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Arguable defensible thesis

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bio lab reports Our AP Biology lab activities are designed to provide a wide variety of experiences. Thesis? They will fall into two general categories: observational or skill labs, and experimental labs.#8221; Observational labs will mainly involve watching or observing natural phenomena occur or performing some scientific technique, while experimental labs will involve science process skills, such as hypothesis formation, manipulation of variables, gathering, tabulating and graphically displaying data, etc. In college, lab report requirements vary greatly. Some are quite rigorous and require that a review of the pertinent scientific literature be included in writing a leadership, the introduction. Since we are greatly limited by time in this course, our write-ups will be brief and less rigorous than ones that you may do in college. It is essential that you prepare for labs before coming to class. You will be required to keep a lab notebook in thesis, which you will write prelabs, record data, and papers skills, note any conclusions or thoughts that you have as you perform each lab.

At the beginning of class on arguable defensible lab days, prelabs will be checked. The following components should be completed: 1. Title and date of the lab. 2. Purpose - 1-2 sentences describing the major goal of the types, experiment. 3. Procedure - an easy to follow numbered list of steps that will be performed in thesis, the lab, written in your own words. For labs with several parts, divide your procedure accordingly. Diversity Medical School Class Essay? You may wish to sketch diagrams to help you visualize the steps of the lab. Once you are. done, you should be able to do your lab report without consulting with the defensible, lab book.

4. List the following: independent and prepare a job resume, dependent variables, control and experimental groups, constants, and hypothesis. 5. Data - As you write your prelab, create all the data tables you will need. Read the arguable thesis, procedure. carefully to determine all the information you will be recording, and organize it neatly. Writing Paper? Remember to include units at the top of each column. 1. Fill in your data tables. 2. Note any changes that you make to the procedure. 3. Arguable? Conclusions - Leave a space where you can jot down notes and other thoughts during the lab.

This will help you to papers communication skills, write your lab report later. Lab reports are due two days after the completion of the lab in arguable defensible thesis, class. This gives you enough time to ask any questions about the prepare a job resume, lab or get help with concepts you don#8217;t understand. Arguable? Lab reports must be typed, handwritten work will not be accepted (exception: data tables and graphs may be done by prepare, neatly hand). 1/2 credit will be given to arguable, lab reports that are late, up to 24 hours. Remember that if you are tardy to class the day any assignment is due, your assignment will be counted late.

After 24 hours, reports will not be accepted. Medical Essay? Keep all returned lab reports. Labs constitute a significant portion of the AP exams. All experimental labs should follow this format: The Effect of ______ on _________. Be concise. (Instead of, #8220;environmental stimuli such as light and moisture#8221; write, #8220;light and arguable thesis, moisture#8221;). Always list the specific variables you tested. Include the scientific name of organisms involved. Methods: What procedures were followed, what purposes did they serve, and essay, what materials and equipment were used? For experimental labs and AP Labs, be sure to identify the independent and dependent variables, the constants, and the control group. For observational labs explain what you did. Never use personal pronouns.

Do not create a list of materials, just include them within the context of your procedure. At the beginning of your procedure, explain the #8216;big picture#8217; of the lab. Explain what biological processes we are trying to learn more about. If the lab has several sections, revisit this in each section. Include relevant vocabulary terms in a way that demonstrates your knowledge. Write in the past tense. Your purpose is to communicate what you#8217;ve done, not give someone directions. Use the impersonal tense. (Instead of, #8220;We made choice chambers. Arguable? .#8220; write, #8220;Choice chambers were made. . #8220;). Explain how data were gathered.

Include your hypothesis, and briefly explain your reasoning. Term Papers Non Verbal Communication Skills? When writing your hypothesis, be as specific as possible about what you are measuring. Ex: If pill bugs are given a choice, they will prefer a moist environment to a dry one. Better: If pill bugs are placed in a choice chamber, more will be found on the moist side than on the dry side at any given interval. If you performed any statistical analysis, including calculating an average, this should be in your procedure. Defensible Thesis? Include the scientific name of the organism you are testing, and how you obtained your specimens. Results: This part of the chapter, report will display, in table form and with a proper title, the defensible thesis, data that you collected. It should also include any graphs labeled properly and in proper graph form.

It should be neatly and clearly presented. If the chapter, lab is observational in nature, you should include diagrams and/or descriptions of structures (labeled as instructed), chemical reactions, behaviors, etc. DO NOT FUDGE YOUR DATA!! Put only the data that you, or your lab group, or the class collected, not what you think that you should have seen. Defensible Thesis? Use graph paper to graphically display your data wherever appropriate. Give figures a number and a title, too. Figures are any kind of papers non verbal, drawing or picture, and graphs. Arguable? Ex: Figure 1: Pill bug (top view) Figure 2: Pill bug (side view) Figure 3: Average number of pill bugs present in chapter components, wet choice chamber. (In the arguable defensible thesis, above example, the first 2 figures are drawings, the third is a graph.) When graphing your data, only graph the average values of your trials, not the data from every trial. (Often, the reason why several trials are done is so we can average them and 1 thesis components, reduce error). Be sure to label your axes and arguable defensible, include relevant units. If necessary, include a key.

Discussion: Here you present a summary of the data generated by the lab. Put into your own words what the essay about the internet, numbers or observations tell you. How do you interpret the data or observations in light of your hypothesis or your own expectations? Do not make the mistake of arguable, looking for non verbal communication the right answer and please do not ask, what was supposed to arguable defensible, happen? Nature does not lie, but is often frustratingly difficult to figure out. In this section you must discuss YOUR results. If you come up with results that do not make sense, examine your methods and materials for an argumentative essay the internet sources of experimental error and thesis, describe them here. For purely observational exercises, your discussion should include reactions to what you have just done and learned. Additionally, error should be thoroughly discussed. This is, perhaps, the most important part of the lab discussion.

Your discussion of term non verbal, error will help the reader decide whether or not your experiment is valid or invalid. Note: for our purposes in this class, measurement errors are not acceptable because this could be used as an excuse on every lab, and does not that you are thinking on how the design or execution of arguable defensible, this experiment could be improved. It is assumed by your instructor that measurements were take accurately. Refer to types of classification, your tables and figures and explain important findings. Use your data to support your statements. Only use the word #8220;significant#8221; if you#8217;ve done a statistical analysis. (Significant means something different to scientists than it does in arguable defensible thesis, a nonscientific sense). Your hypotheses can be #8220;supported#8221; or #8220;not supported#8221; by diversity medical class essay, the data, they cannot be #8220;proved#8221; or #8220;disproved.#8221; Use the impersonal tense. Arguable Thesis? (Rather than #8220;We believe . A Leadership Paper? . . Arguable Defensible Thesis? ,#8221; write, #8220;It was found. Prepare A Job Resume? . . .#8221;). Thesis? Always be as specific as you possibly can be. (Instead of #8220;Most of the time . . . ,#8221; write #8220;For 7 of the 10 time intervals examined. Types Of Classification? . . .#8221;). Don#8217;t describe your data as #8220;vague#8221; or #8220;inconclusive.#8221; If a trend that you thought would exist, doesn#8217;t, that doesn#8217;t mean the data are vague. The absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

When describing sources of error, don#8217;t include irregularities in the environment that you controlled. Arguable Defensible Thesis? (Ex: The florescent lights in our room affect your control group the same as your experimental group, because they are on types essays the whole time. Therefore, they#8217;re not a source of error. This is why we do a control in the first place!) Always be exact in your terminology. (Ex: #8220;dry choice chamber#8221; is better than #8220;dry environment#8221;). Be sure you have a complete understanding of terms before you use them. Arguable? (Ex: Concluding that pill bug behavior is a leadership a taxis because it was a #8216;response to defensible, a stimulus#8217; is incorrect. Kinesis is also a response to a stimulus, its a random response rather than a directed one). Be grammatically correct with your use of the word #8220;data.#8221; #8220;Data#8221; is the plural of #8220;datum.#8221; (If your not sure, substitute the word #8220;numbers#8221; instead of data.

Instead of, #8220;This data shows. .#8220; write, #8220;These data show . . #8220;). Whenever trying to explain a behavior or an adaptation, it may help to look at it from an argumentative essay about the internet a natural selection perspective. (Think: How is arguable it an advantage to about, the pill bugs survival and/or reproduction to find a moist environment?) Be aware of what you are measuring. (A pill bug#8217;s #8216;preferences,#8217; #8216;desires,#8217; or #8216;needs,#8217; are not measurable. Its movement, or its presence in a certain choice chamber, is measurable). Analysis questions: In this section, put the answers to ALL questions asked within the thesis, lab, and at the end of the lab. Answers should be given in complete sentences.

Remember, the write-up is due 2 days after the labs are completed in class.

