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Research Papers on Body Image

Research papers on body image

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Biostatistics Student Resume Sample. Click here to research papers image, view this resume. As a student, you could be entering the job market with a little bit of work experience or absolutely nothing at why is democracy of government, all. That does not mean that you will be unable to write a winning resume that will land you an interview. You just need to follow the advice of our experts who examined a biostatistics student resume sample and found several areas that can be improved. Education should be at the bottom. Immediately after the summary on this sample resume, the writer lists her educational information. Research Papers On Body Image! The fact that she has earned her B.S. and and professional plan essays, is working toward an research papers on body image MPH is fantastic, but most hiring managers are going to want to read about your experience before your education.

For this reason, proper resume formatting dictates that education should be one of the paper, last things on your resume. On this resume sample, education should be swapped out with skills, so that portion comes after the summary and education comes after experience. Bullet points should be used within skills section. You may have a ton of skills to mention, or you may just have a few relevant ones. No matter what number it is, you want to give each one its own separate bullet point, so the research papers, section reads like a list. You do not want everything to help apa research, be formatted as one long line.

In order to correct this sample resume, we would want to reformat that particular part, so it looks like this: Talk about jobs you no longer work at research papers image, in the why is form of government essay, past tense. Employers are going to be looking at every tiny detail on your resume to see if you have a precise eye for detail. You do not want to make a simple grammatical error, and this sample resume has a pretty big one within the experience section. She quit her internship at research papers on body image, the Sichuan Province Center for essay, Disease Control in 2009, but the bullet points are written in the present tense. The verbs should be written in the past tense because she worked there in the past. Therefore, to correct this we would want to rewrite the bullet points to go like this: Studied the characteristics and distributions of endemic diseases in China and their prevention Supervised endemic diseases through regular phone call and on body image, e-mail correspondence Analyzed of endemic diseases in counter, Sichuan Province using Epi info Familiarized myself with the Immunization Plan of Sichuan Province and papers on body image, technologies Primary analysis of epidemic data of immunity levels and immunization rates of Sichuan Province. However, there is one more thing that should be added to this list.

Each bullet point under work experience should end with a period. None of the points under this resume sample?s work history ends with a period, and that is counter argument essay, a pretty big mistake to research on body, make. Proper resume guidelines want you to excellence essay, make it clear when one statement ends by using a period. Papers On Body Image! You want to avoid having nothing at the end of a line. You also do not want to use semicolons. The following two bullet points are given for the same occupation:

Identify Occupational Safety#038;Health Administration (OSHA) Standards applicable to Employee Health Programs in Public Health. Identify components of OSHA Respiratory Protection Standards applicable to Public Health. You want to othello essay, avoid using the same words over and over again. Use synonyms whenever possible. Therefore, it would be a good idea to use a different word for research papers on body image, ?Identify? for rujukan resume, one of the papers on body image, points mentioned above. With Apa Research! This sample resume is already pretty good, but with a few minor changes, it can be made to be truly outstanding. Remember these rules the next time you have to write a resume, and papers, look into personal and professional essays using QuintCareer#8217;s Resume Builder. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

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Research paper on body image

nonscannable resume This application is papers on body image a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/468,759, filed Dec. Democracy The Best Of Government. 21, 1999 now U.S. Pat. No. 6,415,405, which was a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S.

Ser. No. 09/179,330, now U.S. Pat. Research. No. 6,118,304, filed Oct. 27, 1998, both of which are incorporated by reference for all purposes into this specification. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. 1. Field of the the best form essay, Invention. The present invention relates to the field of image testing dynamic logic and related logic families such as N-NARY logic.

More specifically, the present invention relates to scan testing of dynamic logic and N-NARY logic using on-chip circuitry. 2. Plan. Description of the image, Related Art. The increasing complexity of integrated circuits, often containing millions of transistors, has created a need for sophisticated test methodologies to insure functionality at multiple levels. Semiconductors must undergo some degree of why is democracy the best form essay functional testing before they are shipped to computer and other device manufacturers, and they must be periodically tested during further manufacturing and during their operating life to verify continuing operability. Papers Image. One of the problems encountered in testing is the difficulty in accessing and isolating circuits that are deeply embedded in the chip. The industry has addressed this problem to some extent by implementing scan access testing techniques. Scan access refers broadly to the use of specialized serial shift registers (“scan registers”) to deliver stimulus vectors from plan essays a stimulus pattern generator to circuit nodes of interest, and to retrieve response data from circuit nodes of interest for analysis. Scan registers function as normal synchronous registers and latch data propagating through the computational logic. However, scan registers can also be interconnected in such a way as to allow propagation of data directly from register to papers on body register upon be banned essay, assertion of control signals or clocks, thereby bypassing any computation logic between the registers. This provides a means whereby stimulus data may be transported directly to internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, and whereby response data may be retrieved directly from internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, thus allowing designers to isolate sections of logic for testing.

The benefit of image scan access increases as the proportion of circuit nodes otherwise inaccessible from primary inputs and outputs increases. “Full scan” refers to an implementation of scan access wherein every register on a chip is accessible through scan. Why Is Form Of Government Essay. “Partial scan” refers to an implementation of research on body scan access wherein some subset of the registers on a chip is accessible through scan. Conventional scan access, i.e., propagating data through a long chain of interconnected scan registers, is inherently serial in democracy form of government, nature. The number of research papers on body image clock cycles needed to essays load or unload the scan chain is equal to the number of registers in the chain. Gaining access to research papers image internal nodes is therefore accomplished only at the cost of be banned very long test times. Alternate scan architectures such as random access scan have been used to papers remedy the test time problem caused by the serial nature of scan access. Random access scan employs individually addressable registers rather than registers connected in a fixed order. This adds greater flexibility to the order in which registers may be accessed, but reduces overall test time only when writing or reading some subset of the registers. Random access scan does not decrease the total number of clock cycles needed to write or read all registers. From a test perspective, the most efficient method to implement full random access scan is to development plan essays incorporate test circuitry (in addition to that needed to interconnect the scan registers) on-chip.

Placing circuitry on papers on body chip eliminates the need to develop specialized test hardware, and potentially enables desirable test options such as testing of the help with apa research paper, chip under special clock conditions, or in situ following the research, integration into argument, a system-level product. However, adding test circuitry increases the area, and research hence the cost of the semiconductor die. When test circuitry is incorporated into a semiconductor, the benefit gained by abortion argument, increased test coverage must be traded off against the increased die area and research papers image associated cost. Moreover, the paper, test circuitry must not interfere with the normal operation of the chip. Because of these constraints, the ratio of circuitry under test to test circuitry in current semiconductors is relatively high. Consequently, typical on-chip random access scan implementations control and observe only the primary inputs and outputs of research papers on body image relatively large blocks of excellence essay logic. Research Image. Other desirable circuit attributes, such as internal data bus values, are not generally accessible. Moreover, while random-access scan using on-chip circuitry does significantly improve manufacturing testability, designers have been thus far unable to capitalize on its potential to facilitate chip debug during the penalty should, design process.

In general, most test points on a chip can only research, be scanned when the counter, chip is in a “scan mode,” meaning that the clocks are stopped or slowed significantly, the machine is given a set of input test vectors which propagate through the papers, logic, and outputs are then scanned and analyzed to determine whether the logic is operating properly. Thus, when a chip is in scan mode the why is of government, information in a scan register is somewhat artificial, in that it did not arrive under normal operating conditions, and it is the result of a test vector rather than a real application running on papers on body the processor. Using current techniques, processors cannot be scanned satisfactorily while running at operating speeds. A processor's clocks cannot be stopped abruptly to read a test point without causing a voltage overload in othello excellence essay, the supply network due to the very high di/dt. This limitation means that designers generally have no visibility into what is happening internally in real time, which significantly hampers troubleshooting and debugging performance-related problems. To address this issue, designers may incorporate shadow registers at key points, which can be read in real time to provide a window into pre-identified areas. Research Papers On Body Image. However, this solution is less than ideal, particularly for highly complex designs, in that it requires up-front identification of points of essay interest. Papers On Body. Moreover, designers must be highly selective when including shadow registers, due to chip real estate and I/O limitations.

The present invention is an improved scan approach that utilizes a RAM-like scan bus architecture to provide visibility into even deeply embedded logic within a chip. While the present invention can be applied to implement scan in personal development, any dynamic logic design, the advantages of the present invention are best realized in a design wherein the logic is synchronized using multiple clock domains with overlapping phases, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,118,304, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Logic Synchronization” (hereinafter, “the Logic Synchronization Patent”). In designs that employ this logic synchronization method, the research papers on body, present invention allows the rujukan dalam resume, processor to be stopped, information to be accessed or provided, processor state to be modified, and operation to be resumed, all without corrupting the machine's architectural state.

In addition, the present invention is capable of “freezing” certain gates for scanning when the papers, processor is running at operating or near-operating speed, without the use of shadow registers. This disclosure describes the present invention in the context of with a new dynamic logic family called N-NARY logic, which itself is more fully described in research on body image, a U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,965, titled “Method and Apparatus for a N-NARY logic Circuit Using 1-of-4 Signals” (hereinafter, “the N-NARY Patent”). The N-NARY patent is incorporated by reference for personal and professional development plan all purposes. Those skilled in the art will understand, after reading this specification or practicing the research image, present invention, that the present invention can be implemented in other applications that employ other logic design methodologies. Finally, this application is also related to the following copending U.S. Patent Applications and U.S. Why Is The Best Form. Patents: U.S. Pat.

No. 6,118,716, filed Sep. 9, 1998; U.S. Pat. On Body. App. Ser. No. 09/206,900, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No.09/206,905, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/191,813, filed Nov. 13, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/468,760, filed Dec. 21, 1999; and dalam resume U.S. Papers On Body. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/468,972, filed Dec. 21, 1999.

These six documents are hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes into this specification. The present invention comprises a method and apparatus for random-access scan of rujukan dalam a network of dynamic logic or N-NARY logic, wherein the network includes sequentially clocked precharge logic gates and one or more scan gates. Image. Each clocked precharge logic gate and each scan gate further comprise a logic tree having one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an evaluate circuit, and one or more output buffers. Each scan gate further comprises a scan circuit that accepts scan control signals and couples to one or more scan registers. A scan control circuit generates scan control signals which operate to capture the state of the output buffers of the scan gate and provide that state to one or more scan registers. Scan control signals also operate to help with force the output buffers of the scan gate to a preselected level, which then propagates through the network to create an output state on the next scan gate in research papers on body image, the network, which can then be read and compared to an expected output state given the output state of the previous scan gate. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. To further aid in why is democracy the best of government, understanding the invention, the attached drawings help illustrate specific features of the invention and the following is a brief description of the papers on body image, attached drawings: FIG. Penalty Be Banned. 1 is a block diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit.

FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D illustrate buffer devices used in N-NARY logic. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit. FIG. 4 illustrates a series of logic circuits with a multiple phase logic synchronization system. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phases used in the present invention. FIG.

6 is an research image embodiment of the present invention. FIG. With. 7 illustrates a scan circuit used in the present invention. FIG. 8 illustrates an embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG.

9 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates. FIG. 10 shows the relationship between the logic synchronization clock control signals and the scan control signals for at-speed state capture, according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. Research On Body Image. 11 shows the relationship between the logic synchronization clock control signals and the scan control signals for rujukan dalam resume single-stepped or slow-clock scan mode, according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 12 shows another embodiment of the scan architecture used in research image, the present invention.

FIG. 13 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 14 shows the counter, relationship between the master clock, the logic synchronization clock signals, and the scan control signals for image scan according to death penalty be banned the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG. 16 shows the on body, relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and the scan control signals during the scan write process, according to be banned essay the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG.

17 shows the research image, relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and the scan control signals during the plan essays, scan read process, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 18 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to on body image the third embodiment of the present invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION. The present invention comprises a method and apparatus to scan N-NARY or other dynamic logic circuits using a RAM-like bus architecture and careful control of the clock input to selected scan gates. This disclosure describes numerous specific details that include specific structures, circuits, and logic functions in othello essay, order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. One skilled in the art will appreciate that one may practice the present invention without these specific details.

N-NARY logic is a novel logic family that uses a novel signal, a 1 of on body image N signal, to convey information. Democracy The Best Form. An N-NARY logic circuit comprises a logic tree circuit that evaluates one or more input signals and produces an output signal. A single 1 of N signal comprises a bundle of N wires routed together between different cells (or different logic circuits). A 1 of N signal uses a 1 of N encoding to research papers on body indicate multiple values of information conveyed by with, the bundle of wires of the 1 of research papers on body image N signal where at most one and only one wire of the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal is true during an evaluation cycle. Penalty Essay. Additionally, the 1 of N encoding provides a not valid value (a null value) where zero wires of the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal is research papers on body true during an evaluation cycle. FIG.

1 is a block diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit that illustrates a circuit of N-NARY logic using two sets of 1 of 4 signals for the input signals and a 1 of 4 signal for help with apa research paper the output signal. This circuit describes a 2 bit logic gate (a dit) where A is a 2 bit input, B is a 2 bit input, and O is a 2 bit output. Image. In other words, a dit device produces 2 output bits. A device 60 comprises a logic tree circuit 61 , a precharge circuit 31 , and an evaluate circuit 36 . Coupled to excellence essay the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit input signal A, which is a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and on body A 3 and rujukan their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Additionally coupled to papers image the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit input B, which is another 1 of help with 4 signal that comprises a plurality of input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Coupled to research papers the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit output O, which is a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of output values O 0 , O 1 , O 2 , and excellence O 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. The logic tree circuit 61 performs a logic function on a plurality of input signals that could comprise a variety of functions, for example, the Boolean logic functions AND/NAND, OR/NOR, or XOR/Equivalence. A precharge circuit 31 couples to papers the logic tree circuit 61 and precharges the dynamic logic of the rujukan dalam, logic tree circuit.

Each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET. And, coupled to the precharge circuit 31 is the clock signal CK where a low clock signal on CK will cause the P-FETs to charge. An evaluate circuit 36 couples to research papers on body the logic tree circuit and controls the evaluation of the logic tree circuit. And, coupled to the evaluate circuit 36 is the personal and professional development plan essays, clock signal CK where a high clock signal on CK will cause the N-FET in papers image, the evaluate circuit to help with paper evaluate. As shown in on body, FIG.

1, output buffers 34 couple to the wires of the plurality of output signals. FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D provide four embodiments of buffer device 34 used in N-NARY logic. FIG. 2A shows a CMOS inverter that inverts the signal on excellence an output logic path. FIG. 2B shows an embodiment of output buffer 34 that is preferred for image most N-NARY gates that includes the CMOS inverter that inverts the signal and a feed back keeper transistor that maintains the level of the dynamic node before the signal evaluates.

The PFET keeper transistor gives the logic gate a static capability. Additionally, this type of output buffer compensates for abortion essay parasitic leakages and allows for low speed functionality. The FIG. 2B output buffer 34 is called a half-keeper output buffer. FIG. On Body Image. 2C shows another embodiment of output buffer 34 that is known as a “full keeper buffer.” As shown in FIG.

2C, a full keeper buffer includes the inverter, the PFET keeper feedback transistor, and an additional NFET feedback transistor tied to ground. Those skilled in the art will recognize that FIG. 2D is simply another schematic representation of the FIG. And Professional Development Essays. 2C full keeper buffer, where the two transistors have been replaced with a CMOS inverter. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit using a 1 of 4 encoding, where the logic tree 61 comprises the image, OR/NOR function. One skilled in the art will appreciate that one function is the apa research paper, inverse of the other function. To reduce adding additional capacitance to the device, N-NARY logic uses a single, shared logic tree with multiple evaluation paths for evaluating the papers on body, function of the logic circuit and for generating the death penalty be banned, plurality output signals coupled to the logic circuit. The multiple evaluation paths further comprise the internal evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 . In this circuit, precharge circuit 31 comprises four P-FETs that quickly and fully precharge all of the dynamic logic in the logic tree circuit during the precharge phase of the clock cycle. As shown in FIG. 3, each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET.

Clock signal CK is coupled to the precharge circuit 31 . When the on body image, clock signal is low, circuit 31 precharges the essay, N-FETs in the logic tree circuit 61 . The evaluate circuit 36 comprises a single evaluation transistor, which aids in the speed of the clocking of the device and helps avoid races between other devices. Other circuits may use multiple evaluation devices. As shown in FIG. On Body. 3, clock signal CK couples to evaluate circuit 36 . When the clock signal is why is democracy of government essay high, the research on body image, evaluate circuit 36 evaluates the logic tree circuit 61 . FIG. 4 illustrates a network of logic circuits or gates with a multiple phase logic synchronization scheme that uses a six phase clocking system with the clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . Death Be Banned Essay. The network 160 comprises a datapath 166 , an input signal 162 , and an output signal 164 . The datapath 166 comprises one or more wires that propagate the signals through the network. For example, the datapath 166 may comprise one or more N-NARY signals. Additionally, the input signal 162 and the output signal 164 may comprise signals that use N-NARY encoding.

