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C.S. Lewis, Happiness, and narrative Sexual Morality. In words that are cherished by all civilized men, but especially by Americans, it has been laid down that one of the rights of man is a right to favorite #8216;the pursuit of happiness.#8217; That quote comes from one of C.S. Lewis’ final writings, a fine essay called We Have No Right to Happiness, which was published shortly after his death. Lewis is right – I’ve never stood in front of a group of people young, old, religious, or secular who don’t aspire in good narrative essay some way to be happy. But can that pursuit be dangerous for house our souls? In the components of a good above mentioned essay, C.S. Lewis would seem to say it can#8230; Lewis points out on the white house, that often we hold a double standard for morality, recognizing in components essay most areas of our life that we ought to pursue happiness by legitimate means. For C.S. Lewis, a legitimate means to about stress at work happiness means adhering to the tenets of natural law , the God-given sense of right and wrong placed within each of us. Of A Good Narrative Essay. According to the Catechism, natural law is engraved on the soul of every human being (CCC 1954).
It#8217;s this sense of natural law that tells us that lying, cheating, and stealing are immoral; and toy as a child essay that honesty, fidelity, and sacrifice are virtues to be admired. In We Have No Right to Happiness , Lewis argues that although we all (rightly) seek happiness none of us has an unlimited right to happiness based on the idea that we can do whatever we want. Lewis is not suggesting we#8217;re supposed to be miserable Christians but you need to follow Lewis#8217; logic. Components Good Narrative. He saw in our society a tendency to use the pursuit of happiness not only as a goal but as a justification for toy as essay the means by which we achieve the goal of happiness. (I want to be happy, therefore it doesn#8217;t matter what I do or whom I hurt so long as it makes me happy). Any sane society will agree with Lewis at good least to a point if I want to kill you because it makes me happy, this is on criticism interpretation, problematic.
To murder another person is immoral, and to of a do so simply because it makes me happy would have society label me some sort of sociopath. But where we seem to be clear on things like murder, our modern society doesn#8217;t see sex in essay the same way: #8230; sex was to be treated as no other impulse in components of a essay our nature has ever been treated by civilized people. Thematic Essay. All the others, we admit, have to of a good essay be bridled. Absolute obedience to your instinct for self-preservation is what we call cowardice; to your acquisitive impulse, avarice. Even sleep must be resisted if you#8217;re a sentry. But every unkindness and breach of faith seems to thesis be condoned provided that the object aimed at is #8216;four bare legs in a bed.#8217; It is like having a morality in which stealing fruit is considered wrong—unless you steal nectarines.#8221; Our society claims in as loud a voice as it can scream that to try and bridle our sexuality is unnatural and immoral.
How DARE anyone (especially the Church) impose on another limits to their ability to express themselves sexually to their happiness. You#8217;re beginning to see it in the defenses of those who commit heinous sexual crimes against others and against children#8230; a defense built upon their #8220;freedom of expression.#8221; It#8217;s the same defense that used for those who hire prostitutes, who view pornography, who are unfaithful to their spouses, and components good essay who take advantage of others who are under the influence of drugs or alcohol. But this mentality is not limited to those who struggle with morality. It#8217;s used by many young couples who although they#8217;ve been taught, and in house many cases believe differently choose not to wait until their wedding night to of a narrative essay consummate their marriage. #8220;We love each other, and we have the right to be happy.#8221; It#8217;s used by those who contracept, even though they understand that this changes the meaning of their sexual love. Seeking happiness in this way leads us away from God#8230; and so, of course, C.S.
Lewis would write that we have no right to this. The key to Lewis#8217; understanding of the pursuit of happiness is that we all have the right to do so by an essay on criticism lawful means . And we have in the natural law, the Commandments, and the teachings of of a, Christ a pretty good framework of what #8220;lawful means#8221; are supposed to be. The crux of the matter is quite simple: we try to justify things in the name of being happy because a small part of us knows that something is wrong. This is often the an essay interpretation voice of God speaking in our hearts a voice we can acknowledge, allowing Him to good transform us to discover something better than happiness: joy or a voice we can smother and ignore, with great risks: #8230;though the #8220;right to essay at work happiness#8221; is chiefly claimed for the sexual impulse, it seems to me impossible that the components of a good narrative matter should stay there. The fatal principle, once allowed in that department, must sooner or later seep through our whole lives.
We thus advance toward a state of society in which not only each man but every impulse in each man claims carte blanche. Thesis Master. And then, though our technological skill may help us survive a little longer, our civilization will have died at components narrative essay heart, and will—one dare not even add #8220;unfortunately#8221;—be swept away.#8221; (C.S. Lewis) A husband father of five children, Mike serves most days as Chaplain to Evergreen Catholic Schools. Dissertation. [Click to read more] All content is intended to reflect the teachings of the components essay Catholic Church.
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Components of a good narrative essay
Oil Pipelines and Russia’s Involvement. Stability of the Eastern Europe states (mostly former USSR affiliates) is the key to effective flow of oil and natural gas from Russia and of a essay the rich Caspian region to Eastern Europe. This is the case due to the high levels of insecurity for the pipelines in thesis thesis master the region and Russia’s influence on the pipeline operations to components good essay the major market in the Eastern Europe. Arguably, the cause has been far fetched from the former USSR servants that are still healing the wounds from the dialogique impacts of of a narrative essay, long struggle for thesis master freedom from Moscow . Russia is a major player in the international energy market due to vast reserves of energy resources f. Need essay sample on Oil Pipelines and Russia’s Involvement ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for of a essay only $13.90/page. . Dissertation Exemple! orming one of its major economic drivers. Following the breakup with large oil companies like Yukos, the country has ventured greatly into the business by exercising authority which has seen it control the prices and supply capacities with forces similar to those of the former Soviet.
However, the components of a good narrative essay pipelines pass via most of the countries that have been at crossroads with Russia for long. This is the major source of controversy with deep social-economic and political effects to the country, the region and the globe too. Analysts have pointed it as a major cause for international alarm should corrective measures fail. 2. Overview of the an essay on criticism paper This paper explores the background and importance of of a narrative essay, pipeline to on the house the economy of Russia and the region that rely on it. Components Of A Essay! Evaluating the conflicts of the former Western Europe especially regions through which the major pipelines pass through, it examines the relevance of essays on the white house, security to the pipeline as part of the extended regional infrastructure to the international community.
Politically, the paper will look at how energy resources found in the Caspian region and elsewhere globally are important to the society. Through a holistic analysis of the region, the paper projects at the possible future of the narrative essay pipeline operations and the relation between the essays on the West and East which is components narrative, mainly based on this precious commodity (petroleum). Thematic Essay! 3. Background of oil pipeline operations in Russia Oil and gas pipelines in Russia have a long history that dates back to the Soviets regime. With Russia holding one of the largest reserves of natural gas (about 1,680 trillion cubic feet), it has been one of the largest exporter of the same commodity to the Eastern Europe . To add to that, the Caspian region has rich reserves of oil whose production was taken over mostly by America and the Western countries affiliated companies. Over the years, the debate over the actual cause of instability in the region has led to development of the hypothesis that the ‘Western countries’ insatiable need for oil is the major cause. Components Of A Narrative! ‘ With the oil producing countries in the Caspian region and Russia being poorly located in terms of transport for an essay interpretation the commodity, it became necessary to pass the pipelines through countries like Chechnya Ukraine, and of a essay Georgia . Recently, Russia has increasingly raised its demand for essay stress at work control of the pipelines and the the oil that originate from its land as well as from the components essay neighboring regions. This meant that it has the thesis control of the prices and quantities of the precious “gold” which it exercises with intrinsic bureaucracy. Georgia, a country in conflicts with Russia has two major pipelines crossing from Azerbaijan to Turkey. Components Of A Narrative Essay! 80% of Russia oil and thesis master gas exports to components of a Europe pass through Ukraine . 4. Importance of pipeline to the economy. Globally, energy is the favorite toy as single main item that determines the progress of of a narrative essay, a country especially with regard to industrial progression. However, its availability to the international community has been very limiting as the resources are vested to only few countries globally. This has therefore created a strong affinity and demands for international interdependence mostly related to oil.
Natural gas and oil forms the main driver of over 80% of the global industries. Therefore, the distribution factor remains a key icon in determining the later progress of the economies globally via the following aspects; ? Availability of the resources As indicated earlier, availability of natural gas and oil to the any country forms the key determinant of the on criticism interpretation countries ability to components narrative essay grow industrially and improve its overall economic growth. Since historical periods, Russia’s increasing growth has been due to the availability of oil in its soil which acts as the main economic driver . Thesis! Similarly, Eastern Europe’s 30% of its natural gas and narrative 32% of its oil demands originates from Russia and Caspian region. The fast economic growth within the European Union region has been attributed to the stability in oil supply. Therefore, issues relating to essay about at work pipeline have drawn the international attention as they dictate the stability of the region economically and politically too. Most of the people in Eastern Europe are industrially dependent . Of greater importance has been the increasing disruption especially on the pipelines passing through Ukraine and Chechnya which alters the stability of the gas and oil flow to good the Western Europe. ? Price of the natural gas and essay oil in the market Market forces have been cited as the major determinants of the commodities prices at any given moment.
This has especially been the case with regard to oil and natural gas marketing globally. As indicated earlier, the demand for oil and natural gas has been on an upward sharp trend that has made Russia to demand monopolistic control for production and narrative essay transportation. However, the on the white latter demand under the forces of the market has been rejected by the receiving countries which cry foul of the high prices of production that are not at par with the industrial production logistics. The ability to transport oil with pipeline makes it far much cheaper and reduces the risks of components good narrative essay, rail, road and sea transport. It also, saves a lot of time reducing greatly the overall market price. On Criticism Interpretation! However, the prices adjustments by Russia has brought sharp conflicts with Ukraine and acted to isolate Russia from the components good narrative essay rest of the world . Similarly, it has put Western Europe at the mercy of Russia a system described to be highly precarious for the EU. 5. Oil and gas producing distributing companies and regional politics Arguably, Central Asian oil and natural gas as indicated by history of the region flow through Russian pipelines. This is a major source of revenue and part of the extended source of the same products to thesis the country. Therefore, the region has turned into a puzzle as pipeline turns out to be the key indicator of superiority . China proposes to establish 3000 Kilometers pipeline from the Caspian fields to its own economic strongholds. Logistics of of a essay, these pipelines therefore have been based on the geography and political orientation and affiliations. For Russia, to head directly West demands skirting the Caspian peninsula which increase the overall length of the system.
To establish an underwater system is thesis, extremely costly while running towards the East would involve traversing the components war torn mountainous Afghanistan. Boarder politics on the other hand are even more complicated with each country especially those that broke free from the toy as essay soviet demanding transit fee and reduced prices for their supplies. Therefore, cross boarder agreements are equally controversial due to the changing demands of the resources in of a good essay the region. To add to that, the an essay on criticism International Convention on the Law of the Sea plunges the system deeper into the misery in that Caspian water system is not fully categorized as a sea or a lake . ? Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. This pipeline’s is components of a, about 1,768 kilometers that connects Sangachal in Baku to Ceyhan in dissertation dialogique exemple Turkey coast of Mediterranean sea. It traverses Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey and components narrative delivers about 160, 000 cubic meters of oil per day. The Pipeline is owned by a conglomeration of companies globally with British petroleum having the largest share of 30%. The pipeline is a major controversy both politically, geographically and economically. Though it bypasses Armenia, Azerbaijan has unresolved conflicts over the status of Nagorno-Karabaokh . Besides, it crosses via Georgia that is currently under intensive conflicts with Russia and thesis also passes through Kurdish region that have prolonged conflicts with separatists.
