interface program and End-user training, SAP R/3 Post Implementation Support and knowledge transfer to key user. Environment: SAP ECC 4.6C, ABAP/4, SD, FI and MM. Sept 2001 -- Nov 2003. • EAI architecture study, Authored technical study for proposed integration. Study looked at Backend requirements of integrating to SAP 4.6 (IDoc, BAPI, variety of quarterly journal of economic, ABAP produced flat files) Integration requirements for certain subsidiary backend requirements (JD Edwards, custom DB applications) External partner integration (ftp, xml over https). • Error handling and monitoring (WebMethods Monitor, Modeler), BMC's patrol.
• Created BAPI for Sales Order, the essay on summer web methods will poll the respective source applications. Involved in developing EDI settings for Invoice and Enhancement for Plant in 4.0B. • SAP script for pre-printed and essays standard formats using print programs and easy essay vacations Layout sets Developed Batch Data Communication programs (BDC) for uploading data from Legacy System to SAP R/3 System. • Created inbound and outbound GR Notification and this Message is thesis in linguistics sent to JDE, Oracle or WEBMETHODS. • Developed Batch Data Communication programs (BDC) for essay on summer, uploading data from retrolisthesis Legacy System to easy essay vacations, SAP R/3 System. • Involved in developing EDI settings for Purchase Order and Invoice. Dissertation Argumentative. When PO is created IDOC is generated and essay vacations send to WEBMETHODS and same as Invoice.
• Created BAPI for Sales Order, the WEBMETHODS will poll the respective source applications. Involved in developing EDI settings for in linguistics, Invoice and Enhancement for Plant. Environment: SAP ECC 4.6, ABAP/4, SD, FI, MM, Webmethods. May 2000 -- Aug 2001. The current project was providing purchase order module and easy vacations now we have implemented Forecast, Inventory and Shipment modules. Neck. In this project Buyers will send the data to III Hub.
This data will be sent to the Portal and from Portal the data is again passed to SAP to create Forecast, inventory and easy essay Shipment modules. SAP R/3 4.6C, JDE, Oracle Apps Web methods. • When PO is created IDOC is generated and journal essays send to WEB METHODS and same as Invoice. • Developed BAPI Programming for vacations, passing data from Portal to Sap and Sap to neck, Portal. • Developed Batch Data Communication programs (BDC) for uploading data from Legacy System to SAP R/3 System. Developed Reports as per client requirement. • Purchase Order Pending Report -- To display all the easy essay on summer Purchase Orders for which the Materials are not Received Partially or Completely along with Vendor Name, Pending Quantity, Pending Price and Pending Weight for a given Plant / Vendor / Material.
• Report to tourism phd thesis, find Receipts and Issues of materials in various Plants grouped under Material Groups. • Order reports based on sale order types lists out a detail of orders with its value, quantity, tax, excise duty, freight etc. • Vendor Analysis reports which gives the percentage rejections for every material across the various vendors of the total tested samples. Environment: SAP ECC 4.0, ABAP/4, SD, FI/CO and MM. 1996-2000: Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical Electronic), Madras University, Chennai.
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Summer Vacation Essay | How I Spend My Summer Vacation
Ancient Egypt: Compare Old Kingdom to Middle Kingdom. On Summer Vacations! On October 29th, 1929, a day otherwise known as “black Tuesday”, marked the United States of America’s largest fiscal battle. Black Tuesday was the beginning of The Great Depression. The stock market plummeted on this day and the nation trembled in fear. This fear propelled Americans to withdraw their money from tourism phd thesis, banks, for they anticipated the banks to plummet as well.
The insufficient funds within the banks forced them to close their doors. Easy Essay On Summer! The credit system that was developed in the ‘20s failed due to the incapability to repay loans. We will write a custom essay sample. on Ancient Egypt: Compare Old Kingdom to Middle Kingdom or any similar. Quarterly Journal Essays! topic specifically for essay on summer you. The following ten years are referred to as The Great Depression. The president at the time was Herbert Hoover.
His approach to the economy was extremely nonchalant. Hoover considered this depression to be “a passing incident in our national lives. ” His attitude did very little to topic examples for a research, stabilize the country’s economy. In 1932, the essay economy was at its worst and unemployment was at 25 percent. This was around the same time that President Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected. FDR attacked this depression aggressively with a series of programs and economic stimulus plans called The New Deal.
After earning the trust of the citizens of thesis in linguistics, America, the people felt comfortable again. This level of comfort liberated citizens to spend money again. At this time, the easy essay economy was as good as it ever was. President Barrack Obama took office in quarterly journal, 2008 in the midst of a recession. While this recession was nowhere near as severe as the one that took place in the ‘30’s, he most definitely had a lot of work to do. By using techniques similar to those of on summer vacations, FDR, he has been able to stimulate the economy and topic sentence research paper slowly, but surely, stabilize our economy.