The series of papers image logic circuits 160 comprises the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and help apa research 190 coupled in series to research papers on body image the datapath 166 . In FIG. 4, the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and 190 may comprise N-NARY logic circuits. Additionally, each logic circuit may further comprise one or more additional logic circuits. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phase scheme that is the preferred timing and logic synchronization methodology for the present invention.

In FIG. 5, te is the evaluate phase of the clock cycle, and tp is the precharge phase of the clock cycle. Additionally, each individual clock has a 50% duty cycle. The phases of the different clocks are such that the phase of an individual clock signal overlaps the phase of an earlier clock signal by an amount approximately equal to the amount it overlaps of the phase of the next clock signal. FIG. 5 illustrates an M-phase clocking system, where M=6, with clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . Reference 256 illustrates the propagation of the “wave” of the evaluate cycles of the plan, different clocks. Image. For further background and the best form of government essay detail on this logic synchronization methodology, the reader is referred to the Logic Synchronization Patent. As shown in FIG.

4, the logic circuits are coupled together such that, in general, the input of a logic circuit that receives a particular phase logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 3 logic clock signal) comprises the output of the previous logic circuit, which receives the immediately preceding logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 2 logic clock signal), and the output of the logic circuit that receives the particular clock signal comprises an input to research image the next logic circuit that receives the abortion, immediately following logic clock signal (in this example, a phase 4 logic clock signal). In a preferred embodiment, the master or global clock signal is supplied to the network from a central bus structure referred to in this specification as the “clock spine.” The M logic clock signals are generated at one or more clock generation sites coupled to the clock spine. Papers On Body Image. In other embodiments, the clock spine may include other useful clock-related signals (such as, for example, the inverse of the global clock signal), or even one or more of the death be banned essay, individual logic clock signals. In this specification, a network of logic gates such as that depicted in on body image, FIG. 4 wherein the why is democracy, logic propagation is synchronized using an research on body evaluate “wave” produced by multiple overlapping clock signals, such as that shown in FIG. 5, is referred to as a “sequentially clocked precharge logic network,” the gates therein are referred to with apa research paper as “sequentially clocked precharge logic gates,” and the clock signals are “sequentially generated” with a “sequential delay” between the individual clock signals. Papers Image. Similarly, when referring to individual sequentially generated logic clock signals, the first clock signal that rises and falls after a specific logic clock signal is said to “immediately follow” that specific clock signal; the signal that rises and falls just before a specific logic clock signal rises and falls is said to “immediately precede” the othello excellence essay, specific logic clock signal. In other words, in FIG.

5, CK 0 immediately precedes CK 1 because CK 0 is the signal that rises before CK 1 rises and falls before CK 1 falls. Likewise, CK 1 immediately follows CK 0 because CK 1 is the first clock signal that rises after CK 0 rises and falls after CK 1 falls. Finally, as explained in more detail in the Logic Synchronization Patent, some of the individual logic clock signals are triggered from the rising edge of a master clock signal (not shown in FIG. 5) and some of the individual clock signals are triggered from the falling edge of the master clock signal. Those skilled in the art will recognize that it is the designer's choice of research papers image which clock signals trigger from the master clock's rising and/or falling edge; it is the arrangement of multiple overlapping clock signals that provides a “wave” of evaluate cycles that provides the novel logic synchronization and timing methodology shown and why is the best essay described in the Logic Synchronization Patent.

FIG. 5 also illustrates two additional clock signals, CK(E) and CK(P). The preferred embodiment of the present invention requires the precharge clock CK(P) to be controlled separately from the papers on body image, evaluate clock CK(E). By convention, the phase 0 clock, CK 0 , is the reference clock for the two separate clocks CK(E) and CK(P). And Professional Development Essays. One skilled in research on body, the art will appreciate that it is possible to argument use other conventions for logic synchronization, for example, an M-phase clocking system where M=4, which would use clock signals CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 . Papers On Body. Similarly, it is with paper possible to use other phase clock signals (e.g., CK 1 or CK 4 ) for the CK(P) and CK(E) references. FIG. 6 is research papers on body one embodiment of the present invention that comprises an N-NARY logic circuit 300 . N-NARY logic circuit 300 comprises a logic tree 302 that performs a logic function on the two N-NARY input signals A and B to generate an output N-NARY signal Z. The N-NARY input signal A comprises the input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and their associated wires; the N-NARY input signal B comprises the resume, input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and research papers B 3 and their associated wires; and the N-NARY output signal Z comprises the output values Z 0 , Z 1 , Z 2 , and Z 3 and their associated wires. The logic circuit 300 additionally comprises the precharge circuit 31 that receives the precharge clock CK(P) (one component of the should be banned essay, phase 0 clock, as described above). And, the logic circuit 300 comprises the evaluate device 36 that receives the evaluate clock CK(E) (another component of the phase 0 clock) Output buffers 34 couple to the wires of the output signal Z. As shown in FIG. 6, N-NARY circuit 300 also includes scan circuits 306 coupled to each wire of output signal Z around the output buffers 34 . Research Papers On Body Image. Each scan circuit 306 comprises a scan write component 306 a and othello excellence essay a scan read component 306 b . Each scan circuit 306 couples via scan control lines to research a scan control circuit (not shown in FIG.

6 ), and also to one or more scan registers via scan data lines (not shown in FIG. 6 ). As described more fully in the Stress Mode patent referenced above, N-NARY circuit 300 may also include stress state generation circuits that couple to state generation control circuits that provide the ability to stress test the and professional development plan essays, N-NARY circuits. Those skilled in research papers image, the art will recognize that stress testing is generally unrelated to argument essay scan. However, the stress state generation circuits may be conveniently combined with the scan circuits 306 to produce a dual-function test circuit coupled to each output line that performs both scan and stress mode testing, as described more completely in papers on body image, the Stress Mode patent. FIG. 7 shows one embodiment of a scan circuit 306 . The scan write component 306 a comprises write N-FET transistor 400 and inverter 404 . The scan read component 306 b comprises read N-FET transistor 402 . Resume. Scan circuit 306 couples to output line Z n around full keeper output buffer 34 as shown.

Write transistor 400 is controlled by scan control signals 406 and 408 . Read transistor 402 is controlled by scan control signal 410 . Information is transported into and out of the scan circuit 306 over research scan data lines 412 . FIG. 8 shows one embodiment of the complete architecture of the present invention, in the context of a 1-of-3 N-NARY circuit. In this specification, an N-NARY circuit that includes the necessary components for scan is referred to why is democracy the best form essay as a “scan gate.” In normal operation, all scan gates function as normal N-NARY gates, receiving input signals, performing their logic function, and providing output signals that become inputs for the next gate. By convention, all Phase 0 gates are selected to be scan gates, however, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the scan architecture and techniques disclosed herein could be practiced using other phase gates as scan gates without departing from the research on body image, present invention. As shown in FIG. 8, scan gate 500 includes logic tree 502 that performs a logic function on its two 1-of-3 input signals, A and death essay B, to produce a 1-of-3 N-NARY output signal, Z. Precharge circuit 32 and evaluate circuit 36 couple to papers on body image N-NARY logic tree 502 . Help Apa Research Paper. A full keeper output buffer 34 and a scan circuit 306 couple to each output wire. Each scan circuit 306 includes write transistor 400 , read transistor 402 , and inverter 404 . Each scan circuit 306 connects to a separate scan data line 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c , each of which connects through a read/write driver 414 to the scan register 416 in an arrangement similar to commonly-known RAM architecture. As shown in FIG. 8, scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c also connect to the output wires of other scan gates in other rows on a device that employs the present invention scan architecture and methodology.

The present invention also includes scan control circuit 304 , which has output signals 406 , 407 , 410 , 418 , and papers on body 420 . Scan Enable (SEN) signal 420 is asserted when the system is in scan mode to control the timing of the scan gates, as explained in more detail below. Write signal 406 is asserted when the argument, system is in research, scan mode and why is the wires of the research on body image, output signal Z are to help apa research be forced to the value in the scan register 416 . Read signal 410 is asserted when the system is in scan mode and the value on each wire of the output signal Z is to be loaded into the scan register 416 , which can then be scanned out in serial fashion. Research Papers. Reset signal 407 is asserted during the reset sequence to othello excellence essay reset the circuit for research on body image normal operation, as described in further detail below. Scan Precharge signal 418 is help with paper asserted to precharge the scan gates for writing during scan. In scan mode, when the Read signal 410 is high and Write signal 408 and Reset signal 407 are low, read transistors 402 conduct, write transistors 400 are open, and the current state of the output lines Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is scanned and loaded into the scan register 416 via scan data lines 412 and read/write drivers 414 . To write to a scan gate, Scan Precharge 418 is asserted to drive the research papers on body, evaluate nodes high.

When the Read signal 410 is low, Reset 407 is low, and rujukan dalam resume Write 408 is high, read/write drivers 414 pull scan data lines 412 high or low, depending upon the bit value in the scan register 416 . Within each scan circuit 306 write transistors 400 conduct, and read transistors 410 are open. The voltage on the scan data lines 412 is inverted by inverters 404 , and the value of the evaluate node E 0 is forced to papers on body the inverted value on the scan data line 412 a , the value of E 1 is of government forced to image the inverted value on 412 b , and the value of excellence E 2 is research papers forced to the inverted value on death should be banned essay 412 c . These inverted values are then inverted once again in output buffers 34 , and the values of Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 are forced to the values in the scan register. Writing to a scan gate will occasionally require forcing an evaluate node that is high to the low state. This is research papers one reason why a full keeper output buffer, with its extra NFET feedback transistor, is used on all scan gates. Also, since both the precharge and evaluate clocks are turned off just before a scan read (the status and relationship between the various clock signals during scan is discussed in detail below), a full keeper holds the evaluate nodes at the state they were in when the clocks were turned off so that they can be read. Note that the write transistor 400 in the scan circuit 306 coupled to output wire Z 2 is driven by the Write-or-Reset (WOR) signal 408 , while all other write transistors 400 in counter essay, the other scan circuits 306 are driven by the Write signal 406 . As shown in FIG. 8, the WOR signal 408 is generated by OR'ing the Write signal 406 with the Reset signal 407 . In scan mode, when the write signal 406 is asserted and the reset signal 407 is not asserted, the scan circuit 306 that accepts the research on body, WOR signal 408 behaves like the other scan circuits 306 , as described above. However, in reset mode, when the reset signal 407 is asserted and neither the write signal 406 nor the read signal 410 is asserted, only the write transistor 400 in the scan circuit 306 that accepts the WOR signal 408 will conduct. Penalty Essay. The resulting output condition is defined by convention to research on body image be a reset condition, as described in further detail below. Penalty Essay. The present invention requires that one and only one output wire of the N-NARY output signal of a scan gate must couple to a scan circuit 306 that includes a write transistor 400 that is driven by the WOR signal 408 rather than the Write signal 406 . To reset the system and resume normal operation after exiting scan, the research papers, output lines of each scan gate are forced to a predetermined reset condition.

For example, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 8, the system is reset by forcing Z 0 and Z 1 , low and Z 2 high. This is accomplished by first precharging the why is the best form of government essay, evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , and E 2 , and research on body image then asserting the WOR signal 408 , which pulls E 2 low. The output buffers 34 then invert the state of the evaluate nodes, and the resulting condition is othello essay Z 0 and research papers image Z 1 low and Z 2 high. When every scan gate is in this output state, the system is reset. FIG. 9 shows a network 560 of N-NARY gates, much like FIG.

4, except that in personal and professional plan, FIG. 9, the Phase 0 gates (those whose precharge and evaluate circuits were driven by CK 0 , designated 168 and 180 in FIG. 4) are now designated as scan gates 568 and 580 . In other words, gates 568 and 580 are scan gates in network 560 and on body image thus include the extra scan-related components and circuitry on their output lines as shown in counter, FIG. 8 . Furthermore, as discussed above, in scan gates the precharge and evaluate clocks must be separately controlled. Therefore, the clock signal CK 0 to gates 168 and 180 in FIG. 4 has been replaced with two signals, CK(P) and CK(E) in papers on body, FIG. 9 . In normal operation, CK(P) and CK(E) are identical to CK 0 , the democracy form, scan related circuitry is on body image quiescent, and the network 560 behaves the same as network 160 in FIG.

4 . FIG. 10 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when a network of logic that is clocked using a six-phase logic synchronization methodology is placed into scan mode to scan the output state of the personal development plan, scan gates. FIG. 10 and research on body image the following text demonstrate how the be banned essay, output state of papers on body each scan gate can be captured when the network is running at operating speed. As noted above, the ability to capture the dalam, output state of papers image gates that are running at operating speed is an important performance improvement over existing scan methods and architectures. FIG. Rujukan Dalam. 10 shows the global clock signal, CLK, at research on body the top, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the propagation of signals through the networked logic gates. In this embodiment, CK 4 , CK 5 , and apa research CK 0 are triggered from the falling edge of CLK, and CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 are triggered from the rising edge of papers on body image CLK. As discussed above, CK(P) and CK(E), the rujukan dalam, two signals at the bottom of FIG.

10, start out identical to papers on body CK 0 . FIG. 10 shows four full Phase 0 clock cycles, designated as 602 , 604 , 606 , and abortion argument essay 608 . Research Papers Image. As explained in further detail below, the dalam resume, “capture” cycle in the sequence depicted in research image, FIG. 10 is cycle 606 . SEN is a global Scan Enable signal that is distributed through a series of latches or static registers that fan out over the design. The final level of SEN arrives at and professional development essays the input to the clock generation logic of all the scan gates in the design. SEN is asserted 610 at this input when the Phase 1 clock goes low 609 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 612 but before CK 0 goes high at papers on body 614 . The next Phase 0 high time, ( 616 in democracy the best form essay, FIG. Papers. 10) starts the phase whose state will be captured in the scan gates ( 606 in FIG. 10 ). At each local Phase 0 clock generation site on the clock spine, SEN is further latched to produce SENP and SENE. SENP is latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at 618 . This causes SENP to go high shortly after CLK goes high and before CK 0 can fall. SENP is OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P). Dalam. Therefore, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is high.

However, when CK 0 falls at 620 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP is high. SENE is latched from SENP by CK 1 going low at research papers 622 . This causes SENE to go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. The inverse of SENE is ANDed with CK 0 to abortion produce CK(E). Thus, CK(E) is research papers high when CK 0 is high and SENE is low. When SENE is personal plan latched high at 624 , CK(E) is prevented from research rising again by the inverse of SENE. Therefore, at the beginning of the capture phase 606 , each Phase 0 scan gate is “frozen.” SEN, SENE, and death SENP are all asserted. The scan gates precharged and evaluated in the prior phase, but are prevented from precharging and evaluating again because CK(P) is latched high and CK(E) is latched low. The value on each output line of each scan gate is thus available for scan. As long as global SEN remains asserted, CLK can continue to toggle (producing phases 1 - 5 as usual) but all phase 0 scan gates will continue to hold the state that they were in at the end of phase 604 . To scan the scan gates, CLK must be stopped when it is papers image low. Argument. Stopping CLK at 626 , shortly before it rises, puts the Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates in precharge and provides a quiet electrical environment for scan reading and writing. Although not shown in FIG.

10, if the papers image, network is development plan running at research papers speed, those skilled in the art will recognize that the essay, clock should ordinarily not be stopped abruptly, but rather, the clock rate should be ramped down over a number of phases to avoid overload problems caused by a large negative di/dt. Reference 626 in FIG. 10 is intended to illustrate a point when CLK, CK 1 , CK 2 , and research image CK 3 are all low, corresponding to the precharge state for Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates. Those skilled in the art will recognize that stopping the clock abruptly at 626 , one clock cycle after freezing the output state of the scan gates, would likely cause di/dt problems. When CLK is stopped, the dalam, scan registers can be read and the state of the scan gate outputs can be determined. Additionally, if desired, the papers image, state of the scan gate outputs can be modified by writing to the scan gates from the scan registers. The present invention provides the ability to write to the scan gates during the scan period without incorporating additional transistors (beyond the additional scan circuitry shown in FIG.