In 2008, Kurdish exploded a section of the pipeline claiming non inclusion in good the enterprise. The Russian government indicates that the essays on the west is components of a good essay, determined to take over Easters Europe’s’ resources and has called for reconsideration. Figure I. Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. (Adopted from David, Inge) ? Caspian Pipeline Consortium. This pipeline carries oil from Tengiz field to the Novorossiysk-2marine terminal in the Russian’s black sea coast. This pipeline was created in 1992 by the Kazakhstani, Russian and Omani governments and is worth US $ 293 million . Though this pipeline is considered by the Russian Government to be more effective due to lack of external exaggerated effects, it is not fully free of such influence. CPC from favorite a child essay, a logistical point of view is limited by the narrowness of the Turkey’s Bosporous Strait which carries the oil to the wider outer markets.
To add to that, the Russia’s occasional transit fees increments has been considered an impetus for Kazakhstan to seek an alternative route for its oil which will greatly affect the total delivery. To add to that, based on Russia’s dealings with Ukraine, fears still loom that it may not be trusted by components good narrative essay, Kazakhstan fully and therefore raising the thesis search for an alternative route. Seeking alternative routes that avoids Russia would mean taking longer distances and therefore raising the overall price of the oil and of a narrative natural gas to the market . Figure II. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (adopted from David, Inge) 6. White House! Local and global significance of Russian pipeline security Globally the pipelines are significant in components of a that petroleum is the main driver of economies.
Notably, all aspects of development are directly or indirectly related to petroleum products. Economically, the security of pipelines guarantees equitable growth of the region and therefore make it one of the best globally, a notion underscored by the European Union. Therefore, it is of interest to the international community that agreements are reached to guarantee stability in prices and supply of the same commodity to them . However, this has not been easy as production and distribution are fully unlinked by falling under the an essay interpretation different states jurisdictions. Though analysts have been divided over the later possibility of making the whole of good narrative essay, Europe act as a single group, the external involvement that are particularistic may derail the initiative. Central Asia and South East Asia are increasingly relying on interpretation, the Caspian and Russian oil and natural gas supply a notion that has major implications to the West . Politically, the fight for supremacy is far from over. Russia still swims in the Soviets connotation and “demands” that the former smaller economies should be at its mercy. However, this notion is not only retrogressive, but also destabilizing in that each country has its own rights to allow passage of the pipeline at its own dictated fee. This is components good narrative, however complicated by the fact that most of the countries are EU members and their aggression to impact negatively on Russia directly affects other EU members. As if that is not enough, most of these countries have formed strong ties with external strongholds that are thought to be either wanting or malicious altogether . However, they act as a sense of security and deterrent factors in checking Russia’s monopolistic energy control. It has remained the core item in the US strife for supremacy to ensure that Russia do not get the monopoly of fuel supply.
7. Special relations with Ukraine Even with other countries acting as key icons in the determination of the pipeline’s operations in the East and its impacts, the case for Ukraine has always been special. With the Soviets Gas industry being borne in the early 20th century, it was Ukraine that was behind the whole deal that was later shifted to Moscow. The soviets bureaucrat representing Gazprom denied Ukraine the essay at work overall control and returns of the same resources a notion that has been cited to have far much reaching implications of the regions security. Good! With the breakdown of the soviet, Ukraine remained an integral part of the pipeline system from Russia to the rest of Europe. Dialogique! Historically and components good presently too, there has been a feeling that the region (Ukraine) which Russia had thought to be its “breadbasket” might not get fully ‘independent’ in the near future . Russia’s raising of prices to Ukraine has however met strong resistance with effective shutdowns for all the lines . This prompted Russia to seek alternative routes for some of its oil and natural gas. Besides, the storage facilities at Slovaks boarder also fall under Ukraine control giving it a better leverage for shifting stored oil and natural gas for essays white its use during Russia cut offs.
As a major puzzle, the Russia still needs Ukraine as it is the major external point of the pipelines with diameters of over 1, 000 mm and smaller ones too which strongly raises the ability to increase the pumping capacity of the oil and gas to the larger market. To add to of a good narrative that, Ukraine has also attracted international sympathy due to Russia’s sycophantic mission of controlling the centrally located important portion and therefore acting as a leverage of the an essay on criticism interpretation EU and other Western countries to similarly checks Russia’s emerging supremacy . It has been described as a war of diplomacy and one that is good, not close to getting over soon. Thematic Essay! Figure III. pipelines passing through Ukraine. (Adopted from Jerome, Paris) 8. Conclusion. Natural gas and petroleum resources have remained the most important resources in the global arena since the onset of the cold war and narrative essay will continue to affect the global politics for long. Similarly, pipelines in the Eastern Europe form a key item in determining the accessibility and prices of the prestigious commodity, a notion which have great implications in the industrial production capacities for EU. However, the soaring relationship between the Russia and her neighbors forms a key stabling block for the whole of EU development.
Nationally, the favorite toy as a child essay effects are much fewer in good essay Russia as their production has been greatly boosted by low prices of the commodity. The “tears” of the former USSR colonies being still wet in their faces, their relationship with Russia is soar and interruptions inevitable with slightest provocation by the former master . The future of the system however lies in the capacity of the region to thematic essay play down their politics and work together as a block to develop . Narrative Essay! Similar to the former Soviet, Russia seeks to and non seize any opportunity that can place it back to components good narrative the high position without delay. However, this notion is ill advised as the current consideration of the central Asia and South East control may get out of hand very easily with other extensive exploration of oil internationally and toy as a child affiliations to of a good essay EU and US. Similarly, Russia stands to loose more in that her relationship with Western Europe is two fold as it benefits from supply of essays white house, fuel and market under the membership of EU. However, the future of pipeline systems is still bright with the current propositions for bypassing Russia being underway. To add to that, most of the components of a good narrative regional countries like Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and the rest of the international communities see regional cooperation as the correct mode to grow and develop.
This is a fact and essays house Russia will realize it when it is too late. It is however clear that the regional energy woes that has its expanded effects to the region and internationally are far from good narrative, over. Bibliography Ariel Cohen, “Iran’s Claim Over Caspian Sea Resources Threaten Energy Security. ” The Heritage Foundation, 5 September 2002, http://www. heritage. org/… cfm. Blagov, Sergei. “Russia Mulls ‘Gas OPEC’ Plan. ” ISN Security Watch, 2 March 2007, http://www. isn. ethz. ch/… 7207. Bush, George W. State of the Union Address by the President, 31 January 2006, Available at http://www. whitehouse. gov/… 2006/. David, Inge, Notes on the pipeline war: Amateur hour in Washington and Europe. The oil and the Glory. Tuesday, December 2007. Energy Information Administration. “Caspian Sea Region: Natural Gas Export Options. Thesis And Non Thesis! ” July 2002, Available at http://www. eia. doe. gov/… html. Ganske, Charles. “Georgia: More Unintended Consequences?
” Real Russia Project, 6 November 2006, Available at http://www. russiablog. Components Of A Good Narrative Essay! org/… php. Thesis And Non Thesis Master! Global Insight, “Kashagan Partners Eye US$4-bil Trans-Caspian Oil Transport System to Connect to BRC Pipeline. ” 2002, Available at, http://www. globalinsight. com/… htm. Jerome, Paris, Ukraine vs Russia: Tales of the pipeline and dependence. European Tribune,December 29, 2006. Karaeve, Zainiddin. “Border Disputes and components of a good essay Regional Integration in Central Asia. ” Harvard Asia Quarterly, vol.
9, no. 4 (2005). O’Rourke, Breffni. “Turkmenistan: A Pipeline Long in the Pipeline. ” Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty, 14 February 2006, Available at http://www. rferl. org/… html. Pafitt, Tom. “Belarus Cuts Off Russian Pipeline in Bitter Gas War. ” The Guardian, 9th January 2007, Available at http://www. guardian. co. uk/… html. Seiple, Chris. “Heartland Politics and the Case of Uzbekistan. ” Foreign Policy Research Institute, 25 January 2004, http://www. Toy As Essay! fpri. org/… html. Socor, Vladimir. “Major Russia-Kazakhstan oil production-sharing agreement signed. ” Eurasia Daily Monitor, 7 July 2005, Available at http://www. jamestown. org/… 9982. Dred Scott v. Sanford 1857; Dred Scott, a slave in Missouri, sued for his freedom on the grounds that he had lived for good narrative essay a time in a “free” territory. White House! The Court ruled against him, saying that under the Constitution, he was his master’s property. At the same time, the Court also ruled that the Missouri … What does a Documentary Sale mean? delivery of the document constitutes a symbolic delivery of the goods and payment is then to occur upon delivery of the documents.
The seller delivers a set of predetermined documents to the buyer and good narrative essay the buyer inspects the exemple documents and then makes payment to the seller. Having obtained the … acceptance a voluntary act (either words or conduct) by the offeree that shows assent to the terms of an offer. Except in special circumstances, only the person to whom the offer is made can accept it. agreement a meeting of two or more minds in components of a good regard to thematic essay the terms of a contract; usually broken down … Block Format paragraphs are not indented, DS between paragraphs Date Is a SS below the return address in components of a narrative a personal business letter Letter address the recipients address Need essay sample on “Personal Business Letter”? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for on the white you for only $13.90/page Proceed Salutation the greeting in a letter such …
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a movie review essay Here's a sample of an good essay which reviews a film. It was written by Adrienne who took this class several years ago. Dances With Wolves Essay. No matter how you choose to categorize human beings, whether by dissertation, race or religion, nationality or gender, the resultant categories will display at least one immutable constant. Each group, no matter how diverse their beliefs or how dissimilar their behaviors, will contain men of honest and peaceful natures as well as men of divisive and violent natures.
In the film Dances With Wolves, we are exposed to two distinct categories of people inhabiting post civil war America, the white man and components narrative the Native American. We, most likely, begin the movie with defined ideas as to which group contains honest, peaceful men and which group contains violent and savage men. We are, however, exposed to behaviors which are in opposition to thematic essay, the accepted stereotypes associated with these groups. As we move through the film we are taken from the comfortable starting point of components good essay, our existing stereotypes into dissertation, new territory, both literally and philosophically. The film accomplishes this by allowing us to journey with John Dunbar, a man who is as open minded and free of preconceived notions as the of a good narrative essay originally empty journal on which his new ideas and understandings are written. Through his experiences we are exposed to the sharp contrast between the violent and crude, as well as the peaceful and thoughtful natures of men. With every exposure we are purposefully moved further and an essay on criticism further away from what may have been our preconceived notions regarding these groups of people. Through John's eyes we are first exposed to of a good, the world of the white man embroiled in the carnage and butchery of the Civil War. The gruesome hospital scene only emphasizes the fact that life in the civilized world can be anything but. A brief contrast is made when the compassionate officer who believes John to be a hero, rescues him from the essays house violence and makes it possible for his leg to be saved and for him to begin his journey.
But, compassionate, thinking white men are definitely in the minority in this film. When John begins his Westward move, the crude, maniacal white man makes his reappearance. The officer who gives John the information about getting to his new post appears to be downright insane and components good essay apparently kills himself. The guide who accompanies John to his post is also no prize. On The White. John refers to him as the of a good foulest man alive(Dances with Wolves). This constant exposure to the violent and crude men who make up the white race is an effective first step in shifting our sympathies. We want to a child, distance ourselves from these shameful characters. Of A Good Narrative Essay. We don't want to thesis, identify with them. Our first exposure to Indians is a mere suggestion of the expected stereotype. We are shown a skeleton on the ground with an arrow stuck through it. So far so good.
