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brainstorm of essay Sorry. Homework! No data so far. Five Ways to Keep an Essay Paper Organized. Proper organization is the difference between a good essay and a weak one. An essay that is well organized is easier for the reader to understand and enjoy, while poorly organized essays force the the essay, reader to do extra work. Readers aren#8217;t the only ones who benefit from a well organized essay ; using simple organization techniques while writing will make the process easier for sipser you as well. Before you begin writing, take some time to make a master plan fro your essay. Decide what information you want to cover and the method you will use to accomplish this. If your paper is a narrative, you might use pre-writing activities like brainstorming to come up with ideas. If you are writing a research paper, clustering to find a focus might work better for ultimate goal you.
Though your plan may change as you research and write your paper, making a plan will help streamline the homework, writing process by helping you focus on a final goal for essay your paper. Write your plan down and keep it near you as you write your paper to make certain that you are headed in the right direction. Organized notes are essential for homework an organized essay paper . While conducting research for your paper, use your master plan to identify the topics you need to research and the questions you must answer in your paper. Essay Of Diwali! Write your notes on index cards; not only will they help you stay organized, but their small size forces you to condense information and keep your notes brief, which will reduce the risk of unintentional plagiarism. Carefully label each card with a topic and homework sipser reference information. An outline is a kind of road map for your essay and is more detailed than your essay plan. The method you use to outline your paper will depend upon your style of writing and the type of paper you are writing; an outline for a personal narrative will probably be less detailed than the outline for a research paper.
Use roman numerals or letters to organize main ideas, and then break those main ideas into smaller chunks of ultimate in life essay information. Use topic sentences to organize ideas within your paper. Sipser! These topic sentences can be used in your outline as main ideas. Cafe Terrace At Night! Begin each new paragraph or section of your paper with a topic sentence that outlines the main idea of homework that section. Then, use supporting sentences to editing the essay expand upon homework sipser, or explain that topic sentence. After you have written a rough draft, create a reverse outline, recommends the University of Toronto Writing Centre. To make a reverse outline, go through your paper and write down each main idea on a separate sheet of paper in the order in which they appear, leaving plenty of space between each topic. Goal Essay! When you have finished, read through the main ideas to make sure that they make sense. Make sure that you have not left out key points or repeated topics.
Make changes to homework your draft if needed. Next, go through your paper to find sentences that support your main topics, and jot these down below each topic on your reverse outline. This will ensure that you fully explain each main topic. Brainstorming is cafe at night, a good way to start the _____ stage of a reflective essay Which of the following is the most effective revision of the sentence below? When I write an essay I always go through these steps: brainstorming make an outline write a rough draft editing and revising It is best to _________ your sources when taking notes in order to reduce the homework sipser, risk of plagiarism brain storming compositin. Non-literary essays are often handed out in educational institutions as written assignments. Subjects may vary, and terrace some examples include economics, medical, mathematics, science, and so on. Essays are considered to be non-literary when they are scientific in nature.
Mostly, they come in forms such as guide books, manuals, how to sipser instructions, etc. Van Gogh Terrace! If you are a student, most likely you are kept busy with having to homework write many of these non-literary essays . Here are some tips on how you can write excellent essays in the shortest possible amount of time. Editing The Essay! In any piece of writing, if you want to accomplish it fast without compromising on homework sipser, quality, know that it#8217;s all about having a systematic process. Non-literary works, unlike fiction works, often involves a predictable process. Write enough non-literary works, and you will discover this for yourself. Here is how the process works.
Brainstorm for ideas on what your paper should be about. This can be a fun process when you get your friends and tutors involved. Group discussions will help everyone. There is no need to choose any particular themes at this stage. Just brainstorm and list down as many ideas as possible. The better students will have one to one consultations with their tutors or lecturers, even at this early stage. That is because after all, the tutors are the ones who will be grading the papers.
So obviously their opinions help. This is a big part of terrace any non-literary essay . Homework! Once you have decided on your topic, it#8217;s time for research. Research here means that you want to be comprehensive. For example, you may have some ideas about the in life, subject that you think are original. But upon research, you find that someone else have already written about those ideas some years ago. In that case, you may simply choose to cite the source of information. A thorough research process reveals what is homework sipser, original, and what is not. Also, you know have a clear idea of where you stand.
You may then decide on how you can contribute your own original ideas to the topic at hand. Useful suggestions and recommendations always make your paper more interesting to read, and you will get better grades just for demonstrating that you have given the issues at hand a lot of essay of diwali thought. Include facts, statistics, or hypothesis. Whenever possible, include statistics and facts from previous tests. This is homework, especially important for scientific papers. Numbers and facts help you back up your ideas with solid proof. This is another reason why comprehensive research is so important.
If you are unable to protection of our environment essay find solid data to sipser back up your ideas, then leave it as a hypothesis. And explain why testing out such a hypothesis is useful. Goal In Life! When you follow this systematic process, you can#8217;t go wrong. What separates the better non-literary essays from the average ones is the amount of time spent on the steps outlined above. Obviously, the effort you put into sipser, the papers, the higher chance of you getting better grades. Brainstorming Tips for Writing Papers. Brainstorming is a great technique to ultimate essay prepare you for writing a paper, whether or not you are an sipser, expert on the topic. Brainstorming can help you organize your ideas and inventory your knowledge, telling you if you need to do a bit more research.
When it comes to writing, you will have a good idea of the structure of your paper and the points you need to make a strong argument. Close your computer and remove any distractions from your workspace. Van Gogh Cafe! On a blank piece of sipser paper, begin to of the write down any idea that comes into sipser, your head about your topic. No idea is too small or silly to write down. Don#8217;t think about spelling, grammar or where each idea will fit in protection, your paper. Homework Sipser! Write in van gogh cafe terrace at night, point form or using keywords. Write your main topic in homework, the middle of the in life, page. Write the subtopics of your theme around the main topic. Add even more details around your subtopics until everything you know about your subject is on the mind map.
Using different colored pens, connect ideas that are related with lines and arrows. This process will help you to think of homework ideas, start to organize your thoughts and see where you need to cafe do some more research. Don#8217;t worry about getting your outline perfect. You can change it later, if needed. Sipser! Think about each of the sections you#8217;ll need for your paper, including the introduction, main body and conclusion. List the sections you plan to include in the main body of goal your paper in a logical order. Then fill in all the details you can think of for each section in point form, including the introduction and conclusion. Rearrange the sections and points if necessary. Make a note of homework where you are missing information.
Use this outline brainstorm to of our environment guide your writing. In this approach, use the classic journalistic questions: who, what, when, where, why and sipser how. Write each question on a blank piece of the essay paper with lots of space around them to fill in the answers. Answer each question from every possible angle. If your ideas stop flowing, rest for a minute and come back to it. Once you are done, you can use this brainstorm to sipser identify gaps in your research so far. brainstorming techniques for writing essays.
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Persuasive Piece Essays and Research Papers. creators world. Art portray not only aesthetic attributes but represents a viewpoint, a glimpse through anothers eyes via his or her creation. In Paul . Jacobsthals article Early Celtic Art he takes viewers into the world of early art through the pieces created by homework sipser the early Celts. Paul Jacobsthal states that, although the the essay Celtic people were looked down upon homework sipser as barbarians, their art holds no equal. Editing The Essay? He compares Celtic art to sipser, wide renowned Scythian art that has touched and influenced the far corners. Aesthetics , Art , Celts 814 Words | 3 Pages. started? Find a piece your students are interested in exploring. Select several poems, stories or prepared pieces to of the prince, begin with . and then explore them all with the group.
Choose your favorite! Beginners find Shel Silverstein's poems wonderful starting points! Take time to discuss the sipser meaning of the piece you've collectively selected (interpretation), after reading through it several times. You need to do this in order to know what you hope to eventually 'say! Practice speaking the piece , focusing on. Meaning of life , Music , Piece 1047 Words | 3 Pages. two sized potatoes, 6g and 10g, and placed each in three different dilutions of sucrose at 0.5M, 0.1M, and cafe essay 0.05M.
We also placed a 6g and 10g potato . piece in water to act as a control. Based on the weight percent change over 60 minutes, the homework sipser 6g potato piece had faster water movement than the 10g. This confirms out hypothesis that smaller potato pieces will have a faster rate of water movement. Introduction Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Water diffuses. Chemistry , Concentration , Osmosis 874 Words | 6 Pages. motor skills. He will need to be able to sort the pieces with similar edges, such as the outer pieces , so that they can be . properly placed. How To A Essay? Conrad will also need to utilize his short term memory to help during the sipser problem solving stage of figuring out essay of diwali, which pieces fit together so that he can remember where similar pieces were sorted, as well as recall how the image should look. Additionally, the use of his fine motor skills, such as picking up the pieces and placing them in the correct places, is essential. Auto racing , Developmental psychology , Jean Piaget 1488 Words | 6 Pages.
To begin, from the many pieces of artwork I was able to view at sipser, the Miami Art Museum, I can honestly say that I chose a very distinct . piece as the goal in life most beautiful. In my opinion, the most beautiful piece is an art work made mainly from wood and some scrap metals. The artwork is homework sipser titled Looks like Clutter by Leonardo Drew. Leonardo Drew was born in Tallahassee, FL in 1961 and now lives in both Texas and protection of our environment essay New York. Sipser? The pieces of wood and scrap metal he used on this piece of ultimate goal, art were from a burned. Art , Chuck , Miami 1022 Words | 3 Pages.
effective adjustments that are used to alter supporting elements such as colour and composition. Though these changes are unnoticeable unless theyre brought . to attention, they influence us dramatically in the way we interpret particular artworks. Homework Sipser? The two pieces I chose that, in my opinion, are examples of the communication of mood through basic principles in art are Lamentation of of the prince essays, Saints and a Donor by sipser Bartollonmeo Di Giovanni done in 1490 and Massacre of the protection essay Innocents done by Peter Paul Reubens in 1610. 2000s music groups , Emotion , Feeling 1255 Words | 4 Pages. conversation between two people which is what I have learned to do for my memorization of poetry and with the assigned literature, too. Homework? During this semester . of class, with any given poetry assigned for memorization, I would find relations in each piece of work either by emotional bonding or creating fictional images in write my head from the works when studied to help memorize them proficiently. At the start of the sipser semester instructions were to memorize a selected poem by Emily Dickinson (336) with using. Memory , Phrase , Piece 1514 Words | 4 Pages. it, thus what they see is of our environment essay overlooked.
For example, in a sculpture named The Thing, detail is written all over sipser, it, but without a close observation of the environment . Homework? details, all that is seen is a piece of van gogh cafe terrace at night, junk and no longer useful items stuck together to make a shape. With a closer look, though, The Thing is a unique piece of art that will not easily be forgotten. In my opinion, The Thing is a sculpture that represents a lady, I use this term loosely, in the welding profession. She is reading a book or. Barbed wire , Bidet , Ear 836 Words | 3 Pages. r flowers. Central Idea: To share a new craft with the homework sipser class. How to Make a Paper Flower I. Introduction A. . Anonymous once said, the earth without art is just eh. B. The kind of the qualities prince essays, art that Ill be sharing with you today requires two pieces of paper or two sticky notes, scissors, a glue stick, and a pencil if needed. Homework? C. My knowledge of the making of of the prince, paper flowers goes back to sixth grade though I dont actually recall how I learned. D. After following the simple steps of folding. Columbus, Ohio , Cut , Musical notation 679 Words | 4 Pages.
Savoldos painting is sipser framed along a wall of cafe essay, light and dark red arrows with artificial and natural light from homework sipser, above. Within this airy space deemed The Walter . Fitch III Room this painting is surrounded by various art pieces from essay of diwali, around the homework world; most of which are religious art pieces . Though each of the qualities, these paintings are very unique and have much to offer the focus of this essay will be on that of the homework sipser painting known as The Torment of Saint Anthony. Starting his painting in 1508 Savoldo set out to. Demon , Girolamo Savoldo , Left-wing politics 1073 Words | 3 Pages. Henrietta Jones 2.05 Can This Evidence Be Individualized? Evidence 1: A piece of torn clothing was found at a crime scene. A torn . t-shirt was found in one of the suspects car.
1. Essay Of Diwali? Can the torn clothing from the crime scene be individualized to the t-shirt found in the car? Why or why not? Yes. Homework Sipser? Because it could be individual evidence small glass fragments large glass fragment Evidence 2: Small pieces of glass were found in how to a essay a suspects shirt pocket of a breaking and entering crime. Burglary , Duct tape , English-language films 491 Words | 8 Pages. rows and eight columns. The color of the sixty-four squares alternate and is referred to as light squares and dark squares. The light squares are at the . right hand of the rank nearest to homework sipser, each player, and the pieces are set out as shown in van gogh terrace at night essay the diagram, with each queen on its own color.
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Mr. Seward and Mrs. Ultimate In Life Essay? Coulson played five pieces together and then each play on solo. This was my first piano concert, of homework sipser, any kind, that I . have attended. This was something new for me. The concert included seven different pieces . Claude Debussy composed three of them, La puerta del vino, Le Vent dans la Plaine, and Lisle Joyous L.106. Goal Essay? Anton Dvoark composed the opening and closing songs, Slavic Dance Op.46 #1 and Salvonic Dance Op.46 #5.
The piece by homework Samuel Barber was called Souvenirs and was. Audience , Harpsichord , Jazz 939 Words | 3 Pages. ? Manufacturing A Steps involved to building a Bottle Rocket: Materials Two 2 litter soda bottles. Cardboard pieces pre cut and measured . Duct tape Scissors, Cutters, Cutting Board, Glue etc Foam pieces for fins Vinyl Material according to colors Cotton or any Sponge type material used for the Egg Compartment Construction To build a bottle rocket, there are many steps involved. It just cannot be made out of the bloom, but has to be thought about, researched and designed properly so that the result. Corrugated fiberboard , Fin , Hot melt adhesive 1065 Words | 4 Pages.
?Jack Wang Mr. Shum ENG4U1-01 September 24, 2014 My Piece on essays, One Piece In the pursuit of justice, the world shall burn to ash. . Sipser? Eiichiro Odas famous manga and anime One Piece , shows a light hearted world distorted and scarred by the militarys idea of absolute justice. Luffy is the main character of One Piece and he has a dream to be the editing the essay pirate king, the person who has the most freedom in homework sipser the world. To achieve this dream Luffy puts together a crew of trusted allies and goes on a grand adventure. Aristotle , Eiichiro Oda , Government 1156 Words | 4 Pages. Managing diversity within organizations is no easy task. The two assigned pieces from the books of essay of diwali, Dr. Taylor Cox Jr., Cultural Diversity in . Organizations, written in 1993, and Creating the Multicultural Organization: A Strategy for Capturing the Power of Diversity, written in 2001, gives insight into sipser what organizations can do to successfully manage their diverse workforce and environment. The Essay? The interesting thing is sipser that they were written eight years apart, offering perspective of editing, how organizations.
Chess piece , Cultural diversity , Management 2162 Words | 6 Pages. the audience know that no one else is around and that what he says is to be kept a secret. Homework? The director also has Iago plan his plot of ruining . Desdemona and Othello by using chess pieces . This is symbolic throughout the ultimate in life whole movie because whenever Iago furthers his plot he gets rid of a chess piece . After reading the homework book and then viewing the film, there were a few slight differences in what I thought the characters would look like. First, the actress who played the role. Character , Chess piece , Desdemona 634 Words | 4 Pages. Concept The objective of this event is to the qualities of the, present the new delightful Swarovski collection of lightening products, as the world leader in homework high-quality . precision cut crystal has chosen this city to reveal its marvelous pieces , which will be presented on ultimate in life essay, September 16th of 2013 from 19.00 to sipser, 22.00 in the essay the Gallery of La Pelota, gathering approximately 300 guests.
The reason to make this important event happen on the September 16th is to project a fresh mood to the guests, as it is homework sipser a hot month and. Atmosphere , Chess piece , Crystal Caves 1862 Words | 7 Pages. application of judicial precedent. Binding and persuasive precedent Judicial precedents have played and continue to play an the qualities essays important . role in homework sipser the administration of Justice under the the qualities of the English legal system. But they do more that this, for not only are they regarded as authoritative pronouncements of law, but certain precedents are regarded as binding upon homework courts which are subsequently called upon to try similar issues. Such precedents are not merely persuasive authorities which may be followed if the. Case law , Common law , Judge 1239 Words | 5 Pages.
was later to be called, The Funk Ceramic Movement of the San Francisco Bay Area. In 1982, Gilhooly started exploring the media of Plexiglas, but still . Of The Prince Essays? produced a multitude of ceramic pieces . In 1996 he officially gave up clay to work on homework, what he calls the shadow boxes, which are a much evolved form of the Plexiglas pieces . Slide 3 In 1965, not only was the reputation of TB-9 on the UCD campus gradually being built by goal in life David Gilhooly, Robert Arneson, Margaret Dodd, Chris Unterseher, and Peter Vandenberge. Chess piece , Crocodile , David Gilhooly 915 Words | 3 Pages. Comparing and Contrasting two pieces of music. different about both pieces , but I did see a couple similarities.
And that's what I'm going to homework sipser, explain about in this essay: both the . differences and the similarities of the two pieces . I'll start by essay of diwali explaining how I felt about both pieces . The Gavotte had a very calming affect on homework, me. Editing The Essay? For a minute I felt as if I was in the wonderful jungle sitting and sipser listening to editing, a peaceful waterfall and finding peace to sipser, my soul. How To A Essay? But it also made me tap my fingers and feet. The second piece by the Hovhannes had. Debut albums , Difference , Emotion 584 Words | 2 Pages. uniqueness to how he creates his work pieces , and I found it astonishing at how fast he can get a single art piece done and still . be able to draw a person in instantly. Garibaldi Paintings Some people like things they can relate to, possibly understand just to homework, keep them interested, and I thought that some of protection of our, his art expresses that. In the homework sipser first page of this paper, some of the images that are displayed are all from van gogh terrace, David Garibaldi. If you have not noticed, most of the pieces I have chosen to display on the. Art , Chess piece , Music 1302 Words | 3 Pages.
Analysis of a Million Little Pieces. of addicts want to homework sipser, recover from their addiction because it is their choice to change their life style and better themselves. It can be assumed that their . desire to recover will lead them to become the most successful patients. Essay Of Diwali? In A Million Little Pieces by homework sipser James Frey, James faced the same dilemma: Does he really want to get better or does he want to drown himself in drugs? Throughout the memoir, James struggles to come to how to a essay, a conclusion while facing demons from his past that were waiting for homework him when.
A Million Little Pieces , Addiction , Better 1037 Words | 3 Pages. tourist to define tourism. It identifies that tourist (the behavioural portion) can influence the destination region; it does not however address the manner . by which the editing the essay influence is realised. Leipers Tourist System does form a much stronger, persuasive definition of tourism as it does represent the influence, through the homework industrialisation characteristics. How To A Essay? 2. The generalisation of this definition of a tourist means that nearly any person who enters or lives in a region or town could be considered. Definition , Extensional definition , Persuasive definition 947 Words | 3 Pages. The Simplicity of Raymond Chandler's the Big Sleep.
about what I had read. In a very interesting sense, the entire novel resembles the game of chess. Each character is homework sipser a piece , and write a essay the name of . the game is survival. Though the ultimate goal in sipser chess is to take possession of the king, the underlying strategy is to eliminate as many pieces as one possibly can. Ultimate Goal Essay? This serves as insurance in the overall goal. Being that the characters/ pieces determine the direction of the goal, let us look at them to begin.
I have chosen to examine two characters in-depth. Chess , Chess piece , Crime fiction 1553 Words | 4 Pages. Historical Allegory for the Rise and homework sipser Fall of Rome. Hwang 8 Celtics AP World Huck March 28, 2013 The Search for One Piece ! (The Rise of the Roman Empire, . the fall of the Republic. The rise of Octavian Augustus and fall Julius Caesar.) There once was a pirate named Gold Rodger, he was a sly and arrogant pirate that lived his life trying to achieve three things. Wealth, fame, and power. This was the One Piece , the treasure of them all. With a bounty of 300,000,000 Belli on write, his head, he was executed by one of.
Augustus , Battle of Actium , Julius Caesar 1364 Words | 4 Pages. The hockey stick, the most basic piece of equipment, is also the most confounding. While other pieces of gear either fit or dont . Sipser? fit, the stick defies such a simple categorization. Its more like buying a pizza. Size is the easy partoptions are where things get tricky. Stick technology has come along way from the days when players found a nice piece of hickory and started whittling.
Sticks today come in a number of materials that in themselves can be overwhelming. These range from wooden shafts. Composite material , Cost , Hockey stick 1103 Words | 3 Pages. two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. Each player begins the game with . sixteen pieces : one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently. Pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces , with the object of the game being to 'checkmate' the the qualities opponent's king by sipser placing it under an inescapable threat of ultimate, capture. Homework? In addition to checkmate, the game. Board game , Chess , Chess engine 1186 Words | 5 Pages.
from a friend of mine, it had 1,500 pieces . I havent put together a puzzle since I was a kid. Isnt it funny how we stop doing certain things . when we grow up: puzzles, coloring, playing dolls, hop scotch, hide and go seek. Things that brought us so much joy as a child, we stop doing when we reach a certain age - its a shame, isnt it? I must admit, I really enjoyed the puzzle. Although very frustrating at times, it was a challenge. Each time I found a piece that fit, it was extremely rewarding. 2007 singles , American films , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles 828 Words | 2 Pages. beautiful. Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the essay fairest of them all? The mirror quickly appeared and said My dear Queen that I adore, you look . beautiful, but Snow Whites looks are greatly improving. The Queen dropped the mirror and it broke into homework sipser pieces . She was infuriated that the huntsman did not do his job.
The Queen decided to how to write a essay, let it go, knowing that Snow White would never come back to the castle, and would never measure up to homework, her beauty. Back at the cottage, the prince and dwarves were talking. Chess piece , DWARF , English-language films 1453 Words | 4 Pages. His First Flight by Liam O' Flaherty. Even there threats were not more than useless attempt. Of The? At last he was left alone, hungry and unattended. His parents thought, that, one day by the hands of . Homework Sipser? hunger he will definitely join them.
The young seagull was alone on his ledge. He found some pieces of fish to eat but after that he was left with nothing. He became impatient with hunger and search every inch of how to, his ledge for food. He ran to homework sipser, the brink of the ledge and attempted to editing the essay, fly but sue to lack of courage he could not succeed. He had been. Family , Gull , Mother 638 Words | 2 Pages. become the victor. § Chess develops logical thinking. Homework? Chess requires some understanding of logical strategy. For example, you will know that it is . important to essay of diwali, bring your pieces out into the game at homework, the beginning, to keep your king safe at all times, not to make big weaknesses in how to a essay your position and homework sipser not to blunder your pieces away for free. (Although you will find yourself doing that occasionally through your chess career. Essay? Mistakes are inevitable and chess, like life, is a never-ending learning process.
Board game , Checkmate , Chess 949 Words | 3 Pages. winter/cold. We are all going to homework, support the children to do mosaic/collage pictures representing cold. Essay Of Diwali? The particular child I was working with is . diagnosed PMLD and has more vision in her left eye than her right eye. I prepared the homework different pieces of editing the essay, textured paper by ripping and cutting the paper with the more able children the paper I use was blue tissue paper,white tissue paper,shiny blue foil paper and blue congregated paper. I then put the homework paper into essay of diwali a small container and poured pva glue. Adhesive , Chair , Child 400 Words | 2 Pages. Process Essay: How to Make a Ceramic Rose Using Modeling Clay.
?How to Make a Ceramic Rose Using Modeling Clay Most of us have made countless art pieces in class while we were growing up. . Personally, one of my favorite shows as a kid was Art Attack hosted by the adorable Neil Buchanan. One interesting piece of art that is homework sipser easy to the qualities of the prince essays, make is a ceramic rose. It might sound and look complicated, but it really is not. To make a beautiful, three-dimensional rose, follow these three easy steps. First, and sipser most importantly, choose the right type of modeling. Art , Ceramic materials , Clay 474 Words | 2 Pages.
Museum, New York (1988). Editing The Essay? Compare and Contrast Essay of The Hunt of the Unicorn, and Tar Beach In the art work of Franco Flemish, The Hunt of the sipser . Unicorn, and Faith Ringgold Tar Beach, there are some similarities and some differences. The two pieces were very interesting to study and van gogh terrace at night I learned a lot about them each. When you compare them side by homework side you can see all the similarities, and the differences that these two works of goal in life essay, art hold. When you compare The Hunt of the Unicorn and Tar Beach.
Difference , Piece , Printmaking 735 Words | 2 Pages. based on one of the founders fervent beliefs in homework sipser self-reliance, the necessity of competition for human progress, and egalitarian treatment of managers and van gogh . employees. Homework Sipser? Introduced by family management in the 1930s, the how to incentive system is based on piece rates and homework sipser annual bonus linked to profits that can amount to over half of employees income. To determine the bonus, production employees are appraised on four criteria: output, quality, dependability, and ideas / cooperation. The belief of James. Cost , Motivation , Performance-related pay 716 Words | 4 Pages. Displayed in Lanval The Lais of Marie De Frances Lanval is a piece that portrays the essay of diwali core ideals of Middle Age fiction while breaking . away from the mold.
Much like most Lais in Lais of Marie de France, Lanval displays an example of love and the obstacles over homework, come to obtain such love. The love shared between Lanval and editing his mistress, Queen Semiramis is the core aspect that sets Lanval piece apart from sipser, other fiction pieces of the Middle Age genre. Lanval and write Semiramis share pure love that. Anglo-Norman literature , Arthurian literature , Beauty 970 Words | 3 Pages. Helpful Hints for Developing Fine Motor Skills in Early Childhood Education. end, how to tie a knot.
Keep making knots. Start with 6inch piece and you can add length as skill progresses. Yarn is more difficult. You can . also use old shoe laces. 10. Trace basic shapes on cardboard (adult cuts.) Have child trace with crayon teaching them to grasp and sipser press crayon or wide marker.
Start with square, triangle, rectangle. Teach them holding hand and writing hand. It may be helpful to secure the paper with a small piece of tape so it doesnt move. Children at 3-4 may not have dominant. Finger , Hand , Piece 641 Words | 2 Pages. Comparing Chiura Obatas Landslide and Sunset Water Tower Art Paper Comparing Chiura Obatas Landslide and Sunset Water Tower Both of these pieces of art illustrate interesting acts of nature; . but include a wide variety of different themes and styles. Chiura Obatas Landslide was completed in 1941 and was done with sumi and protection environment essay watercolor on paper.
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Each student, however, is essay of diwali responsible for demonstrating his or her knowledge and thinking in the video. Each student must contribute on screen two . specific pieces of content that deal with the Canadian identity. For example, a student might decide that somehow Vimy Ridge should be mentioned in the piece . Homework? That would count as one piece of content. How your group decides to structure the video is entirely up to you. I encourage you to ultimate goal essay, be creative, informative, thoughtful, interesting, engaging. Canada , Communication , History of Canada 494 Words | 2 Pages. Humanities Journal Critique There have been many skilled artists that have been able to sipser, create beautiful pieces . However there are others . who are able to create a work of art that is so interesting that it is able to catch the viewer in its world and captivate them into looking at the piece for a long period of the qualities of the prince essays, time.
One of these works is the sipser Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali. This piece is composed of desert landscape scenery with a few clocks melting over the landscape. One is the qualities of the essays hung over sipser, a. Aesthetics , Art , Cubism 491 Words | 2 Pages. two chess pieces can occupy the same square at the same time - Knights can jump or pass over terrace at night essay, each other on homework sipser, the way to an empty square - The . knights can only the qualities prince move 2 squares up (or down, or left, or right) and 1 square to the left (or right, or up, or down.) The moving combinations must be 2 up or down and 1 to the left or right. Homework? Or, 2 to the left or right and 1 up or down. Example: They can't move 2 to the left and 1 to the left.
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Although the ad is sipser very simple the product at hand is prominently displayed along with a bold designer. Advertising , Chess , Chess piece 1032 Words | 3 Pages. professor Arthur Schoenberg once called him not a composer but an artist.. He was known for all his antics with music ,and many more pieces . . He believed that music could not just be played in a fashionable manner. How To Write? If altered a completley unexpected sound would arise and change the quality of music. How can music be altered?
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3. What evidence did the a essay space heater provide? What did the evidence indicate? The evidence indicated that . there was no electrical spark causing the fire, but that it could have been accidental from the piece of cloth. 4. What information did you gain from the pictures taken at the scene? I found that crazed glass did not prove to homework sipser, be arson, the van gogh terrace heater was plugged in but that also doesnt prove that it was on, and that the v-shaped burn is homework possibly the. Absorption , Alcohol , Blood alcohol content 449 Words | 2 Pages. very first name was Atlanta Art Association. Also it is the one of the most visited art museum in the essay the world. While, visiting High museum, I was drawn to two . particular pieces from two very different artists. The Chest and drawers by Teyo Remy, gained my attention because of creative design and deep meaning.
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Blackout , Britney Spears , Mainstream 1441 Words | 4 Pages. 1999 from a heart attack. Shel Silverstein was a well know and well liked author/poet. Silverstein noticed his talents when he was twelve years old. When . Homework Sipser? most boys are playing sports and chasing girls, Shel was at ultimate goal in life, home writing and drawing original pieces . His talents were well ?developed by the time he served in the US Armed Forces during the 1950's. While in the military he was a cartoonist for the Pacific Edition of the military newspaper Stars and homework sipser Stripes. After his time spent in the military he. Children's literature , Johnny Cash , Literature 832 Words | 3 Pages. employees and to see that everyone is still doing their jobs; there may be some bias though.
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essays etc This page is full of essays that I wrote at University and College. I didn't get 'A's on all of them - just most of them - so steal at your own risk.This format is -of course - just temporary. History 339 Primary Documents Review Robert Jago 20015294 Document One: Debates on the Passage of the homework sipser, Quebec Act, House of Commons, 1774: Each party in protection environment essay the debate accepts that it is sipser right and just that the newly conquered subjects of Canada should be assimilated with regards to religion and language. Where the parties differ is in the 'law-form' of the country and the rights of English colonists and tradesmen therein.
The Attorney General, Lord Thurlow, proposes that it is unwise to create a democratic system of government in the new colony. He states that, 'humanity, justice, and wisdom equally conspire to advise you to leave them [institutions] to the people just as they were'. With regard to the Englishman's right to the qualities of the prince essays, carry his laws with him over to the new colony, the Attorney General considers this to be as absurd an homework expectation as if a Londoner expected the laws of his city to follow him to essay of diwali, the Isle of Guernsey. On this latter point, the Solicitor General, Alexander Wedderburn, claims that the rights of Englishmen should be withheld from Canada so as to 'keep alive in their breasts this attachment to their native soil'. The contrary argument comes from Colonel Barre and Mr. Charles Fox, and sipser Mr. Edmund Burke. The former argued from a jingoistic position, that the Attorney General should be more concerned with his English countrymen in Canada - who emigrated to the country in the expectation of enjoying the same rights and privileges as they had in of the their motherland. Furthermore, Colonel Barre claims that the imposition of the homework sipser, English constitution is the qualities prince essays not a punishment, but, due to its liberal nature, it is a reward. Homework. Mr.
Fox expands upon the latter argument and suggests that whatever elements of essay of diwali, English law that the local inhabitants may find disagreeable may be easily adjusted to better fit their temperament. Finally, Mr. Fox, foreshadowing the argument by Mr. Burke in the years to come, states that his opposition to homework sipser, the authoritarian constitution to be continued in Canada is based in his belief that, 'America is not to be governed by force, but by affection and interest'. Mr. Burke partially digresses from the particular topic at hand and in stead makes the 'slippery slope' argument, that a tyrannical government in how to write a essay Canada will be used by unnamed forces at home as an example to show that 'stronger measures' are better suited for governing.
Finally, in another tangential argument, Lord North proclaims his support for the bill in order to prevent the establishment of a free assembly composed entirely of Roman Catholics. Sipser. Document Two: Edmund Burke, Speech on Conciliation with America: In this document Mr. How To A Essay. Edmund Burke seems to sipser, echo Mr. Fox's argument from the previous essay. Edmund Burke argues that America's bond to the British Empire rests solely on the feeling amongst the Americans that English Liberty and English rule are one and indivisible. He argues that if Americans were shown that Liberty and English government were separable then the bond would be broken, because Americans could find 'tyranny anywhere'. Document Three: Edmund Burke, Speech on Fox's East India Bill: In this document Edmund Burke draws a distinction between a classical Charter, which may help enumerate some of the natural rights of men, and the East India Company's Charter, which illuminates the Company's rights over goal essay, men. Mr.
Burke claims that all such political arrangements are artificial and are part of a social contract. While the East India Company has fairly, legally, and justly acquired its dominion in India for money, it must not disregard that in doing so it formed a social contract with the Indians and therefore it must run its lawful administration to their eventual benefit. Document Four: William Cobbett, Political Register: This document has a surprisingly twenty-first century view of the Raj . William Cobbett argues that the conquest of India is the greatest crime in the history of the world, it is without justification, and homework sipser the unceasing wars which accompany it are a waste of English lives, and a slander of of our environment, English honor and glory. Document Five: William Wilberforce, Speech on the East India Company's Charter Bill: William Wilberforce fears that Britain is too easily sitting on its laurels with regards to India. Sipser. He fears that the impressive edifice that is the British Raj has blinded England to how tenuous their rule is. The reason for this is that Britain has failed to win the affection of the Indians.
William Wilberforce's solution to the lack of affection the Indians may feel towards Britain is to recreate the Indians, as an Asian race of of the essays, Englishmen. Document Number 6, Thomas Munro on the Employment of Natives in the Public Service: Thomas Munro proposes that the British are courting disaster if they continue to exclude Indians from high public office in sipser India. He writes that the Empire's hold over them should be one of essay, affection, and that that affection is won by homework allowing the Indians into the highest offices of the essay of diwali, Empire. He writes that excluding Indians from high office would remove the incentive for Indians to educate themselves along British standards. Without such an education their civilization would sink still further. Homework Sipser. He concludes that British rule should be maintained permanently in India so that the environment, process of homework, Anglicisation and civilisation may continue until Britain 'shall in ultimate goal in life time so far improve the character of our Indian subjects as to enable them to govern and protect themselves'. Homework. Document Number 7, Thomas Babington MacCaulay Sppech on the Government of India: Thomas MacCaulay reiterates Thomas Munro's earlier argument that Indians should be admitted to all of the high offices of India so that this incentive might help raise the general character of the Indians. MacCaulay draws on of our divine providence in his explanation of the British object in India. He writes: 'we shall never consent to . stupify and paralyse a great people who God has committed to our charge '. MacCaulay considers that the civilizing mission in India can only add to Britain's honour. Homework Sipser. he concludes by epitomizing his and Thomas Munro's argument that the 'empire is the ultimate in life essay, imperishable empire of our arts and our morals, our literature and our laws'.
Document 8, William Huskisson Speech on moving for a select committee on the civil government if Canada: William Huskisson attacks the feeling in Parliament that the empire must pay its own way and bring some material benefit to the Home Islands. He argues that Britain has a duty to her subjects and homework not the other way around; that Britain has formed numerous colonies in her own image and that abandoning these colonies of Englishmen [indistinguishable from themselves] would be 'an indelible disgrace'. Ultimate Goal Essay. He attacks these men as 'Little Englanders' and appeals to their patriotism by invoking Britain's civlizing mission to the world. Homework Sipser. Document 9, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: In this document, Mr. Editing The Essay. Wakefiled describes the anarchic British settlement of New Zealand and the problem of dis-honourable settlers run riot over the natives. His solution is to send the islands a Bishop in order to supervise the settlers. Homework Sipser. Document Ten: Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton, Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on essay of diwali Aborigines (British Settlements): Sir Thomas first accepts that it is right and just for Britain to find new outlets for the surplus population of the Home Islands. Homework Sipser. However with this right comes the duty to supervise that colonisation in order to check an evil as great as slavery - the oppression of the natives of 'barbarous countries'.
The chief reason for their oppression is the distance between the editing the essay, settlers that commit the crimes and the English courts fit to punish them. Document Eleven: John George Lambton, Earl of Durham, Report on the Affairs of homework sipser, British North America: In this document the Earl of environment, Durham proposes the union of British America into a new nation which would allow the local population to have some say in the government. The proximity of the United States has daily shown the British Americans that enjoy a poorer material life than their southern cousins and this creates a move for separation from the Empire. The only way that this can be countered is through the fostering of national feeling which would give the British Americans 'a country which they would be unwilling to see absorbed even into one more powerful'. Homework Sipser. The Earl of Durham also finds that many people in the metropole are too ready to leave the security of the British dominion over America to the common ties of ultimate essay, affection. Sipser. Document Twelve: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, Speech in write the House of Commons: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, states that while Canada is a military liability to sipser, Britain, its commercial and political importance far outweigh this problem. He also writes that if certain Canadian parochials would wish to separate their country from Britain's nominal control, they must consider that while Britain does gain much from Canada, Canada gains far more materially from essay of diwali Britain and the Imperial connection. Document Thirteen: John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy: John Stuart Mill writes that nations have a duty to homework, colonize the world in order open the resources of the under developed nations to the world and to the benefit of van gogh cafe terrace, all mankind. He notes that while the principle of comparative advantage is generally accepted, a similar principle, applying to labour is rarely considered, 'the exportation of labourers and capital from a place where their productive power is less to a place where it is greater, increases . the homework sipser, aggregate produce of the cafe terrace at night essay, labour and capital of the world'.
Document Fourteen: Richard Cobden, Speech at sipser Manchester: Richard Cobden opposes the military expenditures related to maintaining an essay empire. Homework Sipser. He writes that surely the English do not intend to maintain the empire by this force of arms, and if as some argue, arms are needed to defend trade, then why is a similar expenditure of the machines of protection of our essay, war not needed to ensure the security of the transatlantic trade with the United States. He also argues that the homework, solution to the frequent insurrections by the natives throughout the Empire is for essays 'civilised men [to] treat savages like men'. Document Fifteen: Richard Cobden, Letters on India: Richard Cobden expresses the fear that like Greece and homework sipser Rome before her, Britain may be 'corrupted and demoralized' by her Asian Empire. He appears to want to hasten the end of the Raj by removing the 'screen' of the British East India Company from the editing the essay, administration of India, so that Parliament could meditate on the awesome responsibility of sipser, governing and civilising more than one hundred million people. Document Sixteen: Earl of Rosebery, Speech to the Leeds Chamber of Commerce: The Earl of Rosebery introduces the term 'Imperial Federation'. The purpose of how to, such a community is to ensure the continued connection between Britain and her dominions. The previous claims that Britain must shoulder the burden of Empire, and homework sipser that the colonies are a drain on her materially and spiritually have given way to the Earl's claim that it is solely because of the of the prince essays, Empire that the trade with the colonies is so high.
He notes that trade with Australia and sipser its three million inhabitants is the same in real numbers as trade with the the qualities prince essays, United States (a liberated colony) and its sixty million inhabitants. Document Seventeen: Benjamin Disraeli, Speech at the Crystal Palace: Disraeli attacks the 'Little Englanders' and the liberals for homework their attempts to undermine the Empire. Disraeli claims that if not for the qualities of the prince the devotion and loyalty of the colonies to England, the imperial ties would have been severed. Disraeli finds that the time is right for the consolidation of the Empire into a federation with an Imperial Tariff, military, and parliament. Document Eighteen: W.E. Gladstone, England's Mission: Gladstone undermines the cause of homework sipser, Imperial federation by calling it a 'superstition equally gross and mischevious'. He again appeals to divine providence and 'England's mission' which appears to the essay, be to create outlets for homework sipser her surplus population.
The glory of founding these repositories of men is that they are also repositories of English liberty and culture and therefore are bound to her by 'moral and essay of diwali social sympathies' as opposed to the writ and fiat of Downing Street. Document Nineteen: John Bright, Speech on India: John Bright renews the call to administer to India with an eye for its eventual independence along a British model. However he does not appeal to a sense of future glory or 'England's mission' as justification, but instead writes that Britain should 'make amends for the original crime upon homework sipser which much of our power in India is founded'. Document Twenty: John Robert Steeley, The Expansion of England: India for the moment excepted, John Robert Steeley finds that unique aspect of 'Greater Britain' is the essay its shared nationality. He draws the sipser, distinction between the protection, British Empire and this greater British nation which is an enormous agrandisement of the national estate and allows for an Englishmen to travel anywhere on sipser earth and still find himself at home. Write. On a separate point, Steeley writes that the Raj has removed from the Indians the native Official class which is necessary for them to have self government. If Britain were to remove herself from India, she would be abandoning it to chaos; therefore, for the good of the Indians (and not for the honour of those Englishmen that conquered them) the Raj must continue until the homework sipser, eventual goal of self-government is at hand. Britain should not delude herself about having won the love of the Indians, because unlike the civilising mission of Rome in Iberia, Britain can offer the Indians only an austere 'cold daylight' to their previous 'warm gorgeous twilight'. Document Twenty-one: Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury, Speech in the House of van gogh terrace, Lords: The Marquess of Salisbury admonishes his fellow Lords for failing to take the initiative in the expansion of the colonies.
He writes that the rising walls of protectionism and homework sipser the advancing colonial frontiers of her competitors are putting Britain at a grave disadvantage. She must therefore act immediately at any chance to win a legacy for van gogh cafe terrace at night essay her grandchildren in fertile places such as Uganda lest such places become part of a German or French legacy. Document Twenty-two: Lord Curzon of Kedleston, Speech at Farewell Dinner, Byculla Club, Bombay: Lord Curzon describes the British civil servant in India as someone of the highest moral principles. He writes that these moral principles alone are the justification for homework sipser the British presence in India. Document Twenty-three: Lord Milner, Speech to prince essays, the Manchester Conservative Club: Lord Milner describes the innumerable benefits bestowed upon Britain by her dominions. These dominions alone will ensure that Britain will remain a great power, just as their absence will ensure her material impoverishment. His slogan, 'One throne, one flag, one citizenship' summarizes his position. Document Twenty-four: Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa: The author enumerates the responsibility of British rulers to the native inhabitants of homework, her colonies. This is the first part of the dual mandate in the tropics. As part of that mandate the British must raise the moral stature of the natives and country that they rule; in order to do so the British themselves must maintain the highest of moral standards in the essay order to ensure their prestige and authority. The second part of the mandate is the development of the homework sipser, tropical economy so that its resources may be available to all of mankind.
Document Twenty-five: George Bernard Shaw, The Man of Destiny: George Bernard Shaw, speaking through Napoleon expounds upon English hypocrisy. He writes that 'an Englishman does every thing on principle'. Goal. GB Shaw writes that an English man's morals are interpreted so as to justify his nation's necessity. Document Twenty-six: J.A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study: Hobson's is sipser a socialist interpretation of the support and expansion of the British Empire. The author quotes Cecil Rhodes when he said 'Her Majesty's Flag [is] the greatest commercial asset in prince essays the world'. Document Twenty-seven: J. Ramsay MacDonald, Labor and the Empire: Ramsay MacDonald derides the character of the men of the colonial service. Homework. He complains that they have done their duty in editing the colonies with the narrowest of minds and have refused to understand the minds of the natives. He lays the blame at a national pride which has degraded into racial chauvanism.
Document Twenty-eight: General Jan Christian Smuts, Speech at homework Banquet given in the qualities essays his honor by member of both Houses of Parliament: General Smuts describes the Empire as a world in itself, or a 'Commonwealth of Nations' rather than an Empire. He writes that while there may be Empires such as India and Egypt within this commonwealth, the bonds within it are not those of a traditional empire such as Russia or Rome, but rather ties of affection. For General Smuts, the homework sipser, British Empire, with its foundation in the Hereditary Monarchy, stands for 'a fuller, a richer, and of the prince essays more various life among all the sipser, nations that compose it'. Document Twenty-nine: Clement R. Atlee, The Labour Party in Perspective: Clement Atlee states that the two pillars of the essay, Labour party's policy for the Empire are 'self government' and 'socialisation'. The first pillar involves allowing for self-government where it is homework sipser possible, and where it is not possible, formally recognizing the the qualities of the prince, colonies as mandates within the League of nations structure. Sipser. By opening the colonies for inspection by the League of Nations, the Labour Party intended to ensure that the the qualities prince, League accepted some of the responsibility for sipser defending the colonies, thus taking some of the pressure off of the British military. The Qualities Prince Essays. The second pillar is less defined. The only concrete proposal of homework sipser, Atlee's is to turn over the control of the 'means of production' in how to the colonies to the League of homework sipser, Nations.
Criminology 135 Assignment Three Robert Jago 200015294 In his book, Multicultural Citizenship, Will Kymlicka expounds upon goal the basis of the collective rights of the several types of sipser, groups that make up Canada. He claims that there are first and foremost the two founding nations; This primary grouping is prince composed of the descendants of the colonizers who created the state in their image. This primary group founded the state with their conceptions of rights and privileges in mind. Kymlicka states that these two founding groups are rightfully afforded every chance at self-government. Sipser. Together with the the qualities of the essays, founders there are immigrants, or 'New Canadians'. Immigrants and other non-primary (or non-founding) groups do not share in the primary groups' rights. These non-primary groups have no legitimate or just claims to have separate self-governing institutions. Most importantly, these non-primary groups have no moral right whatsoever to homework, have their cultures or languages recognized in an official capacity. The reason that the non-primary groups do not hold the same types of nationality rights as the primary groups is because they voluntarily surrendered their rights as a distinct people by essay emigrating to an established state and society. The duty of New Canadians is to assimilate themselves into homework, the dominant society.
The hundreds of Aboriginal peoples that inhabit Canada poses a different sort of rights than either the founders or the immigrants do. Because aboriginal or 'native' Canadians are part of in Canada because of editing, force, they continue to possess the same nationality rights that any other sovereign people posses. Native rights were never surrendered voluntarily, therefore they continue to exist. It is should be noted that all individuals, regardless of their group affiliation [or lack thereof], have certain 'natural rights' such as the freedom of speech and assembly and of life, liberty and property. As sovereign peoples, aboriginals continue to have the right to their own justice system. Sipser. They have a right to conscript people, they have a right to execute people and so on and so forth. They also have a right to be un-democratic; the rights of peoples and protection of our essay nations have long been recognized as entirely separate from the sipser, natural rights of individuals. With it decided that aboriginal nations continue to posses a broad range of nationality rights, the main question at essay of diwali hand is whether or not they should exercise any of these rights. A further question is what is the duty of the Canadian state, if any, to aboriginal individuals, who have a legal status as native and, Canadian citizens. A further question is, should non-status natives, who in many respects are similar to new Canadians, be considered part of this equation. To begin to answer these questions there needs first to be a summary of the state of affairs for natives in the criminal justice system.
It is homework sipser commonly agreed that the central problem behind much native crime is substance abuse , whether that be heroin on van gogh cafe at night essay the streets of homework, Vancouver, Alcohol in the reserves of how to write, Saskatchewan, or gasoline and glue in sipser the shanties of Labrador. On some reserves, alcohol is responsible for 95% of crime, with nearly 100% of the adult population involved in cafe terrace some way or other. Furthermore, this alcohol abuse leads to a disproportionate amount of violent crime including spousal and child abuse - both of which may lead to further cycles of family violence. Outside of reserves, natives are disproportionately represented in violent crime and sipser drug related crime as well as domestic violence. Protection Of Our Environment Essay. Natives comprise between 8 and 68 percent of the provincial prison populations, well beyond their share of the homework sipser, population. There are numerous reasons why natives come into constant conflict with the law. One such reason for van gogh at night native conflict with the law is what can be termed, 'a problem of policing'. Several studies have shown that white police officers are more likely to deal with a complaint involving white people without recourse to homework sipser, arrest. When these same white police officers come into similar conflicts with native or black individuals they are more likely to resort to arrest. One response to this problem of policing is to hire native police officers to serve in areas with large native populations.
However, by enlisting natives to police natives one can be said to be pandering to essay of diwali, racial biases; it is not dissimilar from enlisting whites to police whites, blacks to police blacks, and so forth - it is at best an unsettling proposal. Furthermore, besides the homework, task of making such a proposal socially acceptable there is a growing body of evidence which shows that the racial biases that native police officers would have may not necessarily benefit natives. In a study regarding the use of deadly force in the United States, it was found that black officers were just as likely to shoot black suspects as were white officers. It was hypothesized that there was both an institutional and meta-cultural bias against black men and many police officers had this bias, regardless of ultimate in life essay, their own colour. This may also hold true for natives. Natives have traditionally been under valued in homework white society and this view may have been internalized by natives. Protection Of Our. The internalization of colonialism and the affectations of it is sipser apparent in Verdun-Jones and goal in life essay Griffiths' text.
They imply that there is a single native society with traditional communal values and homework sipser that is based on consensus. Each of those assertions is absurd. Native societies are extremely diverse and any unifying aspects are the product of colonialism- something that the authors blame for the high rates of criminality amongst natives. Traditional native society in British Columbia was not based on communal property in the current sense, but was based on clan or familial property that was viciously guarded. There was no peace amongst the van gogh terrace at night, first nations of British Columbia. Crime fighting in pre-contact societies more often involved physical violence than consensus and 'community healing'. As for communities as they exist today, they are the direct products of colonialism.
Natives never had an egalitarian society with equal justice for all as each type of criminal reform listed in the text holds as an axiom. Traditional native society in British Columbia was supported upon a superstructure of slavery, violence and the absolute rights of private and family property. In order to solve the problems of native communities there must be a whole hearted acceptance of homework, some aspects of European culture. There must be a recognition of the pillars of common law. There must be a recognition of the formal, legal equality of ultimate goal, men ,women, and foreigners.
There must be a recognition of the right to confront accused, there must be a statute of limitations, a right of appeal, and all of the homework sipser, basic rights regarding the use of evidence. Before any major reforms can be undertaken there needs to be a recognition that each level of government has some specific responsibilities with regard to natives. The native governments themselves have a responsibility first and foremost for preserving native culture and civilization [the term is here used loosely]. Van Gogh. The federal governments under their fiduciary responsibility [held by the crown under section 22] have a duty to native individuals. These dual roles are enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. What these roles mean for justice reform is that each government holds a separate interest and must guard this interest in homework any decision regarding reforms. This does impinge upon the inherent and moral right of editing the essay, sovereignty that the various native nations hold, but there are some political realities that supercede these rights and one of them is that native Canadians are - in the least - the homework, bearers of dual loyalties , national or ethnic and political. The first loyalty is to their own racial government, and the second is to the civil government in Ottawa. With regard to justice reforms, these separate roles do come into conflict. There has been at least one case brought before the courts on Vancouver Island regarding the excesses of community justice. One man who had become known for drinking and behaving irresponsibly while living in Victoria, was kidnapped under the order of his community's native elders, and with the consent of his family, conscripted into a traditional native healing ceremony.
If the interests of the community had prevailed we would have heard little of this case. However, the man in question exercised his rights as a Canadian citizen and invoked the charter against the community that unlawfully attacked him. The men that took him on community orders and beat him into sobriety were charged with kidnapping and assault, much to the consternation of his family and community. Goal. The federal government also has a duty to protect the community at large - that is to say, white Canada from dangerous individuals regardless of race or nationality. Certain offenses such as forcible rape have recently been treated differently if they had been committed by homework sipser a native. Because of the harsh realities of the residential schools, many natives were sexually abused and van gogh cafe at night essay have begun to act this out on other people, through forcible rape, or child abuse et. Homework Sipser. al.. Any federal actions in justice reform must therefore take these many factors into goal, consideration. First and foremost is the right of natives to have their own justice system. Second is the general issue of accountability and democracy enshrined in the Charter of sipser, Rights and protection of our environment essay Freedoms. Third, their is the fiduciary responsibility to native individuals, coupled with the Peace Order and Good Government related duties of the government to ensure public safety and the general welfare of the non-native populace.
The various native governments have one sole concern on this issue and sipser that is advancing their national self interest. It is an affront to the dignity of a sovereign nation to have their nationals arrested, tried and the qualities essays imprisoned in a foreign justice system. The most powerful regular exercise of state power is the sipser, ability of the state to arrest, try , and detain its wayward citizens. The native governments, if they are to act as real nations do, need this 'big stick' in essay of diwali order to survive and rebuild. The nationalization of the justice system by the Native governments is imperative if they are to legitimately exercise authority over homework sipser, their citizens.. How To Write A Essay. The decision on whether or not there should be a native justice system lay entirely with the federal government. The question before the federal government is, should it devolve, delegate, or maintain its current responsibilities for the administration of justice on the native reserves. Sipser. One option for the federal government is to create a parallel federal government of natives with the accompanying institutions such as a court and police system. This was proposed in the Royal Commission on Native Peoples. This option is the most contentious.
The rest of Canada is likely to balk at any form of consociational government between the races. Any new political arrangements with natives should be on a territorial basis, because of Canadian's familiarity with this form of governmental responsibility. Editing. Another reason for the devolution of justice on a territorial basis is the sheer diversity of native nations. Some native peoples may not wish to accept responsibility for the administration of their own justice system for one reason or another. Perhaps they do not trust the factions within their nations to be able to impartially administer a court and police system. The record to sipser, date of how to write a essay, native government and policing has shown that impartiality and the independence of the police are far from guaranteed. The purpose for sipser constructing a separate native justice system is to mitigate the harmful effects of colonialism which are responsible for the heightened criminality of natives. While the proposition that colonialism has hurt natives more than it has helped them is open to question, what must be dealt with here is whether or not a separate court and policing system for each native nation will 'heal the wounds' of a century or two of colonial rule. Cafe. The answer is, yes and no. Homework Sipser. On some reserves or tribes with large enough populations and with the terrace essay, basic tenets of western-liberal justice and democracy established, a justice system would be a welcome step on homework the road to becoming full partners in the federation. On reserves here nepotism and ancient class and racial bigotry reign, the addition of the police would be half way towards creation of a police state.
The devolution of justice to protection, some native nations would allow for the racialization or nationalization of many high paid and professional jobs. This would immediately give a boost to the native societies. Beyond that, native civilians would benefit from having full access to people of their own race who share their cultural prejudices and traits. However, it is unclear if these utopian reserves of rights and democracy and brotherhood exist. The most likely and homework sipser most beneficial choice the federal government could make for natives is to delegate the prince, responsibility for the court system to them. This would mean the stationing of federal officers on the basis of their race and national origin [presumably native - or more specifically Salish, Tsipsian or whatever] to reserves. Sipser. Furthermore it would mean the creation of a separate system of circuit or county courts for the reserves that would remain part of the provincial or federal court system. Perhaps this new system could be adjunct to essay of diwali, the federal court. Homework Sipser. A separate layer of the federal or provincial courts that would serve justice on reserves only would be halfway between an of our environment essay autonomous paralell native federation, and a native archipelago of four or five hundred justice systems. This final option would have the added benefit of maintaining control of the courts in the Department of Indian Affairs and or justice. The judges would be federally appointed from a separate native court bar [just as there is a Supreme Court bar].
Furthermore the separate level of courts would be acceptable to many non-native Canadians. Homework Sipser. The court would have a specific territorial entity as its jurisdiction and this entity is not composed exclusively of the people of one race. Goal. The court would administer justice on the territory of the reserves. Just as the supreme court of the united states refers to homework sipser, the laws of the states of editing the essay, a cases origin when rendering their decisions, the new federal court could refer to the numerous reserve or national laws when rendering its decisions. A native court, a native bar, and native judges, administering local native laws do not necessarily prevent a native man for getting drunk and beating his wife.
The sense of pride at having his own court system is likely to sipser, do little as well. Essay Of Diwali. What is wrong with the reserves is a lack of economic opportunity and a lack of homework sipser, order. Economic opportunity is not within the scope of this paper, but order is. If there cannot be a separate federal police force for natives, and if policing cannot be devolved to the qualities prince essays, native governments for fear if giving too much power to too many corrupt regimes, then what is to homework sipser, be done with the police? A separate police division of the RCMP has been tried and essay of diwali has failed. What could work is a piece meal response that would have capable reserves with their own police forces and homework sipser lesser reserves with a force of specially trained RCMP subject to local police boards. This would be coupled with a native court sensitive to coerced evidence, police prejudices and differential use of the arresting power. Editing The Essay. The separate layers of policing may cut down on many of the unnecessary arrest of natives as well as allow people to have more confidence in sipser the police and call them before a domestic disturbance turns violent. This would likely take care of many of the problems of order on the reserves. The courts would both serve as a support for the new policing system and act as a booster of national pride. With the question of law and order on the reserves out van gogh terrace essay, of the way, there is the question of extra-territoriality and the Metis and non-status natives .The key component of homework sipser, any separate system of justice should be that it is how to based on territorial distinctions.
That is the only practical way of administering justice and sipser selling justice to a population of fair weather egalitarians like the Canadians . The Metis where they have their own territories should be allowed to be part of the native court and policing systems. Status natives living off reserve should have no recourse to the native courts if their crime was not committed on reserve. Because the court are founded on a territorial basis they have a limited exclusive jurisdiction. Non-status natives have voted with their feet in the same way that all immigrants have, and they have opted out of native national life, the reserve police and essay of diwali court system should not apply to them. While natives should have no access to the reserve court system if they are not physically on a reserve they still will have problems with criminality. The only feasible solution for urban natives is to have regular police officers of native ancestry in areas with large native populations. Besides that, all that can be done is mandatory awareness campaigns for the police, crown counsel and judges. Such training would focus on the rules of evidence and the differential use of the discretionary power by police and by prosecutors which has resulted in sipser discrimination against natives. The presence of native police officers on the 'native beat' might allow people of native ancestry to feel more comfortable with the officers and to come to them with problems earlier.
Native police officers may treat people of their own race better than people of an other race and deal with the former's problems out of court. While this beneficial racial is both unsettling and less than a certainty ,the presence of ultimate goal in life, native police officers in disturbances amongst natives could in the least diffuse the situation and turn it from a racial confrontation to homework, one merely of the police and a criminal. It is an uncomfortable conclusion to come to, however, it has been arrived at how to here. A separate Native court system, based on territory is the best means possible to correct the ill effects of the homework, colonial experience. Because white-Canada has shown that it is unlikely to accept any system based solely on race and nationality - a separate native court system that would be open to all the natives of Canada is not politically feasible. A territorial division of power is common in Canada, and the extension of protection, this division of powers to natives -while contentious- is not an impossibility. If such a court was kept as an adjunct to the federal court, and homework sipser had a narrow jurisdiction over the reserves only, it could correct some of the ill effects of the colonial legacy - at least on ultimate in life the reserves.
However many Natives do not live on reserve, though they do share in the stigma of being native. Because white police officers, prosecutors, and homework sipser judges, have been shown to discriminate against essay of diwali natives. Sipser. The evidence shows that native police officers may be as likely to discriminate against natives as are white police. The best possible solution is the essay of diwali, recruitment of native police officers for homework areas with high native populations in the hope that they would in the least encourage natives to report crime amongst themselves more readily than they do with white officers. In order to deal with some of the essay of diwali, discrimination, there also needs to sipser, be a sensitivity program to include the police, judges, and prosecutors. The Essay. While these solutions fall far short of what is needed to solve the sipser, problem of native criminality, it is the protection environment, farthest one can politically go in Canada toward a solution. Crim201: Canada?s sexual assault laws were, until recently, based in the customary tradition of the United Kingdom. That tradition in itself is based on more ancient traditions. Homework Sipser. The common thread to goal, most if not all sexual assault laws throughout history has been their exclusion of the martial relationship as a possible venue for sexual assault.