8) into the scan gates' structure. To write to a selected row of scan gates, the scan gates are first precharged and then conditionally discharged via the dalam, scan write transistors 400 . This is accomplished by providing a scan precharge signal SPRE ( 418 in FIG. Papers Image. 8) that overrides SENP, and provides a low-going pulse on CK(P) for the row of scan gates to death be banned be written to. (Recall that SENP is ordinarily high during scan periods, keeping CK(P) high and preventing the scan gates from image precharging normally.) If continued operation is desirable, the CLK can be restarted. To continue at operating speeds, CLK must be ramped up over a number of cycles, this time to avoid source the creation of undesired speed paths due to abortion counter essay large di/dt. When CLK is research started again, the Phase 1 - 5 clocks will resume toggling, and the state of the Phase 0 scan gates (whether they have been modified by writing to them during scan or not) will propagate through the Phase 1 - 5 gates. The Phase 0 gates will remain frozen (in their modified state, if they were modified during scan or in their original state, if they were not) as long as SEN is asserted, because CK(P) will be held high and CK(E) will be held low, preventing the scan gates from precharging or evaluating. To exit scan mode, SEN is deasserted. This causes SENP to fall when CK 1 rises due to abortion counter the rise of CLK. Papers. Because CK(P) is created by OR'ing CK 0 and SENP, when SENP falls, CK(P) will fall, causing the scan gates to precharge.

Similarly, after SEN is deasserted, SENE will fall after the next CK 1 falling edge, shortly after the death penalty should be banned essay, master clock CLK falls. When SENE falls, its inverse rises, and papers on body image the AND gate that produces CK(E) will allow CK(E) to rise when CK 0 next rises. At this point, CK(P) and CK(E) are re-synchronized with CK 0 , and personal and professional plan essays the Phase 0 scan gates return to research normal operation, precharging and evaluating every clock cycle. FIG. 11 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when “stepping through” operations, as might occur when the scan gates are read or written to at each step. This single-step mode of operation is most useful for examining or troubleshooting specific areas in the logic, and for loading and executing test vectors. In this mode, the apa research, master clock CLK toggles very slowly and papers irregularly. Penalty Should Be Banned. For convenience only, FIG. 11 shows CLK and its various derivative clocks as symmetrical, but in reality, the shaded region (where CLK is low during scan) will be a much longer period of research papers on body image time than other parts of the waveform. In addition, since CLK in this mode is very slow compared to help paper normal operation, the delay between CLK's rising edge and the rising edges of CK 1 -CK 3 and failing edges of CK 4 -CK 0 (all generated from CLK's rising edge) is not as pronounced in FIG.

11 as in FIG. 10, where the research image, clock signals are intended to represent full speed operation. The same is true regarding the essays, derivative clocks CK(P) and research papers on body image CK(E) and help paper the other CLK-related signals SENE and SENP. In single step operation, SEN is toggled every clock cycle. SEN goes high at the input to research papers image the scan gates' clock generation logic when the the best form, Phase 1 clock goes low at 709 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 712 but before CK 0 goes high at 714 . As in full speed operation, SENP is research papers latched from help with SEN by image, CK 1 going high at 718 . This causes SENP to death should be banned go high shortly after CLK goes high and before CK 0 can fall. Research Papers. Again as in full speed operation, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is high.

However, when CK 0 falls at and professional development essays 720 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP (which, as the reader will recall from the previous discussion, is OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P)) is research papers image high. SENE is latched from SENP by CK 1 going low at 722 . This causes SENE to be banned essay go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. Because the inverse of SENE is ANDed with CK 0 to research produce CK(E), CK(E) is high when CK 0 is high and SENE is low. When SENE is latched high at 724 , CK(E) is rujukan prevented from rising again by the inverse of SENE. Reading and optional writing of the image, state of the scan gates can now occur (the shaded regions 730 on FIG. 11 ). As discussed above, the duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by the clock signals depicted in FIG. 11 . In single step operation, during the scan periods 730 , the be banned, clock is either stopped completely or is running very slowly to research provide sufficient time to read the scan registers or load test vectors. As shown in FIG. Death Penalty Should Be Banned Essay. 11, SEN is deasserted at 732 , just after the research on body image, Phase 1 clock goes low at 722 , but prior to the first shaded scan period 730 . SENE and SENP stay high during the scan period (recall that SENP is latched by a Phase 1 high clock, and SENE is latched from SENP. When CLK is stopped during the penalty should be banned essay, scan period 730 , CK 1 stays low.

Therefore, during each scan period 730 , SEN has been deasserted, but has not yet toggled SENE, SENP, CK(P) or CK(E). After reading (or writing) during the research on body, scan period 730 , CLK can be restarted or stepped to the next cycle. At this point, CLK goes high, causing CK 0 , CK 1 , and SENP SENE, CK(P) and othello CK(E) to toggle as shown in research papers image, FIG. 11 and abortion argument as described above in connection with full-speed operation. After the next falling CLK and CK 1 , SEN is again asserted, and the process repeats again as shown in research papers on body, FIG. 11 . Therefore, in single step or slow clock operation, scan gates can be read or written to every second clock cycle. Rujukan. This allows logic to propagate from a Phase 0 gate through the rest of the papers on body image, gates before the next scan cycle. This scan timing arrangement is ideal for executing test vectors and then recording results. This is accomplished by apa research paper, reading a scan gate's output state during a scan period 730 and research papers on body then writing an input vector to personal essays the gate. The clock is then restarted, and the vector propagates state through the Phase 1 - 5 gates to the next Phase 0 scan gate. The clock is then stopped for the next scan period, and the output state of that gate read and research papers on body image compared to the expected result.

FIG. 12 shows an alternative embodiment of scan gate 500 , designated 800 . FIG. 12 is similar to FIG. 8, except that scan circuit 306 has been replaced by an alternative scan circuit 806 , and scan control signals ZWOR 824 and ZWRITE 826 have been added while the scan precharge signal SPRE 418 has been eliminated. Argument Essay. CK(P) and CK(E) are now generated inside the scan gate 800 , and WRITE 406 and WOR 408 are now buffered. As shown in FIG. 12, scan circuit 806 includes three NFET transistors 810 , 816 , and 818 , and two PFET transistors 812 and 814 . When the read signal 410 is high, read transistor 810 conducts and the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c. When WRITE 406 is high, ZWRITE 826 is low, and both write transistors 814 and 816 conduct.

If any of the research papers on body image, output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the value on the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Argument Essay. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and on body the output buffer 34 will invert the high value such that the value on the output line is low. Conversely, if the output wire is to why is of government be forced high, then the value on the corresponding scan data line will be high and transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to papers ground through transistors 816 and 818 , and abortion essay the output buffer 34 will invert the low to a high outgoing signal on the output wire. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the scan write architecture shown in on body image, FIG. 12, in othello, particular the tri-state inverter, eliminates the need to precharge the gate to drive high evaluate nodes to a low state. Consequently, SPRE 418 is no longer needed. As was the case previously in scan gate 500 , one and only one output line of an N-NARY scan gate 800 is papers on body connected to a scan circuit 806 wherein the gate of the counter essay, write transistors couples to the write-or-reset signal WOR 408 . Research Papers Image. In the embodiment shown in FIG.

12, WOR 408 has an inverse, ZWOR 824 . These signals operate with the rujukan dalam, write transistors 814 and 818 to research write to the gate, and to rujukan dalam resume reset the system, as described previously. While FIG. 12 shows clock signals CK(P) as an input to the precharge circuit 32 , and CK(E) as an input to the evaluate circuit 36 , just as those inputs were shown in FIG. 8, these clock signals to research papers on body the precharge circuit 32 and evaluate circuit 36 are now generated inside of scan gate 800 , rather than at the gate's clock generation site on why is democracy form the clock spine. Research On Body Image. Therefore, scan gate 800 has only why is form of government, a single clock input, CKS, that is the same as CK 3 , which is research papers image basically an inverted version of CK 0 , as shown in FIGS.

10 and 11. CKS enters scan gate 800 and is inverted to precharge the logic tree 502 . CKS is help apa research paper also NOR'ed together with SEN 420 to produce CK(E). Therefore, when CKS is high, (corresponding to the same time that CK 0 is research papers low) CK(P) is why is the best low and the logic tree 502 precharges. CK(E) is also low. When CKS goes low, both CK(P) and CK(E) are high, and papers image the logic tree 502 evaluates. In scan mode, when SEN 420 is enabled or high, CKS and CK(P) will continue to cycle between high and low, but CK(E) will always stay low, and the logic tree 502 will never evaluate. When SEN 420 is deasserted, CK(E) will resume cycling according to CKS. Therefore, this clock scheme functions just like the clocking arrangement described in conjunction with the scan architecture shown in FIG. 8 and apa research paper the clock signals shown in FIGS. 10 and research 11, except that in this clocking arrangement, neither SENE nor SENP are needed or generated. FIG.

13 shows two scan gates embedded in a network of dynamic logic. FIG. 13 is similar to with apa research FIG. 9, except that in FIG. 13, network 860 includes scan gates 868 and 880 , which are implemented in the alternative embodiment 800 shown in FIG. 12 . Accordingly, the research papers on body image, clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9) have been replaced by CKS. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the architecture and development clocking arrangement shown in FIG. 12 has some advantages over that shown in FIG.

8 . First, the scan gate clock generation is simpler. This provides layout and floorplanning advantages. Moreover, decoupling the scan logic from the Phase 0 clock generation sites facilitates the use of 64-bit virtual scan rows, which may comprise less than one or more than several physical rows, depending upon the scannable bit population of each physical row. Also, the research papers image, distribution of death should SEN over the design no longer needs to be synchronous and high-speed. However, the architecture and image clocking arrangement shown in FIG. 12 only allows for the at-speed capture of the state of the scan gates if the design can tolerate the power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt.

In this embodiment, CK(P) will continue to toggle as long as CKS toggles. Therefore, to capture a certain output state, CKS must be stopped abruptly to prevent CK(P) from precharging the why is democracy form essay, logic tree and destroying the output state of the scan gate. The FIG. Research Image. 12 architecture and clocking arrangement does support slow clock or stepped operation, as described in essay, conjunction with FIG. On Body Image. 11, although the behavior of CK(E) is slightly different, as shown in FIG. Abortion Counter Essay. 14 . FIG. 14 depicts the operation of the clocks relative to each other during stepped operation scan using the scan architecture shown in papers, FIG. 12 . Like the prior description of stepped operation provided in conjunction with FIG.

11, the duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by the clock signals depicted in FIG. 14 . In single step operation, during the scan periods 730 , the clock is the best form of government either stopped completely or is running very slowly to provide sufficient time to read the scan registers or load test vectors. Likewise, as described previously, the scan periods 730 occur every second clock cycle, when the master clock and the Phase 1 , 2 , and papers image 3 are low, thus providing a quiet electrical environment for reading and writing to with the scan gates. CLK and research the Phase 1 - 5 clocks are identical to the CLK and Phase 1 - 5 clocks shown and described in FIG. 11 . However, the “Phase 0 ” reference clock shown in FIG. Excellence Essay. 11 has been replaced, in FIG. 13, with the CKS signal that is the research on body, clock signal input to the scan gate 800 . FIG.

14 shows the behavior of argument CK(P) and CK(E) when SEN is asserted and research deasserted for scan. As shown in FIG. 14, CK(P) is an penalty should essay inverted version of CKS, and continues to toggle as CKS toggles. CK(E) toggles every other clock phase between scan periods after SEN is deasserted and CKS falls. FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of image scan gate, designated 900 , along with the same scan control circuit 304 , scan register 416 , and read/write drivers 414 shown and described previously. FIG. Essay. 15 also shows the master clock generation circuit 906 that generates the master clock signal, CLK, which is papers provided to the clock spine 902 . Why Is Form Essay. As shown in research papers, FIG.

15, scan control circuit 304 provides SEN 420 to the master clock generation circuit 906 and WOR 408 to the clock spine 902 . Local clock generation circuit 904 receives CLK from the clock spine 902 and generates the sequentially generated logic clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 . In this embodiment, the local clock generation circuit 904 also receives WOR 408 from the clock spine, which controls the operation of penalty essay some of the research papers, sequentially generated logic clock signals during the write process, as explained in further detail below. The scan gate 900 shown in FIG. 15 is counter argument essay identical to on body scan gate 800 shown in FIG. 12, except that in this embodiment, the clock input to scan gate 900 is one of the sequentially generated logic clock signals generated by the clock generation circuit 904 that is development used to time and synchronize all the logic circuitry in the design, rather than a special clock signal generated solely for scan. In the research on body, example scan gate 900 , the logic clock signal input is CK 0 . However, those skilled in the art will recognize that designers could designate gates other than phase 0 gates as scan gates without departing from the present invention. Othello Excellence. For example, a designer could designate some or all of the phase 3 gates—gates that receive the CK 3 logic clock signal—as scan gates, rather than the research papers on body image, phase 0 gates as described herein. A primary difference between scan gate 900 and the previously-described embodiments is that scan gate 900 precharges and evaluates using a standard logic clock signal, thus eliminating the need to generate a clock signal uniquely for scan. Resume. Scan gate 900 includes the papers on body, same scan circuits 806 as described in the previous embodiment, and therefore, like scan gate 800 , scan gate 900 does not need to rujukan resume be precharged before writing to research it in scan mode. Excellence Essay. In addition, as described in research on body, more detail below, the logic synchronization clock scheme can be implemented so as to further eliminate any need to why is democracy form precharge scan gate 900 for scan writing. As shown in FIG.

15, scan gate 900 has only a standard single clock input, CK 0 , which is generated by the local clock generation circuit 904 . Image. Local clock generation circuit 904 receives the master clock signal, CLK, from the clock spine 902 and sequentially generates all the logic clock signals CK 0 -CK 5 having sequentially delayed evaluate and precharge phases. In a standard operating mode, CK 0 enters the essay, scan gate 900 from the clock generation circuit 904 and precharges the logic tree 502 when it is low and evaluates the research papers on body image, logic tree 502 when it toggles high. The local clock generation circuit 904 generates the sequentially generated logic clock signals by buffering and death be banned delaying CLK. CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 transition with CLK's edge, sequentially delayed in the order listed. CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 transition opposite on body CLK's edges, again sequentially delayed in the order listed. The arrangement and behavior of the sequentially generated logic clock signals during regular operation and during scan modes is shown and described below, in personal and professional development plan, connection with FIGS. 16 and 17.

To enter scan mode, SEN 420 is asserted and stops CLK high. After sequential delays, CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 will be stopped high, while CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 will be stopped low. To write to the scan gates, all logic clock signal inputs to gates “downstream” of the scan gates that are high when CLK is papers stopped must be forced low, to force these downstream gates into a precharge mode. In a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that uses a multiple overlapping clock phase scheme such as that described herein and in help with paper, the Logic Synchronization patent, forcing the downstream gates into precharge effectively clears preexisting state information from the input lines of these gates, thus ensuring that the downstream gates are ready to receive, as inputs, the research papers on body, test vector being written to the output lines of the phase 0 scan gates and rujukan the results of that test vector as it propagates through the gates along the datapath. Failing to research clear out state information on the inputs to personal and professional development essays downstream gates could result in errors or invalid inputs to research papers on body the downstream gates. Since CK 5 will be low when the clocks are stopped, the gates immediately upstream of the scan gates are in precharge, causing the input lines to the scan gates to death penalty should be banned essay be clear even though the papers on body image, scan gates are in the evaluate state. As described above, a common approach to circuit testing using scan is to stop the clock, write a test vector to one or more scan gates, start the clock and let the test vector propagate through the logic to the next downstream scan gate, stop the clock again, read the output state of the downstream scan gate, and compare it with the expected output state, given the value of the input test vector and the functionality of the gates between the two scan gates. However, if the inputs to any of the help with apa research, gates between the research on body, two scan gates are not cleared properly and contain stale state information, the output at the downstream scan gate on the next read may not conform to expected results, implying a circuit error where none may exist.

To write to the scan gates, WRITE 406 is asserted, causing WOR 408 to why is democracy form of government essay go high, and ZWRITE 826 and research papers image ZWOR 824 to go low. Inside the local clock generation circuit 904 , WOR 408 forces CK 1 and CK 2 low to clear out stale information in downstream gates along the datapath. While CLK is stopped, CK 1 and CK 2 need not be controlled with standard clock signal precision; all that is required is that they be low during the write process and then returned to high after the write, to correctly pass data after CLK is restarted. Write transistors 812 , 814 , 816 and development plan 818 then function as described above, in connection with scan gate 800 and FIG. 12, and the write proceeds. If any of the output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the value on the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and the output buffer 34 will invert the high value such that the on body, value on the output line is low. Conversely, if the output wire is to be forced high, then the counter essay, value on the corresponding scan data line will be high and transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and 818 , and the output buffer 34 will invert the low to a high outgoing signal on the output wire.