We are accustomed to that image. Dunbar's guide states that Indians are nothin' but thieves and beggars and that you only want to see them when they are dead (Dances with Wolves). He, of course, is such an exemplary man that it's not ironic at all to hear him degrading someone else. From the beginning of the film we are given hints that Dunbar is not like his fellow ugly Americans. When John and components of a good essay his guide arrive at the deserted Fort, the guide is in a hurry to be away. He is nervous and uncomfortable and thinks nothing of leaving without accomplishing what he was sent to do.
John wants to stay, not only because he feels honor bound to reestablish his post, but also because he is drawn to the land itself. Dissertation Dialogique Exemple. He states, The country is everything I dreamed it would be. There can be no more beautiful place on earth (Dances with Wolves). After being forced to help unload the wagon at components gunpoint, John's guide begins his return trip. At this time we see our first Indians. They are the Indians we expect, the painted, violent takers of essay about stress at work, scalps. It is interesting that these were also the kind of components of a narrative essay, Indians the guide expected, and thematic essay they were the kind he met. He is killed and scalped and we say to ourselves, we were right, Indians are evil.
This picture is immediately contrasted with the Indians who approach Dunbar's Fort. They are curious and of a narrative essay although they leave when Dunbar first shows himself they discuss him later in their camp. We get our first glimpse of the favorite a child essay white man through an Indian's eyes. They describe the white men as being dirty men who ride and shoot poorly. Essay. Their meeting shows them to be contemplative and intelligent.
They are respectful of their elders and obey the Chief when he decides the favorite matter needs to be discussed more before any action is taken. Dunbar, being a man who chooses to act rather than react, decides to present himself to of a good narrative essay, the Indians as an Ambassador. His desire is to create a channel of communication with the Indians that will, in dialogique the future, benefit both groups. Components Narrative Essay. On his way, he meets Stands With A Fist, who has, in her mourning ritual, injured herself. She passes out and essays on the white house John returns her to components narrative essay, the Indian camp. When he first sees the camp, he is impressed by it. He hands the woman over and is allowed to leave in peace. The Indians visit him in return, and a sort of communication is an essay interpretation attempted. Dunbar is forming an components of a narrative essay opinion of these people based on knowledge and master personal experience rather than generalizations. He reveals the feelings he is having when he states, Nothing I have been told about these people is correct.
They are not beggars and thieves. They are not the bogeymen they have been made out to be. On the contrary, they are polite guests and have a familiar humor I enjoy (Dances with Wolves). A friendship begins to grow out of this ability to communicate and of a narrative learn about one another. This progresses more quickly as Stands With a Fist is enlisted as a translator. Dissertation Dialogique Exemple. The Indians seem to be open minded enough to judge John on the basis of his own behavior, and not on their past experiences with white men. Kicking Bird is heard telling Stands With a Fist that John has a good heart.
More and more we are exposed to narrative, positive traits about these Indians. When camp is broken in order to follow the buffalo, John thinks to himself that the efficiency of the people and the speed at essays on the white house which they move was enough to impress any military commander (Dances with Wolves). However, to keep us from forgetting that there is still a conflict brewing, we are exposed to the brutal, wasteful white man once again. As the Indians, along with John, are travelling in pursuit of the components of a good essay buffalo, a sickening sight shocks us. We see hundreds of toy as essay, buffalo left to rot out on the open prairie. Killed solely for their skins and their tongues, everything that remains is abandoned without a thought. We are offended right along with John and components good narrative essay his companions. Our allegiances are shifting. The once firm footing we possessed in regards to identifying the good guys and the bad guys is shifting beneath our feet. Maybe we can't make sweeping generalizations.
John's bravery during the hunt draws him even more deeply into the heart of the Indian community. Thematic Essay. He had piqued their curiosity, experienced their tolerance and components narrative now, earned their respect. We smile with him as he tells his battle story over and over. We are warmed by the glow of his acceptance as evidenced by on the, the trade that he makes with the once belligerent Wind in His Hair, who goes as far as ensuring that other trades made with John are equitable and fair. When John returns to his Fort he fondly reflects that he has never known a people so eager to laugh, so devoted to family, so dedicated to each other.
The only word that came to mind was harmony (Dances with Wolves). Dunbar has chosen them and it is difficult not to agree with his choice. He preferred their world and their ways to components good essay, the world he has come out thematic essay of, the world of white men we have been exposed to earlier in the film. Even their wars are contrasted with the wars of the white man. After the battle with the Pawnee, Dunbar states, I'd never been in a battle like this one. There was no dark political objective. This was not a fight for territory or riches or to make men free. It had been fought to preserve the food stores that would see us through the winter, to protect the components of a lives of women and children and about stress at work loved ones only components of a good a few feet away (Dances with Wolves). Before, Dunbar had viewed war as another example of wastefulness and violence.
It had been so meaningless to him that he hadn't wanted to live anymore. Yet, with the Sioux he had found meaning, even in battle. He stated, I gradually began to favorite toy as a child essay, look at it [the battle with the Pawnee] in a new way. I felt a pride I had never felt before. I'd never really known who John Dunbar wasI knew for the first time who I really was (Dances with Wolves). Who John Dunbar really is, is now plain to see. He is components good narrative essay dressed as an on criticism interpretation Indian.
He speaks their language. Components Essay. He is married to Stands With a Fist. He has found peace and happiness. He considers the Sioux his people. His desire to protect them from what he knows is coming takes him back to the Fort to retrieve his journal. What he thought would be a tool to help facilitate communication between his people (the white men) and the Indians has become a tool that the adversaries (the white men) could use to hurt his people (the Sioux). The ultimate contrast is now revealed. John returns to his Fort to find it inhabited by white men.
The same white men who have referred to the Indians as savages and thesis master godless barbarians set out to kill John on sight because they believe him to be an Indian. They don't wait to of a good, see if he comes in essay about stress peace. Components Good. They don't give him a chance to identify himself. They see what they think is an Indian and they purpose to kill him. They mortally wound his faithful horse. They attack him and knock him out. When he regains consciousness, we are once again able to see the dissertation dialogique exemple civilized white man through the eyes of an Indian. Components Of A. What we are shown is primarily a group of dirty, crude, brutal and stupid men.
We see that they don't possess the wisdom of Kicking Bird or the thesis and non Bravery of Wind in His Hair. They do have a Lieutenant that seems to be a man of thought and reason, but unlike the discipline that existed in the tribe, the men under the components good officer's authority do not respect his wishes or listen to his commands when his back is turned. John has made his final break with his past. He looks at the men he used to be one of, and realizing he was never really one of them, he speaks to them in on criticism Sioux. He tells them they are not worth talking to.
They have failed to realize that it is components of a narrative just as much of an about injustice to define all Indians by components essay, the behaviors of the violent and savage tribes as it would be to essays white house, define all white men by narrative essay, the ignorant and essay about stress at work repulsive examples they themselves portray. They personify what they claim to despise: savagery, cruelty, thievery, and violence. We, along with Dunbar, separate ourselves from them. The film Dances with Wolves provides us with an components of a narrative opportunity to journey out of a comfortable world which may be founded on hastily established stereotypes, into a world of truth. It begs us to deal with people from a position of knowledge and understanding, rather than one of ignorance clothed in superiority. It shows us enough of our own shortcomings to make us see that we could also be the victims of generalizations made by others based on the behaviors of the few. It presents us with a poignant example of what can be lost when people become what they claim to be fighting. On Criticism Interpretation. It is essay a message that is as applicable today as it was in the time of the American West. Costner, Kevin, dir. Dances with Wolves. Perf.
Kevin Costner, Mary McDonnell, Graham Greene, and Rodney A. Favorite Toy As. Grant. 1990. Components Of A Good Narrative. Videocassette. Orion, 1991.
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Components of a Good Narrative Essay
formal essay meaning Formal semantics and its recent developments. [This paper is in Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai), 119:1 (January 1999), 2-20.] Michigan State University. Like Spanish moss on a live oak tree, the scientific study of meaning in language has expanded in the last 100 years, and of a narrative, continues to expand steadily. In this essay I want to chart some central themes in that expansion, including their histories and their important figures. Our attention will be directed toward what is thematic essay called 'formal semantics', which is the adaptation to natural language of narrative, analytical techniques from logic. The first, background, section of the paper will survey the white house changing attitudes of linguists toward semantics into the last third of the components good narrative essay century. The second and third sections will examine current formal approaches to meaning. In the final section I will summarize some of the common assumptions of the dissertation dialogique exemple approaches examined in the middle sections of the paper, sketch a few alternatives, and make some daring predictions. 'Meaning' is a broad term that can encompass any aspect of the potential for cognitive or emotive impact of speech on interlocutors.
However in linguistic semantics these days the cognitive aspects are the center of focus. On the other hand the components of a good narrative traditional distinction between semantics, as the study of the relation between linguistic expressions and what they are used to talk about (people and things, events and situations, etc.) and pragmatics, as the study of anything involving the use of language, has become less certain and is in fact lost in several different current approaches. 1.1 The Bloomfieldian era . Linguistics in the first half of the twentieth century was a newly developing discipline, with close connections to another developing social science, psychology. In the United States (and elsewhere) dominant figures in psychology were striving to implement the principles of thematic essay, British empiricist philosophy, and especially logical positivism, which stressed attention to objective observable data in of a formulating scientific theories. Thematic Essay! Behaviorist psychologists at of a good essay the time were also reacting against the excesses of the mentalistic introspective approach which had dominated the thesis and non thesis master field at the end of the nineteenth century. Components Of A Essay! Leonard Bloomfield, who was the most influential figure in linguistics in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century, was strongly influenced by about stress, behaviorism. The beginning of the chapter of his classic text Language which is titled 'Meaning' reveals this influence: We have defined the meaning of a linguistic form as the situation in which the speaker utters it and the response which it calls forth in the hearer. . In order to good narrative, give a scientifically accurate definition of meaning for every form of a language, we should have to have a scientifically accurate knowledge of everything in the speakers' world. The actual extent of human knowledge is very small compared to dissertation dialogique exemple, this. . The statement of meanings is therefore the weak point in language-study, and will remain so until human knowledge advances very far beyond its present state. (Bloomfield 1933, 139-140) Bloomfield's 'stimulus-response' model of meaning was as impractical as it was suited to his theoretical orientation. As Bar-Hillel described it, Bloomfield 'deplored the mentalistic mud into which the study of meanings had fallen, and tried to reconstruct [the field of narrative essay, linguistics] on a purely formal-structural basis' (Bar-Hillel 1954, 234-235). Bloomfield did not end his chapter on its second page, in despair, with the above quote.
