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A case study of student and teacher relationships and the effect
How to Write an Exceptional New-Grad Nursing Resume. Writing a new-grad nursing resume is a daunting task for most new-grads. Thesis Communication. The fear of having no experience and being unqualified leaves many wondering what details to include. Moreover, many new-grads wonder how to structure their nursing resume in a way that best conveys their current skill-set and value to prospective employers. As former recruiters, we reviewed thousands of resume compose, new-grad resumes. In this blog post, weíll draw on that experience to provide a comprehensive guide to creating an amazing nursing resume for new-grads. How to Structure Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. How you structure your resume has an impact on its effectiveness. Letís first consider which headings to include on your resume. Thesis On Teacher. There are certain headings that every new-grad should include and resume compose other headings that will depend on whether or not you have any applicable details to thesis on teacher communication, include under those headings.
Headings that every new-grad nursing resume should include (Required) Every new-grad resume should include the following headings (weíll discuss why we recommend these headings and provide tips for each below): Summary Licenses and Certifications Education Clinical Rotations. Optional headings for extended essay, your new-grad nursing resume. Each of the thesis following headings should be considered and included based on whether or not you have relevant details to include: Work History Affiliations Volunteer Activities Honors and Awards Skills Summary Languages. Now letís take a look at the ordering of the discrimination term headings. Of course, your contact information should be at the top of your resume. As usual, you should place the communication Summary as first heading on good extended your resume.
Next, include your Licenses and Certifications if you have already obtained them. However, if you have not already obtained them, then you may want to on teacher communication, push this heading farther down the list under your Clinical Rotations. Next, include your Education followed by your Clinical Rotations. You will undoubtedly find many who recommend that you place your Work History first. Moreover, placing Work History before Education is the conventional standard. As a result, itís difficult for some to trust advice that recommends placing Education first. So, hereís our supporting argumentÖ As a new-grad, you may not even have work experience.
If you do, itís most likely that you donít have applicable work experience and even if you do have applicable experience, itís most certainly not Registered Nursing work experience. You canít obtain RN work experience without an RN license and you canít get an RN license without first graduating from an accredited nursing program and passing the NCLEX. Moreover, your new-grad nursing resume should quickly convey that you are a new-grad. Paper. There is no point in thesis on teacher communication, trying to hide this fact. If employers are considering new-grads for an open position, then recruiters and hiring managers are going to be receptive to your situation.
If theyíre not considering new-grads for malevich essays, the opening and are instead requiring experience for thesis on teacher, the position, then theyíre not going to be receptive to your situation. Youíre not going to trick them by putting your CNA or EMT work experience ahead of your education. In fact, doing this could make your resume even less effective as reviewers receptive to do my essays, new-grads may never even get to your new-grad status before passing on the resume. Perhaps more importantly, our recommendation is based on what was desired by thesis the hiring managers we worked with. Do My Essays. You will find corroboration for thesis, this recommendation from reputable sources all over paper the internet. For example, the sample new-grad resumes from California State University Chico and University of Texas San Antonio both have the headings listed in thesis on teacher, the order we recommend. Terrorism Thesis. Additionally, UC Davis Medical Center requires Education, Senior Preceptorship and Clinical Rotations on the resumes of communication, all applicants to their nursing residency program. For further proof, letís take a look at resume compose, what a hiring manager had to thesis, say about new-grad resumes. As the Director of Workforce Development for malevich essays, Orange County Memorial Care University and a Board Member of the communication Association of California Nurse Leaders, Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS said, ďIt (your resume) should state where you have done your clinicals and any certifications such as EKG and ACLS. Resume Compose. You can also include any conferences you have attended beyond the classroom.Ē Your Clinical Rotations and Education are key components of your new-grad resume!
That takes care of the communication 4 required headings. The 6 optional headings can be ranked as you see fit. Remember, you should only include these headings if you have substantial details to do my essays, convey. Thesis. And you may want to rank them in samuel paley, order of strength as they relate to the job in question. For example, if you have experience working as a CNA in a hospital setting, then your Work History should be given a higher ranking because it highly relates to the job youíre applying for. Specific Details to Include on Your New-grad Nursing Resume. Youíll undoubtedly come across many people who recommend that new-grads use an Objective instead of a Summary on their resumes. The argument is that you really have nothing to summarize as a new-grad. However, we think that Objectives are an outdated resume heading that do nothing to on teacher, advance your main objective of conveying why youíre the do my essays right person for the job. Moreover, you can include an objective within a summary if youíre intent on having one. Here are three articles from major publications that support summaries over thesis on teacher objectives:
Now, you may have heard that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing your resume. While we doubt that they really spend that little time reviewing each resume, we certainly believe that the time they spend is very limited. Good Extended. Therefore, your goal is to make sure your resume can be easily scanned, starting with your Summary. You do not want recruiters getting stuck on your Summary by writing a big paragraph. Instead, use bullet points and try to keep each point at 1 to 2 lines . As for what to include in communication, your SummaryÖItís a good idea to samuel by grace paley essay, state that youíre a new-grad. You might summarize your clinical rotations. On Teacher. You may point out any special skills that you have, like second languages or computer skills. And, as mentioned previously, you may include an objective. We recommend listing each license and by grace essay certification with the following information: Full name of the license or certification. Full name of the issuing body of the license or certification.
Expiration date of the on teacher communication license or certification if applicable. License or certification number if applicable. Extended. If your license is part of the Nursing Licensure Compact, then it should be indicated. Many nurses express privacy concerns over including their license numbers. Your nursing license number is made public through the state licensing board.
It can easily be obtained using the basic information you provide on thesis on teacher communication your resume. Resume Compose. Adding it simply assists those recruiters and hiring managers who need to on teacher communication, look it up for verification as a result of hospital/employer policy. Education for Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. You should display all of your relevant college education. Term. So if you attended 2 colleges to thesis on teacher, attain your degree, then you should include them both. Please do not include your high school education. Discrimination. We recommend including the following information for thesis, each pertinent education institution you attended:
Full official name of the education institution. City and State Dates attended. Statement. Degree achieved. Thesis. GPA if it was good. There are several other details in addition to these that you may want to include regarding your education. Weíve had many new-grads inform us that in their area, employers were interested in knowing their HESI or ATI scores. Samuel. We recommend checking with your Nurse Educators or your schoolís Career Guide to see what they recommend.
You may also wish to communication, include relevant coursework and corresponding grades if you got an A. Malevich Essays. However, keep this brief and relevant to thesis on teacher, the job youíre applying for. Finally, you may wish to include any honors and awards you achieved if you would rather not place these items under their own heading. Clinical Rotations on Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. Clinical Rotations are an extremely important part of your new-grad nursing resume. Samuel Essay. As illustrated above, hiring managers indicate that they want to thesis communication, see these details. Major teaching universities require that they be included on do my essays resumes submitted for their residency programs. We consider them the thesis crux of your new-grad resume. Statement. At a minimum, you should include the following:
Details to include about thesis communication, your clinical rotations. Type of experience (Clinical Rotation, Senior Preceptorship, other). Start and end dates. Total number of hours worked. Name of the hospital or institution. Thesis Statement. City and thesis communication State.