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Arguable defensible thesis

La Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis et la decision Hamdan c. Defensible! Rumsfeld. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. La decision de la Cour Supreme dans Hamdan c. Types Essays! Rumsfeld le 29 juin 2006, vint clarifier un certain nombre de considerations legales concernant les commissions militaires autorisees par le president George W. Arguable! Bush par un ordre militaire du 13 novembre 2001, a la suite des attentats du 11 septembre sur le World Trade Center et le Pentagone – ordre qui souleva de vives polemiques et qui prit par surprise le secretaire d’Etat Colin Powell et la conseillere a la Securite nationale Condoleezza Rice [1] [1] Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker, 3 juillet. Chapter 1 Thesis! . L’administration Bush avait soutenu dans l’affaire Hamdan que les pouvoirs inherents qui appartiennent au president aux termes de l’article II incluaient le plein pouvoir de creer des commissions militaires. Thesis! Aux termes de cette position, il n’etait donc pas besoin de solliciter une loi a cet effet aupres du Congres. Writing A Leadership Paper! Telle qu’elle fut exprimee dans le brief du departement de la Justice, cette position de l’administration affirme que les pouvoirs presidentiels aux termes de l’article II « incluent le pouvoir inherent de creer des commissions militaires meme en l’absence d’autorisation statutaire specifique, parce que ce pouvoir est un element essentiel des pouvoirs de guerre [du president] et existe de longue date » [2] [2] Brief for thesis Respondents, Hamdan c. Chapter 1 Thesis! Rumsfeld, N° 05-184. Arguable! . Term Papers Communication Skills! En consequence, soutient l’administration Bush, tout au long de l’histoire de la nation, les presidents successifs ont exerce le pouvoir inherent dont ils disposent en tant que commandants en chef pour etablir des commissions militaires sans autorisation du Congres [3] [3] Ibid., p. Defensible! 22. Chapter! . Arguable Defensible! Et l’administration se fonda sur les precedents offerts par des causes similaires pour soutenir que le president pouvait determiner que les protections accordees aux prisonniers de guerre et aux detenus aux termes de la Convention de Geneve ne s’appliquaient pas a Al-Qaida en Afghanistan ou ailleurs, et que les detenus d’Al-Qaida ne pouvaient etre consideres comme prisonniers de guerre [4] [4] Ibid., p. Prepare! 38. Arguable! . Papers Non Verbal Communication! Une position qui souleve de nombreuses critiques aux Etats-Unis et notamment au sein de ce qu’on en vint a appeler la quatrieme branche du gouvernement. Defensible Thesis! « Ce president a mis en avant des theses qui sont reellement alarmantes, commente le New Yorker . A Job Resume! D’apres lui, il n’est pas de limites a son pouvoir, tel qu’il le concoit, de rassembler des informations, d’ouvrir le courrier, d’avoir recours a la torture, et d’utiliser des moyens de surveillance electronique. Arguable Defensible Thesis! Si nous suivons le raisonnement du president, nous pourrions nous permettre de mettre le Congres hors d’etat de fonctionner en raison de l’etendue des fuites d’information qui proviennent des membres du corps legislatif. Chapter 1 Thesis Components! » [5] [5] Voir Jane Mayer, art. Arguable Defensible! cit., pp. An Argumentative Essay About! 44-45. Dans Hamdan , la Cour Supreme soutint que les commissions militaires du genre de celles qui etaient etablies par l’administration n’etaient expressement autorisees par aucune loi ( statute ) du Congres. Defensible! La loi en vigueur, y compris l’article 21 du Uniform Code of a job Military Justice (UCMJ), ne reconnait pas au president un mandat pour autoriser toute sorte de commission qu’il decide d’etablir. Arguable Thesis! La Cour ne trouva pas non plus de justification dans le texte meme ou dans l’histoire legislative de l’ Authorization for types essays Use of arguable Military Force (AUMF), qui fut adopte apres les evenements du 11 septembre 2001, qui entendait etendre la portee de l’autorisation reconnue aux termes de l’article 21 ou en modifier les termes [6] [6] Hamdan c. Diversity School Class! Rumsfeld, 126 S.Ct. Arguable Thesis! 2749, 2006. Medical Essay! . Arguable Thesis! L’AUMF fut adopte afin d’autoriser les operations militaires contre l’Afghanistan.

Aucun membre du Congres ne fit mention, au cours des debats legislatifs portant sur l’AUMF, de l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires. Resume! La Cour ne trouva pas non plus d’autorite pour etablir des telles commissions dans le Detainee Treatment Act du 30 decembre 2005. Arguable Defensible Thesis! Cette loi fut promulguee par le Congres afin de fournir des criteres uniformes pour l’interrogation de personnes detenues par le departement de la Defense. Of Classification Essays! Dans l’une des sections de cette loi (la section 1005), le Congres mentionna les commissions militaires, mais la Cour considera cette reference insuffisante pour justifier legalement des commissions comme celles envisagees ou creees par l’administration. Arguable Defensible Thesis! Ainsi, la Cour identifia dans l’etablissement des commissions militaires des deficiences fondamentales du point de vue de la separation des pouvoirs. Types Essays! Les commissions comme celles qui etaient envisagees ou etablies par l’administration « risquaient de concentrer entre les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir de juger et de sanctionner qui excedait celui qui fut envisage par la loi ou par la Constitution ». La Cour decida que la commission militaire etablie par l’administration violait pour ce qui est de sa structure meme et de ses procedures a la fois l’UCMJ et les quatre Conventions de Geneve. Thesis! La haute juridiction conclut en effet que l’article 36 de l’UCMJ n’avait pas ete respecte, parce que le president avait mis en avant des justifications insuffisantes pour s’ecarter des procedures qui gouvernaient les cours martiales. A Leadership Paper! La Cour s’inquieta de ce que l’accuse et son conseil civil « pouvaient etre exclus et empeches de connaitre quelles preuves furent presentees au cours d’une partie quelconque du proces que l’autorite qui avait etabli la commission ou l’officier qui la presidait decideraient d’“interdire” ». Arguable Defensible Thesis! Egalement inquietant etait le fait que ni « les temoignages devant la commission, ni les depositions des temoins ne devaient etre faits sous serment ».

L’administration n’etait pas tenue de suivre chacune des procedures etablies dans l’UCMJ, mais tout ecart vis-a-vis de ces procedures devait etre proportionne a l’exigence qui l’avait rendu necessaire. Of Classification! Or il s’agit la d’une exigence a laquelle l’administration ne s’etait pas conformee. Arguable Thesis! A moins d’etre impraticables, les regles etablies aux termes du Manual for types essays Courts-Martial « devaient s’appliquer aux commissions militaires ». Thesis! Or rien dans les documents soumis a la Cour ne montrait qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles et procedures des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece. Writing Paper! Le fait que l’administration soit incapable de demontrer le caractere impraticable ou le fait qu’elle ne veuille pas le faire est particulierement troublant lorsqu’on le considere a la lumiere de l’echec evident de l’administration quant au respect de l’une des protections les plus fondamentales reconnues non seulement par le Manual for arguable defensible thesis Courts-Martial , mais aussi par l’UCMJ : le droit pour l’accuse d’etre present. La Haute cour s’exprima en ces termes : La commission militaire, un tribunal qui n’est ni mentionne dans la Constitution ni cree par statut, est nee de la necessite militaire. Papers! La necessite seule ne peut justifier l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires penaux et le recours a de tels tribunaux qui n’ont pas ete envisages par l’article I § 8 et l’article II § 1 de la Constitution, a moins qu’une autre partie de ce document n’autorise une reponse a une telle necessite lorsque celle-ci se fait ressentir […].

Et cette autorite, si elle existe, peut seulement decouler de pouvoirs confies de facon concurrente au president et au Congres en temps de guerre […]. Thesis! Pris ensemble, continue la Cour, l’UCMJ, l’AUMF et le DTA reconnaissent tout au plus une autorite presidentielle d’etablir des commissions militaires dans des circonstances qui seraient justifiees aux termes de la Constitution et des lois, y compris la loi de la guerre. Term Non Verbal Communication! En l’absence d’une autorisation plus specifique de la part du Congres, le devoir de la Cour est de decider comme elle l’a fait dans [Ex parte] Quirin si la commission militaire qui doit juger Hamdan est justifiee. Ayant ecarte les objections d’ordre juridictionnel, le juge Stevens affirma qu’« aucune des actions que Hamdan etait accuse d’avoir commis ne constitue une violation du droit de la guerre ». Arguable Defensible! Ces faits a eux seuls jettent un doute sur le caractere legal de l’accusation, et en consequence, de la commission elle-meme. Types Of Classification! […] Le delit dont on defensible thesis accuse Hamdan « n’est pas susceptible d’etre juge par une commission militaire etablie aux termes du droit de la guerre […]. Prepare A Job! Il n’est pas suggere que le Congres, en exercant son autorite constitutionnelle de “definir et de punir […] les delits contre le droit des gens” a identifie le “complot” ou la “conspiration” comme constituant un crime de guerre ». Arguable Defensible Thesis! Or, « sans autorisation explicite de la part du Congres », on types of classification encourt le risque de « concentrer dans les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir judiciaire et punitif au-dela de ce qui fut envisage par les lois ou par la Constitution ». Que le gouvernement ait inculpe Hamdan d’un delit contre la loi de la guerre susceptible d’etre juge par commission militaire ou non, « la commission n’a pas le pouvoir de juger Hamdan, affirma le juge Stevens pour la majorite. Arguable Thesis! L’UCMJ soumet le recours par le president a des commissions militaires a l’exigence de conformite non seulement avec la common law of term papers non verbal communication skills war mais aussi avec le reste de l’UCMJ, en tant qu’il s’applique, et avec les regles et les preceptes du droit des gens » [7] [7] Hamdan c. Defensible Thesis! Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., Ibid. Class Essay! , y compris, entre autres, les quatre Conventions de Geneve signees en 1949. En plus de vices de procedures que le juge Stevens identifia, notamment en ce qui concerne le mode d’administration de preuves au sein de la commission et l’acces par l’accuse aux preuves et temoignages introduits contre lui, il souligna que « les procedures gouvernant les proces par commission militaire historiquement ont ete les memes que celles gouvernant les cours martiales. Arguable! […] Le principe d’uniformite n’est pas inflexible ; il n’exclut pas une deviation des procedures dictees par le recours aux cours martiales. Papers Non Verbal! Mais toute deviation doit etre a la mesure de l’exigence qui l’a rendue necessaire. Arguable Defensible! […] Les regles mises en avant dans le Manual for types of classification Courts-Martial doivent etre appliquees aux commissions militaires a moins qu’elles ne soient impraticables. Arguable Defensible! […] Rien dans les documents ou dossiers qui nous sont soumis ne montre qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece » [8] [8] Ibid. Chapter! . Enfin, la Cour affirma que les procedures adoptees par l’administration pour les tribunaux militaires violaient les Conventions de Geneve. Defensible Thesis! Une cour federale inferieure avait ecarte cet argument aux motifs suivants : (1) Les Conventions de Geneve ne sont pas susceptibles d’etre mises en ?uvre devant les tribunaux ; (2) dans tous les cas, le demandeur dans le cas d’espece (Salim Ahmed Hamdan) ne jouissait pas du droit de se prevaloir de la protection de ces conventions et (3) meme dans un tel cas, l’abstention judiciaire etait en l’occurrence la reponse la plus appropriee a sa demande.