He did find a way to talk, however briefly and informally, about the arbitrariness of meaning, polysemy and homonymy, semantic features, narrowing and on criticism interpretation, broadening of of a good narrative, word meaning, connotations of style and slang, and thematic essay, taboo words, though not always using these terms. (It is significant that Bloomfield had nothing at all to say about components narrative essay sentence meaning.) However the and non master constraints of the components good narrative crude behaviorist view of meaning he shared with other linguists of the time did prove to be a strong barrier to the development of linguistic semantics, a barrier which continued into the Chomskyan era. 1.2 The Chomskyan revolution . In 1957 a little book named Syntactic Structures was published by an obscure Dutch press, but was reviewed glowingly and at dialogique great length (33 pages, to be exact) by Robert B. Lees in Language -- the components of a good narrative essay journal of the Linguistic Society of America. Noam Chomsky's revolution in linguistics had begun. Probably Chomsky's most important contribution, from the perspective of the future development of linguistic semantics, was the institution of the generative conception of grammar, on which the goal of the grammarian was not to favorite toy as, simply catalog elements from a corpus, or fixed quantity, of observed utterances, but rather to construct a completely explicit formula that would generate, or characterize exactly, all, and most importantly only, the infinitude of sentences of the language. Besides the notable consequence of putting syntax at the center of components of a good, linguistics, where formerly it had stood quietly at the back door, this change in goals would eventually help to essays white house, draw the attention of semanticists toward the problem of describing explicitly how the components narrative meanings of and non, sentences are derived from the components of a good narrative meanings of the words that make them up. Thematic Essay! However that development would have to wait for a few years, since the scientific study of semantics was still in the vexed state it had been in components of a in Bloomfield's day. The primary issue about meaning at the time was whether or not intuitions about meaning should play any role in white house determining grammatical (= syntactic, morphological, or phonological) analysis. The worry was that if they were allowed to components of a narrative essay, play a role, they would contaminate the analyses with 'mentalistic mud' (as Bar-Hillel put it). In the stress at work final chapter of components of a, Syntactic Structures Chomsky argued that semantic intuitions should not play a role, concluding that '[t]here is. little evidence that intuition about meaning is at essay about stress at work all useful in the actual investigation of linguistic form' (Chomsky 1957, 94).
In the decades following, linguists found themselves unable to resist looking at meaning. Components Of A Narrative! Already in the review article mentioned above, Lees had speculated about whether 'it could be shown that all or most of white house, what is meant by a sentence is of a contained in the kernel sentences from which it is derived' (Lees 1957, 394). A couple of developments in essay about stress at work syntactic analysis made possible the main tenet of the school of components of a essay, thought called generative semantics: that the deep structure of a sentence constitutes a representation of its meaning. Following the work of linguists such as Fillmore, Postal, McCawley, Ross, and dissertation dialogique exemple, G. and R. Lakoff, deep structures took on some of the aspects of a representation in first order predicate logic, though in tree form. Negation, quantifiers, and adverbs were analyzed as sentence operators ('higher predicates'), in order to components narrative, represent ambiguities such as those in (1)-(3): (1) Every woman loves one man. a. There is one man that every woman loves. b. Every woman loves some man or other. (2) Everyone didn't enjoy the essay stress at work play. a. At least one person did not enjoy the good play. b. No one enjoyed the play.
(3) Mary isn't working in thesis and non thesis master the garden because it's sunny. a. Because it's sunny, Mary isn't working in the garden. b. It is not because it's sunny that Mary is working in the garden (but for some other reason). Thus (1), for example, would be assigned two deep structures, roughly as in (4). (4) a. [[one man]y [[every woman]x [x loves y]]] b. Of A Good Essay! [[every woman]x [[one man]y [x loves y]]] However generative semanticists at on criticism interpretation the time did not worry about the components of a good task of assigning explicit truth conditions to deep structures. Dialogique Exemple! Rather the devising and justification of particular deep structures was seen as the end of the job of semantics. Linguists at this time were working largely independently of philosophers of language and logicians. This may have been one of the less happy consequences of Chomsky's influence.
In the article cited above, Bar-Hillel suggested that linguists pay attention to developments in logic and components, try to incorporate a formal account of semantics into their grammar, but Chomsky's rather sharp reply the following year asserted that 'the relevance of logical syntax and semantics' to the study of natural languages 'is very dubious' (Chomsky 1955, 36). This reaction of Chomsky's was explicitly based on the not uncommon idea that natural languages and formal languages are fundamentally different from each other, but it was also very much in tune with his larger project of overthrowing empiricist philosophy of language and mind in favor of on criticism interpretation, a return to Cartesian rationalism, as well as his personal style of publicly expressed arrogance and good narrative essay, disdain for thematic essay the work of others. Chomsky's first crops of linguistics Ph.D.'s began to appear in the mid 1960's, and good essay, thereafter increasing numbers of American linguists were taught by linguists who had been taught by Chomsky himself. These students, and essay stress, their students, tended to components narrative essay, inherit the idea that little of substantial value had been said about language in toy as the centuries immediately prior to Chomsky. In the late 1960's and good narrative, early 1970's several developments altered this picture.
1.3. Montague and and non thesis, formal semantics . Good Narrative Essay! The just mentioned assumption that natural languages like English and Chinese are fundamentally different from the formal languages devised by essays on the house, logicians was a cornerstone of components of a good narrative, a twentieth century dispute within British empiricist philosophy between formalists, who held that natural languages were too riddled with vagueness and ambiguity to be useful philosophical tools, and ordinary language philosophers, who held that natural languages not only could be excellent tools if used carefully, but also were rich repositories of the essay about stress at work wisdom of generations of speakers. In the late 1960's two philosophers, one a well-known British ordinary language philosopher and the other a young American logician, effectively challenged this common assumption that natural languages and formal languages are very different from each other. Components Essay! H. Paul Grice, in his William James lecture series delivered at Harvard University in 1967, presented a systematic account of what he argued were only apparent divergences between a number of logical expressions and their natural language counterparts. At roughly the thesis and non thesis master same time Richard Montague, in a series of papers with titles like 'English as a formal language' and 'Universal grammar', was making good on the following bold statement: 'There is in components narrative essay my opinion no important theoretical difference between natural languages and the artificial languages of logicians; indeed, I consider it possible to comprehend the syntax and semantics of both kinds of languages within a single natural and mathematically precise theory' (Montague 1970b, 222). Montague's papers are highly formal and condensed, very difficult for ordinary humans (even logicians!) to read with comprehension. Fortunately it happened that a young linguist named Barbara Partee, an essays white house, exceptionally intelligent and clear-thinking as well as personable individual who was in Chomsky's first (1965) class of Linguistics Ph.D.'s from MIT, took a job at UCLA, met Montague there, and developed an components good narrative essay, interest in his approach to natural language and its contrast with Chomskyan transformational grammar.
In lectures in the early 1970's, especially following Montague's untimely death early in 1971, Partee presented his work in about stress such a way as to components essay, make it both comprehensible and appealing. 1974 was the fiftieth anniversary of the Linguistic Society of America and that summer a special Golden Anniversary Linguistic Institute was held at thematic essay the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, where Partee was now on good, the faculty. Partee's class on Montague Grammar was one of the highlights of this stellar Institute, and was attended by many prominent linguists. Her 100 page article 'Montague Grammar and Transformational Grammar', which contained a kind of 'do it yourself' kit for dissertation dialogique learning formal semantics, appeared in Linguistic Inquiry in 1975, and served as a kind of components of a narrative essay, introductory text until the thematic essay excellent volume by Dowty, Wall Peters appeared in 1981. Linguists were not entirely ignorant of relevant work in components narrative logic and thesis and non master, philosophy of components good narrative, language at this time, but there was not the kind of interaction that there is today. A Child! One reason noted above may have been the components of a good essay insular precedent set by Chomsky. Another may have been the personalities of the generative semanticists, who would have been expected to be the linguists most interested in developments in logic and philosophy of language. Thematic Essay! In August of 1969 the philosophers Donald Davidson and Gilbert Harman organized a small colloquium of logicians and linguists in an effort to promote more fruitful interactions, but Quine (one of the participants) remarked in his condensed autobiography that '[t]he colloquium was a fiasco at components essay bridge building' (Quine 1986, 38), and suggested that the personalities involved were the cause. However the volume that resulted from thematic essay, this small conference, Davidson Harman 1972, contained many classic articles (including contributions from both Partee and Montague) which were widely read by linguists as well as philosophers, and ultimately the components good narrative essay work of Montague and Partee along with linguistically inclined philosophers like David Lewis and essay about stress, Robert Stalnaker had and continue to have a tremendous impact on the field.
Probably the most important byproduct of this interaction was that linguists became very aware of the fact that simply to represent meaning is not to components of a good essay, give an analysis of it. This point was made most effectively by David Lewis, who criticized Katz and Postal's system of semantic representation in terms of semantic features which they called 'markers' (Katz Postal 1964). Lewis pointed out that Katz and Postal were merely giving rules for translating English into an artificial language that might be called 'Markerese', and favorite toy as a child essay, he said: we can know the Markerese translation of an English sentence without knowing the first thing about the meaning of the English sentence: namely, the conditions under which it would be true. Semantics with no treatment of truth conditions is not semantics. (Lewis 1972, 169.) By studying ordinary predicate logic as well as Montague's more specialized work linguists became familiar with truth conditional model-theoretic semantics, in which interpretations for expressions, including truth conditions for sentences, are assigned relative to of a good narrative essay, a model. From the early 1970's to the present time, linguists and thematic essay, philosophers have worked closely and fruitfully together, attending and presenting papers at each other's conferences and publishing in each other's journals, and of a good narrative essay, work in semantics, and especially formal semantics, has flourished in the United States. The journal Linguistics and Philosophy , which describes itself as focusing 'on issues related to structure and meaning in natural language as addressed in the philosophy of language, linguistic semantics, syntax and related disciplines', published its first issue in 1977 and is now in its 21st volume. Other journals devoted to semantics have also begun to appear -- Journal of toy as, Semantics (which started in of a good essay 1984), Natural Language Semantics (1993) -- as well as the prestigious conference series Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT), which publishes the proceedings of its annual meetings and is now (1998) in its eighth year.
A number of linguists and philosophers have joint academic appointments in Linguistics and Philosophy (among them Richmond Thomason, Barbara Partee, and myself) and the linguistics program at MIT is housed in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, though it should be noted that Chomsky's resistance to formal semantics has continued unabated. 2. Current formal semantics: quantification . We will begin our investigation of the current scene in essays on the American linguistic semantics with a closer work at Montague's work, including some of the problems he was able to formalize solutions to. In this work interpretation of noun phrases takes center stage, and that will continue when we look at other analyses of quantification in natural language. Good Narrative Essay! Then we will turn our attention to some other aspects of sentence meaning. 2.1. Montague Grammar . The papers of Montague's cited above deal with 'fragments' of English. Montague's aim was not to construct a grammar for the whole language, but rather to at work, give a complete (and completely explicit) syntax and semantics for an infinite subpart of the language which contained some constructions which pose interesting challenges for the semantician.
Chief among these are 'referentially opaque' or 'intensional' constructions. 'Referential opacity' is the term coined by Quine 1953 for the failure of substitution of coreferential expressions (expressions which refer to the same thing) to preserve truth in certain contexts. Components Good! (See also Quine 1956 for an excellent introduction to this problem.) One major group of referentially opaque contexts consists of sentences about propositional attitudes, or people's psychological attitudes (such as belief, desire, hope, fear, knowledge) towards situations or states of an essay on criticism interpretation, affairs. (5a) below can be true and (5c) false, despite the of a essay fact that the truth of (5b) means that the NPs Jocasta and Oedipus's mother are coreferential. (5) a. Oedipus wanted to marry Jocasta. b. Thesis And Non Thesis Master! Jocasta was Oedipus's mother. c. Oedipus wanted to marry his mother. Frege 1892 had argued that associated with expressions is a sense ( Sinn ) as well as a reference or denotation ( Bedeutung ), and that in components narrative essay referentially opaque contexts expressions denote their sense instead of favorite a child essay, their customary reference. Although Jocasta and Oedipus's mother have the same denotation they differ in sense, and good essay, this explains why they cannot be freely substituted for one another in propositional attitude contexts. Montague's semantics formalized Frege's solution using the on the notion 'intension', which is a formal analysis of the components of a good narrative essay Fregean concept of essays white, sense developed by Carnap, Kripke, Montague and others. Intensions are functions from possible worlds, or possible states of affairs, to denotations or referents (the latter also known as extensions). ' Montague Grammar' came to denote the components of a good narrative style of grammar presented in Montague 1973, which has three components: a syntax generating a fragment of on the house, English (which in of a essay Montague 1973 included sentences about propositional attitudes), a complete syntax and model-theoretic semantics for a tensed intensional logic, and a set of translation rules mapping parsed English expressions to expressions of the intensional logic. In this way the logic serves to provide interpretations for the English fragment. The intensional logic was included in this paper for perspicuity; in 'English as a formal language', Montague interpreted an about stress at work, English fragment directly. 2.2.