Name of the unit/department (examples: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Surgical Unit (MS), Labor and Delivery Unit (LD)). One common mistake to avoid when listing the extended name of the on teacher communication unit is listing the hospital specific unit name. For example, the hospital specific unit name might be 3-West, but nobody outside the hospital knows what that means. Instead, list the type of unit it was as designated by the type of patients the unit took. In addition to the details above, we also recommend including the resume compose following information:
Optional details to include about your clinical rotations. Facility type: Every facility has a technical designation. For example, most hospitals are ďAcute Care HospitalsĒ. Thesis. Other designations include Long Term Care Facility, Long Term Acute Care Facility, Childrenís Hospital, etc. Listing the facility type lets the reader know without a doubt what the setting was. Number of beds in term paper, the facility. Thesis On Teacher Communication. List the resume compose facilityís trauma designation if applicable. Thesis On Teacher. If the facility was a teaching hospital, then include that information. Number of beds on the unit you were assigned to. Trauma designation of the unit you were assigned to if applicable.
Age range of the patients the unit cared for if applicable. Nurse to patient ratio on the unit. Type of charting system used at the facility and name of any EMR/EHR you gained experience with. The grade you received if it was an A. As you may have noticed, many of the details we recommend are technical details pertaining to the facility and unit. These details convey so much about the setting you were in anti thesis, and the experiences you were exposed to with very few words. So including them provides the reader with a ton of useful information. Thesis On Teacher. Additionally, it demonstrates that you understand how import these details are to any healthcare organization, otherwise, you wouldnít have listed them.
Additional options for highlighting your clinical rotations. Finally, you may also wish to samuel by grace, include specific details about the experience you gained while engaged with your clinical rotations. For example, did you have any experiences that might make you a more attractive candidate to the prospective employer? Did you learn anything specific about compassion for patients, team work, the importance of communication, learning and growth as a new-grad RN? If you did, then try to anti thesis statement, offer the specifics to illustrate exactly what happened. You may also be able to relate your clinical rotation experience to specific goals or problems of the employer youíre applying to. Thesis On Teacher. For example, maybe your research on the prospective employer turns up the malevich essays fact that theyíre seeking Magnet Status. If one of the facilities that you worked at during your rotations was seeking to achieve the same goal, then you may be able to find some way to relate your experience to it.
Or, perhaps the prospective employer is trying to communication, improve their HCAHPS score and one of the resume compose facilities you worked at just achieved success with a similar endeavor. On Teacher Communication. There are limitless possibilities with this option. The main idea is to resume compose, try and relate your experience during clinical rotations to a real problem or goal faced by the prospective employer. At this point, weíve covered each of our recommended required headings. As you may have noticed, weíve offered tons of options. Thesis. So many that if you were to incorporate them all, then your resume would either be too crowded or too many pages. Anti Thesis. However, many of the details we offer are simply for your consideration. Itís not required to include them all. So pick and thesis choose the ones that work best for you by researching the job in question and determining which details will be of most value to resume compose, the prospective employer. Optional Details for thesis, Your New-grad Nursing Resume.
As indicated above, each of the following headings are optional for your new-grad resume. You should decide whether or not to anti terrorism thesis, use them based on whether or not you have applicable details to provide for them. Letís take a brief look at each of them. If you have work history, which most college students these days do, then you should probably include some reference to it on on teacher communication your resume. Try your best to convey how the experience relates to nursing. This will be a lot easier to do if the experience was healthcare related. Malevich Essays. If all else fails, offer concrete examples of how you excelled at time management, team work, compassion, service, collaboration, or communication. One important issue to consider regarding work history is communication, stability. Many college students work several jobs during their college career for any number of reasons. Too many short term stints may exhibit instability to prospective employers who are about to devote a large amount of resources to you.
So you may want to explain short-term work stints or leave them off of your resume. You should definitely use the Affiliations heading if you are already a member of a professional organization related to nursing. For example, if youíre a member of the statement American Association of thesis communication, Critical Care Nurses, then prospective employers will want to know. You may also include relevant college organizations such as Sigma Theta Tau, or the Student Nurses Association. Of course, if the only organizations you belong to are scholastic, then you may choose to include them under your Education heading to save space. When listing your affiliations, consider including the following details: Full name of the malevich essays organization. Date joined. Communication. Your designation within the anti organization. Any special duties. Organization conferences attended.
Including Volunteer Activities is on teacher, a great way to demonstrate compassion. You may have volunteered for charity or at a healthcare facility. Extended Essay. Consider including the following details: Full name of the thesis organization. Dates of engagement. Thesis Statement. Quantify the number of hours volunteered. Description of duties and results you achieved if applicable. Thesis On Teacher. Any awards or recognition you received.
If you have received many honors and awards, then giving them a special place on your resume may be warranted. The other option is to mix them in throughout your resume where applicable. Consider including the do my essays following details: Name or title of the award. On Teacher. Date received. Organization received from. Good Essay. Significance of the award, or reason it was received.
For most new-grads, a Skills Summary heading may not be warranted. Skills summaries are intended to convey proficiency with specific skills. As a new-grad, you most likely havenít achieved proficiency with any aspect of communication, nursing. However, if you have experience in good extended, a healthcare setting, then you may indeed be proficient with relevant skills. For example, you may be certified in phlebotomy or Crisis Prevention. In any case, if you havenít achieved proficiency, then you may be better served by listing skills as details under the heading that pertains to where the skills were practiced. Additionally, you might consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search. In case youíre not familiar, Skills Checklists are documents that allow healthcare professionals to self-assess their skills pertaining to a specific profession or specialty within a profession. Communication. They are commonly used by term paper healthcare employers of thesis, all types to malevich essays, gauge their employeesí skill sets. BluePipes has over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that you can complete, save and download at your convenience. You can print them out and take them to job interviews in on teacher, order to easily convey your level of expertise with hundreds of do my essays, skills.
Again, as a new-grad, itís not advised to utilize a checklist for a nursing specialty like Intensive Care Unit because you most likely wonít have the required expertise. However, if you have experience as a CNA, Phlebotomist, or LPN, then you could use one of thesis communication, those checklists as a way to stand out from the crowd. These checklists are free to use on good extended BluePipes. So, join today to take advantage! A recent study by Wanted Analytics found that ďbilingualĒ was the second most common skill listed on nursing job postings in the United States. If you speak multiple languages, then itís definitely recommended that you include them under their own special heading! What Hiring Managers and thesis on teacher communication Job Postings are Looking for in New-Grad RNs.
Itís important to do my essays, remember that experience, temperament, talents, and on teacher communication convictions vary from person to person. While all new-grads may share certain commonalities, they are all unique in their own ways. Similarly, itís fine for new-grad resumes to share certain commonalities, but each should be unique in itís own way. As youíve seen, we have strong opinions on the structure of your resume and we provide many recommendations on various details to include. However, weíre not writing the resume for you. In fact, we strongly recommend against the boiler-plate phrases that have become so common as a result of online resume builders. So, when it comes to the meat of your resume, let the words of hiring managers and term paper job postings guide your efforts. On Teacher Communication. In other words, find ways to relate your unique experiences to what hiring managers and job postings are looking for. And always strive to provide concrete examples as opposed to generalizations. Assuming that youíre applying for term paper, a job through a job posting (as opposed to networking for a job), you should do your best to on teacher, optimize your resume for the Applicant Tracking System (ATS).
Weíve covered how to extended, do this in a previous blog post, so we wonít rehash it here. The bottom line is that you want to thesis on teacher communication, naturally include the key buzzwords and phrases used in the job posting in samuel by grace paley essay, your resume. Thesis On Teacher Communication. This way, youíre ranked higher by good the ATS. Of course, youíre probably wondering what hiring managers are looking for! Weíve provided some examples above, but below are some direct quotes we found from interviews posted online.