En ce qui concerne ce dernier point, les cours federales conclurent qu’elles devaient attendre l’issue d’un proces militaire en cours avant de pouvoir connaitre d’une mise en cause de ce meme proces. Essay! La Cour Supreme rejeta chacun de ces trois arguments. Arguable Defensible Thesis! Quels que soient les droits qui devaient etre reconnus a Hamdan, la Cour decida que ces droits faisaient partie du droit de la guerre. Term Papers Non Verbal Skills! De plus le respect du droit de la guerre est « la condition en vertu de laquelle l’autorite mise en avant aux termes de l’article 21 est reconnue ». Arguable Thesis! La Cour decida qu’il etait au moins une disposition des Conventions de Geneve qui s’appliquait a l’affaire Hamdan – l’article 3 auquel l’on se refere souvent comme le Common Article 3 (article 3 commun) parce qu’il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Types! Le Common Article 3 prevoit [9] [9] L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Defensible! qu’en cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions qui « protegent les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par […] la detention ». Diversity School Class! L’une de ces dispositions interdit que des condamnations soient prononcees et des executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Arguable! La cour federale d’appel fut d’accord avec la these de l’administration selon laquelle le Common Article 3 ne s’appliquait pas a Hamdan, puisque le conflit avec Al-Qaida avait bel et bien une portee internationale et n’appartenait donc pas a la categorie susmentionnee de « conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international ». Of Classification! La Cour Supreme considera que ce raisonnement etait errone.

Le conflit avec Al-Qaida etait bel et bien inclus dans les protections minimales prevues par le Common Article 3 . La Cour s’exprima ainsi : L’Executif […] soutient que la guerre avec Al-Qaida echappe a la portee des Conventions de Geneve. Arguable! Nous […] sommes en desaccord avec cette conclusion. Medical School Essay! Le conflit avec Al-Qaida n’est pas, d’apres le gouvernement, un conflit auquel s’appliquent toutes les protections reconnues aux prisonniers aux termes des Conventions de Geneve de 1949 parce que l’article 2 de ces Conventions (qui apparait dans chacune des quatre Conventions) rend les protections dans leur entierete applicables seulement aux cas de guerre declaree ou tout autre conflit arme qui pourrait avoir lieu entre deux ou plus des Etats signataires. Defensible! Etant donne que Hamdan a ete capture et detenu a l’occasion du conflit avec Al-Qaida et non au cours du conflit avec les Talibans, et puisque Al-Qaida, contrairement a l’Afghanistan, n’est pas un [Etat signataire] desdites conventions, les protections de ces conventions ne sont pas, soutient le gouvernement, applicables a Hamdan. Nous n’avons pas besoin de decider cet argument sur le fond car il est au moins une clause des Conventions de Geneve qui s’applique au cas d’espece, meme si le conflit en question n’en est pas un entre des parties contractantes. Prepare Resume! L’article 3, auquel on defensible thesis se refere souvent comme Common Article 3 parce que, comme l’article 2, il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve, prevoit qu’en cas de « conflit qui n’ait pas de caractere international qui se deroulerait sur le territoire de l’un des Etats signataires, chaque partie au conflit serait tenue d’appliquer, au minimum », certaines clauses protegeant « les personnes qui ne prennent pas de part active a ces hostilites, y compris les membres des forces armees qui ont depose les armes et qui ont ete mis hors de combat par […] la detention ». Prepare A Job Resume! L’une de ces clauses interdit que des sentences soient prononcees et des executions mises en ?uvre sans que des jugements prealables soient rendus par une cour dument constituee, et reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires qui sont admises comme etant indispensables par les nations civilisees [10] [10] Voir Hamdan c. Defensible Thesis! Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., p. An Argumentative The Internet! 73. Arguable Thesis! . La Cour conceda que l’expression « cour dument constituee » n’est pas specifiquement definie ni dans le Common Article 3 ni dans les commentaires l’accompagnant, mais que d’autres sources venaient eclaircir le sens qu’on devait essentiellement lui donner. Types Of Classification Essays! Les tribunaux regulierement constitues incluent « les tribunaux militaires ordinaires » mais excluent « tous les tribunaux speciaux ». Arguable Thesis! L’un des traites de la Croix Rouge definit « les tribunaux regulierement constitues » tel que l’expression est utilisee dans l’article 3 commun comme signifiant « etabli et organise en conformite avec les lois et les procedures qui sont deja en vigueur dans un pays donne ». Chapter 1 Thesis! Les tribunaux militaires regulierement constitues des Etats-Unis sont les cours martiales etablies par les lois du Congres, et non les commissions militaires etablies par le president Bush. La decision de la Cour forca l’administration a chercher aupres du Congres l’autorite legislative necessaire.

Hamdan marqua en effet un rejet clair et significatif du raisonnement legal et constitutionnel adopte par l’administration et pourtant les hauts fonctionnaires de la branche executive repondirent comme s’il n’etait pas de failles serieuses dans la structure et les procedures qu’ils avaient adoptees pour les commissions militaires. Defensible! Au cours des auditions du Congres, les membres de la branche executive du gouvernement qui comparurent pour temoigner, furent d’avis qu’il suffisait au Congres d’adopter une loi qui endosserait ce que l’administration avait propose avant que la decision de la Cour n’ait ete rendue. Diversity Class Essay! Au cours d’une audition devant la commission des affaires judiciaires du Senat, le 11 juillet 2006, Steven Bradbury, haut responsable du departement de la Justice, affirma que la Haute Cour « n’avait pas aborde le pouvoir constitutionnel du president et ne s’etait prononcee sur le fond sur aucune question constitutionnelle » [11] [11] Temoignage de Steven G. Arguable Defensible Thesis! Bradbury, 11 juillet 2006. An Argumentative About The Internet! . Arguable! Il s’agit la d’un bien etrange argument. Class Essay! Il est clair que la Cour s’est bel et bien prononcee sur une question constitutionnelle de fond lorsqu’elle rejeta la position de l’administration selon laquelle le president possedait une autorite suffisante aux termes de l’article II de la Constitution et n’avait nul besoin d’une loi du Congres. Arguable Thesis! De plus, la Cour se fonda sur le pouvoir du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution afin d’adopter les Articles of resume War 21 et 36 et d’exiger que le president se conformat a ces articles. Arguable Defensible Thesis! Bradbury tourna en derision la decision de la Cour en soulignant que « la notion meme selon laquelle les militaires devaient lire sur le champ de bataille aux ennemis combattants faits prisonniers leurs droits aux termes de la decision Miranda n’a aucun sens » [12] [12] Ibid. Essays! . Arguable! Ces propos critiquaient implicitement la Cour pour une position qu’elle n’avait cependant jamais adoptee ou meme suggeree. Papers! Bradbury insista que la Cour dans Hamdan « n’avait pas decide que les Conventions de Geneve dans leur ensemble s’appliquent a notre conflit avec Al-Qaida ou que les membres d’Al-Qaida ont droit aux privileges qui accompagnent le statut de prisonnier de guerre ». Arguable! La Cour a bel et bien affirme, cependant, que les criteres essentiels contenus dans l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve s’appliquent au conflit avec Al-Qaida [13] [13] Ibid. Types! . Bradbury prevint que l’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve « devrait etre interprete comme s’appliquant uniquement aux transgressions serieuses ». Defensible! Il considera qu’il etait « indeniable que certains des termes de l’article 3 commun etaient intrinsequement vagues », comme la prohibition concernant « les atteintes a la dignite des personnes », et notamment « les traitements humiliants et degradants ». An Argumentative About! Il souligna que le document etait vague quant au sens qu’il fallait donner aux « garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises » [14] [14] Ibid., p. Arguable Defensible Thesis! 5. Of Classification! . Thesis! Au cours de ces memes auditions, Daniel Dell’Orto, du conseil juridique du departement de la Defense, entreprit lui aussi de critiquer la Cour de maniere injustifiee. Of Classification Essays! Il invita le Congres a adopter des procedures « visant a eviter le resultat absurde qui reviendrait a reconnaitre des protections aux terroristes que les citoyens Americains ne recoivent pas devant les cours civiles » [15] [15] Declaration de Daniel Dell’Orto, Principal p. Arguable Thesis! 1 ; . An Argumentative Essay About! . Arguable! Il ajouta qu’il n’etait simplement pas praticable en temps de guerre de reunir des preuves d’une facon conforme aux exigences strictes des procedures penales [16] [16] Ibid., p. An Argumentative Essay About The Internet! 2. Defensible! . Essay About The Internet! C’etait la une question a laquelle le Congres devait faire face en decidant si les preuves obtenues des detenus par la force pouvaient etre utilisees contre eux devant les tribunaux. Au cours d’auditions devant la Commission des services armes de la Chambre le 12 juillet 2006, un legislateur suggera : « nous pourrions simplement ratifier ce que la branche executive et le departement de la Defense ont fait et aller de l’avant ». Arguable Defensible Thesis! « Ce serait en effet une maniere souhaitable de proceder » [17] [17] Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in prepare a job Congress Over Military. Defensible! , souligna Dell’Orto. Diversity Essay! Mais d’autres membres du Congres mirent en garde contre cet esprit cavalier. Arguable Defensible! Le senateur Lindsey Graham, fort de son experience d’avocat specialiste des questions militaires remarqua que « l’idee de valider les commissions militaires telles qu’elles avaient ete concues et etablies serait une erreur » [18] [18] Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to prepare a job resume Change. Arguable Thesis! . Les auditions du Congres revelerent une division importante entre les avocats civils et militaires au sein de l’administration.

Les avocats des services militaires s’opposaient au recours a des preuves fondees sur des ouie-dires ou obtenues par la force. Prepare Resume! Ils protestaient egalement contre la pratique selon laquelle des preuves fondees sur des informations classees secretes pouvaient etre communiquees a l’avocat de la defense mais pas a l’accuse [19] [19] R. Thesis! Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan. Term Communication! . Arguable Defensible Thesis! Les avocats civils qui avaient redige les nouvelles procedures ne voyaient cependant pas d’inconvenient a denier aux accuses le droit de confronter les temoins a charge ou meme de leur refuser le droit d’etre presents a leur propre proces [20] [20] R. The Internet! Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand. Arguable! . Medical! Pour John D. Arguable! Hutson, l’avocat le plus en vue de la Marine entre 1997 et 2000, les procedures proposees par l’administration lui permettraient d’opposer a un detenu : « Nous savons que vous etes coupable. An Argumentative Essay About The Internet! Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire pour quelles raisons, mais il est une personne, dont on arguable defensible ne peut vous dire qui elle est, qui nous a donne certaines informations a ce sujet. Of Classification Essays! Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire quelles sont ces informations, mais vous en etes coupable » [21] [21] Ibid. Arguable Thesis! . Chapter! Si des informations ou des preuves sont classees secretes et ne peuvent etre partagees avec l’accuse, ou si l’identite d’un informateur ne peut etre revelee, il est une pratique qui consiste en ce que ce soit l’administration qui en subisse les consequences en abandonnant l’accusation [22] [22] Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the arguable defensible, Name of writing a leadership paper National Security. Arguable Defensible! . Les auditions du Congres soulignerent egalement l’importance de la reciprocite dans toute decision concernant les commissions militaires. Types! Au cours des auditions qui furent tenues devant la commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout 2006, le senateur Graham avanca le raisonnement suivant : La reciprocite est le facteur essentiel qui me guide dans cette decision. Defensible Thesis! Ne faisons rien au sein de ce comite que nous ne souhaiterions pas voir appliquer a nos propres troupes. Diversity School Class! La question revient donc pour moi a se demander, si un soldat de l’armee americaine vient a etre juge en territoire etranger, souhaiterions-nous que ce proces soit mene de telle maniere que le jury puisse recevoir des informations concernant la culpabilite de l’accuse sans que cette information ne soit partagee avec l’accuse, et que cette personne soit soumise a la peine de mort ? Il m’est difficile d’accepter cette idee. Arguable! Le fait d’informer l’avocat de l’accuse ne me satisfait pas non plus car je pense que la plupart des avocats ressentent une obligation morale et ethique de partager leurs informations avec leur client.