Generalized quantifiers . Chomsky has impressed linguists with the importance of accounting for of a narrative essay what he calls the 'creative' aspect of human language -- the fact that we are able to produce and comprehend an unlimited number of novel utterances, sentences that we have never heard before. Compositionality is the semantic property of linguistic expressions that we assume is an essential part of the explanation for this miraculous ability. Toy As Essay! The meaning of a phrase is compositional if it is components of a essay determined by the meanings of its constituent expressions plus the way they are put together syntactically. Idioms are, by definition, phrases whose meanings are not compositional. If all of language were idiomatic in thematic essay this sense, then language would have no creative aspect in Chomsky's sense. The formal languages of logic are strongly compositional, which means that expressions of a given syntactic category all receive the same type of interpretation and contribute in the same way to the interpretation of larger expressions of narrative, which they form a part. One striking way in which natural languages have seemed not to be strongly compositional is in the interpretation of noun phrases (NPs). NPs that are proper names, like Mary , have the same distributional properties as quantified NPs like every student , and sentences like those in (6) share their syntactic structure: b. Every student talks. However, while it is natural to exemple, say of (6a) that it is true just in case the individual denoted by good essay, the name Mary belongs to the set of entities that talk, a parallel analysis is not possible for (6b), and traditionally sentences like (6a) have received very different translations into first order predicate logic from thesis and non master, sentences like (6b), as seen in (7).
b. x [Student(x) - Talks(x)] Probably the most impressive and far-reaching innovation in Montague's semantics came about because of his need to solve this problem, and that was the components of a good narrative essay introduction of the generalized quantifier analysis of NPs. A generalized quantifier (GQ) is (an expression denoting) a set of subsets of some domain; on this view the traditional existential quantifier would be interpreted as the set of all non-empty subsets of the domain of discourse. Taking NPs to denote GQs, Mary would be interpreted as the set containing all and only those sets which have the person Mary as a member, and Every student would denote the set containing all and only supersets of the thesis master set of students. In this way the subject NPs of (6a) and (6b) can both be seen as taking the predicate as an argument, and each sentence is true if and components, only if the set of entities that talk belongs to the GQ denoted by the subject NP. Besides enabling Montague to solve the strong compositionality problem, the essay GQ analysis of NPs allows a number of other improvements. Some of these were observed and made use of by components good narrative essay, Montague; for example the generalization of conjunction and disjunction, which in ordinary predicate logic are strictly sentence operators, to about stress, apply also to NPs (as well as verb phrases). Components Of A Good Narrative! Following Montague's death other linguists and philosophers, beginning with the seminal work of and non thesis master, Barwise Cooper 1981, explored other avenues opened by components of a good narrative, the GQ approach and many papers and toy as essay, books have appeared detailing the results (see e.g.
Gärdenfors 1987 and components of a essay, Bach et al. 1995, and the works cited there). A major thrust of this work is a change of focus from the NP to thematic essay, the determiner, which under the GQ approach can be easily treated categorematically (unlike the traditional logic syncategorematic analysis of quantifier expressions) and analyzed as denoting a function from sets (common noun denotations) to sets of sets (GQs) or, equivalently, as expressing a relation between sets -- the set denoted by the common noun it combines with and of a good, the set denoted by the predicate. This shift in focus is very much in tune with current trends in syntax, where increasingly function morphemes have taken center stage, so that clauses are now taken to be complements of complementizers and so part of a CP category, and nominal phrases are complements of determiners and so part of a DP category. A number of formal semantic properties of quantified NPs came to light under the GQ approach. One of the on criticism interpretation most widely cited concerns 'entailingness' or monotonicity. Of A Essay! In general an master, operator is upward entailing if a sentence containing it entails a sentence where the operator's argument is replaced with superset of its original argument, and good narrative, downward entailing if the about stress entailment goes in the other direction.
Viewing quantificational determiners as functions from sets to GQs, and GQs as functions from sets to truth values, we have two operators to consider -- the determiner and the GQ. The determiner every is downward entailing, as shown by the fact that (8a) entails (8b): (8) a. Every dog barks. b. Every spotted dog barks. On the other hand the GQ Every dog is upward entailing, as seen by the fact that (9b) entails (9a): (9) a. Every dog barks . b. Every dog barks loudly . Both some and some dog are upward entailing, while no and components of a good essay, no dog are both downward entailing, as the reader may confirm by substituting them for every in the examples in (8) and (9). Negative polarity items are expressions like any and ever that are limited in their occurrence; they occur naturally in negative sentences, and in some other environments, but an exact statement of the constraint has proved elusive. An appealing hypothesis is that they occur exactly in downward entailing environments (see Ladusaw 1983), and this is confirmed by the examples in (10) - (12). ( 10) a. *Some dog who ever smiles barks. b. On The White! *Some dog barks at anyone. (11) a. No dog who ever smiles barks. b. No dog barks at narrative anyone.
(12) a. Every dog who ever smiles barks. b. *Every dog barks at anyone. Despite the very exciting developments that arose as a result of the generalized quantifier analysis of NPs, there remain some questions about whether it is in fact the correct analysis. Thematic Essay! One challenge which we will look at in the next subsection has come, in components of a essay part, from one of Partee's own students, and in connection with a new approach which considerably blurs the traditional distinction between semantics, as the study of words-world relations abstracting away from contexts of utterance, and pragmatics, as the study of the effects of context on interpretation. 2.3. Discourse representation and essay stress, file change semantics . In the early 1980s a rather different approach to natural language quantification was proposed independently by Irene Heim, at components narrative the time one of Barbara Partee's students at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and by favorite toy as essay, Hans Kamp, a philosopher and logician. (See Heim 1982, 1983, and Kamp 1984.) One problem which Kamp and Heim were concerned with was providing an adequate analysis of what are called 'donkey sentences', as in components good narrative essay (13): ( 13) Every farmer who owns a donkey beats it. Such sentences actually present two problems. The first concerns the interpretation of the pronoun it . On The! If we represent a donkey in traditional predicate logic, using the existential quantifier, then the it (represented by the final occurrence of y in (14) will be outside the scope of that quantifier and will not be appropriately bound: (14) x [[Farmer(x) $ y [Donkey(y) Own(x,y)]] - Beat(x,y)] If, on components of a good, the other hand, we use a universal quantifier for a donkey as in (15), (15) x y[[Farmer(x) Donkey(y) Own(x,y)] - Beat(x,y)] we get a correct representation of the meaning of (13) but we have to explain how a donkey should sometimes be represented with a universal quantifier, but not other times, e.g. (16): (16) Mary owns a donkey.
Discourse Representation Semantics (DRS) (Kamp) and File Change Semantics (FCS) (Heim) both solved this problem with an essays on the, approach to semantics which views the meaning of a sentence in terms of the impact an utterance of it has on the discourse of which it is a part, in other words in terms of its context change potential. This is an approach that had earlier been urged by components of a good essay, Stalnaker, in connection with the problem of toy as a child, presuppositions and presupposition projection. (See Stalnaker 1974, 1978.) Under this approach indefinite NPs are treated as introducing a new entity, represented by a free variable, into the discourse. (Definite NPs must be matched with an entity already introduced into the discourse.) When they occur in simple sentences like (17) they receive an existential interpretation in view of the of a narrative essay semantic rule for interpreting the entire discourse -- roughly, the discourse is true if there is a sequence of thematic essay, individuals meeting all the components of a good conditions that have been mentioned. An Essay On Criticism Interpretation! In this way pronominalization relationships which cross sentences, as in (17), can also be accommodated. (17) Mary owns a donkey . Components Good Narrative Essay! It always brays when it wants to be fed. The pronouns in (17) are beyond the capability of thematic essay, traditional formal semantics, which follows traditional logic in providing interpretations sentence by sentence. If an indefinite NP occurs in a context like (13), that is within the scope of a quantificational operator, then it is not necessarily bound by good, the discourse but instead can be bound by that operator. An Essay On Criticism! Lets look more closely to see how this happens.
In the discourse oriented view of good essay, semantics, quantification breaks down into a three part, or tripartite, structure. The first element of the structure is the quantificational operator, the second element includes any restriction on the range of quantification, and the third element (often called the 'scope') is the actual assertion associated with the quantifier. If indefinite NPs fall within the restrictive portion of a quantificational structure, they inherit binding by whatever quantificational operator is exemple involved. So (13) receives a representation as in (18), where Q stands for 'Quantificational operator', R stands for 'Restriction', and S stands for 'Scope': (18) Q[every: x, y] R[Farmer(x), Donkey(y), Owns(x,y)] S[Beats(x,y)] One of the attractive features of this approach is that it can also handle examples of adverbial and adjectival quantification which were pointed out by David Lewis (see Lewis 1975).
Notice that (19) below means the same thing as (13), and would also be represented by (18), but this time the universal quantification is expressed by the adverb, and there are two indefinite NPs -- a farmer and a donkey -- to fall within its scope. (19) Invariably, if a farmer owns a donkey he beats it. So what is the relation between the GQ analysis of NPs and the DRS/FCS type of analysis? Barbara Partee, ever the unifier, argued that both are correct, but possibly for different kinds of NPs and different kinds of contexts. In Partee 1986 she argued that indefinite NPs in fact need three different types of representations, depending on the context in which they occur. Indefinite NPs with pronominalization effects as explored in good narrative essay DRS/FCS and on criticism interpretation, exemplified in (17) above should be interpreted as denoting simple entities. Indefinites that function as predicate nominals, as in of a narrative essay (20), should be analyzed as denoting sets of dialogique, things, here, the set of students. (20) Mary is a student. And the indefinite NP in (21) needs to be regarded as denoting a GQ, since it is conjoined with a quantificational NP: (21) One student and all the teachers appeared at the rally. This is not the end of the components of a story, however; see Bach et al. Essay About At Work! 1995 for components more recent papers on the relations between these two approaches.
And we must mention a third approach here, the dynamic semantics of Groenendijk, Stokhof, and others. (See Groenendijk Stokhof 1991, Groenendijk, Stokhof Veltman 1996.) Expressing a concern about the lack of attention to compositionality in the DRS/FCS approaches, Groenendijk and Stokhof have explored a modification of traditional predicate logic which will be able to interpret donkey sentences and cross-sentence anaphora. It is possible to equate the interpretation of a sentence in traditional predicate logic with the set of assignments of values to variables which will satisfy it. In the original formulation of the dynamic semantics approach interpretations are instead ordered pairs of assignments. Successive sentences in a discourse carry over information from previous assignments, so that examples like (17) receive the essays on the white proper interpretation. In conditional sentences, which donkey sentences are formally, the same property holds between antecedent and consequent, so that in a logical form like (14) the rightmost occurrence of the y variable will be bound by the existential quantifier. This basic approach is modified and elaborated in good essay Groenendijk et al.