These quotes validate what our own experience as recruiters taught us. ďKnowing that new nurses are very green in regards to their technical skills, we look to whether a nurse is really ready to step into the profession. We are looking for those who are really interested in making life better for people who are suffering.Ē Kimberly Horton, MSN, RN, FNP, DHA, Vice President and Chief Nursing Officer at Mercy Hospital and Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California. ďWe expect our new nurse graduates to have the thesis on teacher communication basic fundamental nursing knowledge and we are also looking for compassion, a sense of teamwork, accountability and communication. Resume Compose. We look for an attitude of thesis communication, collaboration and communication.Ē Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS, Director of Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and Board Member of the anti thesis statement Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) Always side on patient safety first. Be open to feedback. Use your resources, such as more experienced nurses, physicians and other members of your team. Thesis. This will also help you build a support system.
Always ask questions when you are unsure or donít know something. Discuss your feelings and/or concerns with your unit leadership. From the by grace paley essay first day on the job, be a team player. Greg Kingsley, RN, New Grad Nurse Recruiter, Emory Healthcare. With all of thesis communication, this in mind, itís important to remember that there is no one correct way to create your resume. Do My Essays. We certainly hope this guide provides an idea of communication, best practices as well as an idea of what you shouldnít do. Perhaps most importantly, itís important to remember that your resume is just one facet of your job search. And while your resume is important, the single most important thing you can do to land that first job, or any job for that matter, is NETWORK!
Estimates indicate 70% to 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. And itís always best to operate with the ď80-20 ruleĒ in mind. In other words, make sure that youíre focusing on networking as your main job-search activity because itís most often the determining factor in success. Do My Essays. Thatís why we created BluePipes in the first placeÖto give healthcare professionals a professional networking platform capable of providing unique career management tools designed to help them solve their unique career challenges. Join today, itís free and thesis easy! 5 Things that New Grad RNs and do my essays Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us.
How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs. Thesis Communication. We provide. So my situation is a little different. Terrorism. Iíve been a Dental Assistant most of thesis communication, my life and decided to change careers. I have now achieved my RN. But it took me a lot longer than a traditional ADN program is supposed to take. Discrimination Term Paper. I had an thesis on teacher ďissueĒ at the first school I started the nursing program at and ended up needing to anti thesis statement, find another school to complete the program. Thesis. Is this something I should include in my resume (as I see it as a negative thing) or how do I incorporate it to benefit my appearance? I donít want to leave out info that can hurt me but Iím wondering if the info can hurt me if included.
I agree with Kyle. List out good your clinicals. Add a targeted bullet point under each one that relates to the job you are applying for. Learn about ATS. Read the on teacher job posting. What words are on there most? What qualifications MUST you have? What qualifications do they PREFER? All the ones you have Ė write them down.
Yes, use their words. Also read their mission and values. Look through their website. Encorporate their values with yours. Anti Thesis Statement. A great place to do this is in your cover letter. What do you recommend to someone like me whose 19 years old.
Has no work experience, this is thesis on teacher, my first career.. my resume would be completely blank pretty much. I know you said donít include high school education.. Good Extended. buts thatís pretty much the only thing Iíve ďaccomplishedĒ so far, I was an honor student, GPA 3.9, Received an thesis on teacher award for resume compose, academic excellence all 4 years, advanced diploma. And currently my GPA is 3.5, I havenít graduated yet but will in OCT, 2016 with my associates degree in nursing. Iím applying to a new graduate residency program now, that will start in February. Please HELP! #128577; how can I make my resume better?
Thanks for the inquiry Glenda. Most of the thesis on teacher applicants to new graduate residency programs have similar circumstances. To make your resume stand out, be sure to include the details described above regarding your various experiences including clinical rotations and education. Youíre welcome to include your high school education. However, chances are it will not be considered. Just remember that most candidates are going to be in paper, the same boat, so making sure you provide all the details hospitals like to see (as described above) will help you stand out. I hope this helps!
Great article! Finally people are talking about New Graduate Registered Nurses and the job search!! The Struggle is VERY real for new, old, reentry, and on teacher RNís seeking a new specialty! Especially in resume compose, oversaturated markets like California. I invite anybody who is on teacher, seeking a job to join our Facebook Group RNInterview Tools. https://www.facebook.com/groups/PlayingTheGame/ All are invited to share what worked for them, post questions, and seek support from others who understand. Members are landing job offers all over and we could not be more thrilled. I definitely shared this article and have shared others from Blue Pipes in the past.
Thank you for assisting all of paper, us Nurses in our quest. Glad to hear the article is useful and thanks for sharing, Melissa! Help! I just graduated in May 2016 and got hired as an RN in a hospital. Unfortunately, I resigned after a month as I felt so overwhelmed in the unit I was assigned to. Should I include that one month experience in my resume? Thanks for sharing, Aleli and sorry to hear about the difficulties. This is a tough situation.
I believe most career consultants would recommend leaving the job off of your resume. Thesis Communication. This is because youíll most certainly be required to explain the short duration in good, any interview. Moreover, the duration was so short that many employers wouldnít even require an explanation for the gap in employment. That said, you may want to consider the instructions on thesis job applications. Some hospitals have very stringent rules for discrimination term, entering work history on their applications. Communication. For example, they might require every employer for the past 7 years to be entered on the application regardless of duration and also require applicants to provide an explanation of any gaps in employment of greater than 1 month. There will be a signing statement in the application indicating you attest the information is anti thesis statement, accurate and communication complete. If they find out you left the job off the application, it could result in a rescinded job offer. Although the chances of this happening are slim. I hope this information helps!
Nursing is my second career. Resume Compose. I taught elementary school before this. Should I include my education for that? Also, should I include teaching school in my work history? I taught for eight years in the same school, so itís a good example that I can hold a job long term. Communication. Thanks! Congratulations on samuel paley essay your new career, Priscilla. Previous work history and education are both optional for on teacher communication, your new-grad nursing resume. In your case, I highly recommend including them both as they are both excellent experiences to display.
However, be sure to samuel, keep them brief in order to highlight your nursing skills. I hope this helps! Hello, I was wondering how do I include my phlebotomy certification on my resume if it doesnít have an expiration date? If you are formatting your own resume, you can simply add the license without expiration dates. Thesis On Teacher Communication. However, Iím wondering if youíre using BluePipes to format your resume? Please let me know if so.
Thanks! Hi iím just wondering do you have an example resume with all the information you have listed here for preview? thank you! My apologies, but we donít have a sample. Weíll work on do my essays creating though. Thanks!
How about information on building a new-grad RN Cover letter? When listing previous certifications and licenses, should you list the initial date of obtainment or expiration/ renewal date? Also, regarding Applicant Tracking System, what is the rule regarding parenthesis ()? I ask because in thesis, my certifications I have ACLS, PALS, and a bunch of other alphabet soup acronyms. Should I use (ACLS) after Advanced Cardiac Life Support? Good questions! There are no steadfast rules, but we recommend listing the resume compose expiration dates. On our resume builder, licenses are listed with both the acronym and name. Thesis On Teacher Communication. For example: ACLS Ė Advanced Cardiac Life Support.
That said, most resume parsers are quite advanced these days, so they should be able to contextualize what is meant by ď(ACLS)Ē. However, as illustrated above, itís not necessary to use the parentheses if you donít want to. Good Extended. I hope this helps! Help! I work in thesis communication, a long term care nursing facility as an do my essays RN for about a year and half now. This is my first nursing job and nursing is my second career. What can you suggest in writing my resume?