Ce que la Cour fit dans Hamdan revenait a restituer au Congres le pouvoir constitutionnel qui lui appartenait aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution, mais qu’il avait refuse d’exercer. Papers Communication! La decision enleva egalement aux mains de l’administration une procedure se fondant sur des commissions militaires qui etaient censees assurer « une justice rapide », mais qui avaient en fait echoue de maniere lamentable au cours des cinq dernieres annees a poursuivre en justice et a condamner ne serait-ce qu’un seul terroriste presume. Arguable! L’un des membres de la commission du Senat parla du systeme mis en place par l’administration comme d’« un effort desorganise mene par une poignee d’avocats relativement peu experimentes pour poursuivre en justice des accuses de petite envergure dans un proces qui apparait comme etant truque ». L’une des vertus d’une democratie est la possibilite de debattre de questions de politique publique de facon ouverte, ce qui oblige les hauts responsables a justifier et defendre leurs programmes et a obtenir l’autorite du pouvoir legislatif avant de les mettre en ?uvre. Writing A Leadership! Le succes n’est jamais garanti, mais cette maniere de proceder offre bien plus d’espoir et de legitimite que l’approche unilaterale, ancree dans le secret, pronee par l’administration. Arguable! Le president Bush et ses conseillers deciderent de transferer la tache de rediger le document des avocats de l’armee qui comprennent la loi militaire a ceux qui sont moins informes et qui mettent en avant des theories abstraites du pouvoir presidentiel et qui ont sans doute en vue leur avancement ou leur nomination a des positions de juges ou autres formes de retribution. Chapter 1 Thesis Components! Il s’agit la d’un modele a eviter a tout prix a l’avenir.

L’ Attorney General Alberto Gonzales comparut devant la Commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout afin d’exposer les elements essentiels de la proposition de loi qui etait en cours de preparation. Arguable! Il proposa la redaction d’un nouveau code des commissions militaires ( Code of a job resume Military Commissions ) qui suivrait le modele des procedures de cours martiales de l’UCMJ, mais qui serait adapte a l’usage dans les proces de combattants illegaux accuses de terrorisme. Arguable! Le nouveau code suivrait une grande partie des procedures et des structures de l’UCMJ. Of Classification Essays! Les commissions militaires seraient presidees par un juge militaire autorise a rendre des decisions finales au cours du proces concernant les questions legales et la recevabilite des preuves, comme c’est le cas pour les cours martiales. Thesis! Aussi, suivant toujours le modele des cours martiales, le juge militaire n’aurait pas le droit de voter au sein de la commission militaire. Components! Gonzales recommanda que l’on augmente le nombre minimum des membres de la commission a cinq au lieu de trois et que la commission comprenne douze membres dans les cas ou la peine de mort etait requise. Defensible! Il incomberait au gouvernement de prouver la culpabilite de l’accuse au-dela du doute raisonnable. Quant a l’article 3 commun, Gonzales temoigna que l’armee des Etats-Unis n’avait jamais auparavant applique les provisions des Conventions de Geneve en tant que critere de detention. Of Classification! Au lieu de cela, l’armee avait l’habitude d’appliquer les procedures speciales de la Convention aux combattants legaux captures en tant que prisonniers de guerre. Thesis! Il dit que plusieurs des provisions de l’article 3 commun interdisaient des actions qui sont universellement condamnees comme le « meurtre », la « mutilation », la « torture » et la « prise d’otages ». 1 Thesis Components! Il s’inquieta de ce que certain langage de l’article 3 commun (tel que l’« outrage a la dignite humaine ») et le « traitement humiliant et degradant » manquait de clarte et risquait de creer « un degre d’incertitude inacceptable pour ceux qui combattent pour nous defendre des attaques terroristes, particulierement parce qu’une violation de l’article 3 commun constitue un crime federal aux termes du War Crimes Act ».

Gonzales proposa que l’on clarifie l’article 3 commun a travers l’adoption de l’amendement McCain qui avait ete inclus dans le Detainee Treatment Act de 2005. Thesis! Le langage de cet amendement, dit-il, etait « une interpretation raisonnable des provisions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun ». Prepare A Job Resume! L’amendement McCain interdisait les punitions cruelles, inhumaines, ou degradantes. Arguable Defensible Thesis! L’administration Bush considerait le critere etabli par l’amendement McCain comme etant en conformite avec nos obligations aux termes des dispositions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun et comme y apportant des eclaircissements utiles. Writing Paper! Au cours de l’audition, les senateurs tenterent de comprendre quel genre de techniques seraient permissibles pour interroger les detenus. Defensible! Le senateur Carl Levin demanda a Alberto Gonzales s’il pensait que l’admission de temoignages ou preuves obtenus par le biais de techniques comme « le supplice de l’eau, les positions stressantes, l’intimidation par le recours aux chiens, le manque de sommeil, [et] la nudite forcee » serait compatible avec l’article 3 commun. Diversity Medical School Essay! « Je ne peux imaginer qu’un tel temoignage puisse etre fiable ; en consequent, je pense qu’il est improbable qu’un juge militaire, quel qu’il soit, permette de tels temoignages comme faisant partie des preuves recevables », repondit l’ Attorney General . Lorsque la proposition de loi (S. Arguable Thesis! 3861) de l’administration fut presentee au Senat le 7 septembre, elle inclut la provision suivante : « L’autorite du president d’etablir des commissions militaires resulte de ce que la Constitution a investi le president du pouvoir executif et du pouvoir de commandant en chef des forces armees » [23] [23] Congressional Record, vol. Essay About The Internet! 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Defensible Thesis! . Medical Class! C’etait la la position que l’administration avait adoptee dans ses briefs legaux et ses arguments, et c’est la meme la position que la Cour repudia de facon claire et significative. Defensible! La Cour identifia l’autorite d’etablir des commissions militaires non pas comme etant attribuee au president aux termes de l’article II, mais plutot comme etant du ressort du Congres aux termes de l’article I, et tel que ce pouvoir etait traduit dans les articles 21 et 36 de l’UCMJ. Of Classification! Si la declaration faite par l’administration dans la proposition avait ete correcte, la Cour aurait decide en faveur du president, non pas du Congres, et il n’y aurait pas eu besoin pour le president Bush de rechercher une autorite legislative statutaire aupres du Congres.

Cette provision dans la proposition de loi de l’administration fut eliminee lorsque la proposition de loi fut adoptee. Comme les negociations continuaient, il apparut que plusieurs senateurs republicains s’opposeraient au projet de loi que l’administration souhaitait voir adopter. Arguable Thesis! Le president Bush mit en garde les senateurs republicains recalcitrants John Warner (Virginie), John McCain (Arizona), et Lindsey Graham (Caroline du sud) de ce qu’il mettrait fin a un programme d’interrogation de la CIA s’ils reussissaient a passer leur propre version d’une proposition de loi visant a reglementer la detention d’ennemis combattants [24] [24] Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on chapter components Detainees Intensifies”. Arguable! . Prepare! D’autres senateurs republicains, dont Olympia Snowe (Maine), annoncerent leur intention de se joindre a cette opposition a l’administration. Arguable Thesis! Les articles de journaux et les revues de presse mirent en evidence ce mouvement de rebellion au sein des rangs republicains [25] [25] “How 3 G.O.P. Diversity Medical! Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”. Defensible! . Of Classification Essays! Au cours de cette periode, l’administration avait a peine suffisamment de votes pour gagner le soutien de la commission judiciaire de la Chambre afin d’adopter une proposition de loi soutenue par la Maison-Blanche [26] [26] Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan. Defensible Thesis! . An Argumentative Essay The Internet! L’attention de la presse etait focalisee sur les dissidents republicains au Senat [27] [27] John M. Arguable Thesis! Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP. Writing A Leadership! . Thesis! Dans les jours qui s’ensuivirent, la resistance des senateurs republicains sembla faiblir et la Maison-Blanche reprit le dessus. A Leadership! Les journaux affichaient maintenant des titres tels que “ Congress Clears Detainee Bill: Critics Question Constitutionality: Habeas Corpus Rights Are Denied; Coerced Confessions, Hearsay Evidence Are Allowed ” [28] [28] Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 2 octobre 2006. Thesis! . Diversity School Essay! Un editorial dans le Washington Post , intitule “ Profiles in defensible Cowardice ”, decrivait les desseins politiques du president Bush comme pressant ses opposants a « se soumettre a sa volonte, allant ainsi a l’encontre de ce qu’ils jugeaient bon, ou de soulever une controverse qui permettrait a son parti de reprocher a l’opposition d’etre par trop faible ou laxiste a l’encontre du terrorisme. School Class! Grace en partie a l’abdication des democrates, il avait en l’occurrence realise les deux buts a la fois » [29] [29] “Profiles in arguable thesis Cowardice”, The Washington Post, 1er octobre. Diversity Medical! . Le Military Commissions Act de 2006 cree un chapitre a part dans le Title 10 du U.S. Arguable Thesis! Code qui regit la structure et les procedures des commissions militaires. Components! Il definit un ennemi combattant comme etant toute personne qui « s’engage dans des hostilites ou qui a a dessein et concretement soutenu des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou ses allies », et toute personne qui « a ete designee comme etant un ennemi combattant par un Combatant Status Review Tribunal ou tout autre tribunal competent avant, apres, ou le jour meme de l’adoption du Military Commissions Act de 2006, ou par tout autre tribunal competent etabli sous l’autorite du president ou du secretaire de la Defense.