If the phase 0 scan gate is to be read instead of research image written to, there is no need to death penalty force CK 1 and CK 2 low. If CK 1 and CK 2 are toggled from WOR 408 as described above, then they will stay high after CLK stops high, because WOR 408 is never asserted during a scan read. To perform a read, SEN 420 is asserted and stops CLK high, which stops CK 0 high. READ 410 is asserted, read transistor 810 conducts and the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c. FIG.

16 illustrates the relationships between the sequentially generated logic clock signals during a scan write using this embodiment of scan gate 900 and research image a six-phase logic synchronization methodology where the phase 0 gates are the scan gates. FIG. 16 shows the global clock signal, CLK, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the propagation of signals through the networked logic gates via the othello excellence essay, clock spine. In this embodiment, CK 0 , CK 1 , and image CK 2 fall after CLK falls, and CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 rise after CLK falls. Also, in FIG. 16, the network of personal development plan synchronously clocked precharge logic gates is assumed to be originally in normal, at speed operation. As previously described, SEN is the global Scan Enable signal that is distributed through a series of latches or static registers that fan out over research papers on body the design. To write to the scan gates, SEN is asserted 958 . This causes CLK to stop after its next rising edge, shown on FIG. 16 at excellence essay 959 , which also stops all the sequentially generated logic clocks. The WRITE signal is then asserted at research papers image 962 , which asserts the WOR signal at personal and professional plan 964 , which in turn forces CK 1 and CK 2 low at image 966 and 968 , respectively. At this point, the apa research paper, write proceeds as described above, after which WRITE is deasserted at 970 , deasserting WOR at 972 and toggling CK 1 and CK 2 high at 974 and 976 , respectively.

SEN is deasserted at 980 to restart CLK. When CLK falls at 982 , the sequentially generated local clocks then resume toggling in accordance with the failing edge of CLK, and normal operation ensues. The relationship of the clock signals during the read process is shown in FIG. Papers On Body. 17 . Penalty Should Essay. The system is originally in normal operation, and then SEN is research papers on body image asserted at 961 . Thereafter, CLK stops after its next rising edge, shown on development FIG. 17 at 963 . As described above, stopping CLK stops all the sequentially generated clocks. READ is asserted at 965 , the research papers, read proceeds as described above, and READ is help with then deasserted at 967 . SEN is deasserted at 971 to restart CLK, and again, the sequentially generated logic clock signals resume toggling in normal operation upon the falling edge of CLK at 973 . FIG. 18 shows two scan gates embedded in a network of dynamic logic. FIG.

18 is similar to FIGS. 9 and 13, except that in FIG. 18, network 990 includes two scan gates 992 and 994 , which are implemented in the alternative embodiment 900 shown in FIG. 15 . Accordingly, the clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9, and CKs in FIG. 13) have been replaced by research papers on body image, CK 0 . Those skilled in the art will recognize that, as with the alternative embodiments described above, stopping the clocks abruptly can cause di/dt problems if the design is personal plan essays running at speed. The architecture and clocking arrangement shown in FIGS.

15 and 16 - 17 therefore only allows for the at-speed capture of the research papers, state of the scan gates if the why is essay, design can tolerate the power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt. In this embodiment, CK 0 will continue to toggle as long as CLK toggles. Therefore, to capture a certain output state, CLK must be stopped abruptly when CK 0 is high to prevent the scan gate's logic tree from precharging, which destroys the output state of the scan gate. If this embodiment is used in a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that cannot tolerate abruptly stopping the on body, clocks when the logic is running at speed, the clocks can be slowed or stepped, and then stopped as described above when the user is ready to capture the output state of the scan gates or write to the scan gates, without creating a problem. To summarize, the present invention comprises a method and apparatus for death penalty be banned scan of dynamic or N-NARY clocked precharge logic circuits that include a logic tree with one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an evaluate circuit, one or more output buffers, and one or more scan circuits, where the papers on body image, logic circuit receives one or more input signals and a clock signal having an penalty should essay evaluate phase and a precharge phase, and produces one or more output signals. The present invention includes a scan control circuit that generates scan control signals including a scan enable signal, one or more scan registers, and one or more read/write drivers coupled to on body the scan control circuit, the with paper, scan register, and research on body the output buffers such that when the scan circuit receives scan control signals, the state of the output signal is provided to the scan register, or alternatively, the state of the output signal can be forced to a state specified by information in the scan register. The present invention further comprises a network of multiple sequentially clocked precharge logic gates, wherein the input signals of development plan essays a gate that receives a particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to a first sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the immediately preceding sequentially generated logic clock signal, and the output signals of the gate that receives the particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to research on body a second sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the immediately following sequentially generated logic clock signal.

In this case, the sequentially generated logic clock signals are each one of at least 3 logic clock signals sequentially generated by a clock generation circuit coupled to death a clock spine. The sequentially generated logic clock signals are generated with a sequential delay, such that the evaluate phase of a particular logic clock signal overlaps the evaluate phase of the research, immediately preceding logic clock signal by approximately the abortion counter argument essay, same amount of time that the evaluate phase of the particular logic clock signal phase overlaps the evaluate phase of the immediately following logic clock signal. The present invention further comprises reading the on body image, output state generated by the logic circuit by generating a scan enable signal and death penalty be banned a read signal, stopping the logic circuit's clock signal during the research, evaluate phase, providing the read signal to the scan circuits and the read/write drivers coupled to the scan circuits and to a scan register. Finally, the present invention includes forcing the excellence, output state of a scannable logic circuit that receives a first sequentially generated logic clock signal to a user-selected state, by research papers image, loading the scan register with the user-selected output state, generating a scan enable signal and one or more write signals, stopping the sequentially generated logic clock signals when the first sequentially generated logic clock signal is in the evaluate phase, forcing all sequentially generated logic clock signals received by dalam resume, gates downstream of the scannable logic circuit to research papers on body the precharge phase if they were in should be banned, the evaluate phase when the papers on body image, clocks were stopped, providing the write signals to the scan circuits and to one or more of the read/write drivers, returning the sequentially generated logic clock signals to personal development essays the evaluate phase if they were forced to the precharge phase, and image restarting all clocks. Other embodiments of the invention will be apparent to should be banned essay those skilled in the art after considering this specification or practicing the research on body, disclosed invention.

The specification and examples above are exemplary only, with the true scope of the invention being indicated by help with, the following claims.

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Abortion, Birth Control and papers on body Contraception. How Religion is Making Overpopulation Worse. Share this page: 1. The Necessity of Birth Control and Contraception and the Opposition of Religious Organisations. Personal And Professional. Few people doubt the papers image, severity of the problem that overpopulation presents for this planet. Its consequences are poverty, famine, disease and death, sometimes on counter argument essay very large scales. Minor problems include overcrowding, strained infrastructure and social instability. By facilitating contraception and women's medical services we enable family planning.

Allowing women to plan their pregnancies also leads to healthier outcomes for research papers on body, children. A recent study showed that if all births were spaced at rujukan, least two years apart, the number of deaths among children younger than five would decline by 13%. The number would decline by 25% if there were a three-year gap between births 1 . Making birth control accessible to all is image a moral requirement for anyone who has the power to help. Why Is The Best Of Government Essay. It is inconsistent, for papers, example, to say that contraception and abortion is murder whilst ignoring the fact that poverty and excellence overpopulation are far bigger killers. Aside from on body image population control, the health benefits of contraceptive use are substantial.

Contraceptives prevent unintended pregnancies, reduce the number of abortions, and lower the incidence of be banned, death and disability related to complications of pregnancy and childbirth 1 . The numbers of abortions that are prevented by research papers contraception is staggering. A Guttmacher Institute report on the developing world predicts that in 2012, use of modern contraceptives in the developing world will prevent 218 million unintended pregnancies, which, in turn, will avert 55 million unplanned births, 138 million abortions (40 million of why is the best form essay, them unsafe), 25 million miscarriages and 118,000 maternal deaths. Research. It will also prevent an estimated 1.1 million neonatal deaths (those within 28 days of birth) and 700,000 postneonatal infant deaths (those from help 28 days to one year of age) 1 . Condoms help prevent the spread of disease - their effect is strong enough that long-term use by a community can gradually eradicate strains of sexually transmitted diseases from the community. Image. Venereal disease causes unimaginable suffering and can affect the purely innocent. Babies are frequently infected with the diseases of the parents; in personal essays this way, the prevention of disease with contraception is vital because once women in on body image a local area are infected with a disease, children will also be directly infected. In the case of incurable diseases, such an with apa research event can lead to unsurmountable suffering. Such a terrible state of affairs is research papers on body image prevented by the correct use of contraceptives such as condoms. The number of women with unmet needs for personal plan essays, contraception in the developing world is research papers still increasing - between 2008 and excellence 2012 the figure rose from 153 million to 162 million 1 . Those 69 countries are the ones that are least able to support growing populations. #8220; Some of the religious traditions have presented recurring obstacles to open discussion of certain kinds of birth control at UN population conferences. These religious groups are associated largely with Islam, Roman Catholicism, and evangelical Christianity. #8221; Mary Evelyn Tucker (2011) 2. Religious opposition to research image, abortion, birth control and contraception: Despite the democracy, practical necessity of birth control, the benefits of disease prevention, the papers on body image, moral responsibility we have towards the future of abortion counter, our children and the responsibility we have with regards to the stewardship of our planet, many religions have opposed birth control for various superstitious reasons. On the other side of the papers on body image, fence, it is worth knowing that all of the essay, pioneers of contraception were freethinkers 3 , 4 (that is, people who are opposed to the influence of organized religion on people´s opinions and beliefs). Papers On Body. Why have religions determined to prevent family planning?

The answer is in help with apa research paper a kind of survival of the fittest amongst religions themselves. As most religious people simply abide by the religion of their parents 5 , religions that encourage parents to have more children will attain a stronger and longer-lasting base of adherents. Barber (2011) notes that religions promote fertility by encouraging marriage at a much earlier age than amongst the non-religious 6 . Bearing this out is Catholicism, which has an research papers image infamously strict suite of dogmas that forbid all kinds of birth control. The Roman Catholic Church is the death, most notable, powerful and active organisation that lobbies against birth-control wherever it can, internationally. Thankfully Most Catholics routinely ignore the Church on this issue, especially in research educated and developed countries, but there are still plenty of fast-growing countries where the Catholic Church is still prospering the old-fashioned way. It took the government of the Philippines 13 years to force through legislation to allow government-funded contraception and for sex education in schools because of the strength of the opposition of the Catholic Church there - in a country where 11 women die of pregnancy-related problems every day. Why Is Democracy The Best. The Catholic Church ferociously opposed it, warning of moral and social collapse, the destruction of family life, and divine wrath, if it was passed. The bill is considered a major step toward reducing maternal deaths and promoting family planning in research the impoverished country, which has one of Asia's fastest-growing populations. [. ] The United Nations said early this year that the bill would help reduce an alarming number of excellence, pregnancy-related deaths, prevent life-threatening abortions and slow the research on body, spread of should, AIDS 7 . Research Papers Image. The graph to the right can be clicked to view the full size version. It shows that the effects of religious prohibitions against birth control are clear on the international scale.

No country that is either less than 40% religious, or has less than a 40% rate of belief in God, has a fertility rate of over 2.0. Conversely, every country that has a fertility rate of over 3.0 is over why is democracy essay, 80% in terms of both belief in God and in the rate at research, which they say they are religious. On account of all of this, in Why I am not a Christian by Bertrand Russell (1957) the resume, author takes a moral stance against the Church: #8220; I begin with contraception, because here the influence of superstition is particularly noteworthy. Research On Body Image. [. ] If either of the parents has venereal disease, the child is likely to inherit it. Why Is The Best Form Of Government. If they already have too many children for research papers on body image, the family income, there will be poverty, underfeeding, overcrowding, very likely incest. To please [the anti-contraception religious types] a life of torture is inflicted upon millions of human beings [. ] merely because it is supposed that sexual intercourse is wicked unless accompanied by desire for offspring. [. ] If they had even the smallest spark of with, love or pity for research image, children they could not adhere to a moral code involving this fiendish cruelty. [. ] To be killed suddenly and then eaten, which was the fate of the Aztecs' victims, is a far less degree of suffering than is inflicted upon the best form essay a child born in miserable surroundings and tainted with venereal disease. Yet it is the greater suffering which is deliberately inflicted by bishops and politicians in the name of morality. Research Papers On Body. #8221; Simple contraceptive measures such as condoms can be used to prevent long-term suffering and control population growth, but also endows families with shorter term relief from suffering, and it is for these reasons that Bertrand Russell above states that Aztec cannibalism produced less suffering than anti-birth control lobbyists. The availability of methods to control family size is one of the biggest factors in being able to escape poverty. #8220; In the world as a whole, a stunning 135m people escaped dire poverty between 1999 and 2004. Othello Excellence. [. ] More people, more quickly than at any other time in history. [. ] Perhaps the biggest change affecting people's lives has little to do, at least directly, with development policy or public spending.

People in poor countries are now able to exert more control over their own fertility, and hence over the size of research papers on body image, their families. #8221; Aside from statistical commentary, it is apa research often individual cases that can educate people about the image, need, however unfortunate, for rujukan dalam, abortions to be available at proper medical institutions. Neil J. Kressel relates a story about an American woman who now believes abortion rights are an important component of American civil rights and that physicians have a moral obligation to make them available, even if at research papers image, considerable risk to themselves. [. ] Her change of heart came partly from experiences during her medical training, including one occasion when she had to counsel an eleven-year-old girl. The doctor recalls: '[I]t soon became obvious that she had no understanding of help with apa research, sex - she didn't really understand that she'd even had it, or that it had any connection to research papers on body, her pregnancy 10 . In the real-world, the moral arguments are strongly in favour of those who defend the right of women and doctors to be able to freely use abortion as one of abortion counter argument, their possible methods of preventing harm. 2. Condom Promotion vs. Harmful Ideology. Condoms are scientifically proven to be superior methods of on body, preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and are effective methods of birth control 11 . And Professional Development Plan. But, for superstitious reasons, some religions such as the Catholic Church and a mixture of image, other fundamentalist groups have run (and still run) long campaigns against their use 12 . The Best Essay. Their ideology not only prevents them from using effective anti-disease contraception, but it causes them to papers, also (a) deny its effectiveness (b) emphasize problems with condoms and (c) actively campaign against others' use of it, and even to the extent of sabotaging the death should essay, distribution of research on body image, condoms. Catholic agencies in Africa have committed such horrors as instructing all condoms to be stapled (piercing them), and Christian leaders are regularly caught teaching that condoms don't work and recently, that Westerners are distributing HIV -ridden condoms that will give their users AIDS . (HIV is the virus that causes AIDS , but, neither survives outside the body so such stories are misinformed, let alone paranoid). Christian mythology asserts that God prefers Homo Sapiens (but no other species) to have legal contracts with each other ( marriage ) in order to procreate.

Conservative Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. #8220; In the US and elsewhere, 'Just Say No!' campaigns promote sexual abstinence, while unmarried young people with a sexual past are encouraged to become born-again virgins through a pledge to refrain from further sexual activity until marriage. However, such programmes have generally been unsuccessful in radically changing sexual behaviour or in reducing rates of HIV/Aids transmission, as health evaluations have demonstrated. #8221; But, whether or not abstinence-only works can be tested and studied. Studies have found that abstinence-only sex education programs actually increase the rates of pregnancy and STD s in death penalty the teenage population 14 . Kirsten Underhill and research on body image her colleagues at the University of Oxford have, over help apa research paper, the past few months, been testing it 15 . Research Image. Their studies involved 16 000 young people in death essay America and papers on body compared Christian abstinence-only education with no (or low key) education. #8220; Pregnancies were as numerous in both groups. Sexually transmitted diseases were as widespread. The number of sexual partners was equally high and unprotected sex just as common. [. ] In contrast to the fears of the personal plan, protagonists of abstinence-only-education, not one of the trials found that teenagers behaved in a riskier fashion in either the long or the short term after receiving [condom] instruction. #8221; However in 2009 new data revealed that in the USA at least, abstinence-only education was not only ineffectual, but was actually making things worse: #8220; To the surprise of few outside the rarefied world of the Religious Right, it has emerged that George W Bush's abstinence only policies led directly to a rise in research image teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.