Are my clinical rotations still relevant? Thanks. There isnít a steadfast rule that applies to your question. I think itís fair to say that most recruiters and nursing career advisers would say that your clinical rotations shouldnít be added to your resume after a year and a half of working in an LYC facility. That said, you might still list it in an effort to on teacher communication, land a job in by grace paley, a new-grad training program.
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Thesis on teacher communication - Kings International College
Unit 3: Argumentative Essay on on teacher communication Males in the Nursing Profession. This piece is very close to my heart, not because I want the anti, nursing field to on teacher communication, become dominated by samuel by grace males, but because I am a prospective nursing student who hopes that one day, this profession would lend itself to on teacher communication, an equal work environment. The goal of anti, this piece is to explore how the nursing industry, as well as the society, has been changing to attract more males to on teacher communication, enter the nursing piece. In my opinion, this piece is very much worth the terrorism thesis statement, read because it reveals many things that one might not have thought about before in the field of nursing. DO YOU THINK THE SAME? As a prospective nursing student, I automatically look over and admire those students I see on campus wearing their green scrubs.
The students proudly wear such uniform as they serve as an embodiment of being a part of the universityís nursing school. Interestingly, I have noticed that often times, the proud model of these green scrubs on campus are female students. Even in thesis communication, hospitals, rarely do I see males wearing nursing scrub suits. Do My Essays. Historically, nursing has been a professional occupation often associated with femininity. Demographically, statistics show that indeed, this profession is comprised overwhelmingly by females. Because of on teacher, these, many claim that males are discriminated upon in this field or that there exists a gender bias in nursing. However, the good, small percentage of male nurses in the US is slowly growing. This is because the nursing field has transformed in many ways to accommodate its growing demand of healthcare providers. Thesis Communication. The nursing industry in the US has become more attractive to male nurses because of the economic stability the malevich essays, job provides, the shifting of gender norms associated with nursing and communication, the greater opportunities to hold leadership positions, thus encouraging more male nurses to join the resume compose, field and on teacher, even have an advantage if they choose to do so.
The economic stability that the nursing profession offers has been an encouraging factor in the recruitment of male nurses. Sheila Dewan, a National Economy Reporter at New York Times, says that more and more men are attracted to ďpink-collar jobsĒ such as nursing because of the jobís stability (2012, p. A1). She also points out that the economic recession in the US has greatly affected male nurses in their choice of career because jobs held by men such as business managers or even CEO positions are jeopardized by fluctuations in the economic trends. Meanwhile the need for nurses will continue to be in high demand especially because 40% of the nursing workforce will retire in the next 20 years (Jones and Gates, 2004, p. 618). In 2004, Cheryl Jones and Michael Gates, associate professors in school of nursing in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and University of San Diego, identify nursing as the ďsingle largest group of health care professionalsĒ and that they are needed ď24 hours a day 7 days a weekĒ (p. 615).
Because of this, it remains as one of the most stable as well as flexible jobs in the workforce. This job stability, thus, leads to financial security which plays a crucial part in the roles that males play as their familyís provider; therefore, more and more males enter nursing. Besides the job stability it provides, another economic advantage males have in nursing lies in the mean nursing wages. Research shows that males have higher mean wages than females in term, the nursing field. As a part of their research on nursing wage difference in 2004, Jones and Gates reveal data from Bureau of Labor Statistic showing that from every dollar that a male nurse earns, a female nurse only earns $0.77 (p. On Teacher. 618).
In 2001, the mean hourly wage of do my essays, a female with a nursing degree was at thesis communication, $24.00 while a male with a nursing degree was at $27.00 per hour (Jones and Gates, p. 618). Although it is acknowledged that male nurses are more likely to work as full-time nurses than their female counterparts do, it is still quite surprising that such a difference in the wages exists. It shows that the small portion of male nurses in the nursing population have the economic advantage. This questions the preconception that gender bias exists in nursing to favor the good extended, female population for clearly when it comes to monetary rewards, male nurses gain the greater advantage. Not only do male nurses have advantage in mean wages, they also have more opportunities to hold positions higher up in the ladder of the on teacher, nursing career. . Malevich Essays. In 2012, Caryl Rivers and Rosalind Barnett, Forbeswoman journalists, describes an instance called ďglass escalatorĒ (p. 1). This is an on teacher communication instance where male nurses tend to by grace essay, be given quicker promotions to fill leadership positions in thesis on teacher communication, nursing compared to their female counterparts.
Since males are more likely to work full time and less likely to do my essays, request for personal leaves compared to on teacher, female nurses, most hiring managers are more likely to promote male nurses than female nurses who started at resume compose, the same time (Barnett and Rivers, 2012, p. Thesis On Teacher Communication. 1). Also, most hiring managers will more likely to hire a male nurse over a female nurse for the same reasons if given an option (Edwards et al, 2002, p. 308). This leads to employers seeing male nurses as more committed to their jobs and resume compose, thus, more deserving of higher wages and quicker promotions. Additionally, most of the higher positions in nursing such as nurse anesthetists or nurse practitioners are also held by male nurses (Edwards et al, 2002, p. Thesis On Teacher. 314). Although these positions do require more years of training and education, it is still surprising how the small portion of by grace, males in the nursing field holds the majority of the leadership and higher up positions in this profession. On Teacher Communication. In 2002, researchers Edwards et al describe this occurrence as the Ēgender trapĒ (p. 310). Resume Compose. This term pertains to the trend of female nurses being trapped in thesis on teacher, the lower fields of nursing because they do not enjoy the same mobility granted to male nurses when it comes to thesis statement, getting job promotions. Communication. They point out that indeed nursing is one of the best jobs for females due to the flexible hours the job provides, whether one chooses to work day shifts or night shifts; however, this can be a disadvantage to female nurses who choose to work part-time because they are less likely to receive all the benefits that full-time workers receive (p. 309).
Therefore, male nurses have another advantage over female nurses when it comes to leadership positions in nursing. Another aspect of do my essays, why more and thesis, more males are attracted to the field of nursing is malevich essays, because of the shifting gender norms in the US. As mentioned before, the flexible schedule that the job provides has been a very influential factor in why many females choose this career. The flexible schedule is especially enticing to females because of familial commitments such as taking care of thesis communication, children or taking care of maternity matters. But nowadays, the flexible schedule has been enticing to males as well because of the do my essays, shifting of parental roles within the family unit. Caryl Rivers, a professor of communication, Journalism at Boston University, and Rosalind Barnett, a scientist at the Womenís Studies Research Center at Brandeis Univerisity, examine the shifting gender norms where the parents, regardless of do my essays, gender, now share more equal responsibilities in the household (2012, p. 1). Communication. Unlike before, when wives often stay at home to cook meals and watch the children, they now go out the workforce to help the husband add to the familyís income. In return, many husbands also share housekeeping and child responsibilities that the wives leave when they go to work. Therefore, this shift in malevich essays, a more equal sharing of responsibilities in the household allows the flexible nursing schedules to attract more males into the field who are not only prioritizing work, but also prioritizing the thesis on teacher, roles that they play within their own families.
Thus, male nurses also enjoy the advantage of anti, having flexible working schedule while still keeping up with their roles outside work. In 2011, a study conducted by researchers Kenny, Lee and Vertein further gives evidence to the shifting gender norms (p.478). The participants were nursing students across United States who completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory or BSRI to investigate if the thesis on teacher communication, stereotypical image that nurses tend to extended, be more feminine is indeed true. The study had two initial hypotheses: male nurses are as feminine as female nurses and male nurses are less masculine than their male counterparts who are not in the nursing profession. The results rejected both of these hypotheses as the findings suggested that male nurses and female nurses had no significant difference in masculinity and femininity. Thesis Communication. They found that male and do my essays, female nurses exhibited both masculine and feminine characteristics and thesis on teacher, are thus classified as androgynous rather than feminine or masculine (Kenny et al , 2011, pg 479).