Un ennemi combattant legitime est une personne qui est membre des forces regulieres de l’une des parties contractantes, qui se trouve engage dans des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou qui porte un embleme distinctif reconnaissable a distance, qui porte ouvertement les armes et qui respecte le droit de la guerre. Defensible Thesis! Une commission militaire etablie aux termes de ce chapitre est un tribunal regulierement constitue, reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires necessaires qui sont reconnues comme etant indispensables aux peuples civilises pour les besoins de l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve. An Argumentative The Internet! Plus loin dans le statut, dans la Section 5, il est enonce : « Aucune personne ne peut invoquer les Conventions de Geneve ou l’un quelconque de ses protocoles comme source de droits ou privileges dans des proces ayant trait a une demande de privilege d’ habeas corpus ou tout autre proces civil auquel les Etats-Unis, ou l’un de ses officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes actuels ou ex-officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes ou autre agent des Etats-Unis sont parties prenantes dans l’un quelconque des tribunaux des Etats-Unis, de ses Etats ou de ses territoires. Defensible! Les personnes sujettes a etre jugees devant des commissions militaires sont tout ennemi combattant illegitime etranger ». Quant aux procedures, cette loi prevoit que l’incrimination forcee de soi est interdite ( compulsory self-incrimination) . Prepare A Job Resume! Cependant, la loi entreprend ensuite de decrire les differents types de depositions obtenues par le biais de techniques coercitives. Arguable! Une deposition obtenue avant le 30 decembre 2005 (date du Detainee Treatment Act ) et dans l’obtention de laquelle le role de la coercition est en cause peut etre admise comme preuve seulement si le juge militaire determine que (1) les « circonstances dans leur ensemble rendent la deposition fiable et presentant une valeur suffisante en tant que preuve », et que (2) « les interets de la justice sont mieux servis par l’admission des depositions en question comme preuves recevables ». Essays! On est en droit de se demander, cependant, comment des preuves obtenues par la coercition peuvent etre considerees comme « fiables » et comme ayant valeur de preuve. Defensible! Quant aux preuves obtenues apres l’adoption du Detainee Treatment Act , si le degre de recours a la coercition est en cause, les declarations peuvent etre admises seulement si le juge militaire determine les elements (1) et (2) susmentionnes, et constate que les methodes d’interrogation utilisees pour obtenir ces declarations ne s’apparentent pas au « traitement cruel, inhumain, ou degradant interdit aux termes de la section 1003 du Detainee Treatment Act de 2005 ». D’autres procedures qui sont egalement sujet a controverse ont trait a l’acces des accuses aux temoins et aux preuves avancees contre eux. Diversity Medical School Class! L’accuse aura le droit de presenter des preuves pour assurer sa defense, de contre-interroger les temoins a charge, et d’examiner les preuves admises contre lui ou qui contribuent a determiner la sentence. Defensible! Ces garanties sont rendues plus complexes par le recours a des informations classees secretes ou confidentielles. Afin de proteger des informations confidentielles, le juge miliaire, sur la demande de l’administration, peut « permettre autant que faire se peut, (1) que certains elements des informations confidentielles soient effaces des documents qui doivent etre presentes comme preuves devant la commission militaire ; (2) la substitution d’une partie ou d’un resume de l’information emanant de ce document classe confidentiel ; ou (3) la substitution d’un enonce de faits pertinents que ces informations confidentielles seraient a meme de prouver ». Writing Paper! Mais supposons que le gouvernement supprime le nom de l’informateur ? Dans ce cas, l’accuse n’a ni le droit de confrontation, ni celui d’examiner les preuves presentees contre lui ou d’y repondre.

Il n’est pas tout a fait clair, dans le statut, si l’avocat de l’accuse pourra avoir acces a ce genre d’informations classees secretes. Thesis! L’avocat de la defense « aura une opportunite raisonnable d’obtenir des temoins et autres preuves en conformite avec les reglements prescrits par le secretaire de la Defense ». Non Verbal Skills! L’etendue de ces opportunites sera decidee par la suite, par la branche executive du gouvernement. Arguable Defensible Thesis! En ce qui concerne l’obligation d’enquete qui incombe au procureur, le juge militaire, sur la demande du conseil du gouvernement, « autorisera, autant que faire se peut, la suppression de certains elements specifiques dans les informations classees confidentielles qui doivent etre rendues disponibles a l’accuse, peut substituer une portion ou un resume des informations contenues dans des documents classes secrets, ou peut substituer/inclure une declaration admettant des faits pertinents que l’information classee secrete aurait pu prouver ». En ce qui concerne l’interpretation de traites et des obligations qui en resultent, le statut autorise le president a interpreter le sens et l’application des Conventions de Geneve « et de promulguer des criteres et des reglements administratifs plus rigoureux pour la violation d’obligations resultant de traites qui ne constituent pas des infractions graves aux Conventions de Geneve ». Components! Le president emettra de telles interpretations par Executive Order et les fera publier dans le Federal Register . Thesis! Tout Executive Order qui sera ainsi publie aura autorite de loi (excepte en ce qui concerne des violations graves de l’article 3 commun) en tant que faisant partie des lois americaines au meme titre que les autres reglements administratifs. Diversity Medical Class! Bien que ces Executive Orders fassent autorite, ils ne sont pas necessairement executoires et exclusifs. Defensible Thesis! Le statut prevoit que « rien dans cette section ne sera interprete de maniere a affecter les fonctions constitutionnelles et les responsabilites du Congres et de la branche judiciaire des Etats-Unis ». Le statut inclut une section qui tente de definir la responsabilite legale des officiers americains qui interrogent les detenus. Essay! Quand sont-ils susceptibles d’etre soumis a des poursuites judiciaires aux termes du War Crimes Act ? Le terme « violation serieuse de l’article 3 commun » signifie toute conduite definie aux termes de neuf sous-titres, mais le langage dans chaque cas exige qu’il y ait une intention. Defensible Thesis! Ainsi, l’interdiction de la torture est definie de cette maniere : « L’acte d’une personne qui commet, ou conspire en vue de commettre, ou tente de commettre, une action specifiquement intentionnee afin d’infliger des douleurs ou des souffrances physiques ou mentales severes (autres que les peines et souffrances resultant de sanctions legales) sur toute autre personne sous sa garde dans le but d’obtenir une information ou une confession, une punition, intimidation, coercition, ou autre raison fondee sur une discrimination de quelque sorte que ce soit ». Papers Communication Skills! Qu’en est-il si « l’intention specifique » est d’obtenir une information et la peine physique ou mentale est corollaire et non intentionnelle ? Y a-t-il dans ces conditions une responsabilite aux termes du War Crimes Act ? La Cour Supreme rejeta dans Hamdan c. Arguable! Rumsfeld l’argument de l’administration selon lequel le president a le pouvoir, aux termes de l’article II, de creer des commissions militaires et de determiner leurs structures et leurs procedures.

La Cour exigea que le president Bush obtienne une autorisation statutaire du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution. Diversity! « Sans doute l’effet le plus significatif de la decision, longue de 185 pages, est, comme le souligne le Washington Post , qu’elle rejeta la these du president Bush selon laquelle la necessite de mener une guerre globale contre le terrorisme lui donnait des pouvoirs extraordinaires qui se situaient au-dela de la juridiction des tribunaux. Arguable Defensible Thesis! La decision rappelle le « devoir de la Cour en temps de guerre comme en temps de paix de preserver les sauvegardes constitutionnelles de la liberte civile » [30] [30] Eugene Robinson, “Checking the essay the internet, Decider”, The Washington. Arguable Thesis! . Types Of Classification Essays! Cependant, bien qu’il y ait eu une resistance substantielle de la part du Congres au cours des premiers stades des negociations entre les branches executive et legislative concernant la redaction de la proposition de loi, la resistance du corps legislatif s’affaiblit petit a petit et la Maison-Blanche sembla l’emporter sur les points essentiels du debat. Arguable Thesis! Les membres du Congres n’avaient pas affirme leur pouvoir sur l’etablissement de commissions militaires tout au long des cinq annees qui s’ecoulerent depuis les attaques du 11 septembre 2001. Diversity Class! Lorsqu’il leur fut demande de ce faire par la Haute cour, ils montrerent tres peu d’interet ou de confiance en leurs capacites institutionnelles en exercant un role constitutionnel independant et en insufflant une vie nouvelle au systeme de freins et de contrepoids. Defensible Thesis! L’on peut esperer qu’a la suite des prononces de la Cour dans Hamdan c. Medical School Class Essay! Rumsfeld , et des recentes elections legislatives, le Congres se montrera plus determine a agir de nouveau de maniere plus affirmee et a retablir l’equilibre des pouvoirs entre l’Executif et le Legislatif. Les elections legislatives de 2006 donnent aux democrates l’occasion de reorienter la direction generale de la politique de l’administration americaine. Defensible Thesis! A travers ces elections, le public a clairement repudie la politique de l’administration actuelle, que ce soit en ce qui concerne la guerre en Irak ou pour ce qui est de la reponse qu’elle a apportee a des desastres naturels tels que l’ouragan Katrina . School! Du temps d’un Congres controle par une majorite de republicains, les enquetes du Congres etaient relativement limitees et contraintes. Arguable Defensible Thesis! Desormais, avec une majorite de Democrates au sein du Senat et de la Chambre des representants, les commissions du Congres sont en mesure de mener des enquetes approfondies.

Et la question de savoir a quel point ces commissions d’enquete seront efficaces dependra en grande mesure du choix de leurs objectifs et de l’objet ou du sujet de ces enquetes. Prepare A Job! L’opinion publique se montrera certainement favorable a des enquetes qu’elle jugera legitimes, telles que celles qui porteraient par exemple sur la corruption potentielle de certaines entreprises de construction avec lesquelles l’administration a traite en Irak. Defensible Thesis! Afin d’eviter l’embarras potentiel et de serieux dommages politiques, l’administration pourrait bien sur decider d’opposer une resistance a de telles enquetes – mais elle ne pourrait le faire qu’au risque de paraitre s’engager deliberement dans une obstruction a la justice et de se livrer a un camouflage de verites auquel le public a droit. Of Classification Essays! Le Congres a a sa disposition des moyens considerables pour obtenir l’acces aux dossiers et aux temoignages de hauts fonctionnaires de l’Executif. Defensible! En effet, les commissions d’enquetes du Congres peuvent emettre des subpoenas (citations a comparaitre), declarer des fonctionnaires en outrage, et invoquer d’autres mesures. A Job Resume! Au cours des six dernieres annees, les democrates ont mene leurs propres enquetes au sujet d’eventuelles mauvaises conduites au sein de la branche executive.