The Centres for Disease Control (CDC) says that after years of falling rates, teen pregnancies and STDs started rising after Bush was re-elected in 2005. Abortion Counter Argument Essay. According to the CDC, birth rates among teenagers aged 15 or older had been in decline since 1991 but rose sharply in more than half of American states after 2005. The number of teenage girls with syphilis had risen by nearly half after a big decrease, while a 20-year fall in the gonorrhea infection rate was being reversed. Research Papers On Body Image. AIDS cases in adolescent boys had nearly doubled. [. ] The number of teen pregnancies is penalty double in areas where abstinence is the only method of research papers image, birth control taught as opposed to areas where there is comprehensive sex education and condoms are handed out. [. ] Religious proponents of the abstinence-only policies still insist that the reason for the rise is because their policies were not promoted hard enough. #8221; The Bible-belt is why is democracy the best of government essay a swathe of papers image, Southern states in democracy essay the USA famous for their embrace of tough Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and papers that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. Penalty Should Essay. Condoms excel at preventing sexually transmitted diseases, and, educating people about safe sex and condom use does not lead to on body image, increased promiscuity.

Abstinence-only education does not work and has led to increased rates of teenage pregnancy and STDs. 3. The Catholic Church's Eternal and abortion essay Absolute Truth. The Abrahamic religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, embody a wide range of opinions and practices on contraception. In the on body, 1920s, most Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. Any conscientious priest in the Catholic Church should consider openly declaring dissatisfaction with the Vatican's anti-human and anti-equality policies. Mother Theresa, one of the other good guys who has rabidly opposed condoms, spent millions flying to and fro in Europe and the USA on political campaigns against contraceptives. The Catholic Church, with all its money, could turn itself into form essay a force for good and squarely put the dark ages behind itself, but, riddled with superstition and religious inhibitions, it is still a dangerous and research dysfunctional failure, crippled by delusions about the real world. 3.1.

The Absolute Truth until 1930: All Birth Control Methods are Wrong. The Catholic Church has heavily opposed all forms of birth control for all of known history. The current document is Pope Paul VI's Humanae Vitae (1968) 21 , reflecting the opinion of Pope Piux XI in othello excellence essay 1930 that the Catholic Church teaches absolute truth as passed down 'uninterruptedly from the beginning' 22 . Between 1816 and research 1916 there were twelve separate condemnations of excellence essay, contraception issued by the Catholic Church's Sacred Penitentiary 18 . One thing is clear: For much of its history, the research papers on body image, Catholic Church has strongly opposed contraception. In particular, it has opposed any method that intentionally prevents childbirth between a married man and woman. 3.2. The Absolute Truth from 1930: The Safe Period Method is OK. Despite this clear, long-standing and impractical standing, things slightly changed in 1930.

The eternal truth passed down and taught by Catholics from the beginning, slightly changed for the better, and rujukan the Casti Connubii allowed, in extreme situations, couples to research image, use the 'safe period' or 'rhythm' method. This inaccurate method hardly works and doesn't stop the spread of disease, but, nonetheless, the position of the Catholic Church changed a little. This change in and professional essays absolute, eternal doctrine of the infallible Pope (get the sarcasm?) was confirmed twice by Pope John XXIII in papers 1951. It is no wonder that Bryan Wilson, in his discussion of how Christian Churches have followed society, but lagged behind (therefore undermining their own claims of doctrinal moral truth), uses the history of birth control as his main example of the changes in society that have led to essays, changes in Church doctrine 23 . 43% of Roman Catholic priests in England Wales do not support the Church's ban on contraception (another 19% are unsure) All of papers on body, this so far would be merely an academic curiosity, another example of zany religious clerics making odd declarations based on ever odder historical precedents. But The Catholic Church is also a heavy activist, and othello essay has caused uncountable numbers of poor people in South America and Africa to research papers on body image, become infected with HIV and other STD s, contributed to the dangerous population explosion, and undermined charity organisations that support birth control, such as when the Birmingham Catholic Church boycotted Comic Relief because money raised might go to a family planning clinic that gave access to contraceptions to street children. The Catholic Church causes very real suffering amongst very poor people as a result of its impractical policies. 3.4. Catholic Church Opposing Condoms in Africa, Despite HIV Threats.

Africa suffers massively from counter argument essay HIV and research papers on body image AIDS , and is the continent that saw the first cases. 20 million people have died from AIDS in Africa and dalam resume a further 22.5 million are infected with HIV . On Body Image. Many are born with it, as it often passes from mother to baby, and due to the nature of othello, HIV , many people can have the virus but remain without symptoms, sometimes for decades. Research On Body. The Catholic Church still strongly opposes the use of condoms in Africa, which is home to 135 million Catholics 25 . In Kenya, local Bishops have instead recommended that abstinence, counseling and ethics are used to prevent the spread of HIV , instead of condoms. The Catholic Church has run long-term campaigns against personal plan essays, condoms. Dr Muga, Kenya, said that the research image, government has reduced infection rate from 14% to 10% as a result of sex education and condom contraception, but still, the Catholic Church campaigns against sex education that teaches the value of contraception. Bishop Korir said that only the guilty were afraid and resorted to essay, condoms, and that he wanted no condom talk (2003). Those who are born with it, or are infected with it because a partner unknowingly had it, are not exactly 'guilty'! You might think that such crazy Bishops are a phenomenon peculiar to Africa. But the doctrine against condoms comes from the top, and the Vatican's official long-standing policy is propounded even in Europe and the USA . Pope Benedict, the German head of the research on body, Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013, delivered speeches in Africa in 2009 and reiterated, in the 21st century, his stance against condoms: #8220; Asked about the use of condoms to abortion counter argument, help tackle the scourge of AIDS , the pope restated, in unusually explicit terms, the church's position that these are not useful to on body, overcome the epidemic, indeed their use actually makes the problem worse.

He suggested the othello, disease could be beaten through chastity, abstinence and papers on body image correct behaviour. [. ] His statement sounded otherworldly at best, and crass and abortion counter essay uncaring at worst. Merely wishing away human sexual behaviour does nothing for the potential victims of AIDS , many of research papers, whom are innocent under even the most moralistic definition of that word. Excellence Essay. #8221; In countries where the research on body, authorities are weak, science is ill-established and there are mass social problems, it would help a lot if the why is the best form essay, Catholic Church, with its powerful social networks, joined in with the efforts to stop the decay of society due to disease and overpopulation (two things that go hand-in-hand). But governments in research papers Africa and South America, not to mention the USA and European countries such as Poland, have to fight against the church on such simple measures as birth control and condom use, and this battle often politicizes the operations of charities and welfare groups. 4. Abortion: How Religion and Rationality Clash. With Paper. The best ways to prevent abortion are increased education 26 , increased (and more equal) chances in life for women, less poverty and fewer legal restrictions on abortion. In developed countries where abortion is papers image legal, rates drop . Where it is illegal or heavily restricted, and where it goes against popular religion's beliefs, the rates of illegal abortions are high. Essay. Millions of research on body, women each year suffer from medical complications as the result of having to obtain illegal back street abortions; 70,000 of those women die as a result 27 . Why Is Democracy Form Of Government Essay. #8220; A new report by the Guttermacher Institute, a pro-choice think-tank [examines how] prohibitions on abortion are slowly easing, though poor countries remain much tougher than rich ones. Since 1997, 22 places have changed their abortion laws and in 19 of those cases the change was a liberalisation. [. Papers On Body. ] In Western Europe, which has among the most liberal laws in the world, abortion rates are the lowest. Places where abortion is in effect banned, such as Uganda, typically see the counter argument essay, highest incidence of abortion. #8221; The Catholic Church campaigns heavily against abortion as it does against contraception, no matter how much suffering is caused. It does not just limit its interference to matters concerning its own staff or followers, but actively tries to impose its superstitions on any over whom it might have power or influence, such as governments of countries such as the USA , Poland and Italy, and on body image charities. Why Is Democracy The Best Form Of Government Essay. Even when a charity would help a poverty-stricken woman who was raped by a soldier, or when a genetic disease threatens the research on body image, life of the mother or would render the child's life unliveable, the Catholic church will still lobby to prevent abortion. #8220; The Catholic Church has been persecuting Amnesty since it was revealed that the human rights organisation had changed its policy on abortion to resume, support women who were raped and impregnated by enemy soldiers.

Catholic schools have been told not to raise funds for Amnesty and Catholic bishops have been advising their parishioners to withdraw their support. Research. #8221; Fundamentalist Christian organisations in the USA are responsible for that country's strict laws on the matter in many states. Death Be Banned Essay. The political researcher Andrew Heywood notes the Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. Anti-abortion activists from 20 European countries jointly run a campaign to de-fund activities including research and research on body development that involve human embryos. Such activists are joined by the likes of the fundamentalist Catholic organisation European Center for abortion counter argument, Law and Justice, which, ironically, seek to undermine law and justice and replace them with theocracy and research papers on body Catholic rule. The Pope's vocal support for these groups sees the rujukan resume, Catholic Church continue its involvement in anti-abortion and anti-human-rights movements in Europe as well as in the USA , South America and Africa 32 . In the wake of a long series of research on body, serious of prolific sexual scandals across Christendom, many have come to death should be banned essay, suspect that there is something deeply wrong with Christian Biblical dogma on sexuality in research papers image general. Democracy Of Government. One author who has published at length on the horrific sex abuses of the church notes that (thankfully) most ordinary Catholics do not subscribe to their own Church's stance on most issues of sexuality, which must server to reduce the effective influence of the church: #8220; More and more scholars see the official Catholic position on sexuality as both dangerous and false. [. ] Large numbers of Catholics simply do not trust the authoritative teachings of the Vatican in matters of sexuality. Papers On Body. Contraception, abortion, remarriage after divorce, homosexuality, and masturbation - all areas of strict prohibition according to Vatican teaching - are tolerated as acceptable behaviour by essay lay Catholics in roughly the same proportion as by members of other denominations. #8221; Liberal abortion laws have proven to be the best not only for on body image, the safety of women and why is of government essay the health of society in general, but are also associated with low rates of abortion.

I think that once a society can openly and freely talk about family planning without such things as taboos or religious dogma getting in the way, responsible behaviour can be increased in general. 5. Anti-Abortion Violence and Murder by papers Fundamentalist Christians in the USA 34. The USA has a particular problem with fundamentalist Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. #8220; Since 1991, there have been seven murders and seventeen attempted murders of abortion providers and their associates. Help With Paper. There have been 300 reported death threats, 84 incidents of assault and battery, 99 acts of research papers image, arson, 967 cases of death penalty be banned essay, vandalism, 367 bomb threats, and 15 bombings. On 482 occasions, antiabortion activists have stalked doctors, staff members, or patients. Minor disruptions are more frequent. For example, more than eleven thousand harassing phone calls and letters. 35 [. Papers On Body. ] Dr. Barnett Slepian was one such stubborn and dedicated physician, and on development essays October 23, 1998, a member of the Army of God, an extremist group, finally delivered his 'just deserts'. Slepian had returned from research on body image synagogue with his wife and four sons. While standing in the kitchen of his home, surrounded by his family, he was shot dead by sniper James Kopp [. who] was also suspected in the earlier shootings of several other abortion providers.

36 [. ] In an eerie letter to the editor of the Buffalo News written four years before his death, he warned: The members of the local non-violent pro-life community may continue to picket my home wearing large 'Slepian Kills Children' buttons. They may also display the six-foot banner with the same quotation at the entrance to my neighborhood. They may continue to plan, scream that I am a murderer and on body image a killer when I enter clinics at which they 'peacefully' exercise their First Amendment Right of freedom of speech. But please don't feign surprise, dismay and certainly not innocence when a more volatile and less restrained member of the group decides to react to rujukan dalam resume, their inflammatory rhetoric by shooting an abortion provider. They all share the blame.

37. [. Image. ] The Army of God Web site still triumphantly displays a photograph of Dr. Slepian amid wavy yellow and orange flames. The caption proclaims: 'Slepian now burning in hell fire where he belongs'. The Web site also shows Kopp's smiling, clean-cut face beaming above the doctor's tombstone. 38 [. Personal Plan Essays. ] Kopp - unlike the majority of violent antiabortion extremists - is Roman Catholic [rather than Protestant]. [. ] He engaged in clinic protests in the mid-1980s and became associated with two extremist groups, Operation Rescue and Lambs of Christ. Kopp soon became well known among antiabortion extremists. Research Papers On Body Image. One major protest in 1988 led to his arrest and jailing along with other militants, including Shelley Shannon (who later shot Dr. Counter. George Tiller), John Arena (who later committed a butyric acid attack against an abortion clinic), and others. [. ] Catholicism has been a central part of Kopp's life, and no doubt the church's teachings contributed to his view that abortion is papers image murder. A priest, Father Norman Weslin, heads the essay, radically antiabortion Lambs of Christ, for which Kopp was once a chief strategist.

39 [. ] Another fanatic, Eric Robert Rudolph, bombed an abortion clinic in Birmingham, Alabama, and in research on body image the process killed an off-duty police officer. Rudolph also carried out several other attacks, including one targeting a gay bar and argument essay the notorious bombing at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Research Papers Image. 40 [. ] Paul Hill is the only man ever executed for crimes against abortion providers and, among the abortion argument, extremists, he is an unrivalled candidate for research on body, canonization. [. ] Hill explains how he came to kill Dr. Britton in several articles and rujukan resume his book Mix My Blood with the Blood of the Unborn. The Army of God makes these materials readily available, always picturing Hill with a warm, avuncular grin. Once a Presbyterian minister, religion means everything to Hill. [. ] He then joined a Reformed Presbyterian church that agreed with him on the doctrinal issue and became very involved in papers image pro-life activism. When another activist shot Dr. David Gunn, Hill called the Phil Donahue Show and compared the dalam, act to research, killing a doctor in a Nazi death camp. Soon after, he appeared on ABC's Nightline to justify yet another violent attack on an abortion provider.

Hill cites scripture frequently but not compulsively. 41 [. ] Comments such as these suggest that religious thoughts, feelings, and should essay experiences propel most violent antiabortion activists, and sometimes provide their central inspiration. Far from being impulsive or insane, these extremists contemplate and papers image calculate their terror as a means of achieving what they consider to be a religiously certified objective. And Professional Essays. Several violent activists equate abortion with murder because they learned precisely this as young Catholics and Protestants. Christian clerics, of papers on body, course, figure prominently in rujukan resume the Right to Life movement, and some priests and ministers from research mainstream denominations still in good standing (e.g., Father Weslin) have spearheaded antiabortion protest movements that employ questionable tactics. One even finds some fringe Christian clergy associated with the Army of God. The Web sites and writings of the abortion counter, antiabortion extremists overflow with biblical quotations and allusions. 42 [. ] Operation Rescue's national director, the Reverend Flip Benham, says that Dr. Slepian murdered 'countless thousands of innocent children,' but that his group still does not condone the murder. Research On Body Image. Many of his followers probably perceive, I think correctly, that he is being disingenuous for legal and political purposes. Form Essay. 43 [. ] Reverend Michael Bray wrote the definitive Christian text supporting violent activism.

The core conclusion of Bray's work is that Christianity gives believers the right to defend innocent, unborn children with violence, if necessary. 44 [. Research Papers. ] Paul Hill has pointed out, not unreasonably, that given the pro-life premises so strongly expressed by the Southern Baptists in their document on the matter, the logic behind their rejection of violence is not entirely convincing. 45 #8221; 6. How Faulty Teachings on Sexuality Lead to Faulty Society. The high child abuse and sexual abuse rates within the Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation.

Many religious practices are somewhat more positive towards sexuality than Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. In the modern world, many modern popular movements provide an alternative to traditional religions, and have enshrined normal sexuality. The secular world merely lets sexuality remain natural, and the New Age JQPU_Content=A disparate and diverse collection of popular beliefs and essay practices. There are many still in the world who embrace the more traditional, unfair and damaging ideas towards women. Papers Image. In 2016 Mar, Turkish president Recep Tayyip epitomized the traditional and established opinion of woman's place in Turkey, repeating several slurs against modern gender equality. He managed to include a criticism of contraception in general, saying that it is used to ' dry up our nation '. Contraception and modern life ' paves the way for abuses against women in all fields ' and in democracy the best of government essay particular, capitalism 'enslaves' women for profits. What he's talking about is (1) women making choices as to when they want children, and (2) women being able to work. Tayyip doesn't support either right and he has repeatedly called on Turkish women to have at least 3 children, even in a country that is suffering from overpopulation and serious issues with quality of life. He has described abortion as 'murder' and on body image Caesarean sections as unnatural.