This study, however, propose that being androgynous or having both feminine and masculine characteristics rather than being strictly one of the two, provides flexibility and maturity in resume compose, the nursing career because nurses are able to adjust in different situations they will face in the work force (Kenny et al , 2011,p. 482). For instance, conveying unfortunate news about a patientís health requires courage, which is usually associated with masculinity, and compassion, which is on teacher communication, usually associated with femininity. Another interesting result of this study was that male nursing students had higher masculinity scores than males in other majors implying that the resume compose, males who venture into the field of nursing view themselves as more masculine than feminine (Kenny et al , 2011,p. Thesis Communication. 484). Discrimination Term. Such results were opposite to the stereotype that male nurses are less masculine than males who are not nurses, and that male nurses become very feminine if they enter the thesis communication, field. Therefore, even those who venture into nursing view themselves not strictly as feminine or masculine but a combination of both which essentially expresses the shifting of stereotypical gender norms in the US. This shift in the gender norm allows for the easier acceptance of male nurses in our society. Nursing has historically been associated with femininity for several reasons.
In 2004, Ann Anthony, Associate Dean of Nursing Division of Tulsa Community College, says that nurses were seen as the ďdoctorís handmaidenĒ who performed menial task such as giving baths and feeding patients (p. 121). Malevich Essays. It was not until Florence Nightingaleís proposal to create training grounds for women who aim to thesis, become nurses did this occupation start to samuel paley, gain respect to some extent (Anthony, 2004, p. 122). As nursing gained more and more respect, more women turned to this profession; thus, women slowly established the nursing field as a female profession and over time, stereotypes for nurses developed as individuals who are ďsubordinate, nurturing, domestic, humble, and thesis, self-sacrificingĒ. (Anthony, 2009 p. 123). Therefore, in a patriarchal society where masculinity is branded as being strong and superior, being a male nurse carries a stigma that often discourages males to become nurses.
However, this trend might be slowly changing as more and more males, especially in the US, are attracted to this career for resume compose, the array of on teacher, opportunities they can have if they chose to malevich essays, enter the field of nursing. In reality it seems that although females dominate the thesis, field population-wise, there exist many privileges that male nurses enjoy upon entering the field. It seems, however, that this might be a beginning of a reverse gender-based discrimination because by having privileges readily available for male nurses but not female nurses, unequal opportunities begin to rise. Although such special privileges might be needed to entice more males to the nursing field, which is extremely important if we want to have a representative nursing population, it is crucial to malevich essays, watch the steps that our society will be taking in order to prevent creating an unequal working environment to our future nurses both males and females. Anthony, A.S. (2004). Gender Bias and Discrimination in Nursing Education: Can We Change It? Nurse Educator, 29, 121-126. Retrieved from on teacher, http://journals.lww.com/nurseeducatoronline/pages/default.aspx/ Barnett, R., Rivers, C. Do My Essays. (2012, June).
Are you working in thesis on teacher, a woman dominated industry? Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/womensenews/2012/06/05/are-you-working-in-a-women-dominated-industry/ Dewan S., Gebeloff R. (2012, May). More Men Enter Fields Dominated by Women. The New York Times Magazine, 302(A1). Discrimination Term. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/21/business/increasingly-men-seek-success-in-jobs-dominated-by-women.html?pagewanted=all_r=0/ Edwards, C., Mclaren, S., Robinson, O., Whittock, M. (2002). On Teacher Communication. ĎThe tender trapí: gender, part-time nursing and the effects of Ďfamily-friendlyí policies on malevich essays career advancement. Sociology of Health Illness, 24, 305-326. doi: 10. Thesis On Teacher Communication. 1111/1467-9566.00296.
Jones, C., Gates, M. (2004). By Grace Paley Essay. Gender-based wage differentials in a predominantly female profession: observations from thesis, nursing. Economics of Education Review, 23, 615-631. doi: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2004.06.001. Kenny, T., Lee G., Vertein D. (2011). Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Traits in malevich essays, a National Sample of Male and Female Nursing Students. American Journal of Menís Health , 5.6, 477-487. doi: 10.1177/1557988311404925. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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A Study on the Use of ICT in Teaching in Secondary Schools in Kuwait
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A case study of student and teacher relationships and the effect
case study pneumonia Department of Pediatrics, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine. Chapter VI.11. Pulmonary Infections. Return to Table of Contents. A previously healthy 4 year old boy is brought to an urgent care center by his mother for difficulty breathing for one day. Three days prior he had developed a runny nose, cough, and low grade fevers with a temperature maximum of 101 degrees F (38.3 degrees C).
He continued to take liquids well, but his solid intake has decreased. On Teacher! His temperature this morning was 103 degrees F (39.4 degrees C) and good extended, he was breathing fast and working hard to thesis, breathe. He does not have any ill contacts. He has never been hospitalized or had any surgeries. He was born at term without any complications. He is discrimination term paper, not taking medications other than acetaminophen. His immunizations are up to date for his age (except he had not received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). His parents and 10 year old sister are healthy and the remainder of his family history is non-contributory. There are no smokers in the household, and thesis communication, he has not traveled recently. He does not have a history of choking or vomiting.
He has not had frequent ear or skin infections. He does not have a history of foul-smelling stools. Exam: VS T 40 degrees C (104 degrees F), P 130, RR 40, BP 100/70, oxygen saturation 87% in room air. His height and weight are in the 50th percentile for his age. He is awake and alert, in anti terrorism thesis statement moderate distress. His conjunctiva and TMs are normal. His nasal mucosa is erythematous with yellowish discharge.
His lips and on teacher, mucous membranes are dry. His neck is supple, with several small anterior cervical lymph nodes. Lungs: Moderate subcostal, intercostal, and supraclavicular retractions, symmetric expansion, dullness to percussion at the right base, increased vocal fremitus over the right base, decreased air entry over right lower lobe with crackles, no wheezes. Heart: Tachycardia, regular rhythm without murmur. Samuel Paley Essay! Pulses are 2+, and capillary refill time is 3 seconds.
His abdomen, skin, and neurological examinations are unremarkable. CBC WBC 20,000, 70% segs, 11% bands, 15% lymphs, 3% monos, 1% eos. Thesis On Teacher! Hemoglobin 12.4, platelet count 280,000. Anti Terrorism Statement! Chest x-ray (CXR): Right lower lobe opacity consistent with a round pneumonia (technically air/space disease, commonly called infiltrates by communication most physicians). Because of the hypoxia, he is given supplemental oxygen (with subsequent improvement in oxygen saturation), as hospitalization arrangements are made. A 20 cc/kg infusion of normal saline was given through an intravenous (IV) line and then maintenance fluids are started. A blood culture is obtained and he is started on IV cefuroxime. He improves over the next day. His respiratory distress slowly resolves and he is weaned off supplemental oxygen over the next two days.
His blood culture shows no growth. He is discharged home on high dose amoxicillin for a total of 10 days of therapy. His discharge diagnosis is probably pneumococcal pneumonia. Acute childhood respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mortality is high in good essay developing countries with up to one-third of deaths in children less than 5 years caused by acute respiratory infections (ARI) (1). The disparity in thesis mortality is do my essays, due to the severity of infection (perhaps due to differences in nutrition, overall health, immunization practices, and medical care availability) since the incidence of acute respiratory infections is communication, similar between developed and developing countries with infants experiencing about samuel essay 4-8 episodes per year (1).
In the US, mortality from ARIs has declined since 1968 (1,2). There are 2 basic classification systems used for acute respiratory tract infections: the case-management classification system used by on teacher the World Health Organization (WHO) and the traditional clinical classification system (1). Extended Essay! The case management system divides ARIs by symptoms (i.e., stridor, wheezing, and no wheezing) and their severity (i.e., mild, moderate, severe, and very severe). The traditional system classifies ARIs by upper respiratory tract infections (e.g., acute otitis media, pharyngitis), middle respiratory tract infections (e.g., croup and epiglottitis), and lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., bronchiolitis, bronchitis, pneumonia). Therefore, studies evaluating ARIs are not uniform and use different definitions from clinical findings alone to clinical findings in combination with other various ancillary tests (e.g., chest radiography). Of the acute respiratory infections, pneumonia has the highest mortality rate accounting for approximately 70% of the worldwide 4.5 million deaths from acute respiratory infections (4).
Although mortality from thesis on teacher communication pneumonia in children in the United States has declined by 97% between 1939 and 1996 (5), pneumonia continues to be a leading cause of morbidity in children. The risk of acquiring pneumonia is highest in children less than 5 years of age (1). The etiology of pneumonia varies and depends on: the malevich essays, age of the thesis communication, child, where the resume compose, pneumonia was acquired (i.e., community vs. Thesis On Teacher Communication! nosocomial), local epidemiology (e.g., influenza epidemics), host factors (e.g., immunologic status, recent or intercurrent antibiotic use, vaccination, and overall health status of the child), and environmental factors (e.g., travel, season of the year, daycare, or crowded living conditions) (4,6-9). Determination of the precise etiology of pneumonia often requires invasive testing (e.g., lung biopsy), and therefore, this is done infrequently. Rather the etiology of pneumonia is usually based on discrimination paper, generalizations in thesis on teacher the relevant clinical setting.
In the do my essays, neonatal period, the communication, most common cause of bacterial pneumonia is malevich essays, group B beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBS) and gram negative enteric bacilli (e.g., E.coli), the same organisms associated with neonatal sepsis (4). In infants and children outside of the on teacher communication, neonatal period, viruses are the do my essays, most common cause of pneumonia (4,6,10-11) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common causes in infancy, especially in premature infants (9,12). Of the bacterial pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) occurs most frequently (6,9,11,13); however, the studies isolating S. pneumoniae were performed prior to the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (6). Thesis On Teacher Communication! Outcome analysis of the good extended, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine demonstrated that up to 33% of on teacher communication, chest radiograph confirmed pneumonia were prevented in immunized patients compared to those who were not immunized (14). Therefore, a different bacterial pathogen may supersede S. pneumoniae as the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in the coming years. Other organisms to terrorism statement, consider are Chlamydia trachomatis in infants 3-19 months of age (4) and Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumoniae in children and adolescents (8-9,11-12). In special cases, for example, patients with neuromuscular impairment and impaired swallowing, aspiration pneumonia with anaerobic bacteria should be considered (15). The etiology of pneumonia varies in other conditions including immunosuppressed patients, nosocomial infections, cystic fibrosis patients, and anatomic airway anomalies (e.g., tracheostomies). In addition, the etiology of pneumonia is complicated since mixed infections (e.g., viral-bacterial) can occur in 16-34% of communication, patients (7,11,13). The lower respiratory tract in healthy persons is by grace paley, sterile (16).
Bacteria access the respiratory tract by inhalation, microaspiration, or by hematogenous spread. If bacteria gain access to alveoli, host immunologic systems begin to work on eliminating bacteria. There are 2 major mechanisms by which lung defenses work to keep the airways sterile: physical defenses (i.e., mucociliary clearance and lymphatic drainage) and mechanisms that destroy bacteria (i.e., opsonization, specific immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG), alveolar macrophage ingestion, or complement mediated bacterial lysis) (17). Thesis On Teacher Communication! If these mechanisms fail, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are recruited with a resultant inflammatory response. Perpetuation of this inflammatory response leads to pneumonia. There are 4 major histologic steps seen in pneumococcal pneumonia described by Tuomanen, et al (18): engorgement, red hepatization, grey hepatization, and resolution. Engorgement is associated with presence of bacteria in resume compose the alveoli and an associated serous exudate.
This then progresses to red hepatization secondary to leakage of erythrocytes into the alveoli. The next phase, grey hepatization, results from leukocyte migration to the affected area with intravascular fibrin deposition disrupting perfusion to thesis on teacher communication, the area. The final phase results in resolution, with phagocytosis of paper, pneumococci and clearance of fibrin and thesis on teacher communication, other debris. Outside of the neonatal period, pneumonia is suspected in patients with clinical signs and anti terrorism thesis, symptoms suggestive of impairment of the lower respiratory tract. Distinguishing bacterial from other causes of pneumonia cannot be accomplished by clinical findings alone (7). Symptoms of pneumonia are nonspecific and include: fever, ill appearance, cough, fatigue, decreased appetite and sometimes, abdominal pain. Signs of lower respiratory tract involvement include: tachypnea (greater than 50 breaths/minute in children less than 12 months, and communication, greater than 40 breaths/minute for older children) (4), cyanosis, increased work of breathing (i.e., use of accessory muscles, grunting), pleuritic pain, and abnormal auscultatory findings. These signs do not differentiate a viral from bacterial process. A chest radiograph is used to verify the clinical suspicion of pneumonia and characterize the disease process, but may not be performed on every patient. Viral respiratory tract infections are often associated with hyperinflation, perihilar peribronchial infiltrates, segmental or lobar atelectasis, and hilar adenopathy (19). Lobar consolidation and fluffy alveolar infiltrates with air bronchograms are more characteristic of bacterial infection (13).
However, there is malevich essays, overlap between these two groups (13). Computed tomography and ultrasound of the chest are used in special circumstances (e.g., evaluate for pleural effusion, adenopathy, improved imaging of lung architecture) but these are not routinely obtained (4). Commonly used screening laboratory tests such as white blood cell count with differential, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and the C-reactive protein (CRP) are not accurate in differentiating between bacterial, viral, mixed, or idiopathic causes of childhood pneumonia (7). Determination of precise etiology of pneumonia is difficult due to the lack of sensitive and specific tests. Many clinicians treat pneumonia empirically with minimal laboratory or radiographic evaluation and thus up to communication, 80% of discrimination, non-bacterial pneumonia may be treated with antibiotics (6).
This approach is satisfactory when clinical risk is thesis communication, deemed to be low. When a more precise diagnosis is required, more invasive techniques are required. Malevich Essays! Bacteria found in the blood, pleural fluid (thoracentesis), or lung tissue is considered diagnostic in a patient presumed to have pneumonia (4). Blood cultures are only communication positive in 1-8% of pneumonia (11) but continue to be recommended (4). Some question the necessity of blood culture after cost-based analyses (6, 11).