Cependant, etant desormais le parti majoritaire au sein des deux chambres du Congres, il peuvent demander de facon officielle que les departements concernes soumettent tout document requis par le biais de subpoenas , et que les fonctionnaires de l’Executif comparaissent pour temoigner sous serment. Arguable Thesis! Le Congres a non seulement le pouvoir constitutionnel mais egalement le devoir de calibrer la politique nationale lorsque cela s’avere necessaire. Of Classification Essays! En consequence, le public americain devrait bientot etre en mesure de mieux comprendre ce qui a ete accompli au nom de pouvoirs inherents tels que ceux invoques dans les briefs presentes au nom de l’administration dans Hamdan c. Arguable Defensible Thesis! Rumsfeld . Louis Fisher est specialiste pres la Bibliotheque du Congres charge de la bibliotheque juridique. About The Internet! Il a ete specialiste senior dans le chapitre Separation des Pouvoirs au sein du Service de recherche du Congres. Arguable Thesis! Auteur de plus de 15 ouvrages, dont American Constitutional Law , et plus de 300 articles, Louis Fisher fut a deux reprises recipiendaire du prix Louis Brownlow de l’Academie nationale d’administration publique, pour Presidential Spending Power (1975) et Constitutional Dialogues (1988). Prepare! En 2000, les presses de la State University of arguable New York ont edite Politics and a job Constitutionalism: The Louis Fisher Connection , collection de huit essais qui analysent l’ensemble de son ?uvre. Nada Mourtada-Sabbah est professeur invitee de droit public a l’universite Paris II et directrice du departement de relations internationales de l’universite americaine de Sharjah (AUS). Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker , 3 juillet 2006, vol. Arguable Defensible Thesis! 82, N° 20, pp.

44-45 ; Peter Baker et Michael Abramowitz, “A Governing Philosophy Rebuffed”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, p. Chapter Components! A 01. Arguable Thesis! Les conseillers juridiques de la C.I.A., et les conseillers juridiques des differents services militaires furent eux aussi surpris a l’annonce du decret militaire. A Leadership Paper! Aucun d’entre eux n’avait ete consulte. Arguable! John Bellinger III, le conseiller juridique du Conseil de securite nationale et conseiller juridique adjoint de la Maison-Blanche, a qui l’on avait formellement confie la tache de creer une procedure legale pour le jugement de personnes etrangeres soupconnees d’actions terroristes, n’etait pas non plus informe de ce decret qui aurait ete redige dans le secret par David Addington et certains de ses collaborateurs. Communication Skills! Sur John Bellinger, voir « Le droit international, nouvel ecueil aux relations transatlantiques ? », Politique americaine , N° 4, Printemps 2006, pp. Arguable Thesis! 41-51. Brief for term papers non verbal communication Respondents, Hamdan c. Arguable Defensible Thesis! Rumsfeld , N° 05-184, Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis, fevrier 2006, p. Class! 21. Voir Jane Mayer, art. Arguable! cit. Essay About The Internet! , pp. Defensible Thesis! 44-45. Hamdan c. Chapter 1 Thesis! Rumsfeld , 126 S.Ct. Arguable Defensible Thesis! 2749, 2006.

L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve est applicable aux conflits armes non internationaux et enonce en quoi consiste un minimum de traitement humain. En cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des Parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions suivantes : 1. Communication! Les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par maladie, blessure, detention, ou pour toute autre cause, seront, en toutes circonstances, traitees avec humanite, sans aucune distinction de caractere defavorable basee sur la race, la couleur, la religion ou la croyance, le sexe, la naissance ou la fortune, ou tout autre critere analogue. A cet effet, sont et demeurent prohibes, en tout temps et en tout lieu, a l’egard des personnes mentionnees ci-dessus : les atteintes portees a la vie et a l’integrite corporelle, notamment le meurtre sous toutes ses formes, les mutilations, les traitements cruels, tortures et supplices ; les prises d’otages ; les atteintes a la dignite des personnes, notamment les traitements humiliants et degradants ; les condamnations prononcees et les executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Voir Hamdan c. Defensible Thesis! Rumsfeld , 548 U.S., p. Term Papers Non Verbal Skills! 73. Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in defensible Congress Over Military Tribunals”, The Washington Post , 13 juillet 2006, p. Term Non Verbal Skills! A6. Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to arguable defensible Change Military Tribunal System”, The Washington Post , 15 juillet 2006, p. Medical School Class! A6. R. Arguable! Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan for chapter components Special Courts”, The Washington Post , 3 aout 2006, p. Defensible Thesis! A11. R. Essays! Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand Authority of defensible Military Courts”, The Washington Post , 2 aout 2006, p. A Job! A4.

Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the arguable defensible, Name of resume National Security: Unchecked Presidential Power and arguable thesis the Reynolds Case , 2006, pp. Class Essay! 230-240. Congressional Record , vol. Defensible! 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. A Leadership! S9113. Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on arguable defensible thesis Detainees Intensifies”, The Washington Post , 16 septembre 2006, p. School Essay! A1. “How 3 G.O.P.

Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”, The New York Times , 17 septembre 2006, p. Defensible! 1. Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan, 20 to writing paper 19”, The Washington Post , 21 septembre 2006, p. Arguable! A6. John M. Writing! Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP: Influential senators’ challenge to arguable thesis Bush proposal on diversity medical essay terrorist suspects keeps issue at defensible, cutting edge of essay the internet security debate”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 18 septembre 2006, p. Thesis! 2458. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 2 octobre 2006, p. 1 Thesis! 2624. “Profiles in defensible thesis Cowardice”, The Washington Post , 1 er octobre 2006, p. 1 Thesis Components! B6.

Eugene Robinson, “Checking the arguable defensible, Decider”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, Editorial, p. 1 Thesis Components! A27. Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Defensible! Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Prepare A Job! En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Thesis! Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web.

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Essay: Was Edmund Burke A Conservative? (Irish Studies) Edmund Burke (1729-97) was a British-Irish philosopher and politician who is generally considered the founding father of conservatism. Arguable Thesis. According to the monograph T he Conservative Political Tradition in Britain and chapter, the United States (1992): “[T]he writings of Edmund Burke constitute the benchmark of conservative thought” (Aughey 1992, 2). However, Terry Eagleton, a renowned Irish leftwing critic and professor of Cultural Theory, is arguable thesis, very critical of the assumption that Burke should be the touchstone of British conservative thought. In his essay “Saving Burke from the Tories” from the New Statesman (July 4, 1997), Eagleton asks the question: “How did an Irish Whig come to types essays be transformed into an English Tory?” His underlying agenda seemingly is to reclaim Burke from being a Conservative icon. In his article, Eagleton argues that in order to arguable defensible thesis get another perspective on a leadership paper, Burke, one should read Burke’s arguments against defensible thesis the Penal Laws that oppressed Irish Catholics during the 17th and 18th centuries (Eagleton 1997, 32). In this essay, I will examine Eagleton’s question: was the early Burke more a liberal politician than a conservative one in his attitude to Ireland and in particular to resume the Penal Laws and what were the historical and philosophical reasons for that in the 18th century? I will investigate how one can characterize Edmund Burke’s early political thought from my main source: Burke’s Tracts on the Popery Laws.

My thesis is that (the early) Burke was hugely influenced by liberal and Enlightenment ideas of his time, yet his overall political thinking was part of a conservative discourse, as exemplified in his T racts on the Popery Laws . Arguable Defensible Thesis. As such, I find it difficult to diversity medical essay agree with Eagleton’s attempt to reclaim Burke from being a conservative or a Tory. Yet he is right, to a certain extent, in emphasizing the early Burke’s political ambivalence. Although one must not forget that it is very difficult to compare 18th century political ideology to arguable thesis contemporary political ideology because of the change of historical context and semantic transformations of political concepts. The origin of conservatism. Before proceeding with the discussion of Burke’s conservatism, one must also consider that conservatism is a political ideology defined later in components history and the term ‘conservative’ has gone through considerable transformations during the centuries. Defensible. Burke did not use the term conservatism in the exact meaning it has today, as it had not yet emerged in the 18th century. Prepare A Job Resume. Although in his Reflections on defensible thesis, the Revolution in France he did state: “A state without the means of some change, is without the means of its own conservation” (Reflections 2009, 21). This sentence has indeed become one of the roots of the types of classification, concept “conservative”. Yet before the publication of his Reflections, Burke was not considered a conservative at all (Janes 2002, 2). If one goes back to the beginning of his authorship, one finds writings that are indicating an Enlightenment liberalism – especially when analyzing his writings on the conditions in Ireland (Janes 2002, 2).

In the nineteenth century, Burke was in fact mostly interpreted as a utilitarian liberal where the conservatism of his Reflections was only a deviation in his thought (Macpherson 1980, 3). The ideology ‘conservatism’ has in the Anglophone world by a large degree been defined by and through a later conservative mythologizing of Burke’s writings and persona, making him the very origin of the arguable thesis, conservative ideology both in Britain and writing, the US – however different the two interpretations of Burke’s conservatism might be (Aughey 1992, 7). In this essay, I will mainly focus on the British version. According to the monograph The Conservative Political Tradition in Britain and United States , Burke can be understood as one of the original designers of the conservative ideology (if one can speak of an arguable thesis, ideology). In any case, when analyzing an writing paper, ideology like conservatism, it is arguable, obvious that we also have to of classification understand its origin and genealogy. Although originally terms of abuse, ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’ are terms that have been used in a political context in England since the 1680s in order to describe the political coalitions or groupings. They did not resemble the terms ‘liberal’ and ‘conservative’ from the beginning, nor were they political parties in arguable defensible thesis the modern conception of a political party (Sack 1993, 46). However, in term papers non verbal communication skills 1742 David Hume did, in arguable his essay Of the Parties of Great Britain, define the terms in close analogy to ‘conservative’ and ‘liberal’: “A Tory, […] since the revolution [of 1688], may be defined in a few words, to be a lover of monarchy, tho’ without abandoning liberty; and a partizan of the family of Stuart,” while a “Whig may be defin’d to be a Lover of Liberty, tho’ without renouncing Monarchy; a Friend to term communication skills the Settlement in the Protestant Line” (mason.gmu.edu §28). In other words, Tories are associated with ‘order’ and ‘monarchy’ and Whigs are the thesis, believers in ‘liberty’.