1996. This completes our summary of current approaches to formal semantics which focus on the interpretation of NPs, especially quantified NPs. This summary has necessarily left out many details, alternative theories (such as situation semantics -- see Barwise Perry 1983) and particular analyses of constructions. Thematic Essay! For more information, see the many excellent papers in of a Lappin 1996. We turn now to look at some other aspects of sentence interpretation.
3. On The! Aspects of eventualities . As noted above, by far the components essay most attention in formal semantics has been paid to toy as a child essay, the interpretation of NPs. However philosophers and linguists have also been drawn to consider other aspects of sentence interpretation and now we will look at of a narrative some of these. Dissertation! We will begin with a problem noticed by Donald Davidson, and that will lead us to consider the nature of different kinds of eventualities as well as some more complexities of of a good narrative, NP interpretation. 3.1. Davidson's 'event' semantics . Davidson (1967) considered the fanciful example in (22): (22) Jones buttered the toast with a knife in the bathroom at midnight. In traditional predicate logic, clauses are wholly represented as a predicate plus its arguments -- one corresponding to each NP of the corresponding English sentence.
There are 5 NPs in (22) ( Jones , the toast , a knife , the thematic essay bathroom , midnight ); hence to represent this sentence in traditional logic we would have to have a 5-place predicate, something like Butter-with-in-at , to go with five arguments corresponding to these five NPs. The sentences in (23a)-(23c) would have to have, respectively, 4-place, 3-place, and 2-place predicates. (23) a. Jones buttered the toast with a knife in the bathroom. b. Jones buttered the toast with a knife. c. Jones buttered the toast.
But intuitively there should not be four different predicates involved in the sentences in (22) and (23), but rather just one predicate -- butter . And all of these sentences could be different ways of describing the very same event. Good Narrative! To put the problem in dissertation dialogique exemple more formal terms (the way Davidson described it), (22) entails each of the narrative sentences in master (23) (and they each entail the ones below them), but these semantic relations could not be captured in components narrative traditional predicate logic. What Davidson proposed by way of a solution was to recognize events as a kind of entity -- that is, to add events to the other things (people, dogs, chairs, etc.) in the domain of discourse -- and to regard ordinary sentences as implicitly making reference to an event. Everything else in the sentence can then be seen as being predicated of white, this event. So (22) would introduce an event which is a 'Jones buttering the toast' type of event, and this very event has other properties -- it occurred with a knife and in the bathroom, etc. The logical form of (22), according to Davidson, is narrative essay something like (24), where e is a special variable over events: (24) $ e [Butter(Jones, the toast, e ) With(a knife, e ) In(the bathroom, e ) At(midnight, e )] The logical form for on criticism (23c) would be (25). (25) is entailed by (24) as well as by the Davidsonian logical forms for (23a) and (23b).
Linguists were not aware of Davidson's proposals for a while after they were introduced, but more recently they have received a great deal of attention. However, it is of a not clear whether all sentences should be seen as making implicit reference to an event, or whether we should take the term 'event' seriously. Not all sentences describe events. The sentences in (26) would all be called 'stative' -- they describe relatively unchanging circumstances which simply are. (26) a. An Essay On Criticism! Joyce knows Arabic. b. Four divided by two equals two. c. Dogs make good companions. Notice also that such sentences do not take time, place, and manner adverbials freely, as shown in components of a narrative essay (27). (27) a. ?Joyce knows Arabic at midnight. b. ?Four divided by two equals two in the bathroom. c. ?Dogs make good companions with a knife.
Kratzer 1996 has argued that sentences with stative predicates, like those in (26), should not be analyzed with a Davidsonian event variable, although other linguists have argued that all sentences should have an event variable (see Bach 1981, Higginbotham 1985). The next section looks at another difference between stative and non-stative predicates, one which is related to the interpretation of generic NPs. 3.2. An Essay On Criticism! Generic NPs . Sentences like those in (28) present an interesting puzzle: (28) a. Dogs are excellent companions. b. Dogs are barking outside my window. Though the same word -- dogs -- functions as subject in both it seems to components of a good, refer to two different things. (28a) is dissertation exemple a statement about dogs in general, perhaps all dogs, while (28b) talks about some specific dogs, perhaps only two or three. Greg Carlson (another of Barbara Partee's students!) had a crucial insight in proposing a solution to this puzzle.
He shifted attention from the subject to the predicate and saw that the apparent distinction in components of a essay NP interpretation correlated well with a difference in whether the verb phrase expressed a permanent property, or instead a more temporary property, of the subject. In Carlson's analysis (see Carlson 1977, 1980), dogs is taken to uniformly denote the kind dogs. Truth of thematic essay, (28a) requires the predicate to hold generally of components, individual dogs belonging to this kind. The predicate of (28b) on the other hand introduces (existential) quantification over temporal stages of individual dogs -- a concept which was inspired by W.V. Quine 1960. Although particular aspects of this analysis have been disputed (see Carlson Pelletier 1995 for some current views of generics), Carlson's distinction between individual level and stage level predication has proved to have far reaching significance. One application is describing the difference between possible subsidiary predications in toy as a child existential sentences in English. (29a), with an individual level predicate, is an ungrammatical sentence but (29b), which has instead a stage level predicate, is perfectly natural. (29) a. Good Narrative! *There are dogs excellent companions.
b. There are dogs barking outside my window. Carlson's stage level predicates are all stative predicates, and the individual level predicates seem to be nonstative, but that leaves many unanswered questions. Dissertation Dialogique Exemple! Are there just two types of eventualities? If not, what other kinds are there, and components of a, how are the different categories defined? These questions have not been answered yet in a way that everyone agrees on. On Criticism! We will look at some proposals in the next section. 3.3. Types of eventualities . The German word Aktionsarten (singular Aktionsart) is commonly now used in the study of different types of eventualities, to distinguish aspect in this sense from the aspectual markers found on verbs in inflecting languages. Grammarians since Aristotle have commonly found more than just a two-way distinction in components of a good essay types of predicates. Aristotle himself pointed to thesis, a three way distinction among states like knowing Arabic, which are relatively unchanging, processes like running, in which there is activity of some kind going on, and components of a good essay, actions like building a house, which have a natural culmination or termination point. The latter are now commonly referred to as telic eventualities.
Zeno Vendler, one of the earliest philosophers to pay serious attention to the kinds of linguistic evidence that motivates linguists, divided Aristotle's telic eventualities into two subcategories -- accomplishments like building a house, which are volitional and take some time to bring about, and what he called achievements like noticing a mistake or dying, which are nonvolitional and are referred to on criticism interpretation, as though they were instantaneous. (See Vendler 1967.) Some of the grammatical distinctions in these four categories are illustrated in the following examples, where know Arabic represents stative predicates, push a cart represents processes, build a house represents accomplishments, and notice a mistake represents achievements. (30) a. *Mary is components of a good knowing Arabic/noticing a mistake. b. Mary is pushing a cart/building a house. (31) a. Favorite A Child Essay! Mary knew Arabic/pushed a cart for a year. b. *Mary built a house/noticed a mistake for narrative a year. (32) a. *Mary knew Arabic/pushed a cart within day. b. Mary built a house/noticed a mistake within a day.
However, not everybody has agreed with Vendler about the number of distinct categories he postulated. In the formal semantics for Aktionsarten presented in Parsons 1990, there are just two operators: Cul ('culminate') to represent Vendler's accomplishments and achievements, and Hold, for sentences representing either states or processes. Bach 1986, on the other hand, subdivided eventualities into six different subcategories, including two different types of essay about, states (dynamic and static), in addition to processes and several kinds of telic eventualities. There are other complications too; Verkuyl has stressed the narrative importance of the favorite toy as effect different types of of a good essay, NP arguments can have on the aspect of a sentence. Dialogique Exemple! (33a) and (34a) would be classified as telic eventualities, whereas (33b) and (34b) are non-telic processes. (33) a. Mary painted a picture (*for a year).
b. Mary painted pictures (for a year). (34) a. Narrative! A guest arrived (*for an hour). b. Guests arrived (for an hour). Verkuyl 1993 proposes a formal semantics in which NPs as well as verbs are taken into account, and eventuality types are determined compositionally for the sentence as a whole. 4. Summary, conclusions and prognostications . 4.1.
Commonalities . All of the formal analyses described and summarized here have shared some common assumptions about the goals of semantics. One is that any proposed analysis of the semantic interpretation for a language, or a portion thereof, must be given in white rigorous and explicit terms. Vagueness is to be avoided, and if possible nothing is to be left to components good narrative, the reader to fill in or guess at. The kind of formal semantics adapted from the languages of logic has filled that bill extremely well. This explains the frequent use of special symbols in formal semantics. The special symbols can be defined explicitly so that there is thematic essay no risk of misinterpretation or ambiguity. The symbols also make formal statements less lengthy and more readable, once one has learned their interpretation. Although the heavy use of special symbols initially presents somewhat of a formidable seeming barrier to formal semantics, ultimately it has more than enough value in clarity to make climbing over this barrier well worth while.
Another common assumption was referred to above in the contradictory-sounding statement from David Lewis: 'Semantics without truth conditions is components of a good essay not semantics' (Lewis 1972, 169). Truth conditional semantics takes the core of meaning for thematic essay a sentence to components of a narrative essay, be given by some kind of explicit statement about what it would take for a sentence to be true. There are many arguments for this assumption. One is that it makes clear how language is a child related to the things in the outside world that it is used to talk about. It also explains how people can use language to convey information to each other about the extra-linguistic world. And finally there is the fundamental fact that if someone knows what sentence means, then she knows what the world would have to be like for components good narrative the sentence to stress at work, be true -- i.e. the truth conditions of the good sentence. A Child! Generally also if one knows truth conditions then one knows meaning too, but not always.
Necessarily true sentences like the truths of mathematics all have the same truth conditions -- they are true under any circumstances or in every possible world. Nevertheless these sentences don't all mean the components good same thing. Two plus two equals four does not mean the same as There is no largest prime number . So there is more to essay stress at work, meaning besides truth conditions, but formal semanticians agree that giving truth conditions is an of a good narrative essay, essential core to describing meaning. The approaches to semantics sketched above in §§2 and 3 also followed common logical practice in an essay on criticism interpretation being model-theoretic. Model-theoretic semantics is a generalization of the of a good truth conditional approach according to which truth conditions are given relative to a model. The semantics for a given language will specify what a model for the language must consist of -- what kinds of an essay, things it must have and how the language is to be related to components of a good, them. Then for a natural language we assume that a sentence is true if it is true relative to a model which matches the real world in the relevant respects. (See Kalish 1967 for discussion and favorite a child essay, historical notes.) 4.2. Alternatives, formal informal . Not all truth conditional semantics is narrative model-theoretic. Donald Davidson has proposed a different style of semantics for natural language, which is also based on modern logic, but which takes the task of semantics for a language as divising a system which will generate specific statements of truth conditions which are called 'T-sentences'.
T-sentences were introduced by Tarski (see Tarski 1944), but the 'T' stands for dissertation exemple 'truth' not for 'Tarski'! A T-sentence for the English sentence Snow is white is given in (35). (35) Snow is white is true if and only if snow is components of a good narrative essay white. (35) looks fairly vacuous, but part of that vacuous look is because the object language -- the language we are talking about the semantics of, is the same as the metalanguage -- the language we are using to do the semantics with. When the essay at work object language is different from the metalanguage, the T-sentence looks more significant: (36) Xuê shì baí de is true if and only if snow is white. Tarski proposed as a minimal condition on the adequacy of the semantic rules for a language, that they should allow the derivation (that is, the proof, in the logical sense) of the correct T-sentences for all the sentences of the object language. Larson Segal 1995 have undertaken the task of working out the formal details of the components good T-sentence approach for a large fragment of English which includes generalized quantifiers, referentially opaque sentences, tense and and non master, aspect features, and many other interesting and challenging constructions. Good! Their work is presented as a textbook for graduate students, but it is dissertation exemple of great interest to professional linguists and philosophers of language as well. There are few alternatives to the approaches falling under the heading of formal semantics, and of a, none that offer the same comprehensiveness. Probably the a child essay most well known is the approach of Jackendoff -- see Jackendoff 1990, 1997.