His embarrassing and backwards opinions are holding back the entire country. 49 But there are many who resist, and help move humanity forwards. In a recent talk at the Women Worldwide Advancing Freedom Equality event, the othello essay, invited speaker Naomi Phillips spoke on women's reproductive rights and research said that although secularism doesn't guarantee fair rights for personal and professional plan essays, women, it is papers still a necessary prerequisite simply because of the limiting harm that religion has so far done; the argument, biggest threat to such rights still come from strict religion-based lobby groups. 50. All #tags used on this page - click for papers on body image, more: The Economist . Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. With Apa Research Paper. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and papers image intelligent content. Personal And Professional. See vexen.co.uk/references.html#Economist for some commentary on this source.. i Newspaper . Research On Body. UK newspaper. See Which are the Best and Worst Newspapers in the UK?.

Published by Independent Print Limited, London, UK . Respectable daily news paper. (1986) The Gospel According to Woman: Christianity's Creation of the Sex War in the West . Hardback book. Subtitled: Christianity's Creation of the Sex War in the West. Published by Elm Tree Books/Hamish Hamilton Ltd, London, UK . Essay. Newsletter. Website also contains news: www.humanism.org.uk. Research Papers On Body. Clarke, Peter B. . Peter B. Clarke: Professor Emeritus of the History and Sociology of Religion, King's College, University of London, and currently Professor in the Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, UK. Death Penalty Should. (2011) The Oxford Handbook of research papers image, The Sociology of Religion . Paperback book. Originally published 2009. Current version published by personal and professional development essays Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK . (2009) Religiosity . gallup.com/poll/142727/. . The survey question was Is religion an important part of your daily life? and research on body results are charted for those who said yes. 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries. With Apa Research. (2003) Political Ideologies . Paperback book.

3rd edition. Research On Body Image. Originally published 1992. Current version published by Palgrave MacMillan. (2007) Bad Faith: The Danger of Religious Extremism . E-book. Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Prometheus Books, New York, USA . Lynn, Harvey Nyborg. (2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations . Essays. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15. NSS . Research Papers On Body Image. The National Secular Society, London, UK. Birth Control and Catholic Doctrine in London Quarterly and Holborn Review (1965 Oct) pp.315-27. In Wilson (1966) p89.

Russell, Bertrand . (1872-1970) (1957) Why I am not a Christian . Essay. Fourth Impression of 1967 edition, 1971. Published by Unwin Books. (1995) Sex, Priests and Power: Anatomy of research image, a Crisis . Hardback book. Published by BunnerMazel Inc., New York, USA. A.W. Richard Sipe is a retired Roman Catholic Priest. Excellence Essay. Lecturer in on body image the Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Chair of the Board of Directors of the Interfaith Sexual Trauma Institution, Minnesota, USA. (Biblio detail correct as of 1995). Of Government Essay. The Amazon link points to a modern book by papers on body image Sipe on the same topic as the the best form of government, one referenced here. Tucker, Mary Evelyn . Papers Image. Senior Lecturer and Research Scholar at abortion essay, Yale University, New Haven, USA , and, Director of the Yale Forum on research on body image Religion and Ecology. (2011) Religion and why is the best of government essay Ecology . This essay is chapter 45 of The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion by Peter B. Clarke (2011) (pages p819-835). (2013) Human Development Report . Research On Body. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World . Published on penalty should the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/. /hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013).

UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index. (1966) Religion in Secular Society . Paperback book. 1st edition. Research Papers On Body. Published by development essays Penguin Books. (2002, Ed. ) Global Religious Movements in Regional Context . Papers. Published by democracy form of government Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, UK , in association with The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK . This was a religious studies textbook in the AD317 OU course. Singh S and Darroch JE, Adding It Up: Costs and Benefits of Contraceptive Services - Estimates for 2012 , New York, USA , published by the Guttmacher Institute and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2012). Summarized on the guttmacher.org article Costs and Benefits of Investing in Contraceptive Services in research on body image the Developing World . Accessed and personal development plan added to this page on 2015 Feb 22.^ Tucker (2011) p830. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 21.^ Russell (1957) p57-58 (plus editor's comment).^ Mottier (2008) digital location 943-47: The prominent American birth control campaigner (and eugenicist) Margaret Sanger, founder of the research image, American Birth Control League in counter essay 1921, had long called for the development of a pharmaceutical birth control product, meeting up with scientists in 1950 to research on body, explore possibilities. Sanger joined forces with the philanthropist Katherine McCormick, who funded the majority of the scientific research and development of the Pill, and from 1960 the modern contraceptive pill, invented by Karl Djerassi, became available to the wider public in the Western world.. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 26.^ What Causes Religion and Superstitions? by Vexen Crabtree (2013)^ Barber, Nigel Ph.D. (2011) article in democracy the best Psychology Today (2011 Jul 14).^ National Secular Society news article Catholic Church fails to image, stop Philippines contraception bill (2012 Dec 18). Rujukan Resume. Accessed 2013 Oct 19.

Added to this page 2013 Oct 23.^ Multiple sources: Fertiliy rate data: Human Development Report by United Nations (2013). Belief in God, 2004: Disbelief in God (2004). Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

In Lynn et al. Research Image. (2009) Religiosity rate: Gallup (2009) ^ The Economist (2008 Jan 26) article The world's silver lining p27. Added to death should, this page on 2008 Apr 03.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 916-920. Added to this page on 2015 Apr 10.^ Mottier (2008) digital location 1292-1294. Added to research papers, this page on why is democracy the best 2015 Mar 26.^ Mottier (2008) digital location 1292-94. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 26.^ Mottier (2008) digital location 1295-1298. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 26.^ Wikipedia article accessed 2007 Jul. The article contains two relevant references: DiCenso A, Guyatt G, Willan A, Griffith L (2002). Research Image. Interventions to death penalty should be banned essay, reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised controlled trials..

BMJ 324 (7351): 1426. Papers Image. PMID 12065267 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. . American Psychological Association (February 23, 2005). Based on the research, comprehensive sex education is more effective at stopping the spread of HIV infection, says APA committee www.apa.org/. . Press release retrieved on 2006 Aug 11. ^ The Economist (2007 Sep 22) article AIDS : Time to grow up p103 .^ The Economist (2007 Sep 22) article AIDS : Time to why is democracy the best form essay, grow up p103 .^ National Secular Society, National Secular Society (2009 Jul 24) newsletter The truth at last - abstinence-only programmes make the situation worse . Added to research papers image, this page on 2009 Nov 26.^ Peel (1965).^^ www.catholic.com Catholic Answers: Birth Control (2004 Aug 10), accessed and added to this page on 2007 Oct 14.^ Momen (1999) p497.^ The Vatican (1968 Jul 25). Full text online Humanae Vitae: Encyclical of Pope Paul VI on the Regulation of Birth accessed 2007 Jan 05.^ Wilson (1966) p89. This refers to the Casti Connubii encyclical.^ Wilson (1966) p86-88.^ National Secular Society, Newsline (2003 Apr 04) .^ The Economist (2009 Mar 21) article The pope in Africa: Sex and sensibility p16. Added to this page on help with 2010 Jun 19.^ UN (2013) p6. Added to this page on 2015 Apr 10.^ The Economist (2009 Oct 17) article Abortion: A bit better . Added to this page on 2009 Dec 24.^ NSS (2008) newsletter (2008 Apr 18).

Added to this page on 2009 Dec 24.^ Heywood (2003) p99. Papers On Body Image. Added to this page on 2009 Dec 25.^ Kressel (2007) Chapter 3, digital location 1053-54.^ Wolffe (2002) p37 . CARE was previously known as the National Festival of paper, Light. Added to this page on 2013 Oct 23.^ National Secular Society news article Pope gives personal backing to Europe wide anti-abortion push (2013 Feb 06). Accessed 2013 Oct 19. Added to research papers on body, this page 2013 Oct 23.^ Sipe (1995) p7.^ Added to this page on 2015 Apr 10.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 926-930.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and with paper Jews digital location 931-935.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 1120-1124.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 935-936.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 947-951,960-961.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 972-974.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 1005-1015.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and papers on body image Jews digital location 1026-1031.^ Kressel (2007) Chapter 3, digital location 1063-65.^ Kressel (2007) Chapter 3, digital location 1068-69.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 1118-1119.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and othello excellence Jews .^ Mottier (2008) digital location 515-17.^ Armstrong (1986) p4.^ i Newspaper (2016 Mar 09) article Turkey: 'A woman is above all else a mother'.^ The British Humanist Association Newsletter mailing (2011 Issue 2) p3. Added to this page on 2011 May 04.

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Example Of Dramatic Monologue Essays and Research Papers. Gabrielle Stith Denton English 12-2 May 13, 2004 Robert Browning and the Dramatic Monologue Controlling Purpose: to . analyze selected works of Robert Browning. I. Brief overview of Browning A. Greatest Poet B. Family Life II. Brief overview of papers on body, My Last Duchess A. Descriptive adjectives B. Cause for death C. Description of his wife III. Definition of Dramatic Monologue IV. Comments by Glenn Everett A. Rujukan Dalam? Point of research image, View B. Tone C. Audience Imagination V. Personal And Professional Plan? Comments by Terry. Drama , Dramatic monologue , Elizabeth Barrett Browning 1404 Words | 5 Pages. Dramatic Monologues: a Brief Introduction. Dramatic Monologues : According to M.H.

Abrahms, dramatic monologue is papers, a poetic . form, a lengthy speech by a single person, addressing a silent listener, intended to convey his or her inner thoughts and emotions. It can be rewritten in help apa research paper, jargonised terms as 'a cross or hybrid of the genres of drama and papers on body, lyric'. A lyric poem is ‘any fairly short poem, consisting of the utterance by a single speaker, who expresses a state of counter, mind or a process of perception, thought, and feeling’. Though. Dante Gabriel Rossetti , Drama , Dramatic monologue 1135 Words | 3 Pages. THE DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE IN TENNYSON. ?THE DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE IN TENNYSON’S ULYSSES The greatest Victorian contribution to poetry is certainly the research papers on body, form of the . dramatic monologue . A dramatic monologue is defined by various critics as a type of poem in plan essays, which a single speaker, a persona, “utters the speech that makes up the whole of the poem, in a specific situation at a critical moment.” This speaker addresses and interacts with one or more other people. Research Image? They are silent but usually identifiable listeners in whose presence the speaker reveals. Alfred, Lord Tennyson , Drama , Dramatic monologue 1092 Words | 3 Pages.

literature-12PENC14 ULYSSES AS A DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE A Dramatic monologue is a lyric poem in excellence essay, . Research? which a single imaginary speaker or a historical personage expresses his thoughts and feelings to an imaginary silent audience. The dramatic monologue as we understand it today is a lyric poem in which the help paper, speaker addresses a silent listener, revealing himself in the context of research, a dramatic situation (Murfin 97). The character is speaking to an identifiable but silent listener at a dramatic moment in the speaker's. Death , Drama , Dramatic monologue 1007 Words | 4 Pages. A Few Thoughts on form of government essay, the Dramatic Monologue. ?A Few Thoughts on the Dramatic Monologue A dramatic monologue is a poem written in the voice of a . Research On Body Image? specific, definite character who is not the poet: the speaker is a persona, a mask. It’s a monologue because it has only one speaker, though there is sometimes (as in Browning’s “My Last Duchess”) a silent interlocutor whose unheard (or unread) responses help shape the speaker’s discourse and the meaning of the poem. (In such poems addressed to a specific listener, though only one person speaks, both. Drama , Dramatic monologue , Literature 793 Words | 2 Pages.

Achievement of Self-Expression Through Concealment in Dramatic Monologue. How does the dramatic monologue achieve self expression through concealment? Discuss with reference to othello essay, any three Browning poems. . When discussing the poetic form of dramatic monologue it is rare that it is research on body image, not associated with and its usage attributed to help paper, the poet Robert Browning. Robert Browning has been considered the master of the dramatic monologue . Although some critics are sceptical of his invention of the form, for dramatic monologue is evidenced in poetry preceding Browning, it is believed. Drama , Dramatic monologue , Duke 2761 Words | 7 Pages. Voices of Dramatic Monologues - A Poetry Comparison Nearly all of Rita Dove’s poetry deals with aspects of history. . Shakespeare, Boccaccio, and Dove’s grandparents are topics of her poetry. Dove puts a light on the small truths of papers on body image, life that have more meaning than the actual historical facts. Othello Essay? In a time when African-American poetry has been criticized for too much introspection, Rita Dove has taken an approach to emotion and the person as human. Dove’s poetry is not about research papers image, being black, but. African American writers , American poets , Nicholas II of Russia 1768 Words | 5 Pages. The use of the Dramatic monologue in should, the Last Duchess.

poem My Last Duchess is on body image, a splendid poem achieve within the format of the dramatic monologue , a poetic form in which there is . only one speaker. Because there is only one speaker, we the death should be banned, reader must wonder carefully what the Duke is telling us, and research, we often have to read between the lines in order to resume, keep an objective perspective on the what is happening in the poem. This paper will discuss how the use of the research image, dramatic monologue makes the death essay, subject (the Duke) tell a story while, at the same time, unintentionally. Dramatic monologue , Duke , Iambic pentameter 1891 Words | 6 Pages. Analysis of research image, Dramatic Monologue in My Last Duchess. The Analysis of Dramatic monologue In My Last Duchess Abstract: Dramatic monologue which is an . important poetic form which invented and practiced principally by Robert Browning, Alfred Tennyson, Matthew Arnold in the Victorian Period. Though the technique is evident in many ancient Greek dramas, the democracy of government essay, dramatic monologue as a poetic form achieved its first era of distinction in the work of Victorian poet Robert Browning. Browning's poems My Last Duchess and Soliloquy of the research, Spanish Cloister, though.

Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1879 Words | 6 Pages. Dramatic Monologues for Female Actresses. Like Dreaming, Backwards By Kellie Powell Like Dreaming, Backwards is a series of monologues and scenes about the suicide of a young college . student named Nell. The play also includes monologues from Nell's mother, Leah, a acquaintance, Yale, and her friend, Natalie. For further information and advice on performing this monologue , read this note from the playwright. NELL: Have you ever had a dream and suddenly, you realize what's happening doesn't make any sense - and you realize that you're. 2006 albums , 2008 singles 1242 Words | 3 Pages.

‘THE PIANO’ MONOLOGUE – STRUCTURE Year 11 English 1) Introduction • Establish your identity – through your use of language, your . tone, your physical appearance gestures, etc • Capture your character’s voice – how does he/she speak? Will you, for example : - use figurative language and metaphor - speak in short, sharp sentences - speak in fragmented or rambling sentences - use lots of imperatives or commands and modal verbs (eg. She must. Critical mass , Critical point , Fiction 602 Words | 3 Pages. Dramatic Entrance Examples of Introductions. Dramatic entrance: Last year, the youngest child of the family suddenly fell down while playing with his computer games. The family . panicked and didn’t know what to and professional, do. When the research on body, family noticed that he’s not getting any better, they decided to take him to a specialized doctor to check him.

As soon as they entered the doctor’s room, the doctor knew that what he’s having is the result of computer games. The child had a serious disease in his nervous system that the excellence, doctor didn’t know how to on body, treat. Alimony , Divorce , Divorce demography 986 Words | 3 Pages. The Vagina Monologues is made up of a varying number of monologues read by a varying number of women initially, Eve Ensler (the . author of the Vagina Monologues performed every monologue herself, with subsequent performances featuring three actresses, and more recent versions featuring a different actress for and professional development essays, every role. Every monologue somehow relates to the vagina, be it through sex, love, rape, menstruation, mutilation, masturbation, birth, orgasm, the papers on body image, variety of help with paper, names for the vagina, or simply. Drama , Eve Ensler , Jane Fonda 956 Words | 3 Pages. Dramatic Monologue: This essay spells out the salient features of the dramatic monologue, with examples. The Dramatic Monologue is on body image, a type of a lyric poem. Othello Excellence? It was developed in the Victorian period.

Robert Browning is said to have . perfected the Dramatic Monologue , with poems such as My Last Duchess, and Soliloquy of a Spanish Cloister. As its name states, it is a monologue , hence it is a speech uttered by a single person. In its fullest form, the dramatic monologue has three salient features Firstly, a single person who is patently not the research papers image, poet, utters the speech that makes up the whole of a poem, in. Drama , My Last Duchess , Poetry 628 Words | 2 Pages. some basement, in case of these kinds of democracy of government essay, situations? (Pause) Situations like what? How on earth would anyone have thought that someone would try to go down . Research On Body? here knowing the door is broken and democracy, the lights are out. On Body Image? Well, now they have an excellent example . Oh my God, this is not happening! Not really! It just can't be happening! (Breathes heavily) All right , just calm down. Just don't look down there, because there is absolutely nothing to see. Oh my God, of and professional plan essays, course there isn't!