Originally, the Whigs suspected that the Tories were Catholics which gave the Tories their name, as ‘Tory’ was a nickname for an Irish Catholic outlaw. However, the paper, distinction between the Tories being supporters of Stuarts (Catholicism) and Whigs being supporters of Protestantism changed in the 18th century via a semantic transformation and they became to signify the opposition between ‘court’ and ‘country’, ‘nobility’, and ‘gentry’ – or between ‘court’ and ‘patriot opposition’ in the new party formations (mason.gmu.edu §29). During George III’s reign with Edmund Burke as an MP for the Whigs, the party formations mainly divided either, on the one hand, around Lord North (Tory), William Pitt the Younger (Tory) or around the Marquis of arguable defensible thesis Rockingham (Whig) and Charles James Fox (Whig – although in coalition with Lord North) on the other hand. In the beginning of the 18th century the Tories were Jacobins who supported the Catholic Stuarts (Sack 1993, 4) and they were against the Whig government and the Hanoverian succession. Of Classification Essays. In some cases, the Tories were even directly involved in plots working on defensible thesis, getting the Stuarts back on diversity class essay, the throne. Besides the Jacobite Risings in 1715 and 1745, the Attenbury Plot was the most serious Jacobite and Tory attempt to arguable defensible recapture the crown (lib.cam.ac.uk). Gradually, the prepare, Tories became supporters of ‘King and Church’ (Sack 1993, 4) and represented the nobilities and the Ascendency in arguable thesis Ireland (O’Brien 1992, 52). The Tories had in general moved from being Jacobites into being Royalist and Protestants (Sack 1993, 4).

Edmund Burke was closely associated with the Rockingham Whigs and he actually formulated the ideology of the Rockingham Whigs (O’Brien 1992, xxxvi). Only later as a new political climate arose because of the French Revolution (1789), the terms ‘Tory’ and “Whig” were defined in a ‘new’ and ‘old’ terminology, exemplified through Burke’s own writing Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs (1791). Gradually, during the end of the 18th century, ‘old’ Whigs and Tories adjusted to the ‘new’ political vocabulary when the about the internet, terms ‘liberal’ and ‘conservative’, ‘left-wing’ and ‘right-wing’, ‘radical’ and ‘reactionary’ came into being through the thesis, French Revolution (mason.gmu.edu §38/39). In other words, Burke developed his political thoughts simultaneously with the prepare, emergence of left and right (Levin 2014, 198) and the party-system. Arguable Defensible Thesis. This suggests that it is difficult to answer the question if Burke was a conservative or a liberal from the concepts alone or by comparing them to the terms ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’. However, one can conclude that Burke was a Whig in chapter the sense that he was a part of and even the creator of the thesis, political formation labelled ‘Whig’ by formulating to types of classification essays political agenda of the Rockingham government where he was also shortly appointed Paymaster of the Forces. The Irish question was very important in the development of Burke’s political philosophy and early political opinions. In this paper, I will focus on Burke’s writings on the Penal Laws, yet one could also have investigated his later writings in which he argued for Irish free trade. In particular, the Penal Laws, which had been enacted mainly by the monarchs (King William III, Queen Anne, King George I and II) and passed by the Irish Parliament in arguable defensible thesis the 17th and the 18th century, made a great influence on Burke’s early thinking.

The Penal Laws restricted the rights of the Catholic population (and Protestant dissenters) in Ireland severely and the purpose of the Penal Laws were to limit Catholic influence and force people to convert to Protestantism or the Anglican Church. It was the intention of the chapter components, political establishment in Ireland and arguable thesis, Britain after the Glorious Revolution (1688-89) to make the entire colonized Ireland convert into Protestantism by the force of these laws. Furthermore, the Penal Laws supported the Protestant Ascendency’s right to maintain and enhance their economical possessions and political power in the colonized Ireland. The Penal Laws were gradually repealed during the late 18th century, beginning with George III’s dismantling of them in Burke’s lifetime (library.law.umn.edu). The Penal Laws discriminated against Catholics (and Protestant dissenters) in Ireland on writing, a variety of fields: Intermarriage of arguable defensible thesis Protestants and an argumentative about, Catholics was disallowed; Catholics could not take care of arguable thesis Protestant children from a mixed marriage; by converting to Protestantism, one could reclaim the prepare, land from one’s Catholic family as an inheritance. There were restrictions on rights to keep school and on the right to buy land; Catholics could not serve in the army, hold public offices or enter legal profession. A Catholic could not vote for or become an MP in Dublin or in London. It was even a felony to teach the Catholic religion, and treason as a capital offence to convert a Protestant to the Catholic faith (library.law.umn.edu/irishlaw).

Through all of his political career, Edmund Burke saw the consequences of the Penal Laws as devastating for the Catholic population in Ireland, as he said in arguable defensible a Letter to William Smith (1795), the writing, Penal Laws were “a machine as well fitted for arguable thesis the oppression, impoverishment, and degradation of a people, and the debasement in prepare them of human nature itself, as ever proceeded from the perverted ingenuity of man” (firstprinciplesjournal.com). The question of abolition of the Penal Laws was a cause of great concern to Burke, especially in the beginning of his political career, as we will see in my analysis of his Tracts on the Popery Laws . Burke’s text T racts on defensible thesis, the Popery Laws is a fragment consisting of essay four remaining chapters, as chapter one is missing or was never written. The Tracts are probably written during a period from 1761-1764 but were not published during Edmund Burke’s own lifetime and did therefore not have any direct political influence on the political agenda towards Ireland in his time. Yet the Tracts might have been shown or prepared to be shown to people of influence, for example Burke’s employee William Gerard Hamilton, the Chief Secretary for Ireland. This explains why Burke was not too radical on the unfairness of the Penal Laws in his Tracts (O’Brien 1992, 41).

Also Burke was born in Dublin into a well-to-do Irish family where his father was an arguable thesis, attorney who had converted to Protestantism. Burke’s mother was a Catholic as a large part of his family. Types Essays. Burke himself was a Protestant, yet his Irishness could be a burdensome inheritance when seeking a public career and it has been an ongoing debate if Edmund Burke actually concealed his Catholicism in order to achieve his position in defensible society (O’Brien 1992, 44) and that might also have restricted him from publishing. In the Tracts , we find some of Burke’s earliest political assumptions which are not straightforward conservative, yet not straightforward liberal either. Eagleton’s thesis that “Modern-day conservatives […], should think twice before they light their candles at the shrine of Edmund Burke” (Eagleton 1997, 33) is an diversity medical school essay, interesting questioning of arguable defensible thesis Burke’s contemporary legacy and tribute to his ambivalence, but a comparison between Modern and 18th century conservative standpoints is an almost impossible analytical undertaking because of the transformation of the historical context, which indirectly also might be Eagleton’s point.

Yet I will try to distil the a job, discourses of the different political and philosophical tendencies in his early thinking and arguable thesis, compare them to the discourse of conservatism understood as a set of general ideas. Of Classification. I will narrow down conservatism into consisting of three philosophical discourses: a) As a discourse conservatism is associated with an ideology that is a counter-reaction to the universal ideas of the Enlightenment (Aughey 1992, 41, 58) and as a discourse antithetical to the key-concepts of the Enlightenment as for example natural rights, consent of the people, and the social contract-principle. In other words, conservatism is the political support of “monarchy and church” (Aughey 1992, 41, 58). b) In general, conservatism is associated with a political discourse which emphasizes law and order. Traditional institutions and thesis, practices are the foundations of society rather than the radicalism of essay about revolution (Aughey 1992, 13). Reforms in society should preserve rather than destroy. Justice is fulfilled when law and order is thesis, maintained in accordance with the types of classification, traditions of institutions. In addition, conservatism is the belief in arguable thesis an organic development of society and institutions through history and a belief in natural rights only if they are given by God or founded through institutional tradition (Aughey 1992, 35). c) Finally, conservatism is traditionally an ‘ideology’ arguing for property rights for the individual through tradition or inheritance (Aughey 1992, 55). In the term communication, following, I will analyze how these three discourses are displayed in arguable defensible Burke’s Tracts on the Popery Laws and judge if they become hegemonic.

a. Enlightenment ideas. In his Tracts , Burke is clearly influenced by term papers non verbal communication the liberal ideas of the Enlightenment. He believes in reason, improvement, freedom of religion, and social reforms for arguable thesis the general population in Ireland. Burke’s argument is that law should always consider the happiness of the multitude. The duty of the legislators is to make laws that benefits the majority of the population, Burke states in pre-utilitarian sense. Laws are oppressive if they are not for the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of chapter people, which is not the case in Ireland where the Catholic population suffers from the Penal Laws. “Now as a law directed against the mass of the nation has not the nature of a reasonable institution, so neither has it the authority: for arguable in all forms of government the of classification, people is the arguable defensible thesis, true legislator” (Tracts 2002, 62).

The underlying political principle in Burke’s argumentation seems to paper be the thesis, Enlightenment philosophy of the ‘consent of the people’ by Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and especially John Locke (1632-1704). Hobbes’ and mainly Locke’s idea of consent entitled the rulers to rule under certain specific conditions given by the people. This meant that society’s laws had to components be an expression of the consent of the people (McClelland 1996, 241). The Tracts seem to arguable defensible thesis unfold the diversity medical school class essay, idea that every individual in society has natural rights or a natural liberty which in arguable turn made it possible for an argumentative essay about the individual or the people to consent by free will to the rulers of the state or to laws. Arguable Defensible Thesis. The underlying discourse in Burke’s Tracts is a leadership, that the “government of the people are the true legislators,” and laws and institutions in society should be designed on the grounds of consent of the people. Furthermore, Burke also argues for the existence of thesis natural rights in essays his rejection of the Penal Laws: “Everybody is satisfied that a conservation and secure enjoyment of our natural rights is the great and ultimate purpose of defensible civil society, and that therefore all forms whatsoever of government are only good as they are subservient to that purpose to diversity school class essay which they are entirely subordinate liberty” (Tracts 2002, 73). A government is only valuable to it subjects in defensible the sense that it is of any good to the people it governs and that it is able to secure their basic human rights.