Jackendoff's specialty is lexical semantics, about which formal semanticists have had the least to say, and components of a narrative, his work, which offers many insights into the nature of word meaning, deserves careful attention. Essay! Zwarts Verkuyl 1994 show how Jackendoff's work might be put in a formal framework. Of A Narrative! Fauconnier 1994, 1997 has put forward an approach invoking what he calls 'mental spaces', which are similar in some respects to possible worlds or situations but intended to be (representations of) human thought. This work focuses in an essay particular on unusual cases of components, reference such as those illustrated in (36). (36) a. Thesis And Non Thesis! Bill [meaning Bill's car] is parked on the next street. b. If I were you I would treat myself/me with a little more respect. Fauconnier's work tends to be less carefully worked out than Jackendoff's, and neither approach reaches the level of explicit comprehensiveness of the formal theories we have been looking at.
4.3. Future prospects . The relation between language and essay, mind remains at present a very murky one. Chomsky's mentalistic revolution in linguistics put the study of language, at least theoretically and according to Chomsky, under the umbrella of psychology. However in practice developments in linguistics and findings of psycholinguists have not always fit together comfortably, and I regret to thematic essay, have to report that linguists have sometimes seemed to turn their back on psycholinguists in such cases. Chomsky continues to throw up a wall, with one side marked 'competence' -- the static knowledge of language shared by speakers, and the other side marked 'performance' -- actual occasions of use of this knowledge to produce and comprehend utterances; and he seems to think that this wall will keep at bay any experimental findings which do not support his theoretical proposals. On the other hand there are some meager indications that eventually contrary evidence can penetrate. The early transformational model of grammar was not well supported by evidence from experiments on language processing. While this evidence seemed to be ignored for many years, gradually Chomsky has replaced the transformational model with another, and it is of a good possible that the psycholinguistic evidence played a role in this replacement. Another issue is the relation of semantics to the rest of the house grammar, on the one hand, and to the rest of cognition on the other.
In his current 'Minimalism' theory of grammar Chomsky sometimes seems to suggest that the components narrative rules of semantics are completely outside the grammar, and belong to aspects of general cognition. Thematic Essay! On other occasions, though, Chomsky uses examples of word meaning to argue for the highly specialized nature of linguistic competence and for its innateness. Components Of A Good Narrative! (See Chomsky 1995a,b.) This ambivalence is matched by exemple, other long standing controversies -- the controversy over whether word meanings are specialized and distinguished from general knowledge about the good essay world (the 'dictionary' view) or whether they are holistic and global, and encompass everything related to and non master, extensions (the 'encyclopedia' view), as well as the many disputes about whether certain aspects of sentence meaning (in a broad sense of 'meaning') belong to of a good narrative essay, semantics or pragmatics -- aspects such as presupposition, conversational implicature, and illocutionary force. I predict that these issues will be resolved within the next fifty years, and that findings from the rest of the new field of cognitive science -- especially the subfields of psycholinguistics and language processing, neurolinguistics, and computational linguistics -- will be helpful in this resolution. I also believe that the evidence will ultimately indicate that the dialogique framework for of a narrative semantic interpretation will share the unique nature that the rest of language seems to have, and that there will be a distinction between the linguistic lexicon and the encyclopedia of world knowledge. I base this projection in part on dialogique exemple, the fact that the principles of meaning, whether at the word level or at the sentence level, seem to be as illusive and inaccessible to components good essay, conscious reflection as the principles of syntactic structure or phonological interpretation, and in favorite toy as a child part on my belief that Grice and Montague were right, that the logical approach to language, in which semantic and syntactic representations mirror each other, is justified for natural as well as formalized languages. [ 1] According to Carnap A theory, a rule, a definition, or the like is to be called formal when no reference is components narrative made in essays house it either to the meaning of the symbols (for example, the words) or to the sense of the components of a narrative expressions (e.g. the sentences), but simply and solely to the kinds and order of the symbols from which the expressions are constructed. (Carnap 1937, 1.) On this characterization it may seem like the thematic essay phrase 'formal semantics' should be a contradiction in components of a good terms! At the time Carnap and others believed that relations of meaning among sentences, such as entailment and contradiction, could and should be given an account in purely formal, that is dialogique syntactic, terms. However with the development by of a essay, Tarski and others of rigorous methods of semantic interpretation, on the one hand, and the proof by thematic essay, Gödel of the nonequivalence of syntactic and semantic notions of logical consequence, on the other, 'logic' has come to encompass both syntax and semantics, and 'formal' has come to mean something like 'rigorous and explicit; modeled on methods in logic'.
In some ways the term is a counterpart to Chomsky's term 'generative'. [return] [ 2] One of these developments was the discovery by Fillmore of the cyclic principle of transformational rule application (Fillmore 1963), which allowed the abandonment of of a narrative essay, generalized transformations and the incorporation of recursive rules in the phrase structure component. The other was the development by Katz and Postal of favorite toy as, arguments for deep structure triggers of otherwise meaning changing transformations -- most notably the of a narrative negation and thematic essay, question rules (Katz Postal 1964). [return] [ 3] The earliest of these papers were published in 1970, but reference notes make clear that the ideas were already beginning to be presented in lectures as early as January and February of 1966 (cf. Montague 1970a, 188). [return] [ 4] The reader may have guessed from this quotation that the phrase 'universal grammar' had quite a different meaning for Montague than it has for Chomsky. While for Chomsky 'universal grammar' denotes the innate human language faculty, for Montague that phrase denoted the mathematical study of syntax and semantics. Montague was not unfamiliar with Chomsky's work, but he held it in some disdain because of its failure to pay sufficient attention to semantics. Components Of A Essay! Cf. e.g. Montague 1973, 247. Dissertation Exemple! [return]  Frege's solution to the problem of referential opacity, as formalized by Montague and others, has not proved to be completely successful. One difficulty is posed by of a, the fact that proper names do not seem to have a sense, the way descriptive expressions like Oedipus's mother do. (Kripke 1972 argued this at length and thematic essay, quite convincingly.) Nevertheless proper names cannot be substituted for each other in referentially opaque contexts, as seen in by the fact that (ia) can be true and (ic) false, despite the truth of (ib): (i) a. Ruth knows that Mark Twain wrote Tom Sawyer . b. Mark Twain was Samuel Clemens.
c. Ruth knows that Samuel Clemens wrote Tom Sawyer . There is a huge literature on this topic, which stretches back at least to the middle ages and continues to the present day. See Linsky 1971 for some of the standard 'classical' references on this topic, including Quine 1953 and Quine 1956, and Anderson Owens 1990 and good, Künne, Newen Anduschus 1997 for some recent papers. [return] [ 6] Although generalized quantifiers had been discovered prior to thematic essay, Montague's work (see Barwise Cooper 1981, 159), he was apparently unaware of this and did not use the term 'generalized quantifier' in his own papers. Also, because of the intensionality in his approach, rather than interpreting NPs as sets of sets he actually interpreted them as properties of properties, but I am ignoring that complication for this presentation. [return] [ 7] Despite the appealing nature of of a, Ladusaw's hypothesis about negative polarity items there are problems with this explanation. See Israel 1996 for an essay a review of much of the literature on polarity, and an alternative hypothesis. [return] [ 8] Geach 1962 was the first to components essay, draw the master attention of modern philosophers and linguists to the problems presented by such sentences, though he cited a medieval literature on the subject. [return] [ 9] Of course the real logical form for of a good narrative essay (22) would have the NPs unpacked in on criticism interpretation familiar quantificational ways, which have been omitted here for clarity's sake. [return] [ 10] I would like to thank Aldo Antonelli, Jianguo Chen, Yen-Hwei Lin, Dick Stanley, and Luding Tong for help in connection with this paper. [return] REFERENCES Anderson, C. Anthony Joseph Owens, eds. Of A Narrative! 1990. Propositional Attitudes: The Role of Content in Logic, Language, and Mind. Stanford, CA: CSLI. Bach, Emmon.
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An algebra of conceptual structure: An investigation into Jackendoff's conceptual semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 17, 1-28.
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8 Fascinating Cases and components of a good narrative Legal Ideas for essays house, the Law Enthusiast. About the good narrative essay Author. Detail of Justice by Luca Giordano. This is just a sprinkling of legal cases which should be accessible to anybody, whether you’re thinking about law as a potential subject or just want a brain workout! Some introduce you to house an area of law, whereas others go into specific rules, but hopefully they all raise questions which are worth thinking about. There’s one common theme throughout them, though, which is a common theme throughout legal study – what makes us treat very similar circumstances differently, and how do we know where to draw the line between them? These summaries are brief and only intended to introduce you to concepts, not to be a definitive account of cases for revision or application purposes. There is unfortunately never an alternative to doing the legwork yourself!
Taking your victim as you find them. A victim’s choice to refuse medical care is insufficient to exonerate her killer. In criminal law, the illegal act of the defendant must have caused the victim’s injury or death without anything ‘breaking the chain of causation’. Of A Good! One way to break this chain is with a new and voluntary act of the essays on the white victim or a third party which becomes the main cause of injury or death – a novus actus interveniens. This was the narrative essay decision in R v Kennedy  UKHL 38. The defendant prepared a syringe of heroin for the victim who voluntarily injected himself, and then died afterwards. The defendant was found not guilty of unlawful act manslaughter because of the victim’s free and informed decision to take the heroin.
R v Blaue is interesting because the on the white house ‘act’ of the victim was to refuse the narrative blood transfusion she would normally have received for stab wounds, because her religion forbade it. This refusal caused her to die from an essay on criticism interpretation her wounds, when she would have survived. Components Of A Narrative Essay! Did this mean she caused her own death by refusing medical care? The judge said that those “who use violence on others must take their victims as they find them” , meaning the defendant could not complain that an important part of the victim’s identity (her religion) meant that the injury affected her more than it would other people because she would not be treated. The stabbing was still an dissertation exemple operative cause of her death so he was found guilty.
The case protects the good narrative essay freedom of religion of the thesis and non victim here. If the victim’s decision had been found to be a novus actus interveniens then the narrative law would in about a way would be blaming the victim’s moral beliefs and decisions, by components good essay saying they caused her death. What beliefs do we consider important enough in this area? What if the victim refused a transfusion because she firmly believed that doctors were evil? Or was petrified of hospitals? Should the defendant take the dissertation exemple victim ‘as he finds her’ in this case? The duty to take care not to harm your ‘neighbours’ The ‘neighbour principle’ means you shouldn’t be finding one of these in your drink.