Without the knowledge of history and the actions of FDR, today’s economy would have been impacted more severely. This all may seem irrelevant to Ancient Egyptian studies, but this goes to show how difficult it must have been for the first leaders of the world to essay vacations, succeed. The rulers of Ancient Egypt had very little history to regard, contrary tothe leaders of today. Almost everything that the Ancient Egyptians did was based on trial and error. Often times, decisions resulted in essay of dental, success; even more often did those decisions result in failure. Page 2 Ancient Egypt: Compare Old Kingdom to Middle Kingdom Essay. The Old Kingdom in Ancient Egypt took place in 3100-2200 BC. The Middle Kingdom took place in2050-1700. The 150 years separating the two kingdoms is called the First Intermediate Period.
These three stages of Ancient Egypt are amongst civilization’s first documented historical events. Ancient Egypt took notes of the very few civilizations that preceded them. Mesopotamia was the very first civilization on earth and influenced Ancient Egypt in many ways. Much like Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt began with the accumulation of city-states within the region. These city states were referred to as nomes and there were 42 of them within the expanse.
These 42 city-states often battled each other for resources, land, and power. It wasn’t too long before the easy essay on summer vacations fittest nomes ruled all of Egypt. These nomes divided Egypt in half and thesis were called Upper and Lower Egypt. After Upper Egypt defeated Lower Egypt, the easy on summer vacations two city-states merged. This unification marks the beginning of the Old Kingdom. This kingdom was actually a serene and affluent period of history. The first pyramid ever built was constructed for King Zoser at this time. Pyramids were initially used to harbor the tombs of the deceased and shelter the corpses of the departed so that they may return for the afterlife. Common misconception alludes to the idea that slaves built these pyramids; however, it was peasants that did the constructing in hopes of being honored with an afterlife of their own. The Great Pyramid of Gizeh was unanimously the largest and most elegant of all pyramids. The Pyramid was comprised of phd thesis, 2. 3 million limestone blocks.
This structure was expensive. The Construction of this pyramid negatively impacted the economy but wasn’t the driving force behind the struggling monetary system of Egypt. The toll the pyramid took on the economy played a minimal role in the decline of The Old Kingdom. Easy Essay On Summer Vacations! Severe drought struck Egypt at this time and the lack of water forced Egypt into famine. During the Old Kingdom, the king was looked upon as a god. This idea gave the Egyptian people the perspective that their king was divine and can control the climate and environmental factors. Once severe drought occurred, the people began to question their king’s power. The Egyptians turned their faith toward the sun god, Re. This shift in essay, religion becomes prevalent in Ancient Egyptian art and essay architecture.
The political, religious, and economical shift drives The Old Kingdom into the ground. After the weakening of The Old Kingdom’s centralized monarchy, the unity between Upper and Lower Egypt dissolved as they separated from each other yet again. The First Intermediate Period, otherwise known as the First Disruption, was chaotic. Manetho, a Graeco-Egyptian priest, claims this period was “composed of seventy rulers for seventy days. Scholars assume this hyperbole describes the disorder of The First Intermediate Period.
In 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II took Theban Throne. Thebes, the capital of essays, Upper Egypt, took advantage of Lower Egypt by attacking in the midst of a Lower Egypt revolt. Easy Essay! The inability to prepare due to the revolt allowed Upper Egypt to dominate and sentence examples for a research paper take over easy vacations, Egypt as a whole once again. The fusion of the two lands initiates The Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II reestablished order in tourism phd thesis, Egypt and laid the foundation for more prosperity to essay on summer, come.
Trade, art, and literature thrived once again; people had faith in tourism phd thesis, their culture. The once flawed irrigation system was corrected as the Nile flowed regularly again. Easy On Summer Vacations! Egypt established a military to fend off foreign countries. At this time, pharaohs were thought of research, as good kings and essay vacations wise leaders to their people. Pharaohs of this age seem to be more humble and no longer refer to themselves as gods. Instead of building massive pyramids for the deceased pharaohs, they were buried in tombs hidden in the hills. Not only did the land and people of Upper and Lower Egypt unify, but as did their cultures. Phd Thesis! Amun was the god of easy vacations, Upper Egypt as Ra was the god of Lower Egypt. Journal Essays! After the unification, the easy essay two gods become one: AmunRa.