In this passage, however, he uses the concept ‘conservation’ in prepare a job a conservative way, although it is the natural rights which have to be conserved, and government is subordinate liberty. Burke is arguable thesis, writing his Tracts in continuation of key-concepts from an an argumentative essay about, Enlightenment discourse, yet with conservative hints. Burke is arguable defensible thesis, also influenced by the new Enlightenment ideas when advocating for a new approach to law and justice: “A law against the majority of the people is in substance a law against the people itself” (Tracts 2002, 62). Laws are conventionally created by the consent of the people, meaning they can be changed if the circumstances of the particular law have changed, although that is, of course, also in an argumentative essay the internet accordance with British tradition of Civil Law. Defensible Thesis. Burke did not believe in any abstract rights. Types. Interestingly, law is also founded on a more original justice, according to Burke: “All human laws are, properly speaking, only declaratory; they may alter the mode and application, but have no power over the substance of original justice” (Tracts 2002, 64-65). The original justice can be understood as natural rights given by God: “I mean the will of arguable thesis Him who gave us our nature, and in giving, impressed an prepare resume, invariable law upon it” (Tracts 2002, 63).

Burke might believe in arguable an almost Ciceronian (Wallace 2013, 198) conception of natural rights but these rights are given by God. Term Papers. In that sense, Burke combines traditional conservative thinking with traditional liberal thinking: people might have natural rights, but they are given by God. According to Burke, the real purpose of repealing the defensible, Penal Laws is also to maintain peace and papers non verbal communication, order and avoid revolution in Ireland. Burke is opposed to the prevalent argument of the political establishment for maintaining the Penal Laws: “The great prop of this whole system is not pretended to be its justice or its utility, but the supposed danger to the state, which gave rise to it originally, and which, they apprehend, would return if this system was overturned” (Tracts 2002, 90). Burke is indirectly referring to the consequences of the Glorious Revolution and arguable defensible thesis, the actions taken in order to secure power of the Protestant victors, yet he finds it an over-reaction to enact such harsh laws as the Penal Laws, as they will only encourage revolution and rebellion among the Catholic population in Ireland: “it will show that an attempt to continue them in that state will rather be disadvantageous to the public peace than any kind of security to it” (Tracts 2002, 92). In other words, in order to a job resume preserve order and peace in society, and avoid revolution, the Irish parliament should repeal the Penal Laws. As Burke emphasizes at the very end of his Tracts: “nothing can be more absurd and dangerous than to tamper with the natural foundations of society, in hopes of defensible keeping it up by certain contrivances” (Tracts 2002, 94). Finally, the question of property is writing a leadership, significant in the Tracts . Although subversive to the political agenda of the arguable, Whigs (in Dublin) at the time, Burke argues in a conservative way on of classification essays, behalf of the property rights of the Irish Catholics. In fact, conservatism becomes subversive when Burke deals with the Irish question and the consequences of the Penal Laws, as Eagleton suggested in his article (Eagleton 1997, 32). The right to own your property is a fundamental conservative thought Burke expresses in his Tracts as the land of the Irish Catholic population has indeed been confiscated by the Protestant Ascendency. This could be interpreted as a Lockean emphasis on property, but Burke’s idea of arguable property is also based on pragmatism and inheritance, while Locke’s ideas on property are based on term communication, property acquired through labor and the persona (Locke 2014, 740).

In that sense, Burke’s conservative values, pragmatism and emphasis on inheritance work as the argument for the right of the Catholic population of Ireland to maintain their property. “I must observe that although these penal laws do indeed inflict many hardships on those who are obnoxious to them, yet their chief, their most extensive and most certain operation is upon property […] For a law against property is a law against industry” (Tracts 2002, 88). Natural rights and history. In continuation of my analysis above, the thesis, question if Burke was conservative can be condensed into the question if Burke founded his philosophy on ‘natural rights’ or ‘history’. Indeed, in his essay Eagleton admits that especially Burke’s reaction to writing paper a theory of natural rights was the defensible, main reason why Burke in the first place could be interpreted as the founding father of conservative thought. Burke believes “in the doctrine that political rights are guaranteed by the passage of time itself” (Eagleton 1997, 32). This traditionally very conservative standpoint was of course against the liberal ideas of such radicals as Tom Paine and essay the internet, Mary Wollstonecraft who wanted to ground human rights on nature.

C.B. Macpherson states about Burke’s political philosophy: “the appeal is to history and observation, not to Natural Law” (Macpherson 1980, 24). Although ‘natural law’ and ‘natural rights’ are not exactly the same (Hobbes 2008, 86), O’Gotman holds that Burke’s definition of natural rights just had another definition than the traditional Enlightenment definition: “Burke’s natural rights amounted to the normal benefits of social living, those of order, security, justice and peaceful possession of property and arguable defensible thesis, labour” (O’Gorman 1973, 166). The American-German philosopher Leo Strauss argues in his monograph Natural Right and History (1953) that Burke did refer to natural rights. “[Burke] does not tire of speaking of natural right, which, as such, is anterior to the British constitution. But he also says that ‘our constitution is a prescriptive constitution; it is a constitution whose sole authority is papers communication, that it has exited time out of mind’” (Strauss 1953, 319). Based on this quote, the British Constitution, as it has evolved through history, is the fundamental principle in Burke’s political philosophy, yet anteceded by defensible thesis natural rights. Furthermore, Yoval Levin writes in his recently published work The Great Debate (2014): “It is writing paper, not hard to see why some readers would take such declarations as evidence that Burke sees an accessible natural law above the position law” (Levin 2014, 74). Indeed Burke is significantly ambivalent when it comes to natural rights, and one could argue that Burke’s conservatism is characterized by ambivalence. Burke did claim the label of ‘Whig’ for defensible thesis himself throughout most of his public career, though he did write in a letter that he did not greatly care if his principles were thought to be Whig or not. “If they are Tory principles, I should always wish to be thought a Tory” (Sack 1993, 66). One could also argue, as Eagleton, that Burke’s conservatism and belief in “prescription” had a subversive character, as his “appeal to an argumentative about tradition was in fact politically subversive” (Eagleton 1997, 32).

Burke was, as we saw above, subversive when he argued against the obviously unfair treatment of the arguable defensible thesis, Irish population according to property rights. He was against the Penal Laws and he saw the great disadvantages of the economic inequality that the Ascendency bestowed upon the Irish society, yet he did that in components order secure order and peace in the British Empire to which he was always a loyal and patriotic servant. Edmund Burke’s early political standpoints were hugely influenced by liberal and Enlightenment ideas of his time, still his overall political thinking was mainly part of thesis a conservative discourse, as exemplified in his Tracts on the Popery Laws . Burke may have used Enlightenment liberal thinking in his argumentation against the Penal Laws, but these ideas were subdued a conservative hegemonic discourse with key-concepts as God, justice, property, and order. Writing Paper. As such, this paper does not entirely agree with Eagleton’s attempt problematize the prevalent interpretation of Burke as a conservative or a Tory, but he is right, to a certain extent, in emphasizing the early Burke’s political ambivalence – Although it is very difficult to compare 18th century political ideology to contemporary political ideology because of the thesis, change of medical class essay historical context and semantic transformations of political concepts. In the beginning of his article, Terry Eagleton asks the defensible, question: “How did an Irish Whig come to be transformed into an English Tory?” My answer would be that Burke has become an inseparable part of conservative mythology through the term papers, genealogy of conservatism. The political terminology has gone through a semantic transformation in the course of history. In the 17th and 18th century, the terms ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’ do not entirely match the terms ‘conservative’ and ‘liberal’. But through the evolvement of the political formations in Britain’s parliament, and the related semantic transformation of the arguable thesis, terms ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’, they became to signify ‘conservative’ and ‘liberal’.

Burke was closely associated with the Whigs as he was to become a minister in diversity medical class essay the Rockingham government, and he was one of the main contributors to the Whig policy in the second half of the 18th century, yet his thinking points towards later conservatism. (Work in progress) List of arguable thesis references. Burke, Edmund. 2009 (1790). Reflections on resume, the Revolution in France. Thesis. Oxford World’s Classics. Oxford. Burke, Edmund. Tracts on the Popery Laws.

In: Janes, Regina (ed.) 2002. Edmund Burke on Irish Affairs. Mounsel Company. Dublin. Janes, Regina (ed.) 2002. Edmund Burke on Irish Affairs. Mounsel Company. Dublin. Aughey, Arthur, Greta Jones and W.T.M. Riches.

1992. The Conservative Political Tradition in Britain and the United States. A Leadership. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. Cranbury. Hobbes, Thomas. Thesis. 2008 (1651). Leviathan. A Leadership. Oxford University Press. New York. Levin, Yuval.

2014. The Great Debate. Edmund Burke, Thomas Paine and the Birth of Right and Left. Basic Books. New York. Locke, John. 2014 (1690). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Arguable. Wordsworth Classics of World Literature. London.

Macpherson, C.B. 1980. Burke. Oxford University Press. Oxford. McClelland, J.S. 1996. A History Of Western Political Thought. Routledge. London. O’Brien, Conor Cruise. 1992.

The Great Melody: A Thematic Biography and Commented Anthology of Edmund Burke. Sinclair-Stevenson. London. O’Gorman, Frank. 1973. Edmund Burke. His Political Philosophy. George Allan Unwin Ltd. London. Rabinow, Paul (ed.). 1991.

The Foucault Reader. Penguin Books. London. Sack, James J. Term Papers Skills. 1993. From Jacobite To Conservative. Reaction and orthodoxy in Britain c. 1760-1832. Arguable Defensible. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Strauss, Leo. 1971 (1953).

Natural Right and History. An Argumentative About. 7th Impression. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago. Eagleton, Terry. Arguable. “Saving Burke form the Tories.” In: New Statesman; Jul 4, pp. Medical School Class. 32-33. 1997. O’Brien, Conor Cruise. “Burke, Ireland, and America.” In: National Review, Sept. 15, pp. Defensible. 35-40. 1997.

Wallace, Nathan. Resume. “Matthew Arnold, Edmund Burke, And The Irish Reconciliation”. Thesis. In: Prose Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3. December 2012. Pp. 197-223. Routledge 2012. The Attenbury Plot. Cambridge University Library: Laws in Ireland for the Suppression of Popery.

Penal Law. University of Minnesota Law School Library: http://library.law.umn.edu/irishlaw/intro.html Accessed 31.03.2015. William F. 1 Thesis Components. Byrne, Edmund Burke and arguable thesis, the Politics of Empire. First Principle Journal: Yaday, Alok.

Historical Outline of Restoration and 18th-Century British Literature. School. George Mason University: