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Big business chiefs back Gove call for new O-level: But Clegg is still livid he wasn't warned of plan to axe GCSEs. By Matt Blake and Tim Shipman 17:11 BST 22 Jun 2012, updated 11:52 BST 23 Jun 2012. Persuasive Read Write Think. Big business chiefs back Gove call for new O-level: But Clegg is on cuban still livid he wasn't warned of plan to axe GCSEs. Clegg comes out fighting and vows to block the proposals. Britain's four leading business groups have voiced their support for Michael Gove’s plan to replace GCSEs with more rigorous exams. They said the tests have failed to persuasive essay lesson plan write, prepare a generation of pupils for the world of work – the same argument the Education Secretary has used to justify a schools revolution. An Essay Paper. The Institute of Directors, the Confederation of British Industry, the essay plan write, British Chambers of Commerce and the Federation of Small Businesses have now all welcomed Mr Gove’s call for a rethink of secondary education. His plans, revealed this week by the Daily Mail, have caused a fierce row in the Coalition as Mr Gove had not discussed them with the Liberal Democrats.

Criticism: Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg said the school system 'must be for essays on cuban culture the many not the few' while Labour schools minister Kevin Brennan said Mr Gove's plans would create a two-tier system for pupils. Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg is furious that Mr Gove wants to bring in a second qualification – which has been compared to the old CSE – alongside an academically rigorous O-Level to give less able pupils a practical qualification that would be accepted by employers. On Thursday Mr Clegg said this would create a two-tier system, and vowed to persuasive plan write, block the plan. Yesterday he complained that he was kept in the dark, adding: ‘Neither myself nor the Prime Minister were aware of it.’ David Cameron’s aides dispute this. Mr Clegg said he was committed to resume abogado, ‘raising standards in our schools’ but insisted any changes would have to ensure ‘that all children can get ahead through hard work and aspiration’. Despite Lib Dem complaints, Mr Gove intends to publish a consultation document on lesson write the proposals in the second week of July. He has been backed by Mike Harris, head of education policy at the Institute of Directors, who said: ‘Employers are concerned that standards in British exams have slipped, so action to make qualifications more demanding is welcome. We strongly support Government reforms to increase standards in all areas of education.’ However, he said there were still questions about ‘how this new system would provide a world-class education for pupils lower down the academic scale’, and stressed: ‘The name change is resume compose far less important than the persuasive essay lesson read write think, practicalities of how to deliver the best qualifications in essay a short the world for all young people.’ Neil Carberry, the persuasive essay read write, CBI’s head of education and skills policy, added: ‘We are concerned that GCSEs in their current form may not be delivering. With the leaving age for compulsory education about to change to 18, the time is right to review the role of a summative exam at 16.' Adam Marshall, director of resume abogado, policy at the British Chambers of Commerce, said: ‘Businesses have steadily lost confidence in persuasive essay lesson plan write think the ability of the education system to resume compose, deliver young people who are ready for the world of persuasive lesson read, work. If this is a route that leads more employers to say more young people are ready for an essay paper the world of work, then it will have been successful.’ David Pollard, head of the Federation of Small Businesses’ education committee, added: ‘We want the Government to seize this opportunity to develop an education system that places the lesson plan write think, same importance on quality academic and vocational education.’ Mr Gove’s consultation is about a short story set to be published in persuasive lesson think the same week that MPs will discuss Mr Clegg’s plans for reform of the dissertation agressives, House of Lords.

A Tory MP said: ‘This is a test of Clegg’s seriousness. If he really backs high standards in persuasive read schools he should shut up and back Gove. If he doesn’t, he can wave his Lords reforms goodbye.’ A source close to Mr Gove defended plans for two new exams. ‘Some children should not be doing the same maths course as someone going to do physics at about a short story Cambridge,’ they said, ‘They should be doing a more appropriate course plus quality vocational training. Lesson Read Write. British pupils have slipped down international league tables in key subjects over the past decade. The most authoritative comparison is the Programme for International Student Assessment carried out by an essay paper the OECD. It is based on tests given to 15-year-olds in up to 65 countries. When first carried out in 2000, the persuasive essay plan read write, UK was ranked fourth in science, seventh in literacy and eighth in maths. The science ranking fell to essay story, 12th in lesson plan 2003, 14th in 2006 and 16th in 2009. In literacy the country sank to 11th in 2003, 17th in 2006 and 25th in 2009. The most dramatic slump is in maths, where the ranking was 18th in 2003, 24th in 2006 and 28th in 2009.

Critics point out that the sample in the survey has grown across the years, from 43 countries in commerciales 2000 to 65 in the last study in 2009. But, even when this is taken into account, the UK has still slipped proportionately down the tables. Under Michael Gove’s plans for a revival, pupils will be able to plan read, sit the new O-levels at 16 or 17 and the best pupils will be allowed to bypass the exams and go straight to A-levels. Schools will be given the freedom to enter pupils for the exams when they are ready, rather than forcing everyone to sit them at 16. Resume Compose. Modular study will be abolished, with emphasis put on persuasive essay plan read think in-depth work and end of year exams rather than coursework that can be redone until it passes muster. Pupils studying English literature will be banned from taking the text of plays into exams and maths pupils will be expected to learn complex subjects such as calculus in resume abogado order to obtain an A grade. Mr Gove believes the exams need to be tougher to prepare pupils for persuasive essay lesson read think A-levels, which are also being made more rigorous. Meanwhile, businesses will be asked to draw up a new CSE-style qualification for less able pupils – around one quarter of pupils struggle even to get D or E grades at GCSE.

Mr Gove thinks it is pointless to resume compose, make those children sit the same O-level as those who are preparing to read a rigorous academic subject at Oxford or Cambridge.

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Mohenjo Daro Essays and Research Papers. 29 March 2012 Mohenjo - Daro : The Great Harrapan City Even though the persuasive essay lesson, long lost city of . Mohenjo - Daro was not discovered until 1922, it is resume compose one of the greatest discoveries of persuasive essay read write think, all time because it is among the oldest of any archeological sites in the world, at its height being the most developed city in Asia. During an excavation in 1922 of a Buddhist Stupa, by resume abogado Mr. R. D. Banerji, the first remains of the large urban city were uncovered accidentally (Wheeler 1). However, after only a few years.

Archaeology , Harappa , Indus Valley Civilization 1659 Words | 5 Pages. Archaeologist Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay. July 2013. 2. Persuasive Essay Think! Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay. Dissertation Commerciales! Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 07 Apr. 2013. Web. 06 July 2013.

3. Swanson, Emily. Persuasive Essay Read! Harappan . Resume Compose! Civilization. : Ca. 3000-1500 BC. Essay Lesson Read Write Think! N.p., 14 Sept. 1998. Web. Resume Compose! 06 July 2013. 4. The Mysteries of Mohenjo Daro . Pakistan Hotels. Pakistan Hotels, n.d. Web. Essay Plan Write Think! 06 July 2013.

5. stupa. Encyclop?dia Britannica. Encyclop?dia Britannica Online. Encyclop?dia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 07 Jul. Resume Abogado! 2013 6. Ruins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur. Essay Plan Read Write! - UNESCO. Bronze Age , Harappa , India 899 Words | 3 Pages. is well preserved. During the an essay paper, Mohenjo - daro excavations of 1927-1931, in which this seal was unearthed, 388 unicorn seals were . found (Mackay 1938). Mackay suggested that the artist may have been trying to persuasive essay lesson plan write think, portray one horn behind the other, but due to the craftsman's limited skills at depicting perspective, only one horn was indicated.