The unification of the two gods lessened the likelihood of civil war between cities based on belief. The Middle Kingdom took a more conservative route than that of The Old Kingdom. While it didn’t last forever, by acknowledging the argumentative past mistakes of easy on summer, Ancient Egypt, The middle Kingdom prevented history from repeating itself. The arrogance of the pharaohs in the Old Kingdom applied a lot of phd thesis, pressure on themselves to be perfect. By being humble in The Middle Kingdom, the pharaohs retained the respect of the essay on summer people even through times struggle.
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Essay on easy, Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of essay assitants momentary duration. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg.
Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and easy essay vacations, as an neck, expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation.
Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for essay satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in tourism the marriage institution. We can say that the essay Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage.
Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rights and the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. Of Dental. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and vacations, attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and journal essays, anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the essay on summer vacations important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to thesis in linguistics, one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the easy on summer vacations parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it.
As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M. Of Dental Assitants. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of essay on summer legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with.
(3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and neck, their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out easy essay on summer vacations with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the essay assitants least importance.
It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and easy vacations, a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to topic for a research paper, the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter.
(4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and easy essay vacations, clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system.
It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of tourism these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of essay on summer marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the phd thesis kin and on summer, extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of dissertation argumentative property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance.
Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of easy essay on summer loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and retrolisthesis, the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in essay on summer accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the dissertation various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the easy on summer vacations institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the quarterly journal essays spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at easy essay vacations a given period of thesis time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands.
This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is easy on summer vacations found and recognized. It should be noted that on tourism phd thesis, a societal basis, only about 20 per easy cent of the retrolisthesis societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and easy essay vacations, women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them.
2. Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in neck retrolisthesis the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the easy essay on summer monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of in linguistics parents.
The development of modes of children will be done nicely. Vacations. There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in phd thesis this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman:
In this form of marriage the easy essay vacations status of dissertation argumentative woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture.
7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. Essay On Summer Vacations. One can manage easily to live a better life.
It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10. Law is in favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife.
It is more stable form of neck marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to essay, adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to tourism phd thesis, their problem.
According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and vacations, woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society.
They are counted equal to men. Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of topic examples for a research paper prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Essay Vacations. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in neck retrolisthesis which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of on summer vacations women. According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled.
It is examples research likely to easy essay on summer vacations, be supported by essay of dental, the attitudes and values of easy on summer both the sexes. Quarterly Journal Of Economic Essays. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time.
In other words it is a form of marriage in essay vacations which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of sentence examples marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the easy essay on summer privilege of the examples for a research paper wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges.
It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in the Population: When in easy on summer vacations any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place.
2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in of economic the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in easy essay on summer order to prove their superiority.
A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the sentence people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to easy on summer, rich married males. 7. Of Dental Assitants. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child.
Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to easy on summer vacations, second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in essay some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of easy children: According to topic sentence examples research paper, Manu, if wife is unable to easy on summer vacations, have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life.
12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of quarterly journal essays children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and easy essay vacations, birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate.
(3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at in linguistics home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations:
Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is easy on summer fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of sentence examples for a research paper a wife to essay on summer, produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for dissertation fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is easy jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in neck their work.
They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only vacations, husband is the sentence research paper bread winner and whole of the family is easy on summer vacations dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Sentence Examples Research Paper. Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property.
Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per easy on summer vacations capita decreases. 6. Topic For A. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of essay on summer children. There is lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to in linguistics, all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time.
According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at on summer a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and quarterly journal of economic, some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis.
This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in essay the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother.
This type of dissertation argumentative polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women: According to Westermark, when the easy essay on summer vacations number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of dissertation Nilgiri. On Summer Vacations. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of in linguistics women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in essay vacations the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System:
Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in assitants matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of easy essay father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for neck this reason many men support one woman and vacations, her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. In Linguistics. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them.
6. Division of Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Easy. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of dissertation property but it also increases production in agriculture. Easy. All the brothers work together because they have to of dental, support only one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is easy essay on summer no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is in linguistics found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas.
(1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the family.
(3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the easy on summer vacations family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the neck family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. Easy Essay On Summer. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of journal of economic husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in essay the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs.
When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and in linguistics, tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. Essay On Summer. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman.
According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of dissertation argumentative sex gratification give rise to easy essay, extra-marital relationship of dissertation argumentative husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of on summer vacations marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice.
Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa.
In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an topic sentence examples for a research, extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of on summer vacations marriage for in linguistics any society in the world. The Oneida community of essay on summer vacations New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on sentence research, record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the easy essay brother of the dead husband.
If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the assitants dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. Essay Vacations. But when she marries to quarterly journal, the younger brother of the essay on summer vacations dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. Topic Examples Research Paper. In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the sister of essay his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife.
Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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