Transthoracic needle aspirates, transtracheal aspirates, and open lung biopsy (the gold standard for diagnosis) are rarely performed due to the risk involved for good essay these procedures (11,20), except in severe cases or in immunocompromised hosts (4). Sputum is often contaminated with organisms unrelated to the specific etiology (16) and is difficult to on teacher, obtain in by grace paley essay children less than 8 years old (4). A sputum sample that may be helpful is characterized by many polymorphonuclear cells and a bacteria of single morphology on gram stain (4). Bronchoalveolar lavage from bronchoscopy is difficult to interpret as well. The results are non-specific (i.e., higher neutrophil counts than lymphocyte counts in patients with infection) and the organism found may or may not be the etiologic agent (16). Bacterial serology and bacterial antigen testing are often difficult to interpret (4,6). Bacterial cultures of the nasopharynx or throat correlate poorly with lung tissue cultures and on teacher communication, are not helpful in establishing a diagnosis (16). Paper! Specific viral antigen testing, along with cultures for suspected pathogens, serologies for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia, and PPD skin testing for tuberculosis may be helpful (6). Pneumonia is treated with antimicrobials when the clinical suspicion for bacterial etiology is high. Greater pneumonia severity and findings that are consistent with bacterial pneumonia (e.g., lobar consolidation, leukocytosis, high fever) are more likely to warrant antimicrobial treatment.
Young infants, unreliable parents, poor access to medical care, and more severe infections often require hospitalization. Treatment of pneumonia is communication, often empirically based and thus, information on antibiotic resistance patterns and samuel paley, mechanisms of resistance is important to thesis, determine the most appropriate treatment. For S. pneumoniae, the most common mechanism of resistance to penicillins is alteration of term paper, penicillin-binding sites that can be overcome with higher doses of the drug (6). For macrolides, alteration to the 50S ribosomal binding site of the macrolide inhibits binding of the antibiotic and thesis on teacher, thus, prevents protein synthesis inhibition (6). In addition, there is also an increase in efflux pumps for macrolides and this property can be overcome by malevich essays using macrolides that achieve high tissue concentrations at the site of infection (e.g. azithromycin) (6). On Teacher Communication! Penicillin resistant pneumococci are often resistant to multiple drugs including macrolides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21).
Therefore, high-dose amoxicillin and/or azithromycin are recommended for empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children (6,8-9,11-12,20). Some clinicians will use clinical factors and ancillary tests in aggregate such as age, exposures, CXR pattern, fever, and leukocytosis, to stratify the risk to favor pneumococcus (high dose amoxicillin would be better) or Mycoplasma/Chlamydia (macrolide would be better). For those children requiring hospitalization, a second or third generation cephalosporin, occasionally in combination with a macrolide, is generally recommended (8,20). Do My Essays! Most treatment regimens are continued for on teacher a total of 7-14 days although this is based on little evidence (4). Pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus is uncommon, but particularly severe. S. aureus pneumonia usually results from inhalation of organisms, but it may also occur in patients with a cutaneous source (e.g., impetigo, boils, abscesses) with hematogenous spread or staphylococcal bacteremia from paper another source (e.g. osteomyelitis, central line infection). If S. Communication! aureus pneumonia is suspected, vancomycin should be started empirically. Culture and sensitivity data permits changing to do my essays, an alternate antibiotic later.
Pleural effusion (empyema), pneumothorax, and thesis on teacher, pneumatoceles often complicate S. aureus pneumonia. Pleural effusions can be classified in anti terrorism thesis several ways. They can be a transudate or an exudate based on their protein content. Thesis On Teacher! A subpulmonic effusion versus an empyema is more clinically relevant. Samuel Paley! The former implies a transudate which is usually sterile, while the thesis, term empyema is paper, usually used to describe pus (purulent exudate) with a positive gram stain and culture. The overall outcome in children with pneumonia is excellent. The majority of on teacher, children will recover without complications (11). Follow up chest radiographs are not required routinely, but should be performed for do my essays patients with complicated pneumonia, persistent respiratory problems, pleural involvement, and neonates (4,22).
About 80% of thesis on teacher, infiltrates on CXR will resolve by resume compose 3-4 weeks and the remainder will usually resolve by 3 months (22). Recurrent pneumonia with radiologic clearance between episodes requires further evaluation (e.g., immunodeficiencies, gastroesophageal reflux, pulmonary anomalies, etc.) (4). Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization for thesis on teacher communication respiratory tract infections in young children (4,23-25). Malevich Essays! Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the primary cause of bronchiolitis, but parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus may also cause bronchiolitis (23-24). In the United States, the majority of RSV infections occur during the months of November to March (4,23). RSV infections account for a significant amount of thesis communication, morbidity and anti terrorism thesis, health care expense in the young age group (24). RSV is transmitted by thesis on teacher direct contact with large droplets or fomites. Transmission can be limited by good handwashing (23). RSV bronchiolitis results from the spread of RSV to the lower respiratory tract after an incubation period 2-8 days where the virus undergoes replication in anti thesis the nasopharynx (23).
The infection results in on teacher infiltration of the respiratory epithelium with resultant inflammation and necrosis, sloughing of the samuel paley essay, epithelium and thesis, increased mucus production causing airflow limitation in the small airways leading to the hallmarks of the disease (23). Thus, affected infants have signs of airflow limitation including hyperinflation, atelectasis, and wheezing. The diagnosis is anti terrorism, often made on clinical grounds during the RSV season. Thesis On Teacher! Diagnostic testing can be done by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) tests if the diagnosis is unclear. Therapy is often supportive which may include: supplemental oxygen, fluids, and upright positioning. Aerosolized ribavirin is the only known proven therapy for RSV infection, but its expense, potential toxicity, difficulty of administration, and lack of conclusive evidence for its efficacy (24,26) limit its use. The use of bronchodilators and corticosteroids are controversial and may only be mildly effective at best (i.e., not been proven to be highly efficacious) (24-26).
For those with moderate to severe disease, helium-oxygen mixtures or nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in improving gas-exchange and symptomatology (27-30). Montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist, has recently been reported to make a difference in future wheezing episodes (31). Prophylaxis with palivizumab (RSV monoclonal antibody) or RSV-IVIG is given to select pediatric populations recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics during RSV season to reduce RSV infection risk (32). Growing premature infants and infants with congenital heart disease and other chronic lung conditions are at anti terrorism increased risk for thesis on teacher communication RSV pneumonia, apnea and respiratory failure. Healthy term infants with RSV usually develop mild bronchiolitis. Older children, teens and adults with RSV will usually have cold symptoms.
Bronchiolitis is usually a self limited disease and complete resolution takes about extended essay 4-8 weeks. In neonates and young infants, bronchiolitis may present with apnea and minimal respiratory symptoms, but the apnea is usually short-lived (33). Although bronchiolitis self-resolves, patients with RSV bronchiolitis may be predisposed to thesis communication, future episodes of good essay, wheezing (34). RSV infection can recur since there is an incomplete and on teacher communication, poorly sustained immune response (23). In summary, bronchiolitis and pneumonia significantly impact the do my essays, pediatric population. Determining likely etiologies of pneumonia and understanding effective treatment modalities will improve patient outcomes. Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Edward Fong, MD, Leslie Barton, MD and thesis on teacher, John Mark, MD for their critical review of the term paper, chapter. 1. Which of the communication, following is the most common cause of pneumonia outside of the neonatal period? 2. S. pneumonia resistance to penicillins is malevich essays, due to: . Communication! . . . . a. Production of beta-lactamase.
. . . . . Resume Compose! b. Alteration of penicillin binding proteins. . . . . . Thesis On Teacher Communication! c. Increased efflux pumps. . . . . . d. Low tissue bioavailability. 3. True/False: Nasopharyngeal and throat cultures are useful in determining etiology of bacterial pneumonia. 4. True/False: Lobar consolidation on chest x-ray provides conclusive evidence for bacterial pneumonia. 5. Term Paper! Which factor does not appear to on teacher communication, affect the etiology of pneumonia?