Because you simply. 2003 singles , 2004 albums , 2005 singles 723 Words | 3 Pages. ? Dramatic Monologue When I was younger, I had no worries in research papers, life. I didn’t have to worry about whether my mother was alive or . not, where my father was or if the Nazi’s found out the best form essay we were hiding a Jewish in our basement. Research Papers Image? I use to play with my brother, hoping that things would stay this way. But no, it didn’t. Now my life has been torn apart in many ways. I have lost the democracy the best of government, closest friend in my life; Max. Papers Image? Why did this happen to me? What have I done to deserve this?

I feel guilty for not warning Max. But. 1995 albums , 2008 albums , 2008 singles 528 Words | 2 Pages. Comparison of the Use of a Dramatic Monolgue. Comparison of the argument essay, use of on body, a dramatic monologue . In 'Porphyria's Lover' and why is form of government, 'My Last Duchess', Browning uses several features of . dramatic monologue in order to on body image, engage and sustain the interest of the audience. This style of with paper, monologue is spoken by a character, which is not the poet, and is usually projected at a critical moment, as in the case of 'My Last Duchess' and 'Porphyria's Lover'. The speakers unintentionally reveal their insanity, in research image, both poems, through their separate accounts. By studying. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 2378 Words | 6 Pages.

takes the power away from him by calling him a 'Little man', undermining the power he had over her at the start. How does Duffy use dramatic . monologues to create characters in personal plan, her poetry? How does Duffy use poetic form to create distinct characters or voices? How does Duffy create characters and voices in on body, her poetry? Consider the use of the dramatic monologue favoured by Duffy How do Duffy and Pugh use poetic form to create distinct characters or voices in their poetry? You should refer to at. Comprehensive school , Drama , Education 1852 Words | 24 Pages. will. It celebrates the human capacity of help apa research paper, life and struggle and focuses on human potential and power of carrying on in life in hard and research papers, good times. It, also, . emphasizes human power and human will and its contrast with nature.

Technique: Dramatic monologue : a single speaker, that is, Merlin not the poet. There is an rujukan audience in the poem which is the sailor. There is an action that is the journey of following the research on body, gleam. Crossing the Bar Theme: This poem is about death and faith. It shows. Afterlife , Death , First person 1761 Words | 9 Pages. the Laws of Supply and Demand The simulation in the text is about a small city by the name of Atlantis. Atlantis is a well-maintained city with many . Penalty Should Be Banned? positive aspects for the community. All of the aspects make it a pleasant living environment. Research On Body? For example , the personal and professional development, city has maintained streets, maintained sidewalks, large parks and jogging paths.

To rent an apartment in the community of Atlantis an individual would have to go through Good life Management. The current vacancy rate is at 28 percent of on body image, availability. Economics , Elasticity , Income elasticity of apa research paper, demand 1569 Words | 3 Pages. Comparison Between My Last Duchess Ulysses Regarding Dramatic Monologue. Question : What is a dramatic monologue ? Which of the two, in your opinion, is the stronger dramatic . Image? monologue in Tennyson’s “Ulysses” or Browning's “My Last Duchess”? Answer : Traditionally dramatic monologue is a lyrical poem in the form of speech spoken by death penalty should be banned, a single man. It is papers image, dramatic because it begins abruptly and in the development of its thought it takes several sudden turns which impart dramatic dimension to the poem.

In a dramatic monologue the single speaker reveals his thoughts in the. Drama , Dramatic monologue , Duke 755 Words | 2 Pages. 'My Last Duchess' by Browning as a Dramatic Monologue. Robert Browning was an English poet whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues , made him one . of the foremost Victorian poets. “My Last Duchess” is one of his best known dramatic monologues in personal development, which the speaker reveals his character to papers, a silent listener. Resume? This poem is papers on body image, loosely based on rujukan resume, historical events involving Alfonso, the Duke of image, Ferrara, who lived in the 16th century. The Duke is the speaker of the poem.

He tells us he is entertaining a representative who has come to settle. Drama , Dramatic monologue , My Last Duchess 523 Words | 2 Pages. social sciences and humanities. Many ethnomusicological works are created not necessarily by 'ethnomusicologists' proper, but instead by anthropologists . examining music as an penalty should aspect of a culture. A well-known example of such work is Colin Turnbull's study of the Mbuti pygmies. Another example is research papers image, Jaime de Angulo, a linguist who ended up learning much about the music of the Indians of Northern California [2]. Essay? Yet another is Anthony Seeger, professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, who.

Anthropology , Community building , Ethnomusicology 1424 Words | 5 Pages. Dramatic Tension Dramatic tension, also known as suspense, is image, a feeling of uncertainty and anxiety about the outcome of certain . actions, most often referring to apa research, an audience's perceptions in a dramatic work. Dramatic tension causes a story to rise in action, most likely starting out slow and building up conflict as it moves toward the climax. According to image, the Internet, there are four types of dramatic tension: the tension of relationships, the essays, tension of the task, the tension of surprise, and the. Drama , Family , Luigi 1244 Words | 3 Pages. 2: Allowing free trade between countries can be beneficial, but it also imposes costs.

Use the ITT Tech Virtual Library to papers on body, research the costs and benefits . of allowing free trade. The Best Form Of Government Essay? Discuss aspects of free trade that some may consider unfair. For example : a. Distribution of papers image, costs and benefits of free trade. In other words, does everyone share in the gains and the costs equally? b. Competing with different labor restrictions (or lack thereof), such as slave or child labor. c. Differences in environmental. Economic surplus , Economics , International trade 1169 Words | 2 Pages. Porphyria's Lover by with, Robert Browning as a Dramatic Monologue.

‘Porphyria’s Lover’ by papers, Robert Browning As A Dramatic Monologue : Dramatic Monologue : The . Form Of Government? Dramatic Monologue was a popular form of poetry in Robert Browning's time. It is a form of on body image, writing in which the essay, speaker in the poem is research image, a dramatized imaginary character. The monologue is cast in the form of a speech addressed to a silent listener. Its aim is counter, character study or psycho-analysi. In a dramatic monologue , the person who speaks is on body image, made to reveal himself and apa research, the motives that impelled him at some crisis. Drama , Dramatic monologue , Mind 716 Words | 2 Pages. This essay was about the poetic devices which Robert Browning used to papers on body, enhance the haunting tone in abortion argument, his dramatic monologue, My Last Duchess. Robert Browning sets the tone of My Last Duchess, by using three significant poetic techniques, one of papers image, which is essay, imagery. On Body Image? Browning uses the Duke's . monologue to sketch out images in the reader's mind of the Duchess herself, and help, the sinister personality of the Duke. Papers On Body? Browning also uses another key device, which is abortion counter argument essay, diction to illustrate the darkness in this poem. Browning's careful word choice adds to papers on body image, the description of the Duchess and perhaps her disgraceful behavior, as well as the Duke's terrifying.

Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 852 Words | 3 Pages. Eminem's Stan: Following the Form of a Dramatic Monologue Popularized by help apa research paper, Robert Browning. ?The song “Stan” by papers on body, rap artist Eminem fits the dramatic monologue format popularized by Robert Browning, because in Eminem’s . song, Stan fits all of the characteristics of the personal and professional development, Duke in My last Douches. Stan is extremely obsessive; in the beginning of the song he dies his hair and research on body, is trying to actually become Slim Shady, even his outfit and style are the same as Slim and why is democracy the best, is screaming in his girlfriend’s face because she keeps calling him Stanly when I would imagine he would want to be called Slim, or. Aftermath Entertainment , ARIA Charts , Curtain Call: The Hits 1101 Words | 2 Pages.

?Cassius’ Monologues Cassius used two different monologues to convince Brutus to help him assassinate Caesar. In the first . monologue , Cassius used ethos to change his reputation and make Caesar seem weak and in the second monologue , Cassius used pathos and logos to convince Brutus of Caesar’s ambition and convince Brutus that it was his duty to stop it; both monologues convinced Brutus of research, different things but together they persuaded Brutus to join Cassius. The first monologue was used to show Brutus. Augustus , Cicero , Ethos 1227 Words | 4 Pages. concerning the characters Viola and Malvolio, the former causing confusion through disguise and the latter through delusion. This theme is linked with . confusion amongst the play’s characters, a common theme in help with paper, Shakespeare’s comedies, as well as other dramatic comedies. Shakespeare dealt with cross-dressing in other comedies including As You Like It and The Merchant of Venice. In addition, as many critics have noted, Shakespeare has explored other comic features of Twelfth Night in other comedies, such. As You Like It , Comedy , Feste 1783 Words | 5 Pages. In the class we saw the Movie (Space Cowboys), this story is In 1958, four hot shot test pilots seem certain to be the first men to go into outer space. . However, the back-stabbing leader of their organization disbands them to prevent their involvement in the then forming NASA and labels them as non-team players. Research? Flash forward to the present, the foursome are now living a docile life.

The electrical engineer has a pleasant retired life in a desert home with his wife. The pilot, who had a penchant. Dwarf planet , Earth , International Space Station 990 Words | 3 Pages. DRAMATIC TECHNIQUES IN MACBETH Dramatic techniques are used throughout Shakespeare’s Macbeth to explore Macbeth’s . relationship with the women in the play. The drama techniques are used as tools by Shakespeare to apa research, manipulate the plot and characters, to express fundamental concepts and themes and dictate the actions of the characters. They also create suspense and keep the audience aware throughout the play of the relationship between Macbeth and research on body, his wife as well as his interactions with the Weird. Audience , Drama , Lady Macbeth 1187 Words | 3 Pages.

Effective Dramatic Irony In Oedipus The King, Sophocles creates rising action by asking dramatic questions throughout the play. . These questions generate suspense in abortion counter essay, the audience when they become dramatic irony and on body image, amplify the climax. During the help with apa research paper, falling action, Oedipus is engulfed in misery when he experiences a reversal of fortune. Research Papers On Body? Finally, Oedipus goes through a discovery process ending when he discovers his tragic resolution. According to Aristotle, a tragedy consist of a drama that contains. Climax , Drama , Fiction 820 Words | 3 Pages.

?The 12 Dramatic Elements These twelve dramatic elements are at the core of all drama. These elements are typically taught at . professional acting classes. Abortion Essay? They can be used in isolation or simultaneously and are manipulated by the performer for dramatic effect. 1. Focus Focus is often used interchangeably with the terms concentration and engagement, assisting the performer in research on body image, the portrayal of believable characters. This also implies memorisation of personal and professional development plan, text (including word, moves and gestures). Furthermore. Audience , Dance , George Bernard Shaw 1129 Words | 3 Pages. ? MONOLOGUES Female 6-7 My Daddy says I’m his little Princess.

A Princess? Really? I love being a Princess! (claps hands with little jumps) . Princesses are always pretty, perky, and very, very brave. (Pause, tilt head and place hands on hips) I wonder why no one ever told me this before! Male 6-7 . On Body? . . . . Death? A dollar? Seriously? Can’t you do better than that? (Look up thinking) Let’s see, what would I like? Hmm. It would be fun to have a super power. I could fly through the sky (raise arms as if. 2008 singles , American films , Female 867 Words | 3 Pages. English 10, essay The Crucible, option 2 In “The Crucible”, Arthur Miller uses dramatic irony to create anxiety, frustration and to . On Body Image? demonstrate the tension between the people about the lies of witchcraft in Salem.

I. The author creates tension in the story by using Abigail who accuses innocent people of witchery. 1.) Abigail wants Elizabeth to resume, get hanged so she can be back with John again. 2.) Abigail turns herself against on body Mary Warren after she confessed in court. II. The author creates. Daniel Day-Lewis , Elizabeth Proctor , John Proctor 871 Words | 3 Pages. The Vagina Monologues is a compilation of othello essay, monologues written by Eve Ensler in which all the monologues deal with . the research image, vagina.

It includes everything women around the world deal with whether it is personal and professional development, humorous, tragic or disturbing. Including sex, rape, menstruation, masturbation, orgasm, even the papers, comfort level women have with their own body. Some have stated that The Vagina Monologues has been celebrated as the bible for a new generation of women. The Best? I would have to agree with such a statement. Yes, in part. Eve Ensler , Female genital cutting , Human sexuality 1462 Words | 4 Pages. Dramatic Irony is Hamlet What is Dramatic Irony? - Dramatic Irony is when the words and actions of the research image, characters . in a work of literature are known to the audience or reader, but they are not known to certain characters in essay, the story. The reader or audience has a greater knowledge of many of the characters themselves. -Shakespeare employs dramatic irony in many of research papers on body, his tragedies, so that the audience is why is democracy the best form of government essay, engaged, and so they are able to witness characters errors in their action, predict the papers on body, fate.

Characters in othello essay, Hamlet , Gertrude , Ghost 1184 Words | 4 Pages. Dramatic Conventions- Cant Pay? Wont Pay! play implied that he had full support for the lower class workers even though they commit crimes. He believed that they had no other choice than to do so, . they only did it to papers image, survive. Throughout Can’t Pay? Won’t pay!

Fo uses various dramatic conventions. Democracy Essay? One Dramatic convention that Fo uses to better connect with the audience is the breaking of the fourth wall. In drama the fourth wall is the invisible wall that stands between the actors on stage and the audience, it separates the research on body image, world and situations. Comedy , Drama , Middle class 976 Words | 3 Pages. Dramatic purpose Act 3 Scene 1 is the main turning point of the play. It is during this scene that the play becomes a tragedy. The scene . begins with Benvolio asking that they all go inside because he fears a brawl. Benvolio states, “I pray thee, good Mercutio, let's retire: The day is hot, the Capulets abroad, and, if we meet, we shall not scape a brawl.” Mercutio ignores him and othello, is entertaining everyone by taunting and provoking Tybalt. Soon the happily married Romeo enters.

Tybalt calls. American film actors , Characters in papers, Romeo and Juliet , Darth Vader 1596 Words | 4 Pages. Dramatic Irony in death penalty should be banned, Macbeth Introduction: William Shakespeare effectively uses dramatic irony to intrigue the reader and deepen . the impact of the consequences Macbeth ultimately faces. Dramatic Irony Definition: Dramatic Irony is a literary term that defines a situation in research on body, the play where the reader knows more than the character does. Thesis: Throughout the play Macbeth, the reader is excellence, given the advantage of on body image, knowing more things than the characters in the play through the literary device, dramatic . Duncan I of Scotland , Hannah Montana , Irony 1229 Words | 3 Pages. “ Monologue for an onion” by Suji Kwock Kim The poem “ Monologue for an onion” by plan, Suji Kwock Kim begins with the peeling of image, . an onion that could very well describe her and her agony, but further reading reveals that the rujukan, majority of the poem is directed at the person doing the peeling. The reader cannot help but sympathize with the peeled onion, whether the emotions stem from the hurt state of the onion or from the aggressive peeler. Clearly the poet’s attack of the peeler grabs the attention of. Human , Humans , Psychology 1383 Words | 4 Pages.

The poem, “ Monologue for an Onion” written by Sue Kim, the onion is a metaphor and is the whole poem is written about it and based off of . Image? it. The basic main viewpoint of the poem is about the feelings and development plan essays, thoughts that onion experiences when being handle by the person or more specifically when it is being cut. The poem revolves around the whole idea of how the onion feels and thinks as the person cuts away at it and how it reflects on the actions of the person and the person themselves. Sue. Cold War , Korea under Japanese rule , Korean War 1262 Words | 3 Pages. Self’s perception of other people; whether or not love is a strong enough reason to trust one another. Research On Body Image? Two excerpts centred on different themes will be . analysed. This analysis will bring to light certain dramatic elements and viewpoints of time, body and democracy the best form, space that Berthold has used to papers image, enhance the apa research paper, dramatic meaning of this production. Cosi is papers, set in Melbourne during the early 1970s. The play is with apa research paper, about a young university student, Lewis (Benjamin Schostakowski) who is asked to direct a play for a mental.

Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , David Berthold 940 Words | 3 Pages. HUM 310 09 March 2013 Essay 1 Shakespeare Dramatic Plays William Shakespeare was a great writer and is still famous today for his amazing . plays. Some of his plays are Romeo and Juliet and papers image, Othello. Rujukan Dalam Resume? One thing that made his plays so famous is that the papers on body, characters had real problems. His plays were very dramatic and tragic. He didn't only write plays but he also wrote poems. Although Shakespeare died a long time ago, his plays and poems were so great that they are still famous today. Shakespeare. Drama , Iago , Opera 847 Words | 3 Pages. DRAMATIC TECHNIQUES Things to look out for in plays. Context You will need to write about techniques used in plays during your KS4 course.

You . will be expected to be able to look closely at how the playwright creates tension and characters through different techniques You can use this homework to help you develop your skills when writing about any play but not all plays will use the same techniques. Objective To identify dramatic techniques in plays. Othello? What you need to research papers image, do. 1. Read the apa research paper, help sheet ‘Dramatic. Drama , Play , The Play 1541 Words | 5 Pages. Dramatic Function of Alfieri's Character in a View from the Bridge.

Literature Coursework-Modern Drama What is the dramatic function of Alfieri’s character in ‘A View from the Bridge’? ‘A View from the . Bridge’ is a play written by on body, Arthur Miller. Miller’s inspiration for counter, this play is close to his heart. He grew up in New York City; his parents were illegal immigrants into the United States looking for work. Alfieri is research on body image, a key component, not only is he a character he is rujukan resume, also a narrator. He acts as a chorus to the play and an aid to the audience. Alfieri plays many. All My Sons , Brooklyn Bridge , Character 1838 Words | 5 Pages. ?MODULE: English Literature. On Body Image? ASSIGNMENT TITLE: Monologue Stage directions – Upon arriving in his new office in Australia.

Frank is wearing . shorts, a short sleeved shirt and a handkerchief with tied corners on his head looking every inch the out of place, quintessential British man on personal development plan, holiday, slightly sweaty and flustered from the Australian heat. Research Papers Image? The study is small and untidy but quite reminiscent of his office back in development, England. Frank starts to unpack his belongings, putting books into shelves. Audience , Debut albums , Frank 1296 Words | 4 Pages. ?Reaper Monologue Hey, how you doing? Been a couple of centuries eh? Five?

Really? Not so long then eh? How are the research, family and . The Best Form Of Government Essay? Martha? That’s great. Yeah for me it’s been the research papers on body image, same you know, just the usual. Rumors are rumors man. // Ok you really want to know? Well its not that bad as everyone’s making it.

All right so you know how my job involves me taking the excellence essay, souls of them mortals and research papers on body, helping them cross. But you know it’s too much of a bother every time. I mean how. 2006 albums , 2006 singles , 2007 singles 1081 Words | 4 Pages. ? Dramatic Literacy Devices Allegory A symbolic narrative in which the surface details imply a secondary meaning. Allegory often takes the form . of resume, a story in which the characters represent moral qualities.

The most famous example in English is John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, in which the name of the central character, Pilgrim, epitomizes the book's allegorical nature. Kay Boyle's story Astronomer's Wife and Christina Rossetti's poem Up-Hill both contain allegorical elements. Catastrophe The. Character , Drama , Fiction 845 Words | 2 Pages. ? DRAMATIC IRONY IN A DOLL’S HOUSE Dramatic irony usually refers to a situation in a play wherein a character’s knowledge is papers on body image, . limited, and he or she encounters something of greater significance than he or she knows.

Throughout the plan, play, most of the dramatic irony displayed is between Nora and Helmer, with Helmer being the character whose knowledge is research, limited. Abortion Essay? Dramatic irony is a device commonly and frequently used by research image, playwrights. Irony arises from a contrast between appearance and reality between. A Doll's House , Anxiety , Consciousness 1478 Words | 4 Pages. Joanna’s Monologue from Kramer vs. Kramer Look, during the last five years of our marriage, I was scared and I was very unhappy. Rujukan Dalam Resume? And in my . mind I had no other choice but to leave. At the time I left I felt that there was something terribly wrong with me. And that my son would be better off without me. I know I left my son. I know that that’s a terrible thing to do.

Believe me I have to live with that every day of my life. But in order to leave him, I had to believe that it was the only thing I. 2007 singles , English-language films , Father 469 Words | 2 Pages. the years, broke Roses spirit. I feel life probably revolved around Roses family. Even through her husband seems to research, be the more dominant force, I feel Rose . has a huge strength within lurking behind her… and we really see evidence of this in the monologue speech I perform. Life would have been very challenging for death should be banned, Rose and research image, her family. Segregation was a dominant feature in the 1950’s pittsburg The setting of Pittsburgh seems to be particularly important because of what it and death should be banned essay, other Northern. African American , American Civil War , August Wilson 614 Words | 2 Pages. The Dramatic Irony in Oedipus the King.

The Dramatic Irony in Oedipus the King Before taking a closer look on the identity of the protagonist and murderer, and papers on body image, having in why is democracy the best, mind that . Oedipus the King is a very spacious and difficult to analyze play, including opportunities for research on body image, discussion on quite a few topics, I have chosen to briefly focus on the dramatic irony used by Sophocles to disclose the rujukan dalam, characters’ identity throughout the play. In general, irony is a very common technique used in every drama work and papers on body, it is usually used by the. Aeschylus , Irony , Ismene 1031 Words | 3 Pages. Dramatic Techniques in Oedipus the King. writing skill, by the number of techniques he incorporates, such as dramatic irony, symbolism and his usage of the Chorus. The Best Form Of Government Essay? . Dramatic irony is a prominent device used in many tragedies. It allows the audience to feel a sense of privilege and engagement in the play and develops an alliance between the dramatist and on body image, the spectators, so that mere curiosity is not the only aspect keeping the counter, viewers interested. Research On Body? Such tragedies containing dramatic irony include Othello, Romeo and Juliet and Time in the Conways. Aeschylus , Ancient Greece , Drama 1242 Words | 4 Pages. Notes for contemp and classical monologues. ?Rosalind – As You Like It It is not the fashion … Within this monologue Rosalind is the best form of government, talking about how it's not the fashion for woman to research image, be . ending a play it's not usually seen in other play so it's some what strange.

This monologue has elements of comedy in it which was something that I was really interested in including and considering when I was choosing monologues . Throughout the monologue Rosalind is going on about how a good play doesn't necessarily need an epilogue, however it can enhance. Comedy , Fish , Love 864 Words | 3 Pages. This is the case with Western Australia's policy of resettlement for personal and professional, Aboriginal people during the 1930's. Jack Davis, an Aboriginal playwright, constructed . the play No Sugar to challenge the view that this resettlement is acceptable. On Body? Davis uses dramatic techniques such as costume, setting, movement and symbolism to confront an audience of the injustice of resettlement and therefore initiate the process of and professional development plan, attitudinal change towards the papers on body, current Aboriginal situation.

Drama is an effective medium for. Drama , Human migration , Indigenous Australians 1005 Words | 3 Pages. Dramatic Performance NO SUGAR Directors of form of government essay, stage performances usually use Dramatic performance to hold the image, viewers attention . and also bring obvious ideas to the viewer's attention. Rujukan Dalam? Jack Davis uses dramatic performance in his stage play ?No Sugar'. To deliver this dramatic performance that regards Aboriginal values, Jack Davis uses a rage of on body image, techniques such as characterization and language. He does this in order to paper, position the reader/viewer into research papers on body, completely agreeing with his views on racial. Black people , Performance , Race 1107 Words | 3 Pages. or occasionally with circular forms. It displayed dramatic use of light that could be either strong light-and-shade contrast (known . as chiaroscuro)effects; or they used uniform lighting by why is democracy form of government essay, means of several windows. Another feature was opulent use of ornaments (puttos made of on body image, wood (often gilded), plaster or stucco, marble or faux finishing), they used large-scale ceiling frescoes and Baroques external facade is often characterized by a dramatic central projection, however the interior is often no. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages.

Dramatic Impetus in a View from the form essay, Bridge. Dramatic impetus is defined as an impelling movement or force within a play. In A View from the Bridge it is dependant on conflicts between . On Body Image? opposing sets of othello, values in areas such as relationships, gender, age and the community. Papers Image? The main character we are opposed to death essay, is Eddie as his set of values towards the end of the play contradict values of society, his family and even his own. He represents the older generation and papers, the male stereotype of the 1950’s and with, also demonstrates justice being put to serve.

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Essay, Research Paper: Ernest Miller Hemingway. father was the research papers on body, owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in. public. Othello Essay! Dr. Image! Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept. money. He believed that one should not profit from help with apa research something important for the. good of mankind. Ernest's father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and.

censored the papers on body, books he allowed his children to read. He forbad Ernest's sister. from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to. hell and damnation. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest's mother,

considered herself pure and proper. Dalam! She was a dreamer who was upset at anything. which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty. diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She. taught her children to papers image always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the.

birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly. and to please her, always. Mrs. Help Apa Research! Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small. boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This. arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a. gun-toting Pawnee Bill. Research! He began, at help paper, that time, to pull away from.

his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and research, quite religious. The. townspeople forbad the othello excellence, word virgin from appearing in research on body, school books, and the word breast was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible. Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn't get outside,

he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his. classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to help with paper one of his stories. In spite. of his mother's desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about research papers on body, his grammar and studied English.

with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems. that the principal did not approve of personal and professional development plan, Ernest's writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest's articles. Ernest was clear about research on body, his. writing; he wanted people to see and feel and he wanted to enjoy. himself while writing.

Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. With Apa Research! He would sometimes use forbidden words. just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring. individual. He loved the research on body, sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he.

saw as a phoney. Apa Research! During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a. bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross. Papers On Body! Very much. like the hero of with apa research paper, A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates. in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in. the book, he fell in love with the papers on body image, nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in. love. He would party late into help with apa research paper, the night and invite, to papers his house, people his.

parents disapproved of. Ernest's mother rejected him and he felt that he had to. move from home. Why Is The Best! He moved in with a friend living in papers on body image, Chicago and he wrote. articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley. Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and. bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a.

writer to excellence essay live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the papers, most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They. could not live on death be banned essay income from research image his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The. Toronto Star. Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during. the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed.

Hadley became pregnant and should essay, was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move. to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave. birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had. his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to research image return to Paris. It was in Paris. that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but.

with some changes. The publisher felt that the sex was to with paper blatant, but Ernest. refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a. young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to. write another novel, instead.

This novel was based on papers on body image his experiences while. living in Pamplona, Spain. Help Apa Research! He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed. the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in research papers on body image, his. other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. Personal Essays! In 1927, Ernest found himself. unhappy with his wife and papers on body image, son. They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a.

woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. Help Apa Research Paper! A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It. portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste. of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest. had to substitute dashes for the dirty language. Ernest used his. life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to.

him. Papers On Body Image! He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read. but wanting to be left alone. Death Should Be Banned Essay! He once said, Don't look at me. Look at my. words. A common theme throughout Hemingway's stories is that no matter how. hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At. age 31 he wrote Death in research papers, the Afternoon, about bullfighting in excellence essay, his beloved Spain.

Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba. and Africa. On Body! At the rujukan, age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself. He went to Spain, he said, to become an. antiwar correspondent, and found that war was like a club where. everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to. Spain as a war correspondent and research on body, they lived together. Should! He knew that he was.

hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could. not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the. Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did. for the rest of research image, his life. During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for. the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the Pillar, to. surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at.

this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at form of government essay, all during the next three. years. At war's end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign. correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do. without material things. Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would. not go to her funeral when she died in 1951.

He admitted that he hated his. mother's guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was. on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of. copies were sold in papers, the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were. both made into movies.

In 1953 he went on help apa research a safari with Mary, and research image, he was in. heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became. ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the. end, Ernest started to rujukan dalam travel again, but almost the way that someone does who. knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to research papers forget. things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was. inconsistent in why is, his behavior.

He never got over feeling like a bad person, as. his father, mother and research on body, grandfather had taught him. Democracy Essay! In the papers on body image, last year of dalam resume, his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his. heart. He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and. strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway. killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of. his novel, A Farewell to papers on body Arms, from and professional plan essays his personal experiences.

The main character. of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to research as Tenete, experiences many of. the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Rujukan Dalam! Some of these similarities. are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely. different outcome. Papers On Body! Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of. alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but. neither of them were regular army personnel.

Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in. his right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth. noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry. was a medic for the Italian Army. Death Penalty Essay! In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a. nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized. In both cases, the. relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were. hospitalized.

Another difference is that Hemingway's romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry's romance, though they never. married, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and. her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who. left Henry for an Italian Army officer. Research Papers! It seems to me that the should be banned essay, differences. between the two men were only surface differences.

They allowed Hemingway to. call the novel a work of fiction. Had he written an autobiography the book would. probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at research papers, that time, a. well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics' views that A Farewell to. Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as. impressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who.

experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the apa research paper, slight changes. would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing. about. I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look. different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality.

There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not. necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young. child and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by on body image, writing. stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by. hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think. that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows. itself in should essay, the morbid death of Miss Barkley and on body, her child. Hemingway was probably. very confused about personal and professional, religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people. would or should be punished for enjoying life's pleasures.

Probably, the. strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley's death and the death of. her child was Hemingway's belief that death comes to everyone; it was. inevitable. On Body Image! Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He. writes, in A Farewell to Arms, They threw you in death should be banned essay, and told you the rules. and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. . they killed you. in the end.

You could count on that. Stay around and they would kill you. Hemingway, even in research, high school, wrote stories which showed that people should. expect the unexpected. His stories offended and form of government, angered the research on body, principal of rujukan dalam, his.

school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was. certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and. her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was. certainly not like everyone else, and papers image, he seemed to be proud of that fact. Even. the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows. that he liked to excellence shock people.

When his publisher asked that he change some. words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was. forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and. Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange. and very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had. to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway. probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn't. really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own. pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer. person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of on body image, rain. He sees rain, a frequent. occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the.

beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how things went very. badly and how this is connected to At the start of the winter came. permanent rain. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain. She says, Sometimes I see me dead in it, referring to personal and professional the rain. It. is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and.

her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in research papers image, the same book of critical essays, points out. that Hemingway is rujukan, obsessed with war, the setting for much of research on body image, A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of. kings. Personal And Professional Plan Essays! He says that the war years were a democratic, a levelling, school.

For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a. release; an image, opportunity to show that he is a real man. The essayist, Edgar. Johnson says that for the loner it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like. Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with.

the officers, talks with the priest and visits the democracy the best essay, officer's brothel, but those. relationships are superficial. Papers On Body Image! This avoidance of real relationships and. involvement do not show an insensitive person, but rather someone who is. protecting himself from getting involved and dalam, hurt. It is clear that in all of. Hemingway's books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, He will solve the papers image, problem of dealing with the world by.

taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and. sensations. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and. her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is. shown in all Hemingway's stories. In A Farewell to essay Arms Catherine asks Henry if. he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, maybe.

a little. This idea, points out research, Killinger, is apa research paper, ingrained in Hemingway's. thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to. return to his wife who is research papers on body image, having a baby. Excellence! In Hemingway's story Hills Like White. Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can. continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his.

wife to research papers on body that dirty aborting horror. Catherine's death, in A Farewell. to Arms, saves the othello essay, author's hero from the hell of a complicated life. Peter Buckley, Ernest, The Dial Press: 1978, p.96. Peter Buckley, p.97 . Peter Buckley, p.98. Peter Buckley, p.104. Research Papers On Body Image! Peter Buckley, p.104. Peter Buckley,

p.112. Help Apa Research! Peter Buckley, p.114. Peter Buckley, p.117. Peter Buckley, p.123. Peter. Buckley, p.127. Peter Buckley, p.129. Peter Buckley, p.135. Peter Buckley, p.138. Peter Buckley, p.144.

Peter Buckley, p.152. Peter Buckley, p.152. Peter. Buckley, p.154. Peter Buckley, p.160. Malcolm Cowley, Rain as. Disaster, Twentieth Century Interpretations of papers, A Farewell to Arms, Jay.

Gellens, Prentice-Hall, Inc.:1970, pp.54-55. Wyndham Lewis, The Dumb Ox in. Love and War, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to why is democracy the best form of government essay Arms, Jay. Gellens, Prentice-Hall, Inc.:1970, p.76. Edgar Johnson, Farewell the. Separate Peace, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Jay Gellens, Prentice-Hall, Inc.:1970, pp.112-113.

John Killinger, The. Existential Hero, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to papers image Arms, Jay Gellens, Prentice-Hall, Inc.:1970, pp.103-105. Help other users to find the help apa research paper, good and worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones. Get a Custom Paper on Famous People:

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