This convention is seen on archaic Sumerian seals as well. Previous to Mackay, Marshall, in his 1922-1927 expeditions at Mohenjo - Daro , found a total of an essay paper, 558 seals (Marshall. Aurochs , Bos , Boss 835 Words | 3 Pages. Civilization is also known as the persuasive essay plan read write, Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the a short story, first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab . province of British India, and is now in Pakistan.[6] The discovery of persuasive essay read write think, Harappa, and soon afterwards, Mohenjo - Daro , was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj.[7] Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999.[8]. Bronze Age , Harappa , India 936 Words | 4 Pages. ? Mohenjo - Daro Location of Mohenjo - Daro within the Pakistani province of Sindh. Resume Abogado! . Mohenjo - Daro (IPA: [mu??n? d?o? d???o?], Urdu: ???? ??????, Sindhi: ???? ?? ???, lit. Mound of the Dead; English pronunciation: /mo??h?n.d?o? ?d??.ro?/), is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Persuasive Essay Read Write! Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the essays on cuban, world's earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of.

Ahmad Hasan Dani , Harappa , Indus River 1260 Words | 4 Pages. estimated that Mohenjo - Daro may have had 700 wells, whereas Harappa may have had as few as 30. It could be because . Mohenjo - Daro was far away from the plan think, Indus and about a short story had less winter rain. Read! In Harappa, a large depression in the centre of the city indicates a reservoir that was accessible to many neighbor hoods. These 10-15 meter deep wells were lined with specially made wedge shaped bricks to for a solid cylinder that would not cave in with the pressure of the an essay paper, surrounding soil. At Mohenjo - Daro , most houses. Brick , Building , Harappa 2118 Words | 7 Pages. Comparing and Contrasting Second Wave Empires and River Valley Societies. large cities, some form of government no matter how feeble, and irrigation techniques could be called a civilization.

The empires of persuasive essay plan read write think, Rome, Greece, Persia . and China were substantially larger and more widespread than their previous counterparts. Mohenjo Daro , the largest city of the Indus valley civilization, located in present-day Pakistan housed 200,000 residents at its peak. Les Pratiques Commerciales Agressives! Comparatively, the Persian empire, reached from essay plan Egypt to India, with a population of 35 to homework ansewers, 50 million people, possibly engulfing. Civilization , Civilizations , Harappa 1330 Words | 7 Pages. worship, and bathing tanks for communal use. The intricately ornamented tank at Mohenjo - Daro was encircled by a walkway, which . opened onto many small rooms that may have housed priests of the city's cults. Pictures on seals and other artifacts show figures of gods. One is lesson plan read write think a Mother Goddess.

People believed this goddess gave health and fertility to people, animals and resume compose plants. Another is a small stone statue found at Mohenjo - Daro , it shows the head of a man with a beard and headband. He is wearing a robe. Civilization , Harappa , India 1256 Words | 4 Pages. The Rise of the indus Valley Civilization.

Mesopotamia civilization jointly (A.L.Basham). The researchers have given different names to this civilization. However, the persuasive plan write think, most widespread title is the . “Harappan” civilization. Later, another larger site was discovered near “Harrappa” called Mohenjo Daro meaning the “Mound of the resume compose, Dead” in the local language. Hence, the researchers have termed these sites jointly and named it as the essay lesson read, “Indus” civilization. The Indus Civilization was situated nearby the Himalaya Mountains on the floodplains of Indus. Harappa , Indus River , Indus script 1776 Words | 3 Pages. Flourishing around 2500 B.C. An Essay Paper! a civilisation emerged on persuasive essay write think, the plains and resume abogado greater mountains of the Indus Valley.

The civilisation known as the Harappan covered . about write think 1,000,000km2 with two major urban centres of Mohenjo - daro and Harappa. It has been suggested that the homework, Harappans were one of the early archaic states along with Mesopotamia and Egypt. This has provoked a number of questions of whether or not the Indus Civilisation was the kind of complex society that is generally connected with the essay lesson think, state. Bronze Age , Civilization , Harappa 1143 Words | 3 Pages. |[pic] Mohenjo - daro (Urdu: ???? ?????, Sindhi: ???? ?? ???, English: Mound of the dead) was a city of the Indus Valley . Civilization built around 2600 BC and is located in an essay paper, the Sindh Province of Pakistan. This ancient five thousand year old city is the largest of Indus Valley and is widely recognized as one of the persuasive essay lesson write, most important early cities of South Asia and the Indus Valley Civilization. Mohenjo Daro was one of the world’s first cities and contemporaneous with ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations.

Bronze Age , Harappa , Indus Valley Civilization 615 Words | 3 Pages. in the western part of South Asia. Agressives! The Harappans used the essay plan read, same size bricks and standardized weights as were used in other Indus cities such as . Mohenjo Daro and Dholavira. These cities were well planned with wide streets, public and private wells, drains, bathing platforms and reservoirs. Resume Abogado! One of persuasive essay lesson plan write, its most well-known structures is the Great Bath of Mohenjo Daro .There were other highly developed cultures in adjacent regions of Baluchistan, Central Asia and peninsular India. Material culture and the skeletons. Bronze Age , Harappa , India 1006 Words | 3 Pages. place or crafts place. They either made pots or jewelry.

The men also were running the country as their job. The sons of the on cuban culture, fathers had to persuasive lesson, learn what their . father was doing and the generation was being passed down. The potters in the city of Mohenjo Daro made their pottery from wheels not from their hands. The seal makers in an essay paper, this city usually put animals or people as a design on the seals. There was also the economics that was a reason. People started to lesson think, trade and on cuban live in larger groups. They traded. Harappa , India , Indus River 852 Words | 3 Pages. Harappa- Indus Valley Civilization.

by archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler, began in persuasive essay lesson read, 1921-1922 and uncovered important information of the essay, highly complex civilization. One of the main cities was . called Harappa. Harappa, like Mohenjo - Daro , grew along the persuasive read write think, Indus River. It came into existence earlier than and resume abogado lasted longer than the southern city of Mohenjo - Daro . It was well known for lesson read write, its surprisingly advanced town planning. Each town and city was structured like a grid with wide streets which ran perpendicular to one another. Resume Compose! Between the large. Harappa , Indus River , Indus Valley Civilization 833 Words | 3 Pages. Mohen-Jo- Daro History :- Even in ancient times people inhabited the world. They brought forth unique styles of language, arts, government, . religion, social structure and technology. The researchers have found clues about their existence and essay lesson plan write although we may never know everything about dissertation les pratiques agressives their lives, we recognize they existed based on their abilities, skills, and conditions of their time and place.

In Mohenjo - Daro they had technology such as two wheeled carts and persuasive read think sewer systems. The sewer systems. Existence , Harappa , Indus Valley Civilization 668 Words | 2 Pages. Fresh Excavations at Largest Harappan Site. largest Harappan site After a gap of 13 years, excavation work will start once again at Rakhigarhi, estimated to homework, be the largest Harappan civilization site . located in Hisar district of Haryana. This early Harappan settlement, considered bigger than Mohenjo - daro , was listed among the 10 most endangered heritage sites in Asia just last year by the Global Heritage Fund, which is, incidentally, partnering with city-based Deccan College Postgraduate and persuasive essay think Research Institute that will start fresh excavations. Archaeology , Harappa , Haryana 678 Words | 2 Pages. flourished from resume abogado about 2500 BC to about 1500 BC in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian . subcontinent.In 1921 archaeologists found this site when spectacular ruins were found in Harappa and essay lesson plan write think Mohen-jo Daro . Essays! Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about 20 km west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River, some 5 km southeast of the site. The site contains.

Bronze Age , Harappa , Indus River 568 Words | 2 Pages. Are Females Better Students Than Girls. resulted in the melting of the wax, leaving behind a hollow mould. Molten metal was then poured into this mould. Plan Read Write Think! After cooling the clay was removed, and a . metal sculpture remained. On Cuban Culture! A beautiful example of such work, is the essay lesson read think, naked dancing girl found at Mohenjo - Daro . She is covered with jewellery, wearing several necklaces and bangles. Resume Compose! Bronze figures of buffalos and the humped bull have also been found. The Indus Valley Civilization also made several sculptures out of terra-cotta, a fine example being a figure. Civilization , Harappa , Indus Valley Civilization 3366 Words | 9 Pages. The Indus and Yellow River Valley Civilizations.

Collapse (Evidence ? Rig Vedas discuss Aryan victories over fortified cities with dark skinned inhabitants ? Military (horse/iron) technology-would have . Persuasive Essay Lesson Plan Write! made it possible ? Migration pattern (west to east) ? Un-buried skeletons in dissertation les pratiques commerciales, latest levels of Mohenjo Daro - suggests war ? Loss of Indus literacy • Not very likely they just abandoned their writing unless conquered and forced to abandon 7. Essay Plan Write Think! Evidence Against Aryan contribution to Indus Collapse ? Aryans were pastoral and lived in bamboo huts. Could. Bronze Age , Harappa , Indo-Aryan migration 470 Words | 2 Pages. people who lived there? The rivers flooded very reliably 2 times a year. Traded very early, large civilization. 3500 B.C.E. Agressives! 5. How do we know, what . we know, about the IVC? Archeology Because do not know the language Harappa and Mohenjo were the two biggest cities. They had dense multi styled homes, with aligned bricked and perpendicular streets, which showed that they had some sort of government. The homes were oriented so the wind would be a natural form of air conditioning. . Bronze Age , Civilization , Harappa 407 Words | 3 Pages.

civilization that flourished in lesson read write, the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys ? Primarily in Sindh province of Pakistan THE CIVILIZATION IS SOMETIMES . REFERRED TO AS: ? Indus-Sarasvati Civilization ? Harappan Civilization MAJOR CITIES ? Harappa ? Mohenjo - Daro HARAPPA ? Harappa is resume abogado a city in Punjab. ? Northeast Pakistan, about persuasive essay lesson plan read write think 35km (22 miles) southwest of Sahiwal. ? The modern town is homework located near the former course of the Ravi River. Persuasive Plan Write Think! ? The ancient city existed from about 3300 BCE until 1600 BCE. Bronze Age , Harappa , India 422 Words | 2 Pages. valley of the Indus River. An Essay Paper! Remains of essay lesson read think, more than 100 cities, towns, and villages of the Indus Valley civilization have now been found from an essay paper north of the Hindu . Kush down the persuasive lesson, entire length of the homework, Indus and beyond into peninsular India. Lesson Write Think! Harappa and Mohenjo Daro are the two urban centers of Indus Valley civilization and the excavation of these sites reveal standardization and ordered society and ten centuries of relatively stable conditions. The city was amazingly well planned with broad main streets.

Civilization , Harappa , India 508 Words | 2 Pages. Comparative study of Mesopotamian and Harappa civilisation. foundation on banks of Indus valley. Dissertation Les Pratiques Agressives! Today Mesopotamian civilisation is persuasive plan known as Kuwait and resume compose Iraq and one of the most important city war Ur and presently . Persuasive Lesson Plan Think! Harappa civilisation Pakistan, part of Afghanistan and Northern India. An Essay Paper! Important cities are Mohenjo - Daro . But Mesopotamian and harppan economies developed along the similar bases, and having comparable religious and social structures. Essay Lesson Read Think! Yet, their politics, arts and women treatment have a sharp contrast to each other. The both civilisation are politically. Bronze Age , Civilization , Harappa 581 Words | 2 Pages. Documents points to the existence of a powerful and knowledgeable race, prior to the oldest civilizations (pre historic era according to us). It should be . noted that the drainage and plumbing systems used by homework the Indus Valley civilization at persuasive lesson plan read write, Harappa and Mohenjo - Daro were much advanced than most of the an essay paper, current systems.

Known oldest civilizations are Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Indus Valley etc. Some of the Indus Valley articles (writings / carvings) points to their ancestors who were termed as Gods (meaning, much. Atlantis , Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Civilization 841 Words | 2 Pages. culture) has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BCE. Plan Write! The two greatest cities, . Mohenjo - daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus Rivervalley in Punjab and resume abogado Sindh.[5] The civilization, with a writing system, urban centers, and diversified social and economic system, was rediscovered in the 1920s after excavations at Mohenjo - daro in Sindh near Larkana, and Harappa, in west Punjabsouth of Lahore. A number of other sites stretching from the Himalayan. Bronze Age , Harappa , Indus River 5280 Words | 15 Pages. Harappan culture to persuasive lesson, distinguish it from these cultures. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of . the commerciales, Indus river and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the persuasive lesson read write, major urban centers of Harappa, Mohenjo - Daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Ganweriwala, Dholavira, and Rakhigarhi.[12] The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. An Essay Paper! A relationship with the persuasive lesson think, Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language.

Bronze Age , Harappa , India 6437 Words | 18 Pages. Architecture and Early Human Settlements. Early human settlements were mostly rural. An Essay Paper! Due to a surplus in production the essay lesson plan think, economy began to expand resulting in urbanization thus creating urban areas . On Cuban Culture! which grew and evolved very rapidly in some cases, such as that of persuasive essay read write think, Catal Hoyuk in homework ansewers, Anatolia and Mohenjo Daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in modern-day Pakistan. . Architect , Architectural engineering , Architecture 427 Words | 2 Pages. over 1,056 cities and settlements have been found, out of which 96 have been excavated,[13] mainly in the general region of the Indus andGhaggar-Hakra . river and its tributaries.

Among the settlements were the major urban centres ofHarappa, Lothal, Mohenjo - daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Kalibanga, andRakhigarhi.[14] The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus scriptis still undeciphered. A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language. Bronze Age , Harappa , India 8981 Words | 26 Pages. | | Index | | S.No | Date | Title | Pg. No. Persuasive Essay Lesson Read Think! | 1 | | Introduction About Harappan Civilization | | 2 | | Ancient Indus Granary . at Harappa | | 3 | | Ancient Indus Great Bath, Mohenjo - daro | | 4 | | Ancient Indus Zebu Bull seal, Harappa. | | 5 | | | | 6 | | Art News amp; Articles, Art Entertainment Articles, Magazine Articles, Indian Art | 7 | | Classical Art | | 8 | | ClassicalArt_Ajanta | | 9 | | Crafts | | 10 | | FolkartCyclopedia |. Bronze Age , Harappa , Harappan language 12351 Words | 41 Pages. buildings.

It known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to on cuban, be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of . British India, and is now in essay lesson plan read write think, Pakistan.[15] The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards, Mohenjo - Daro , was the culmination of les pratiques agressives, work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the write think, Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj.Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999 ]There. Bronze Age , Harappa , Harappan language 2844 Words | 8 Pages. (Integration era), that is from 2800-2200BCE is of particular interest. In studying the developments of this society it is essential to take into account its . Culture! various urban centres in order to compare and contrast, centres examined include Harappa, Mohenjo - daro (both in modern day Pakistan), Kalibangan and Lothal (in modern India). Lesson Read Write! Various qualities that indicate a high level of technological and cultural advancement include the ample archaeological evidence of municipal town planning, in particular regards. Civilization , Harappa , Indus River 2973 Words | 8 Pages. Comparison of Mesopotamia and the Indus Civilization. as a whole by an authority with absolute control (Hawkes 1973:273). Because of the resume compose, uniformity over persuasive essay lesson plan think such a large area, it is almost guarunteed that the entire . Indus area was a unified state. (Hawkes 1973:273).

The two main sights were Harappa and an essay paper Mohenjo - Daro , and they were the commercial and administrative centers. It is unlikely that there were two equal rulers, however. (Hawkes 1973:2730). The citadels suggest a combination of a combined military and religious power. Persuasive Plan Think! There weren't temples that dominated. Babylonia , Bronze Age , Civilization 2680 Words | 8 Pages. Trade Religion Arts and Crafts Governance Writing Language 6 Entertainment . 6,7 The dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro Clothing and Accessories 8 Textiles 8,9 Color Pallete . Bronze Age , Harappa , Indus River 4516 Words | 13 Pages.

Contrast Essay About Two Countries. and culture of the country. Resume Abogado! These places are of persuasive essay read write think, extraordinary significance for people interested in history, at the same time they may act as an an essay paper, . attraction for tourists. Essay! Most significant historical places in the country include Harappa, Mohenjo - Daro and Taxila. Dissertation Agressives! Harappa is situated approximately 200 km from Lahore in the Montgomery District of Punjab. It is the place of the persuasive read, historic Indus Valley Civilization settlement which is as old as 5000 years and is a civilization which the modern. Harappa , Indus River , Indus Valley Civilization 573 Words | 2 Pages. Argumentative Essay on dissertation, Telivision Is the persuasive lesson plan read think, Leading Cause of Violence in resume abogado, Today's Society the one at Harappa, excavated in persuasive lesson think, the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab province of British India (now in Pakistan).[10] Excavation of IVC sites have . been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999.[11] Mohenjo - Daro , a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is another well-known IVC archeological site. The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is unknown, though Proto-Dravidian, Elamo-Dravidian, or (Para-)Munda relations have been posited. Bronze Age , Copper , Harappa 9367 Words | 31 Pages. Ancient Indian Civilization History.

India. Resume Compose! In the opinion of “Lokmanya Tilak” and other Indian scholars, the Aryan civilization is 4000 to essay plan read, 8000 years old. Resume Abogado! The Indus Valley Civilization which . flourished from about 2600 BCE to 1900 BC, and included urban centers such as Harappa and Mohenjo - daro (in Pakistan), marked the beginning of the urban civilization on the subcontinent. It was centred on the Indus River and its tributaries, and extended into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab,Gujarat, and northern Afghanistan. Civilization , Harappa , History of India 6134 Words | 19 Pages. materials to give them insight into essay plan think, the life of the essays culture, Harappan's. (2) Harappan's are the name given to any of the ancient people belonging to the Indus Valley . civilization. Lesson Plan Read Think! This article will be focusing mainly on the two largest cities of Harappa and Mohenjo - Daro , and what has been discovered there.

The discovery of the Indus Valley civilization was first recorded in the 1800's by commerciales the British. Persuasive Essay Read Think! The first recorded note was by a British army deserter, James Lewis, who was posing as an American engineer. Bronze Age , Harappa , Indus River 3429 Words | 10 Pages. features are assigned to these times. Among the structures of period 2 are various flat, hard clay surfaces, some of which are paved with bricks associated . with fireplaces. Cotton seeds may have been found in period2.

Woven cotton cloth was found at Mohenjo - Daro so the presence of cotton seeds at Mehrgarh may indicate that the homework, use of this plant reaches the very beginnings of persuasive lesson plan read write think, food production in Pakistan. The dependence on domesticated animals continued to grow through this period, as did the reliance on. Bronze Age , Gujarat , Harappa 3252 Words | 10 Pages. Introduction and Location Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian . Homework! subcontinent. It was first identified in plan write, 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo - daro (Mohenjodaro), near the Indus River in the Sindh (Sind) region, now both in Pakistan. Resume Abogado! Subsequently, vestiges of the civilization were found as far apart as SutkagenDor, near the lesson write think, shore of the Arabian Sea 300 miles (480 km) west of story, Karachi, also. Harappa , India , Indus River 3812 Words | 8 Pages. English MOEN JO DARO Chapter IX Four Q - 1) What is the best find of Moen Jo Dao? . Ans: The best find of moen jo daro is The head of bull that was used as seal.

Q - 2) What do mean of Moen jo daro ? How old are the ruins of it? Ans: Moen – jo – Daro means the Mound. Mohenjo-daro , Muhammad , Muhammad Iqbal 6248 Words | 17 Pages. Indus River Modern-Day Pakistan Harappa and Mohenjo - Daro (Twin capitals) First to essay read write, cultivate and weave cotton Discovered in . 1922 First city planning in resume abogado, history: grid pattern, uniform building style, rectangular city blocks, plumbing Barriers Seals not deciphered Figurines in religion Sacred animals Polytheistic Economy agricultural Trade with Mesopotamia Aryans invade around 1500 BCE, superior technology, brought herds of livestock Mohenjo - Daro : One of Twin Capitals in Indus Valley Had. Afghanistan , Civilization , Harappa 332 Words | 3 Pages. Chinese and Harappan Civilization, the Two Different Rise of the State. walked different path of state formation.

Harappan civilization appeared little late but very suddenly. Many scholars assumes that Harappan civilization . could have been impacted Mesopotamian. Moreover, archaeologists discovered the citadel in Mohenjo - daro . Lesson Plan Think! Although not sure whether it was to resume compose, protect their citizens, the citadel definitely represented the centralized authority and increased quality of life. However, the relative rare luxury artifacts shows that there were apparently little buildup. China , Civilization , Harappa 1228 Words | 4 Pages. Civilization About Indus Valley Civilization The earliest traces of civilization in the Indian subcontinent are to be found in essay lesson plan read, places along, or . close, to resume compose, the Indus River. Excavations first conducted in 1921-22, in the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjo - Daro , both now in Pakistan, pointed to a highly complex civilization that first developed some 4,500-5,000 years ago, and subsequent archaeological and historical research has now furnished us with a more detailed picture of the persuasive essay lesson plan read write think, Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa , India , Indus River 841 Words | 3 Pages. the river.

The flood waters led to the organization of the community and ultimately to development of ansewers, political structures. Document #7 7. According to persuasive lesson, . this picture of Mohenjo - Daro , how did the people of resume abogado, Mohenjo - Daro modify their environment? The environment caused failure is the society of Mohenjo - daro . Mohenjo - daro deforrested their land to the point that it was unusable. Lesson Plan Think! Being an resume abogado, agricultural society, deforestation is going to cause it to fall apart. It look like a lack of essay read, natural. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Ancient Near East 1046 Words | 3 Pages. CHAPTER 4 Traditions and Encounters. that has not yet been able to be deciphered. We do however, that it had city walls, a fortified citadel, and a large granary-Harappa and . Mohenjo - daro represented an investment of human labor and dissertation commerciales agressives established patterns to shape the larger society.

They had a high degree of persuasive essay lesson plan write think, standardization due to the Indus River which facilitated trade and communication. Mohenjo - daro had a very sophisticated water/sewage program. Harappans had deities associated with creation and an essay paper procrastination. How do historians and. Hinduism , India , Indus Valley Civilization 773 Words | 2 Pages. (castes). It was said that [pic] Selected Answer: [pic] the four castes were created according to the wills of Indra and persuasive lesson read think Agni (the god of an essay paper, fire). [pic] . Question 10 0 out of 1 points [pic] By about 1700 B.C.E., the residents of Harappa and Mohenjo - daro began to lesson read, abandon their cities because [pic] Selected Answer: [pic] All of the answers are correct. [pic] Question 11 1 out of 1 points [pic] The Upanishads can be best characterized as [pic] Selected Answer: [pic] the blending. Aryan , Caste , Caste system in India 751 Words | 5 Pages.

innovations in the creation. An Essay Paper! Some houses in Mohenjo - Daro around 2800 B.C.E. Persuasive Essay Lesson Write Think! resemble atrium style houses?where there is an . interior courtyard. Also, the foundation of these houses are based with thick wood to accommodate for stability of the structures on the upper floors. A Short Story! Harappa and Mohenjo - Daro are cities who housed large city walls, fortified citadels, marketplaces, temples, public buildings, streets schemed east, west, north, and south, and in Mohenjo - Daro ?a large pool. These structures required.

Asia , Bronze Age , Chariot 1775 Words | 5 Pages. to trade, commerce, and invading others. The Nubians later come and take over Egypt, but almost all of Egypt's culture is essay lesson write kept. Essays On Cuban Culture! Indus River Valley: Found . along the Indus River, this is the homeland of two of the persuasive write think, first known cities, Harrapa and Mohenjo - Daro . Resume Abogado! Sadly, the Aryan Indians later came and completely destroyed these cities, with barely any skeletal remains. Hinduism was founded here. China- Found mostly around the Huang He (Yellow River), the order of dynasties is the mythical Xia, then Shang. Agriculture , Ancient Egypt , Human 1437 Words | 6 Pages. sus GeForce GTX 760 Video Card - 2GB GDDR5, PCI-Express 3.0 (x16), 1x Dual-Link DVI-D, 1x Dual-Link DVI-I, 1x DisplayPort, 1x HDMI, DirectX 11.1, Dual-Slot, Fan, (GTX760-DC2OC-2GD5) ?Ancient India Web Quest “The Ancient Civilizations of persuasive essay lesson plan read, India” Go to http://ancientweb.org/index.php/explore/country/India 1. What were the two major . cities within the ancient Indus River Valley civilization? a. Mohenjo Daro b. Harrapa 2. List 3 characteristics/features of these two ancient cities. Resume Abogado! a. writing system b. Essay Plan Write! urban centers c. diversified social and economic system 3. Although copper and bronze were in use during this time, which material was still unknown? iron 4. How do we.

Buddhism , Hindu , Hinduism 577 Words | 3 Pages. time they may act as an attraction for tourists. Les Pratiques Commerciales! The tourism industry of Pakistan flourishes because of the existence of beautiful historical sites in the . country. Some of the most significant historical places in the country include Harappa, Mohenjo - Daro and Taxila. Harappa is situated approximately 200 km from Lahore in the Montgomery District of Punjab. It is the place of the historic Indus Valley Civilization settlement which is as old as 5000 years and is a civilization which the modern day. Harappa , Indus River , Indus Valley Civilization 535 Words | 2 Pages. it may suggest greater cohesiveness and unity than it actually exists.

Indus Valley culture flourished between 3000-1500 BCE The Indus Valley civilization . may have spanned over one million square km Most important of the excavating sites are Mohenjo - Daro and Harappa Concerned with procreation and purity Worship male animals as a way of incorporating their sexual powers Female reproduction powers were also regarded as sacred Female principle may have been revered as a goddess Purification practices. Buddhism , Hindu , Hinduism 543 Words | 3 Pages. independence of the essay lesson read write, Greek poleis finally fell under ………………………… 23 The Aryans’ term for their original castes was …………… 24 One of the differenc es between . early Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism was that Mahayanna …………… 25 In the Sites of dissertation commerciales, Harappa Mohenjo - Daro , archeologists have found a high degree of standardization of persuasive essay plan read write think, weights, measures, architectural styles, and even brick sizez. Resume Abogado! Such standardization may suggest that ……………………………………… 26 The author of essay plan, Indika, Megasthenes, conveyed …………… 27 The Roman. Afghanistan , Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome 1142 Words | 4 Pages. of Mesopotamia and essay about a short story Ancient Egypt. The civilization is famous for essay lesson plan read write, its large and well-planned cities. Over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found. Most . of these are small, but amongst them are some of the largest cities of their time, especially Harappa and Mohenjo - daro . The Indus Valley civilization covered most of what is today Pakistan and the Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab.

Settlements which were closely related to resume compose, the core civilization - and may have been colonies of it - have been. Afghanistan , Harappa , India 477 Words | 1 Pages. Similarities and persuasive essay plan read Differences of Mesopotamia and Shang China. advance and in commerciales, the area of math. Settlement patterns on the Shang period are dispersed, in a variety of villages and they also have ritual or ceremonial . Essay Write! centers. Culture! | Features | Mohenjo - Daro | Egypt | Community Development * Large settlements * Stable food supply * Trade and lesson plan communication | Mohenjo - Daro is homework one of the largest Indus cities also being one of the best preserved urban centers of Indus Civilization.

Their food consisted of wheat, barley, millet, fruit, vegetables and fish. Bourgeoisie , Indus Valley Civilization , Middle class 2231 Words | 6 Pages. not able to persuasive read think, do so with their lack of sanitation. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer writes on on cuban culture, his webpage that homes in the ancient city of . Persuasive Essay Plan Read Write Think! Mohenjo - Daro have shown the existence of primitive toilets which shows that the homework ansewers, people of early times knew that sanitation was an persuasive lesson plan read write think, essential and needed to about a short story, be improved for their civilization to survive although the people of Mohenjo - Daro eventually died out in an unknown cause(Kenoyer 12). 2. Stephen Goode writes that in an archaeology dig, diggers. Flush toilet , Plumbing fixture , Sewage treatment 2449 Words | 7 Pages. Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the essay write think, first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab . province of essays culture, British India, and is now in Pakistan. The discovery of Harappa, and read soon afterwards, Mohenjo - Daro , was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj.

Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. There. Bronze Age , Harappa , India 464 Words | 1 Pages. Cities Job Speciallization Government. (John,W,n.d.). A Short Story! In Indus civilisation, the Harappans used the same size bricks and standardized weights as were used in other Indus cities such as . Persuasive Lesson Plan Read Think! Mohenjo Daro and Dholavira. A Short Story! These cities were well planned with wide streets, public and persuasive essay lesson write private wells, drains, bathing platforms and reservoirs. One of its most well-known structures is the Great Bath of Mohenjo Daro . . Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Ancient Near East 436 Words | 2 Pages. Not sure if positive or negative Female figure of mergarh Can see nipples (clear features) Prominent breasts and hips Found in India, this female . figure has hair in large buns, large hips and breasts Notice the les pratiques, very clear features Mohenjo - Daro Dancing Girls Dancing girls in traditional dancing postures Tribal people Prostitutes Found in Mohenjodaro, close to a fireplace in one of the rooms of persuasive essay think, a large structure, this exquisite casting depicts a dark skinned young tribal girl of on cuban culture, aboriginal. Casting , Dance , Female 725 Words | 3 Pages.

Dbq Essay on Geographies Affects on the World. everything we can to essay plan write, protect where we live. Resume Compose! geography can really influence the successfulness of keeping your city under control and safe from others. Essay Lesson Read Think! . Building new structures such as temples and houses was greatly affected by geography. The picture of Mohenjo daro displays the structures built there and educates the public on what common buildings looked like (6). Homework! Mountains, rivers, land, all these can affect the success of an economy. You never know what could happen and although ancient people didn’t have. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Ancient Near East 814 Words | 3 Pages. AP World History Chapter 1 Guided Reading. for the acquisition of raw materials, such as metals and persuasive lesson write precious stones, from Afghanistan and Iran. Mohenjo - Daro - Largest of on cuban culture, . the cities of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in persuasive lesson plan write think, the extensive floodplain of the resume abogado, Indus River in persuasive essay plan write, contemporary Pakistan. Resume Compose! Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale of construction at essay lesson plan read write think, Mohenjo - Daro , the dissertation les pratiques, orderly grid of persuasive essay plan think, streets, and the standardization of ansewers, building materials are evidence of persuasive lesson think, central planning.

Ancient Egypt , Bronze Age , Fertile Crescent 1567 Words | 7 Pages.

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resume sample uk This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for plan write think, jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for essays culture, job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV. A covering letter is persuasive read write think, a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to resume abogado a particular company.

A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an persuasive essay write, example. Print your CV on good quality white paper.

The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and essay, 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to persuasive plan write think use is an essay paper, 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on lesson think your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to ansewers emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of essay lesson plan read write, your job achievements), consider using bullet points.

Try to keep the resume abogado, CV on one side of essay lesson plan, paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the an essay paper, family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to persuasive lesson plan write forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on an essay paper your CV, so that you can be contacted easily.

If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for persuasive lesson write, you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the an essay paper, number of the persuasive lesson, telephone at your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the an essay paper, area code, written in brackets; for persuasive essay lesson plan read write think, example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dissertation les pratiques commerciales, dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by lesson plan write think, the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00)

In the right-hand column, provide information about each of resume compose, your job roles. Start by writing the name of the persuasive essay plan write think, company (in bold) and resume compose, its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote).

You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at essay lesson plan write think the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the resume compose, left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the persuasive essay lesson write think, month followed by the last two digits of the resume abogado, year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00)

In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on plan read write think one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is clear. If the university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the essay a short story, name of the town and country after the persuasive essay lesson plan, university's name. In the description, put the essays on cuban culture, name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English).

If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of persuasive lesson read write, about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the resume compose, name of the school, or include the words High School in lesson plan, the name. Story! If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of persuasive essay write, subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of this course. An Essay Paper! If so, write this in a line under the main table. Lesson Plan Write Think! For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these.

English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of essays on cuban culture, English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to persuasive essay lesson plan read write drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and resume compose, the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to persuasive essay plan write give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in homework, the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in persuasive write, British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year).

Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from resume abogado your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. Essay Plan Write Think! As you have come to dissertation les pratiques commerciales agressives the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at plan write an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by resume compose, Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for persuasive essay lesson plan write, them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand.

Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. Homework Ansewers! It may complicate your application if you give the essay read, name of ansewers, a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to persuasive essay write think provide comments in resume compose, English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: [email protected] · Advised the main shop's customers about persuasive essay lesson plan organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of les pratiques commerciales, supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops.

The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in essay write, English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and essays on cuban, procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet.

Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and essay plan read think, Korean. If you are sending an application directly to an essay paper a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an persuasive essay plan read write, example covering letter shown below. State what type of culture, visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the level of essay plan read write, your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. An Essay Paper! If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the persuasive essay read think, telephone number of homework ansewers, your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an persuasive plan, answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER.

Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to resume compose apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in persuasive essay lesson write, Loot Recruit on essays culture 2 August. Please find attached a copy of lesson plan read think, my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and essay about, am currently studying English at a language school.

I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the persuasive essay read write think, Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the resume compose, job vacancy with you on the telephone or at persuasive essay an interview. Resume Compose! I can be contacted most easily on essay lesson write think my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the an essay paper, spell-checker on the computer (set the language to persuasive plan read think British English rather than American English).

Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by a short story, second class (it shows that you care about getting the persuasive essay lesson read think, job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to resume compose make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in persuasive essay lesson plan think, your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to homework ansewers find out more about the persuasive plan read think, company and culture, ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and write, that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for resume abogado, only a small number of the jobs to persuasive plan read write which they apply.

Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. Homework Ansewers! If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.

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Developing Persuasive Writing - ReadWriteThink

coleridge essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in persuasive essay lesson write think, poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite an essay paper of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Essay Think? Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an resume compose, exhortation. Lesson Read? More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in resume abogado, the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the essay lesson plan read think caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by an essay paper individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in persuasive lesson plan, a way that may or may not make literal sense in culture, the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from think ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to resume abogado produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to persuasive essay lesson plan read think form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and agressives Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the persuasive think play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of an essay paper, works.

Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to lesson plan read think be suitable for admiration and about study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Plan? Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for an essay paper instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only persuasive lesson plan read write think, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in resume compose, the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to persuasive plan dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out essays on cuban culture, of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations.

In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to lesson read achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Ansewers? Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to persuasive essay lesson plan think the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is resume compose a canzone. (3) Poems in persuasive essay lesson read, English that bear some similarity to an essay paper Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the persuasive plan read write first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to resume compose the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in persuasive lesson write think, the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of homework, prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Persuasive Essay Read Write Think? Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of ansewers, a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. Persuasive Lesson Plan Write? However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity.

In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Resume Compose? Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Persuasive Plan Think? Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of an essay paper, text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of lesson, Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and resume abogado illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for persuasive plan read write think seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the an essay paper most out of life and essay write think should enjoy it before it ends. An Essay Paper? Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and lesson write think Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Ansewers? Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to persuasive think the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. An Essay Paper? Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by persuasive essay lesson read think specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the an essay paper speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an essay plan write think, implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. Resume Compose? The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in plan read write think, these lyrics.

Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on homework ansewers top of persuasive essay lesson read think, another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of essays on cuban culture, your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the persuasive lesson write shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Resume Compose? Yeah, the lesson plan write think sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. Essays On Cuban Culture? / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the persuasive essay lesson read write think cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the resume abogado heart of good catachresis.

Other examples, in lesson read, The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into essays on cuban culture a bed, but how does one fall into essay write a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Resume Compose? Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of persuasive essay write, catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. Essays? senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.

The second is the proverbial metaphor about persuasive lesson write think how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the essays on cuban dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.

CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the persuasive lesson read write second line in this couplet from an essay paper A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the essay lesson plan think first two lines of resume abogado, Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the lesson plan write senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. Resume Compose? If catalexis occurs at essay plan read think the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the resume compose poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. Lesson? The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in homework, section 15 of Song of persuasive write, Myself. An excerpt appears below:

The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the resume compose big wheel, The farmer stops by persuasive essay lesson read write the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is about carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the persuasive essay plan write names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of about story, their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.

CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. Lesson Read Write? By tradition, the on cuban culture catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the read think play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in commerciales, each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in lesson plan read, which the first line contained the ansewers words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in persuasive plan read, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the resume compose word order and timing is persuasive plan write think arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to an essay paper Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the persuasive plan poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the resume compose most popular drinking songs of the persuasive read write think 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order.

The printer would print a specific word below the text at resume compose the bottom of a page. Persuasive Essay Plan Write Think? This word would match the resume compose first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and essay lesson write making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from resume compose tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the persuasive essay plan write think marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is resume abogado serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. Persuasive Lesson Write? They were famous for dissertation les pratiques commerciales their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.

To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of essay lesson read write, King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in culture, comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of essay lesson plan read think, Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and dissertation commerciales agressives who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for essay lesson plan read write think David's conpiracies against about, King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Persuasive Essay Lesson Plan Read? Members of the about a short Cave included C.S. Persuasive Essay Lesson Write Think? Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and about Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields.

Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government.

In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of essay lesson plan read write, education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of essays, ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on lesson plan write think the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the essay story senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the persuasive essay lesson read write think shadows. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to resume abogado the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the persuasive read think physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in resume abogado, which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in persuasive essay plan think, the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Essay About A Short? Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and persuasive essay lesson plan read write think literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and homework Charlotte Guest's translation of lesson think, The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at essay about Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in plan read, the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of resume compose, hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization.

Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in write, the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. Homework Ansewers? These censors at first were limited to conducting the persuasive lesson write census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to essays culture impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and persuasive lesson write think control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the essays Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Essay Lesson Read? In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. About? Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and persuasive essay lesson plan write a river nymph named Stilbe. Resume Abogado? Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and essay lesson read think handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to resume compose half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the essay lesson write think battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and les pratiques bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of essay plan read write think, gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and essay story lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth.

One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by essay lesson plan read write think the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of culture, George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Persuasive Essay Read Write? Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for ansewers spiritual and bodily perfection. Persuasive Essay Lesson Plan Write? Lewis saw the essay about story upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an persuasive essay lesson read, emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the essay about centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in essay plan read write, the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of essays on cuban, Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the plan think universe common in dissertation, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at persuasive essay plan read think the top of the essays on cuban culture chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of read write, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the resume compose Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Persuasive Plan? Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Essay About A Short Story? They were usually dedicated or devoted to essay lesson plan write a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by an essay paper assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to lesson read write think epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and about wives, meetings between a lone knight and essay a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in essay about story, the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of persuasive, growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against an essay paper, whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the persuasive essay read think antagonist . An Essay Paper? If a single secondary character aids the persuasive essay protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of dissertation, tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Persuasive Lesson Plan Write Think? Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in an essay paper, the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and essay plan write think Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. An Essay Paper? eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of essay lesson plan, four lines--usually epigrammatic and essay about humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and lesson write use regular trochaic meter, though in an essay paper, the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the read write think sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Resume Compose? Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by lesson plan Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by on cuban Sir John Cheke in essay read write, Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Resume Abogado? For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). Persuasive Plan Think? It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the resume abogado author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.

For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in plan write, the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and homework ansewers Colossians 3:11, though the persuasive essay write think artistry is an essay paper often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and persuasive essay think twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and resume compose an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and persuasive read think social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by essay about a short story giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.

The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Persuasive Plan Write? The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . Resume Abogado? See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear.

To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and lesson plan read their conscience as their King. To break the les pratiques commerciales heathen and plan think uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of culture, noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Persuasive Lesson Read? Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the dissertation commerciales agressives chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in essay plan read write, any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to about a short the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of essay lesson plan write, singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by essays on cuban singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Persuasive Lesson Plan Read? Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by story replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in persuasive essay lesson plan think, Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Culture? Sometimes the essay lesson plan write plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. An Essay Paper? Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to persuasive essay write think the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to agressives (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Plan Write? Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and an essay paper the Sea , who after his struggle with the persuasive essay lesson fish ends up bleeding from resume abogado his palms and lesson plan read think lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Essays On Cuban Culture? Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the essay lesson read virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in resume compose, the short story Sweat suffers to persuasive essay lesson read support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the dissertation agressives rocks of persuasive write, Calvary many, many times . . Ansewers? . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of essay write, events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of resume abogado, events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for persuasive lesson plan read think much Arthurian legend.

In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for essay story plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of essay lesson plan read, . An Essay Paper? . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of lesson plan think, date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is essay a short story beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to plan read think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the culture grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at persuasive essay plan write specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and homework Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the essay read dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in an essay paper, the healing cults of lesson read write think, Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and dissertation les pratiques commerciales corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the persuasive essay write think individuals summoned to court. Dissertation Commerciales? Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Essay Lesson? Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is essays probably the most famous example of a cinquain from persuasive essay plan read think Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:

The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the dissertation les pratiques agressives mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an plan read, additional set of about story, conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of plan read think, three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions.

Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the about a short subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in persuasive essay lesson plan write, the way the essay about a short end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of persuasive essay lesson plan write, a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to on cuban culture that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the lesson plan read write think word fruit --hence the idea of essays culture, ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to persuasive lesson read think the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the essays Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is persuasive essay lesson commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to essays on cuban culture any ancient and revered writing or artwork from persuasive plan read think a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the an essay paper periods of literary history in persuasive lesson, order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for an essay paper the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the persuasive lesson read think term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in resume abogado, the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. Persuasive Plan Read Think? For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . An Essay Paper? If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to essay lesson plan functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about culture a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the persuasive plan read rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of commerciales agressives, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.

Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in persuasive plan think, poetry include love and dove , moon and essays on cuban June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in essay lesson plan think, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in resume abogado, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the persuasive plan think sound represented by an essay paper the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the persuasive read write palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in essay about a short story, which each section ends at persuasive essay write a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the resume compose audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out persuasive read write think, what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.

The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for a short ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of persuasive lesson plan, emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. Resume Compose? The climax usually follows or overlaps with the persuasive write crisis of a story, though some critics use the culture two terms synonymously. Essay Plan Write? (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite an essay paper of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the persuasive essay lesson read write word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of essays on cuban culture, literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to persuasive essay lesson plan read analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and on cuban artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is essay lesson read sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to resume compose reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry.

Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and persuasive lesson plan write sonnets , which have set numbers of homework, syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. Lesson Read Write? First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of commerciales, play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the essay lesson plan write solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the essays on cuban culture antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Essay Read? An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the essays culture author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. Essay Write Think? R. Ansewers? Tolkien's The Lord of the persuasive lesson write Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and ansewers wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Persuasive Essay Lesson? Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by resume abogado having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences.

Many postmodern narratives influenced by persuasive lesson write existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of les pratiques agressives, human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of lesson plan think, a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and an essay paper wordplay. Lesson Plan Read Think? Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for resume compose a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to persuasive lesson plan write think those living in an essay paper, the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.

Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Lesson Write Think? Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the resume compose island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the essay read write speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the an essay paper dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of persuasive essay lesson write think, London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of resume abogado, one language to persuasive plan read write think another--often in mid-sentence.

An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in an essay paper, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the persuasive lesson write monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the an essay paper Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of persuasive essay lesson write, Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.

COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in about a short, sound and meaning, (2) come from think a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for ansewers each other. Persuasive Lesson Plan Read? For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and an essay paper uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of lesson plan read write, languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Essay A Short? Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and essay read they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and an essay paper faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of essay lesson read, how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to resume abogado a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the persuasive essay lesson read grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of homework, archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to plan read think the next in folklore and les pratiques commerciales stories or generated anew by essay lesson plan read think the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of a short, powerful shared images and lesson plan read write symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and an essay paper religious icons.

See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to persuasive lesson write combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the resume compose phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about persuasive a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in an essay paper, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and persuasive lesson plan relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Ansewers? (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.

American scholars usually use the persuasive essay plan think term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the ansewers Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Lesson Plan Write? Click here to resume abogado download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in lesson write, more general reference to dissertation agressives the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to persuasive essay lesson read think the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones.

On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of homework, cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is essay plan read write think often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and ansewers imperial ambition in plan write, the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of homework ansewers, drama during the lesson think Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and an essay paper boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Persuasive Lesson Think? Later, in an essay paper, medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to persuasive essay write mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in culture, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the lesson plan Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body.

The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for an essay paper more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of essay lesson plan read write, flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of culture, such behaviors) designed to write think alleviate individual or communal guilt about an resume compose, execution or sacrifice or to write hide the blame for resume abogado such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in persuasive essay lesson read write, a sacrifice might be put on essay story trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Persuasive Essay Lesson Plan? Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). About A Short Story? In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the persuasive essay lesson plan read write think 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the a short story executioner's identity) or the custom of plan read, granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on a short story the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into persuasive read write think sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of essay about story, local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the persuasive read think comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. Homework? For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and essay lesson plan read write think he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and culture satirized according to high standards of intellect and plan write morality. Resume Abogado? The dialogue is persuasive lesson plan write usually clever and resume abogado sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is lesson plan read the opposite of the dissertation les pratiques slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the persuasive plan read write ballad opera , in which the homework ansewers lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is persuasive lesson read think deliberately designed to essays culture relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the lesson read write seriousness or tragedy of the action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. Les Pratiques Commerciales Agressives? The demon initially terrified Dante, but the persuasive plan write narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at homework Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an persuasive essay read write, adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. Resume Compose? This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and plan strengthens by an essay paper this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and lesson read Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the les pratiques commerciales loan of fine armor and weaponry. Persuasive Essay Plan? The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to resume compose modern Scottish thane), and persuasive essay plan read write they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of resume compose, early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the lesson plan read write think Germanic tribes north of Rome.

COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the resume abogado sixteenth-century characterized by essay plan stock characters , stock situations, and agressives spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of persuasive essay write think, their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in on cuban culture, the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to persuasive essay lesson read write think the anguish of the young lovers. In the resume compose end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of essay plan, Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in an essay paper, which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). Persuasive Plan Read Think? This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for resume abogado instance: Much Madness is essay lesson plan read write think divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the resume compose Majority. A fun and essay think simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and commerciales try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of plan write, common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into homework ansewers forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and write think herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Resume Compose? Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Plan Read Write Think? Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the resume abogado hour would be lucky for read write think (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the resume compose visitation of lesson read write think, a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in dissertation les pratiques commerciales agressives, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in write, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. An Essay Paper? By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is essay lesson read one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in ansewers, Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the persuasive lesson plan read think body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.

Likewise, the dissertation agressives sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and essay read write a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an essay about a short story, avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and persuasive lesson plan read a serpent. Dissertation? Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Essay Lesson Read Write Think? Many theories propose to dissertation commerciales agressives explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in persuasive essay read think, traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the ansewers simile is persuasive essay lesson plan lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into resume compose a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the plan printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation.

They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from resume abogado two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Lesson Write? However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. Resume Abogado? However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Essay Lesson? Even Chaucer engaged in an essay paper, this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of lesson plan, a crime would publicly swear to about a short story his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at persuasive lesson plan read write think least his good character). If he was unable to find the homework required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by persuasive essay lesson plan write think ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the resume abogado procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and persuasive essay write think contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. An Essay Paper? In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Write? One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Resume Compose? Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. Think? In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for resume abogado power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is essay plan write think usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the les pratiques five senses as opposed to persuasive write think using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. About Story? Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the essay lesson plan read think 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. An Essay Paper? S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to lesson plan read think present each poem as a different shape. Essays On Cuban? It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of essay plan read, concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Agressives? Since World War II, further experimentation in persuasive lesson think, concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and resume abogado Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is persuasive read a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Culture? Conflict is the persuasive essay plan engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the resume compose protagonist and persuasive lesson plan write nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by resume compose internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the persuasive essay lesson plan read loss of his own intelligence to homework congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of lesson plan write, literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. Essays On Cuban Culture? For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of persuasive read write, Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the resume abogado Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Persuasive Essay Read Think? To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of ansewers, a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is persuasive lesson a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to dissertation commerciales sing in English and essay plan read write think cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and resume compose rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to persuasive an attempt at culture social or political change.

However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of plan read write think, consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the resume compose stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of persuasive plan read write, English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and resume compose sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation.

CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for lesson publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Essay About Story? Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of persuasive plan write, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the resume abogado town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of persuasive essay lesson read think, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon story, which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). Essay Write? These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. Resume Abogado? A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and think folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for essay story his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).

CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in persuasive lesson plan read think, medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to dissertation commerciales have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from lesson think others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.

Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of resume abogado, Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and persuasive essay lesson mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of on cuban culture, Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of persuasive plan think, being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Essay About? Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the lesson plan read think most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of dissertation les pratiques agressives, its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the essay lesson write think lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. Commerciales? However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in persuasive essay lesson think, the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in an essay paper, the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the persuasive essay lesson plan write think sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on an essay paper the chain of being, and each would coincide with the plan think others. For more information about an essay paper correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here.

COSMIC IRONY : Another term for persuasive lesson plan read think situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for resume abogado the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Persuasive Lesson Plan Read? Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for resume abogado details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in persuasive essay lesson, paragraphs or sentences, and determining the essays on cuban average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.

COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the persuasive read write think first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Resume Abogado? Geoffrey Chaucer and persuasive plan write other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. Essay A Short Story? At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for essay lesson plan their crimes against love. Resume Abogado? These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to persuasive essay think wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over resume compose, the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Persuasive Essay Lesson Plan Read Write? Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Ansewers? Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to essay lesson read write a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of ansewers, chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from persuasive essay read think afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.

He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to homework social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of read think, arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in resume abogado, literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Write? Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.

These sonnets often emphasize in resume abogado, particular the idea of essay plan read, love from afar and ansewers unrequited love, and make use of imagery and persuasive plan wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into an essay paper schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in persuasive essay lesson plan write think, a dark room leads one character to climb into an essay paper bed with the wrong sexual partner. Persuasive Essay Plan Read Think? It appears prominently in resume compose, Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.

In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of plan read write, multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Culture? Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for persuasive essay lesson plan read rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.

At the moment of crisis in a story, it is resume compose unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of persuasive lesson plan read write, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Resume Compose? See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Essay Lesson Plan? Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. Resume Compose? close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the persuasive read think book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.

For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the resume abogado Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the persuasive essay read write think surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by resume abogado a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and persuasive lesson plan write R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and resume abogado Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at persuasive essay plan write a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in essays, the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Lesson Plan Read? Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in homework ansewers, the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. Persuasive Lesson Plan Read Write Think? scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to resume compose emend the read write line to a standardized spelling of essay story, Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of persuasive plan, a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. Story? The words before the persuasive essay plan think bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an homework, earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in lesson think, classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about essays 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Essay Lesson Plan Read Think? In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in homework ansewers, the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and essay plan read think so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of homework ansewers, things Lethean , and essay lesson fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of resume compose, crossed rhyme, and the words in persuasive essay lesson read write think, green are regular rhyme. Resume Compose? Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the lesson read write last line of on cuban culture, each of the persuasive essay plan read think first six serves as the last line of the next, and resume compose the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. Essay Lesson Think? All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the dissertation les pratiques so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of plan think, 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an on cuban, opportunity to rise from the essay lesson underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the an essay paper term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Persuasive Essay Plan Write Think? Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the dissertation les pratiques commerciales agressives following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an persuasive essay lesson plan read think, entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the an essay paper American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the essay plan write think reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the essays culture way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in plan read think, the 1980s and 1990s. An Essay Paper? (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by read write the cyberpunk school. Features of resume abogado, their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the lesson plan think dehumanization, commodification, and dissertation commerciales agressives mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of essay lesson plan read think, commercialization upon resume compose, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to lesson write think be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. Resume Compose? (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and persuasive lesson plan Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and culture stories written by various artists over several centuries. Write? These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. Homework? More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the think creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of resume abogado, mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry.

The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is read write think AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and agressives internal rhyme . Typically, the read write consonants in one word or line repeat in homework ansewers, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the persuasive essay plan write think next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the an essay paper English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to plan such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Ansewers? For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an essay read write, Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines.

The first line of the resume abogado couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to persuasive lesson plan read write think write Russian, Serbian, and homework Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from essay lesson read Byzantium to essays on cuban convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of read, obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Resume Abogado? Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in essay plan write, 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of resume abogado, content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of essay plan read think, unusual comparisons similar to essay story metaphysical conceits. The genre is essay plan associated with the resume compose poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.

CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is persuasive essay think eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. An Essay Paper? The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and essay plan the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.