The first proposed laws on sipser sexual assault in this study originate in classical Athens. This law was not specifically a rape law, but rather dealt with justifiable homicide. Drafted by Plato, it stated that: The man who forcibly violates a free woman or boy shall be slain with impunity by the person thus violently outraged, or by his father, or brother and sons . Protection Essay. And should a man discover his wedded wife being violated, he shall be guiltless if he kills the violator (Cohen 1993, p.8). Homework. This law protects both men and women from sexual assault ? which is something that Canadian law did not achieve until 1983. This law still does not protect a spouse from editing rape by his or her partner. It is also important to draw attention to whom the offense is homework sipser being committed against.
It is stated that if a man discovers ?his? wife being raped, he may respond with deadly force. The act itself is essay of diwali not committed against the wife but against the husband?s possession. The next law comes from the Roman Empire. Unlike Athenian and Canadian law, this law provides for the possibility of a woman committing rape. Also, unlike Athenian and early American law, rape or ?lewd advances? could be committed against a slave(Russell 1975, p.13). If anyone makes lewd advances, be it a man or a woman, freeborn or freed, he will be liable for the outrage and even if an attempt is made on the chastity of homework sipser, a slave, this too is cafe at night deemed to be an outrage (Justinian ca 550, p. 166). This law is a codification of homework, earlier Roman law. Among the key points to note about the how to, law is that it falls within the realm of tort. Homework. Sexual assault at this early stage was only a concern for cafe terrace at night essay the state if it was committed by a slave.
It is also important to note that the terms used in this law are not specifically inclusive of husbands and wives. No provision existed for the prosecution of rape within marriage. Marriage in the middle ages was, until 1180, an object of contention. While in Rome there were several ways in which one could be married, with different social and legal ramifications (Kolbert 1979, pp.54-57), in Europe Pope Alexander III decreed that there should be but one (Brundage 1993, pp.247-248). The Pope ruled that marriage began after an agreement to sipser, marry had been consummated (Ibid. p.248). In several cases involving leprosy, the Pope ruled that because the marriage had been consummated, one spouse had a duty to go with the stricken spouse to the leposarium where he will ?give her sexual solace on demand? or where she will provide him with ?marital affection? (Ibid. p.249). An emphasis should be put on the term ?consummated?. By the goal in life, 13th century it had been generally agreed that two sorts of homework, rights existed in marriage(Ibid. p.251). The first set were created with the agreement to marry, and essay of diwali those involved the marital rights such as property. The second set of rights were sexual rights or ?implied consent?.
These second rights were created when the couple consummated their marriage. A 14th century court ruling shows that, while the marital rights could be dissolved by separation, these sexual rights were permanent: We hold the defendant bound to pay the conjugal debt to the plaintiff in homework sipser her father?s house one night each week and to keep this obligation faithfully, until we shall order otherwise (Brundage, p.252). The marital debt was a very real and enforceable debt throughout the middle ages. By most definitions (positivists excepted), what the court ordered in that case was a weekly, scheduled rape. This practice continued throughout the middle ages. Rape could only be committed by a man against a free woman(Wemple 1993, p.229). Cafe Terrace At Night Essay. Punishments usually involved a fine which varied depending on the amount of force used (5 solidi for abduction and homework sipser rape, 8 more solidi if he used a sword). A common punishment for a man who committed rape was that he must pay the offended family the bride-price. If she consented to sex, the price was reduced by one third. Consent was the property of the father or brothers, and ultimate sexual assault was an offence against their property (Ibid.).
Other punishments for rape included enslavement to the offended family (if the offender was a servant or only half free), and death if the offender had the audacity to flee to a church (Ibid.). Rape in the United Kingdom is a more puzzling affair. While it is commonly accepted that these mediaeval laws persisted, there is some evidence to the contrary. The doctrine on common law and marital rape was stated explicitly in the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster Johnson and Sigler 1997, p11). This was reiterated by the 17th century judge Sir Mathew Hale. He stated that ?the wife hath given up herself in sipser this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract? (Hall 1984, p.xvi).
He based his judgement on ?ancient common law doctrine?. While the Athenian, Roman, and Papal law cited above does suggest that Sir Mathew was factually accurate, he may not have been technically correct. Common law is an organic law which changes with each judicial ruling. These rulings are able to overturn legal doctrines such as the kind described in this paper so far. In 1631 a man was convicted in England of raping his wife (Hall, p.xvi). This suggests that perhaps, ?ancient common law doctrine? had long since been overturned by the time that Sir Mathew got to it. Nevertheless it persisted unchanged until it was transferred to Canada in essay of diwali the 18th century. In 1800, the laws of sipser, England such as they were on September 17th, 1792, became Canadian laws. Essay Of Diwali. This was accomplished with the sipser, Act for the Further Introduction of English Criminal Law into Upper Canada (Garley 1989, p.26).
These laws were ineffective. Between 1840 and 1892, in Ontario, there were 228 rape prosecutions and 49 convictions (Ibid. pp. 29-30). By the late 1800?s the absurdity inherent in Sir Mathew Hale?s proclamation became evident. In R. v. Clarence, the courts decided that while a husband had the right to sexual intercourse with his wife, he could not enforce that right by using force(anon. 2000). The implied consent or the ?sexual rights? were no longer considered to be absolute: Subsequent decisions restricted Hale's proposition to situations where husband and wife enjoyed ordinary relations between them, thus exposing abusive husbands to protection of our essay, prosecution for rape where they were judicially separated or where the wife had initiated divorce proceedings and had been granted a decree nisi (Ibid.). The law continued to crumble throughout the homework sipser, 20th century. In 1935, Southern Australia allowed for the conviction (albeit under exceptionally violent circumstances) of the essay, a husband for raping his wife.
In 1965, New Zealand permitted for the prosecution of husbands for raping their wives when a decree nisi was in place. Scotland barred spousal rape altogether in 1989, and England followed suit in 1991 (Ibid.). Canadian rape law throughout this period changed only once. While the absolute sexual rights that were referred to in the mediaeval period and reinforced by Sir Mathew Hale did not survive the start of the twentieth century, the formal law still remained in sipser place. It was not until 1983 that the law shielding a husband from a rape prosecution by his wife passed into goal, history. The law as it stood in homework 1927, and editing titled ?Unlawful Carnal Knowledge? reads as follows: 298. Rape is the act of a man having carnal knowledge of a woman who is not his wife without her consent, or with consent which has been extorted by threats or fear of bodily harm, or obtained by personating the homework, woman?s husband, or by essay of diwali false and homework sipser fraudulent representations as to at night, the nature and quality of the act. [emphasis mine] (R.S., 1927, 289, p.87) By 1980, this law remained unchanged(Tremeear?s 1980 Criminal Code 143, p.61). A rape by definition could not be committed by a husband against his wife. While the absolute sexual right in perpetuity had ceased to exist, the right was maintained in existing marriages though it was grounds for divorce. The result of these laws was the gross under reporting of rape. It was not simply because many women believed that their attackers would not be punished, but it is that many women did not believe that an attack had taken place (Russell, p.134).
Furthermore, because the state had for so long assumed that a husband had a right to his wife?s body, many wives had accepted and adapted to the situation. For a woman to see her husband as a rapist and to homework, continue to live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. One solution for these women is not to editing, see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the right to say no, to be always sexually available, regardless of homework sipser, her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71). Women?s poor economic and social status had allowed for their continued use as sexual objects. The law reflected this.
It is a truism to state that Canada is a patriarchal society. There are reasons why this is so easily said, and the law prior to 1983 is one of them. However, the law did change. With bill c-127 (1983) the law expanded to include spousal sexual assaults as part of its jurisdiction (Boritch, pp.234-235). Possibly because of this and reforms to how to, the rules of evidence, the number of reported sexual assaults rose dramatically.
However, while half of homework, all women in Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000) only protection, 6 percent of sipser, these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and cafe p.224). R. v. Sipser. White (1-24 C.C.C. Essay Of Diwali. 3d,) is an example of a crime that would not have been prosecuted prior to homework sipser, the 1983 reforms. R. v. White is write a 1986 case, brought before the British Columbia Court of Appeal. Homework. The accused (White) was married to the victim, but they were estranged (Ibid., p.1).
The victim returned home one night to find the accused wearing surgical gloves and holding a pillow. She screamed, at which point he put the pillow over her face, and goal in life then covered her mouth with a bandage that wrapped around her head. He then beat her, threatened to murder her, and then after a long discussion, she went into the bedroom, where she was raped (Ibid., p.1). Before I continue, I should add that the homework, actions described were perfectly legal until very recently. The accused claimed that the ultimate goal in life, discussion led him to believe that his wife had consented to sex. Sipser. He stated that he believed that sex was an attempt at reconciliation. How To. The issue at hand in R. v. White is sipser whether his mistaken belief that his wife consented is a valid defense. While the appeal of his conviction was dismissed, the fact that it went to trial is significant. If he had engaged in the identical activity three years earlier, he would have committed no crime. The Essay. The signal difference between the law as it stands today and the law is it stood prior to homework, 1983, was the fact that wives are no longer considered to be the possession of their husbands.
Sexual assault by intimates including spouses comprises 38 percent of essay of diwali, all sexual assaults in homework Canada (Ontario Women?s Directorate). However, while 6 percent of the total number of sexual assaults are reported to police, only 1 percent of these sexual assaults by intimates are reported (Ibid.). Several reasons for this lack of reporting are provided in surveys. One major reason for not reporting sexual assaults by essay of diwali intimates is that the nature of the relationship may lead authorities to suspect that there really was consent. Sipser. Furthermore, many women may not view a sexual assault by editing a husband or boyfriend as such. They may internalize the homework, blame and say such things as, ?what did you think he wanted,? ?you drank with him didn't you,? or ?you should have expected something like this to happen.?(Ibid.).
In a search through fifty editions of Canadian Criminal Cases, I found only write, one case of spousal rape that was prosecuted. The vast majority of sexual assault prosecutions continue to be for assaults by homework sipser strangers, on young women. Prior rape and sexual assault laws sought to essay, protect the chastity of the same class of homework, young women from sexual predator. The purpose was to defend men?s property. A look at which rapes are prosecuted shows that this is still the case. Sexual assault law has existed since the time of Plato. The point of that law, and nearly every law that succeeded it was, in the case of the qualities of the prince essays, women, not to protect them as victims, but to protect their husbands, brothers, or fathers as guardians. Sexual assault law developed slowly through the mediaeval period, and followed the development of marriage and homework sipser spousal property. While in the Roman Empire, a woman was a free citizen with the rights to goal, dispose of her property, and homework enter into free contracts, in the mediaeval period, she was a possession to essay of diwali, be transferred for a price from father to homework, husband.
The mediaeval period saw the development of the principle of a ?sexual right? that comes into existence with the consummation of a marriage. This right was so absolute as to allow the authorities to order a former wife to protection of our environment, submit to sipser, a weekly scheduled rape. As this law came to England it was formalized in the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster. These confirmed a husband?s right to have sex with his wife, whenever he chose. In 1800, these laws came to Canada. For more than a century , the absolute and goal essay unbreakable sexual rights remained unchallenged. Sipser. By the start of the the essay, 20th century, they were slowly chipped away at. A husband lost the absolute right to rape his wife even after they divorced. This right was confined to a marriage where ?ordinary relations? persisted. This law stood until 1983.
With bill c-127, the sexual assault laws were finally expanded to include violence within a marriage. However, regardless of the homework, new law, few reports of spousal rapes are made. The reasons for this are numerous, but the most troubling is the belief by many wives, that what happened was not an assault. It is not until this last problem of internalized blame is the qualities of the essays dealt with that two millennia of reforms can have any real deterrent value. Bibliography Annonymous (2000). The Historical Development of the Offense of Rape. Homework Sipser. http:canadiancrimanallaw.com/articles/srticles/rape.htm.
Boritch, Helen. Fallen Women: Female Crime and Criminal Justice in Canada, ITP Nelson (Toronto: 1997). Brundage, James A. The Qualities Prince Essays. Implied Consent to Intercourse pp. 245-256, Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Cohen, David. Consent and Sexual Relations in Classical Athens pp. 5-16, Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993).
The Criminal Code and Other Selected Statutes of Canada, Edmond Cloutier (Ottawa: 1948). Garley, Kenneth David William. A Trust Betrayed: Sexual Assault in Dating/Courtship Relations and the Response of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.:1989). Hall, Ruth and Selma James and Judit Kertesz, The Rapist Who Pays the Rent, Falling Wall Press (Bristol : 1984). Johnson, Ida M. and Robert Sigler, Forced Sexual Intercourse in homework sipser Intimate Relationships, Ashgate-Dartmouth (Aldershot:1997). Essay. Justinian (trans.) (circa 550) The Digest of homework sipser, Roman Law: Theft, Rapine, Dammage and Insult, C.F. Kolbert ed..Penguin Books (Middlesex, England: 1979) Ontario Women?s Directorate (2000). Sexual Assault Dispelling the Myths. Environment. http:www.womanabuseprevention.com/html/sexual_assault.html. Sipser. R. v. White (1986), Canadian Criminal Cases, 1-24 C.C.C. (3d) Russell, Diana E.H., The Politics of Rape:The Victim?s Perspective, Stein and environment Day Publishers (New York: 1975).
Treemar?s 1980 Criminal Code and Miscellaneous Statutes, The Carswell Company ltd. (Toronto: 1980). Wemple, Suzanne F. Consent and Dissent to Sexual Intercourse in Germanic Societies from the Fifth to the Tenth Century pp. Homework. 227-244, Consent and Coercion to the qualities essays, Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Feminist Crim. When the words ?women? and ?crime? are spoken, the homework sipser, first two words to come to many minds are ?sexual assault?. According to most statistics, more than half of all women in Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000). In some segments of the population that number rises to 83 percent (Ibid.). While these numbers are high, the numbers of convictions for sexual assault are not.
According to information presented by Helen Boritch, 10 percent of women can expect to be sexually assaulted in how to any given year, while only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to homework, the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and p.224) . Editing The Essay. There is a very large discrepency of numbers. The vast majority of sexual assaults go unreported. The vast majority of homework, sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows (Ibid. pp.212-213). Perhaps the reason that so many sexual assaults go unreported is because of this overriding fact (Ontario Woman?s Directorate). Sexual assault within families was until recently legal in in life Canada.
The thinking went as such: The husband cannot be guilty of rape committed by homework himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract (Hall, James and Kertesz 1984, p.20). The authorities believed that common law provided for the lawful rape of essay of diwali, a wife by her husband. While this is a patently false proposition, by the 18th century, it had become the official line (Ibid. p.xvi). I didn?t feel that I had been raped. I felt more that I was stupid because I went out with a white fraternity guy. Homework Sipser. ..so I blamed myself for going out with him. Also I didn?t think of protection environment, it as rape because I knew him and because I consented to homework sipser, go. At the time I thought rape was a man coming out of the bushes and ultimate essay attacking you, so somebody you knew couldn?t rape you (Russell 1975, p.134). For a woman to see her husband as a rapist and to continue to live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. Sipser. One solution for these women is not to essay of diwali, see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the right to say no, to sipser, be always sexually available, regardless of her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71).
Crim (Deviancy) : Is there a point in my life when I considered myself to be deviant, or others considered me to be deviant? If so, how was the situation resolved? People are always telling me that I am ?weird?. I disagree with them. How To Write. I believe that I am one of the least deviant people I know. I am very old fashioned though, so maybe that?s why I get the weird label. Nevertheless, there are few times in my life when I consider myself to be a ?deviant?. My self-concept appears to follow a dialectical pattern. I consider myself to homework sipser, be part of a group, and identify with that group and protection of our its values. Sipser. I increasingly find myself uncomfortable with some of the things which that group does or talks about.
At some point an incident occurs, and I become isolated from the group. I then identify with a new group, and the process starts over. Of The. In other words, my membership in the first group can be considered a thesis. Sipser. The thesis consists of terrace, that group?s world-view, which I share in. The crisis is the antithesis, it is the stage at which the homework, cognitive dissonance that occurred within the thesis comes out into the open. Finally the new group is the synthesis.
In the synthesis, the essay of diwali, world-view that I held in the thesis group is homework sipser largely gone, as are the troubles of the antithesis. The most memorable dialectical shift in my life occurred in 1990-1991. In 1990, I was part of the write a essay, dominant white clique at my junior high school, in suburban Richmond. While everyone had got along in elementary school, we all divided along racial lines when we got to high school. The Chinese kids all went and homework sipser spent time together, and even the of the prince essays, Chinese kids that could not speak Chinese, went. The East-Indian kids did as the Chinese did, and sipser the white kids followed suit. There was not anything malicious about any of it. Well, that is not entirely true.
Much of our time in the white group was spent making fun of kids in the East Indian and Chinese groups. Essay Of Diwali. However, we were not entirely racist, all the black kids in homework our school were part of our group. Our group had their own ?territory?, drama and the arts were ours, as well as physical education, while we gave the essay of diwali, East-Indian kids shop class, and the Chinese kids, computer science. The rest of the sipser, classes were required, so we could not split them up as easily, though we did manage some how. How To. By 1990, I was firmly ensconced in this group. I had few complaints about it, I am quite good at making fun of people, so I was a valuable asset to the collective. In the summer of 1990, an sipser incident happened which upset my place within the essay of diwali, group. On July 11th of homework, that year, a group of armed Mohawks got into a shooting war with the Quebec provincial police.
My group hated French immersion kids, so it seemed obvious to me which side we would come down on. Essay Of Diwali. I did not worry. Homework. Much to my surprise, the general attitude among the white kids was that the government should send in tanks, and get rid of the ?Indians?. It had not occurred to me until that point that I am half-?Indian?. My family came down firmly on the side of the Mohawks. Most of of our environment, my male cousins who were old enough went off to join one blockade or another, and at least one got himself sent to prison for his troubles. We went out to the reserve more often. Previously we had gone there for the winter ceremonies, or for birthday parties. This time we were going out homework sipser, there to ?plan things?. Back at home amongst my friends, I found myself increasingly isolated. I got into more and more fights, both verbal and physical.
People that had been part of my group ? though not friends per se, walked past me like they did not know me. I started spending time with the black kids and the girls, and while they were not as overtly racist as the white boys, they were still racist. Young boys tend not to hide things, while young girls ? at least in that group- seem to believe that in order to be ?nice? it is their duty to hide their opinions. By the end of the in life essay, summer I found myself completely shut out of the white group. I was the one of only two native kids at my school, so there was no chance of homework, joining the native clique. The other native kid had lighter skin, so he began to pretend that he was Italian. I would say that ?I can?t blame him? but in essay of diwali reality I hated him and consider him to be a two-faced traitor. I spent more time on homework sipser the reserve and with my younger cousins. With them, all the anger that had developed from being isolated could be vented destructively. It was o.k. in that group to hate the police and the government.
It was o.k. to through rocks at police cars and prince essays buildings as well as other things that can not be mentioned here. In fact, not only was it o.k. amongst the new clique, but it was accepted and approved of by the adults around us. The point at which I switched allegiances entirely from white society to native society was at a family barbecue. Sipser. The barbecue was at an uncle?s house. He was on the white side of my family. Everyone at the barbecue was white but me. Most of them were family, though there were a few family friends there. My parents stayed at home. That day happened to be the same day that the army advanced on native positions around Montreal.
Raw footage of the attack was broadcast on live television. I was glued to the news, and was very upset. I asked everyone else to come see what was happening. Because they were family I assumed that they would take my side. Ultimate Essay. The group became very upset too, but at the natives.
One of my uncles friends went on a rant and started saying that all those ?Indians? want out of the crisis is money to buy liquor. That is amongst the more polite things that he said. I noticed that several of my aunts and uncles agreed with him. My grandparents refused to say a word in my defense. When I did open my mouth to yell at him and give him the usual ?shpeel? about oppression et. al., I was hushed up. I got up, and left. Homework Sipser. I walked home from how to write a essay there and told my parents. My father (he is very white) got into a loud argument over the phone with my uncle and sipser my grandparents.
My mother yelled at me for going to the barbecue in essay of diwali the first place. Homework Sipser. It was after the barbecue that I decided that I would completely abandon ?white? culture in favor of native (Salish) culture, and the essay religion. In a pique of melodrama I went to homework sipser, the living room and threw my bible and little plastic Canadian flag into the fireplace. I have since changed since then, I know have a European wife, and white friends, and while I am no Christian, I certainly would not burn a perfectly good bible today. However, I still align myself with the native cause, and have abandoned any pretenses of Canadian citizenship. It is difficult to understand which theory of deviancy applied to of the essays, me in that situation. Perhaps demonology applied to me, I did become a heathen, though that was after the fact (Gomme, p.41). If I was not possessed by the dark forces of the homework, ?fallen one?, maybe I was the product of my environment (Ibid., p.43). Van Gogh Cafe Terrace Essay. However, my environment was a townhouse complex which was at least one quarter Jewish, and was smack in the center of suburban Vancouver. If environment played any role in my formation, I would have joined the Lion?s Club, or become a Freemason.
Two theories of homework, deviance hold the the qualities essays, most possibility for explaining my situation. Sipser. The first is containment theory. Containment theory is the theory of inner and outer forces pushing and pulling someone toward deviance (Ibid., p.81). Gomme writes that: Social forces that push and how to write a essay pull people toward deviant behavior include?membership in an ethnic minority, restricted access to legitimate opportunities (Gomme, p.81). These external social forces included my peers and my extended family. On the one hand, the white side of family, and my white friends ostracized me, and openly attacked me, while on homework sipser the other hand, the native part of my family, allowed me to vent my frustrations, and provided friends, and a ready target for of our environment essay teenage anger. I would also consider that my access to ?legitimate opportunities? was hampered by the activities of the whites around me. By ostracizing me, and sipser making school unpleasant, the editing, whites prevented me from achieving the scholastic success that was due. They also prevented me from pursuing the social relationships that I had established over four or more years. This legitimate frustration sought me to seek success in the native community and to attempt to form social bonds with natives.
Internal forces that constrain an individual from deviancy include, ?a positive self-concept, a strong ego, an intense sense of personal responsibility, and a high frustration threshold? (Gomme, p.81). I know for homework a fact that I had none of the qualities prince essays, these qualities. More often than not, a poor self-concept, and weak ego, led me to follow the crowd, and go along with whatever the homework, group told me to do. As for personal responsibility and the ability to be frustrated, I was suspect that I was an average teenager, and therefore, both of these things were absent. The Qualities Of The. Containment theory appears to homework sipser, be a perfect fit. I was pushed into goal, deviancy by the people around me. Sipser. There are other theories that may be a better fit.
I will discount social control theory, because of its reliance on essay of diwali the concept of deterrence (Ibid., p.89). I do not believe that there was either a general or a specific deterrence factor to being native. Up until 1990, being native was an curiosity, like being double jointed; it could be trotted out at parties to impress and entertain people. At that time, there was almost an incentive to be exotic. Incentive does not apply in my case though. Labeling theory has some interesting possibilities. The Oka crisis was an act of primary deviance (Gomme, p.100). If the Canadian State was to defend a burial ground in homework ? say, France ? from editing conversion into a golf course, it would be considered to be legitimate. However, because the homework, Mohawks lacked many of the goal in life essay, legitimate venues that a Country would have in lobbying another on homework the international stage, they were forced into an act of violence ? a blockade. Afterwards they were attacked, and used force to defend themselves ? something that any country would do. However because the Mohawk country is not recognized, what they did was considered to be an act of terrorism, and they were punished for it in those terms.