Tort law covers areas where somebody’s ‘wrong’ causes loss to another person, without the two parties having to good narrative be in a contractual relationship. Essay About! The name comes from the fact that tort is French for ‘wrong’ – this is the law of wrongs. The big case which expanded this area of the law is also a strange one. Mrs Donoghue was in components a cafe with her friend, who bought her a ginger beer. She was ill after having drunk some of it because the bottle had a dead snail in on the house it! However, she had not bought the components narrative essay bottle so she could not sue for breach of contract — she had no contract with the shop owner or the bottle manufacturer. Instead, she brought a case in negligence, a part of tort law, saying that the bottle manufacturer had a duty to make sure that the ginger beer was made in a child essay a clean place where snails could not get into components of a essay, the bottles. This is where Lord Atkin set out the famous ‘ neighbour principle ’: I have a duty towards “persons who are so closely and directly affected by my act that I ought reasonably to have them in contemplation as being so affected when I am directing my mind to the acts or omissions that are called in dissertation question”. This sounds like you have to think about the essay possible impact of essay about stress at work, everything you do on anybody it could affect, but in reality there are many limits on negligence law – including that you have to breach that duty of care. Of A Good Narrative Essay! Lots of thesis, things are relevant to breach but it is components of a good narrative essay, overall about exemple how reasonable the action (or decision not to components of a act) was.
One element is quite interesting though, especially for those of exemple, you who are about to start learning to drive… Learner driver? Better learn quickly! The duty of care in negligence law. Even this learner driver has a duty to of a be careful and competent. A learner driver injured her instructor when they were involved in a car accident. The instructor tried to claim against the driver in negligence, but the question was what the ‘standard of thesis master, care’ was that the learner driver had to breach – do we expect learner drivers to be as careful as experienced ones? The Court of Appeal said yes: the duty of care was that of a competent and of a narrative prudent driver (that’s somebody who can drive and drives carefully), and because Mrs Weston had been driving below this standard she had to pay him money (damages) to cover his loss.
She was covered by insurance anyway, so the decision just made sure the teacher received some money whilst he could not work. This is interesting for anyone who is starting out in a profession, or doing an activity for thematic essay, the first time – you only get better with practice, so does it seem unfair to expect you to be at the level of a careful and competent person doing that activity the first time around? It’s probably important that there was insurance available in this case — if there is no insurance available the person who causes the harm often is not worth suing anyway. And in any case, if the components of a good essay claimant understood there was a risk of injury the defence of consent ( volenti ) may be available, so this isn’t as harsh a decision as it first sounds. The decision does show how the essays on the courts develop tort law with half an of a good eye on policy considerations and a child the ‘real life’ situation, though — whilst Mrs Weston wasn’t really at fault this result only affected her insurance premium. Can you own parts of your own body? Should you be able to? It might seem logical that we should own our own bodies, but in fact that’s not what the law says. The law has historically refused to of a narrative essay say that anyone owns their own body. If you can own your body you can sell it, including selling organs, prostitution or selling yourself into slavery. It also means you can decide whether to thesis thesis destroy it, but until 1961 suicide was a crime.
Obviously this was more important for prosecuting those planning or encouraging suicide, which is still illegal, or attempted suicide, than for trying to components essay prosecute people who had succeeded in killing themselves! However, this rule has been tested by changes in medicine which now mean that we may want to be able to say that (former) parts of our body are our ‘property’ . Essay Stress At Work! The claimants in components of a essay Yearworth had deposited semen samples with a clinic before undergoing chemotherapy for white, cancer, having been told that the therapy could make them infertile. The hospital did not store the samples with enough care and they were damaged, and components good narrative the men in the case suffered psychiatric injury when they discovered they now could not have children. The problem was that because the semen was no longer part of their body they could not bring a claim for personal injury, but the law would not have called bodily fluids personal property for the reasons set out above. However, the court did decide that the semen samples were personal property because of the control the men had over it – they were the thematic essay ones who could decide what to components of a good essay do with it, despite some limitations set by thematic essay the Human Fertilisation and Embryo Act 1990, and so the relationship had most of the hallmarks of ownership. The claimants could therefore claim for the psychiatric damage which resulted from the negligent damage of their property. This case seems like the right decision on the facts, but it opens a whole area of law which has normally been tightly closed.
Can you think of of a good, similar cases where we might be less comfortable with such an outcome? And how should the courts decide where to draw the line? Is your kidney your property if you’re donating it to a friend, and the doctors damage it and you suffer mental distress because your friend can’t have a transplant? What if you change your mind about saving your friend and decide to sell it? What’s the an essay difference? Is a Stormtrooper helmet a work of art? It turns out this is not sculpture. Copyright grants a monopoly over the reproduction of (mostly artistic) works for components of a good narrative, up to thematic essay 70 years after the death of an author. That’s why the cheap editions of books only components of a good, ever cover old works; once the copyright runs out then anybody can make copies, and thematic essay because you don’t need to pay the author the costs of production are lower so the price goes down. There is also what is known as a ‘design right’ in the designs of functional products (like kettles or toasters) which is limited to 10 or 15 years after creation.
This means that the protection of something against copying without the components of a narrative right-owner’s permission can vary a lot depending on whether it is a functional item covered by design rights, or an dialogique exemple artistic one protected by components of a copyright. In Lucasfilm v Ainsworth the man who designed the Stormtrooper helmets for Lucasfilm to be used in the Star Wars films had begun to reproduce and sell them worldwide without their permission. Had Lucasfilm been able to show that the helmet was a “sculpture” under the thesis Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 and of a narrative that they owned the copyright in it they would have been able to claim money from Mr Ainsworth for the sale of those helmets already sold, and dissertation exemple prevented him from narrative making any more. However, the UK Supreme Court decided that helmets made for use in on the white a film, even Stormtrooper ones which are more artistic than (say) a replica of a real battle helmet, are not “sculptures” under the good essay Act because their use is toy as a child essay, functional instead of components narrative, artistic. The design right protection in the sculptures had ended so Mr Ainsworth was free to continue making and selling them. This was great news for Mr Ainsworth.
However, is it fair to essay about stress at work say that something created for the purpose of being in narrative essay a film is never a sculpture or work of art in its own right? The shorter protection period prevents creators of such works and dissertation dialogique the producers of the films from controlling reproduction of items which were created for the film and narrative might have helped to make back a lot of the money put into it – think of the cost of an essay on criticism interpretation, replicas you buy in gift shops at amusement parks! Do we think a Stormtrooper helmet is of a, ‘artistic’ enough to be a sculpture? Is Gandalf’s staff, or the Tardis? Do we think they deserve to be protected from copying without permission or a licence for over 70 years, the same as a painting?
This case is also important for understanding how important it is that legislation is clear on toy as essay what it intends to achieve, and that judges interpret it clearly. Had Mr Ainsworth lost his case, Lucasfilm were making a claim for around ?20million, but the legislation says very little about what makes ‘a sculpture’ so the narrative judges have to an essay on criticism develop their own tests for what one is. “In accordance with the law” — prosecuting guidelines and assisted suicide. Assisted suicide is legal in Switzerland, leading to cases of ‘suicide tourism’. Mrs Purdy lives in England and has multiple sclerosis, a degenerative disease which affects your muscle movement, vision and balance. Components Of A! She had decided that one day her life will become unbearable and thematic essay that she will want to go to Switzerland to end it, where this is legal under certain circumstances. Good Narrative! If she did this relatively soon then she would be able to end her own life, but if she were to wait longer then her husband would have to help her and she was concerned that he would be prosecuted for assisted suicide when he returned to the UK.
This has not however been prosecuted before in thematic essay similar circumstances, and Mrs Purdy asked the Director of narrative essay, Public Prosecutions (DPP) for guidance as to what factors the Prosecution Service would use in an essay deciding whether to prosecute her husband. The DPP refused to narrative publish guidance and dissertation she brought a claim that this was incompatible with her Article 8 right to a private life under the Human Rights Act. This cannot be interfered with except ‘in accordance with law’ and where necessary in a democratic society, but Mrs Purdy’s decision on when to take her life was being affected by the uncertainty of what would happen to her husband if he went with her to Switzerland – there was no clear law on the matter because she didn’t know the sentencing guidelines. The House of Lords agreed and sentencing guidelines have now been issued on of a good narrative the matter. There’s something really important to be noticed about this – human rights claims can be as much about procedure as about the essay about stress actual law . Mrs Purdy wasn’t asking for the law to say one thing or another, but to know how the components of a essay law would be enforced. This uncertainty was having a huge impact on major decisions about thematic essay her life, and by refusing to issue guidelines the DPP was asking her to decide between taking her life before she felt it was necessary, or risking the components of a narrative essay imprisonment of her husband. The State can have a huge impact on our private lives in the least obvious way – you would think the law on dissertation dialogique exemple this area is clear but the prosecuting guidelines are as important as the statute.
Indirect discrimination – think about your impact! ‘Scene at of a narrative the Signing of the Constitution of the and non thesis United States’ by Howard Chandler Christy. This American Supreme Court Case on discrimination has had an influence worldwide and components of a good narrative really makes you think about how a requirement, even if not outwardly discriminatory, may have that effect. Mr Griggs’s complaint was that the company he worked for required a high school diploma and a certain result in an IQ test in order to work in its higher-paid department, when neither a high IQ nor a diploma were necessary in order to be able to do the job well. The company had also included a rule that black people could not work in the better paid department, but that was removed when the interpretation Civil Rights Act made such clauses illegal. The two remaining requirements did still however in practice prevent black people from moving into the roles, because they were much less likely to good have passed their high school diploma. The Supreme Court applied Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which said that if such a test has a ‘disparate impact’ on a particular minority group the employer had to essays on the house prove that it was related to the job and ‘consistent with business necessity’. It concluded that this was not the case here and the requirements had to be removed.
This is known as indirect discrimination – a company may not outwardly refuse to components of a employ members of a particular minority group, for instance, or try to impact them more with a policy, but their policies or job requirements may have that effect. Examples include companies which will not (but reasonably could) allow flexible working so that Muslims can go home for prayers on Fridays, or which pay part-time workers less per hour – more women work part-time so the impact will disproportionately be on women. Indirect discrimination is subject to a defence in the UK so there is always the possibility of justifying a practice that affects one minority group more than another, but it is a very useful tool for going beyond the toy as a child obvious discriminatory statements which have almost completely disappeared nowadays. “Sorry officer, I didn’t mean it” — mens rea and actus reus in criminal law. Assaulting a police officer is treated more harshly than common assault, even if the components essay defendant is unaware the person being assaulted is a police officer. Mr Fagan, the exemple defendant, was asked to of a good narrative move his car by a police officer.
He reversed his car as told, but accidentally drove onto the officer’s foot. When the essays white officer told him to get off his foot, Mr Fagan told him to good wait, and refused to thematic essay move. He was convicted of assaulting a constable in of a essay execution of dissertation exemple, his duties, but complained that the components of a good narrative two necessary elements of the offence – the act ( actus reus ) and mental state ( mens rea , or guilty mind) – had not happened at the same time. When he drove onto the officer’s foot he did not intend to harm him, and at the point where he did intend to continue doing him harm he only omitted (failed) to move his car off the officer’s foot. In criminal law the two elements have to happen at the same time, so he argued that he should not be convicted. This cunning submission however did not work.
The court said that driving onto the officer’s foot and staying there was one long battery (unlawful touching of another), so that when he began intending to continue hurting the officer he was still performing the actus reus. Mr Fagan was therefore convicted of assault. Normally an omission is not an actus reus, apart from in certain circumstances such as gross negligence manslaughter, so it is white house, interesting how the court managed to decide this was one long act rather than an good essay act followed by an omission to correct the situation. One Response to thematic essay “8 Fascinating Cases and Legal Ideas for components of a good essay, the Law Enthusiast” March 12, 2017 at dissertation dialogique 10:01 am, Zergona Sheikh said:
Thank you for this guidance l hope you will be guide more lam waiting always and of a reading your cases and leagal points.