. . . Resume Compose! . . b. Vaccination status. . . . . . c. On Teacher! Current antibiotic use. 6. Do My Essays! The most common cause of bronchiolitis is: . . . . . a. Respiratory syncytial virus. . . . . Communication! . b. Resume Compose! Human Metapneumovirus. 7. True/False: Bronchiolitis may initially present with apnea and minimal respiratory symptoms. 8. Treatment of on teacher communication, bronchiolitis should include all of the following except: a. Supplemental oxygen for infants with hypoxia. b. Intravenous fluids and close monitoring of nutritional status. c. Good handwashing. d. Antibiotics. 9. True/False: Corticosteroids and bronchodilators are highly efficacious therapies for RSV bronchiolitis. Pneumonia case presenting with abdominal pain: Yamamoto LG. Abdominal Pain with a Negative Abdominal Examination. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds).
Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1994, volume 1, case 3. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v1c03.html. Staph pneumonia case: Yamamoto LG, Young LL. Tachypnea and Abdominal Pain. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1995, volume 2, case 5. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v2c05.html. Series of do my essays, pediatric chest radiographs: Yamamoto LG. Test Your Skill In Reading Pediatric Chest Radiographs. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Thesis On Teacher Communication! Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1995, volume 3, case 20. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v3c20.html.
Another series of pediatric chest radiographs: Yamamoto LG. Test Your Skill In Reading Pediatric Chest Radiographs. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1996, volume 4, case 5. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v4c05.html. 1. Graham NMH. Samuel By Grace! The Epidemiology of on teacher communication, Acute Respiratory Infection in Children and Adults: A Global Perspective.
Epidemiol Rev 1990;12:149-178. 2. National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics report (www.cdc.gov) 2001;49(1):14. 3. Dixon RE. Economic Costs of Respiratory Tract Infections in the United States. Am J Med 1985;78(6B): 45-51.
4. Miller MA, Ben-Ami T, Daum RS. Chapter 39-Bacterial Pneumonia in Neonates and Older Children. In: Taussig LM, Landau LI (eds). Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, first edition. 1999, St. Louis: Mosby, pp. 595-664. 5. Dowell SF, Kupronis BA, Zell ER, Shay DK. Mortality From Pneumonia in Children in do my essays the United States, 1939 Through 1996. N Engl J Med 2000;342(19):1399-1407.
6. Bradley JS. Thesis On Teacher Communication! Management of do my essays, Community-Acquired Pediatric Pneumonia in an Era of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance and thesis, Conjugate Vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21(6):592-598. 7. Nohynek H, Valkeila E, Leinonen M, Eskola J. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, White Blood Cell Count and Serum C-reactive Protein in Assessing Etiologic Diagnosis of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Children. Paper! Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995;14(6): 484-490.
8. Nelson J. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: Guidelines for Treatment. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19(3):251-253. 9. Heiskanen-Kosma T, Korppi MN, Jokinen C, et al. Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia: Serologic Results of a Prospective, Population-Based Study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;17(11):986-991. 10. McIntosh K. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children. N Engl J Med 2002;346(6);429-437. 11. Ruuskanen O, Mertsolon J. Childhood Community-Acquired Pneumonia.
Sem Resp Infect 1999;14(2):163-172. 12. McCraken, GH Jr. Etiology and Treatment of Pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19(4):373-377. 13. Korppi M, Kiekara O, Heiskanen-Kosma T, Soimakallio S. Comparison of Radiological Findings and Microbial Aetiology of Childhood Pneumonia. Acta Paediatr 1993;82: 360-363. 14.
Overturf GD, Committee on communication, Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Technical Report: Prevention of good extended essay, Pneumococcal Infections, Including the Use of Pneumococcal Conjugate and Polysaccharide Vaccines and Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Pediatrics 2000;106(2):367-376. 15. Brook I, Finegold SM. Bacteriology of Aspiration Pneumonia in Children. Pediatrics 1980;65(6):1115-1120. 16.
Laurenzi GA, Potter RT, Kass EH. Bacteriologic Flora of the Lower Respiratory Tract. On Teacher! N Engl J Med 1961;265:1271-1278. 17. Green GM, Kass EH.
The Role of the Alveolar Macrophage in paper the Clearance of thesis on teacher, Bacteria from the Lung. J Exp Med 1964;119:167-175. 18. Tuomanen EI, Austrian R, Masure HR. Pathogenesis of Pneumococcal Infection. Extended! N Engl J Med 1995(19);332:1280-1284. 19. Thesis On Teacher! Wildin SR, Chonmaitree T, Swischuk LE.
Roentgenographic Features of Common Pediatric Viral Respiratory Tract Infections. Am J Dis Child 1988;142:43-46. 20. Hart CA, Duerden BI. Respiratory Infections. J Med Microbiol 2002;51:903-914. 21. Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al.
Increasing Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae in malevich essays the United States. N Engl J Med 2000;343(26):1917-1924. 22. Thesis On Teacher! Grossman LK, Wald ER, Nair P, Papiez J. Roentgenographic Follow-Up of Acute Pneumonia in Children. Pediatrics 1979(1);63:30-31. 23. Hall CB.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Parainfluenza virus. N Engl J Med 2001;344(25):1917-1928. 24. Greenough A. Do My Essays! Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Clinical Features, Management, and Prophylaxis. Curr Opin in thesis on teacher communication Pulm Med 2002;8:214-217. 25. Jartti T, van den Hoogen B, Garofalo RP, et al.
Metapneumovirus and Acute Wheezing in Children. Discrimination Paper! Lancet 2002;360:1393-1394. 26. Patel H, Platt RW, Pekeles GS, Ducharme FM. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Nebulized Therapy with Epinephrine Compared with Albuterol and Saline in Infants Hospitalized for on teacher communication Acute Viral Bronchiolitis. J Pediatr 2002(6);141:818-824.
27. Hollman G, Shen G, Zeng L, et al. Helium-Oxygen Improves Clinical Asthma Scores in Children with Acute Bronchiolitis. Crit Care Med 1998;26(10):1731-1736. 28. Martinon-Torres F, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Martinon-Sanchez JM. Malevich Essays! Heliox Therapy in Infants with Acute Bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 2002(1);109:68-73.
29. Beasley JM, Jones SEF. Communication! Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Bronchiolitis. Resume Compose! British Medical Journal 1981;283:1506-1508. 30.
Soong W, Hwang B, Tang R. Thesis! Continuous Positive Airway Pressure by Nasal Prongs in Bronchiolitis. Pediatr Pulmonol 1993;16:163-166. 31. Term Paper! Bisgaard H for the Study Group on thesis on teacher, Montelukast and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. A Randomized Trial of Montelukast in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Postbronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:379-383. 32. Halsey NA, Abramson JS, Chesney PJ, et al.
American Academy of Pediatrics: Prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Indications for resume compose the Use of thesis, Palivizumab and Update on the Use of RSV-IGIV. Pediatrics 1998;102(5):1211-1216. 33. Bruhn FW, Mokrohisky ST, McIntosh K. Do My Essays! Apnea Associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Young Infants. J Pediatr 1977;90:382-386.
34. Sigurs N, Bjarnason R, Sigurbergsson F, Kjellman B. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Infancy is an thesis, Important Risk Factor for Asthma and Allergy at Age 7. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:1501-1507. Answers to questions. 1.c. Overall, viruses cause the majority of pneumonias in children; however, the incidence of viral pneumonia decreases with age, becoming less common in older children and resume compose, adolescents.
4.False. Lobar pneumonias are more likely to be of bacterial etiology, but this is not definitive since some lobar pneumonias will still be viral.