As for me, the primary act of deviance was defending the Mohawks in the Oka crisis. While the majority of my peers were attacking the Mohawks, I came to essay of diwali, their defense. My first act of defense was primary deviance because it was isolated, and did not result in ?continuous negative social reaction? (Ibid.). Homework Sipser. Because I did not consider that act of primary deviance to the essay, be deviant, I would not be self-identified as a deviant. Gomme writes about what happened next: The application of derogatory labels and the severing of sipser, connections to conventional sphere intensify the construction of a deviant identity by forcing the devalued person to seek out others in similar situations who can provide more favorable reflections of the self. (Gomme, p.101). This description matches my situation to a tee. I was labeled as an goal ?Indian? (trust me, as a native, that is an insult), and my social connections were severed.
I sought out homework, new social situations in editing which I would be accepted and my anger approved of. As I wrote at the start of homework, this paper, I do not consider myself to be a deviant ? in any sense of the editing, term. Homework. Labeling theory requires that I identify with my deviance. I do not, and did not. My main goal in life is to modernize native society, and ultimate in life essay help guide it toward independence.
If I accepted native society as it is, I suppose that I could be considered deviant in the labeling theory sense. However, my allegiance to native society, is a biological one, that recognizes my membership in it as a fact of biology. My formal association with native life began because I was pushed into it. Homework. When that force was removed I formed new friendships with whites. It is because of this that I suspect that the best explanation for my period of deviance is contained in containment theory. I would draw a comparison between my situation and that of people described in ?Normalcy and Visibility?.
While I am not often mistaken as Anglo-Saxon white, I do have a passing resemblance to a straight-haired version of a Jewish stereotype; I have also passed as Catalonian, Mexican, and Greek. People do not know that I am native until I tell them; I am racially ambiguous. The article gives one major relevant factor to living with an invisible disability. The first was that people had the option of maintaining a ?semblance of normalcy? (Thorne 1993, p.9). I my case, I have the option of of the essays, passing as white. This is disturbingly important in this country. For example , until recently I worked in a West Side grocery store. This store had an up market clientele. Among the items the sipser, store sold were bags and cards with native designs on them. Prince. After a while began to notice that in spite of this native friendly image that the store had, even middle-class natives could not enter the store without being considered to be a shoplifter by the management. My co-workers also occasionally told stories in which natives were attacked or demeaned.
If I were to reveal my identity, I would face being excluded from these conversations. If I was excluded from these conversations, I would face being excluded from their social circle in general, and any future options for advancement that arise from being a part of the ?in? group. I decided to sipser, keep my mouth shut, and get a raise instead. If I was visibly more native that option would not have been open to me. Environment Essay. Deviance in my case is not really deviance on my part. When I did have a spell of deviant activity, it was caused by external forces. When those external forces were removed, the deviancy ended. This deviancy is in homework some ways voluntary, because I can hide it. However, I do not believe that by engaging in a profound act of self-denial can be a reasonable choice, so the voluntary choice is somewhat less real. I have found many other people in similar situations. There are quite a few natives that can pass in white society, and do so, however, they maintain a true allegiance to their nation.
I have found this common thread among many other natives: they had a lot more white friends, until opinions hardened against cafe at night essay our peoples. While we hold the same western liberal views that we have always had, we no longer see Canada, or our white liberal peers, as friends but enemies, and dangerous ones at that; and it is not something that we chose. Bibliography Gomme, Ian. The Shadow Line: Deviance and Crime in Canada, Harcourt Brace Jovonovich (Tornto: 1993). Thorne, S.E. (1993).
Normalcy and Visibility. In Social Explanations of Criminal and Deviant Behaviour, Brian Burtch Ed., Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.: 2000). Crim 135: Essay 2 The major argument in favour of curtailing judicial independence and homework sipser prosecutorial discretion is that the justice system needs to be more accountable, more consistent, and more predictable. Each of these counts against the justice system is cafe terrace essay based on the mistaken assumption that the justice system needs to be a rational and efficient corporate body. That is to say, that the justice system must act as a single entity with the rasion d?etre of fighting, controlling, and homework deterring crime. The advocates of legal straightjackets have failed to of our essay, prove their prima facie case. The justice system has no need to be a single solid structure with automated systems of judges, lawyers and parole officers. In the strictly constructed systems of our less-democratic cousins, lawyers, judges and their ilk serve only to diagnose the criminal for the sole purpose of placing them in a category of offender, prisoner, and parolee.
The primary fault of the argument in favour of judicial and prosecutorial constraints is that it carries in itself the tacit assumption of guilt. Sipser. By merely categorizing a citizen as an offender under the criminal code, the most authoritarian and the qualities of the prince essays unaccountable element of the justice system, the police, has effectively acted as judge jury and executioner. The citizen, who becomes labeled as an offender under the homework, criminal code is shunted off to a holding cell, where, another police official determines if they are to be released. This police official would, at this stage in the current system use subjective criteria to determine if the offender was a significant risk and essay should be released; in a constrained system, the crime would determine the availability of release automatically. In the constrained system, the belligerent, and indigent, flasher would go free; while the sipser, tenured professor whose failing student wrongfully accused him of rape would be sent before a judge. Upon reaching the judge, the charges wold determine the bail-after all, consistency is the modus vivendi of the cafe terrace at night essay, constrained system.
Griffiths and Verdun-Jones note that those people that have been denied bail and appear at homework their trial in state custody are more likely to be found guilty, and, when found so, they are more likely than other convicted citizens to receive a harsh sentence. Beside the clear difficulty encountered by imprisoned people in mounting a defense against van gogh essay the state's accusations, there is a secondary problem of facing a jury of their peers while in custody. To the average citizen, the appearance of homework sipser, one of their wayward neighbours in chains is essay of diwali likely to prejudice them against homework sipser him or her. In a future system of 'consistent' justice it is likely that those offences where the punishment is most severe, the indictable offences, that the citizen is likely to be held in the qualities prince essays custody; and, it is those same indictable offences, to be tried before a jury, where the accussed's status as a prisoner is most likely to homework, be held against them. While the accussed's status as a prisoner is not a de jure proclamation of their guilt, to the average citizen of a western liberal democracy, the presence of some person that has been forcibly removed from cafe terrace at night society is a de facto statement that they are dangerous. In the model state of consistency that certain legal reformers foresee, the police, the justices, prosecutors, and judges would 'apply' the law according to a strict set of rules. The state's agents will act with no prejudice, no leeway, no derogation and no derivation and no mercy. The police would presumably lay every applicable charge against homework sipser every accused person that is brought to their attention. Editing The Essay. Not only would a person be brought to sipser, justice for forcible rape, but also for equally abhorrent crimes such as assault and van gogh terrace at night essay battery, littering, loitering in a public park, attempted murder, reckless endangerment, unlawful confinement, jaywalking, speeding, creating a disturbance, resisting arrest, and any other possible offence related to the crime and the flight from justice.
Griffiths and Verdun-Jones have noted that in the recently more open atmosphere of plea-bargaining, police have become more consistent appliers of each and every conceivable law. Not only has a person been charged with one crime, but also of every other alternative charge available. In the process of plea bargaining, a great deal of trust is needed between the defense counsel and the crown. This trust often resembles collusion. In the process of plea bargaining the multiple -though mutually exclusive- charges against sipser an offender are often reduced to a single charge in exchange for a guilty plea and reciprocal sentencing recommendation. In reality, the accused are bargaining away irrelevant charges for how to a essay the single charge that they would have faced anyway, in short, the homework sipser, accused gains nothing from a system of bargaining based on how to consistent policing. There is, however, nothing consistent about plea-bargaining. Plea-bargaining is at the heart of homework sipser, prosecutorial discretion. Prosecutorial discretion would go the way of inconsistent policing and it would be abolished. Consistency in prosecution requires that each and every accused be treated identically.
In order for each accused to be seen to be treated identically, they must have each and every charge dealt with in an open court of record. Inconsistency is not a problem with the police, prosecutors, or parole board members. Inconsistency is what enables the police, prosecutors, and parole board members to consider the human factor of the crime. I f police were to 'throw the ultimate goal, book' at every criminal, the sipser, system what bog down with minor crimes. Write A Essay. Furthermore, while some acts may technically be crimes, they may not have been enforced in twenty or thirty years. A possible problem of inconsistency is with judges. Sentencing may vary across the country - though there is very little evidence to say if it does or does not. There are sentencing guidelines, but there are no uniform statistics on sentencing which would allow the public to determine if these sentencing guidelines are being followed. When sentencing is brought to the public's attention, it is only in the most extreme cases where a particularly lenient sentence has been given out. Therefore the best solution for inconsistent sentencing is to produce and publish uniform statistics on sentencing in order to homework sipser, determine of sentencing guidelines are being followed. Any other reform of the judicial sentencing process before these statistics were produced and before their impact was observed on the judicial branch would be premature.
It is possible that many judges that have handed out van gogh terrace essay, lenient or severe sentences did not realize that they were significantly out of line with the Canadian mainstream. Conclusion Discretion is not a problem, perception is. The police need discretion in sipser order to enforce laws commensurate with the changes in community values. The Qualities Of The Prince. Police also need the ability to exercise their discretion in order to enforce laws as they are best able to do and to not get swamped with petty crimes, while resources are needed to deal with serious offences. Prosecutors need the ability to exercise discretion in homework order to plea bargain. Van Gogh Cafe Terrace At Night. Without the ability to plea bargain, prosecutors may find that they send far too much time prosecuting ancillary legal offences while the main crime is not given their full attention.
The only reform necessary, is not technically a reform, but is instead a fine-tuning of the current system to allow it to function better, and that is the sipser, production and publication of editing the essay, uniform statistics on homework sentencing. Communications 131 Review: Neil Postman?s Amusing Ourselves to Death Robert Jago 200015294 Neil Postman's Amusing Ourselves to Death focuses on the change from the qualities of the prince what he calls a 'typographic' society to a televisual society. This change involves the decline of rational, linear thought which is based on the book, to disjointed, a-historical, and non-inferential thought which is based on the standards of television. Postman's prima facie argument is that the homework, medium of communications affects forms of thought. His first argument is based entirely on conjecture (though later in the book Postman does cite a study by Gavriel Solomon, p.152 footnote 4). Of Our Environment. Postman argues that television and its predecessors (the telegraph, the homework sipser, photograph) changed people's modes of thought through operant conditioning. Television and goal in life essay electronic communications in general force people to homework, understand only the immediate and to forget the past. Several of Postman's axioms are questionable, and his data is open to competing interpretations. Most importantly, Postman's study of the electronic society focused on it in an immature stage of development. Modern electronic culture is quite different from the one that Postman studied. Neil Postman's stated purpose for his book is to, show that a great media-metaphor shift has taken place in America, with the essay of diwali, result that the content of homework sipser, much of our public discourse has become dangerous nonsense(p.16).
To that end, his book opens with a glimpse at editing the United States of the homework, early nineteen-eighties and an explanation of his use of the word metaphor. Essay Of Diwali. For Postman the media metaphor is a metaphor that draws analogies between aspects of the media and sipser aspects of society. Postman states that in the literate age, metaphors abounded. Alice in wonderland, became a metaphor for a person wandering in 'a world of semantic nonsense' and trying to make sense out of it; Athens became a metaphor for intellectual excellence and so on. In the twentieth century, the printed word added very little in terms of of the, metaphor. Sipser. Terms such as Orwellian, thought police, but very little else transferred over from the printed page into middle class speech. The metaphor of the later twentieth century was to be dictated by television. Modes of a essay, thought mimicked television production standards.
Postman charts the transition from the typographic mind, through the 'peek - a - boo' world and into the 'now. this' world of homework, television. The larger scale of the of our, medium metaphor is what Postman refers to as resonance. Postman states that resonance is metaphor writ large. What Postman appears to mean here is homework that resonance is the cafe at night essay, stuff of myths, when social customs and norms, and idiosyncrasies become confused with nature. Just as one is seen as peculiar to question the effects of the construction of mountains, one is seen as equally peculiar to question such social constructs as [Noam Chomsky notwithstanding] contemporary English word usage and grammar.
After first explaining his proposition on how the dominant medium of communications affects forms of thought, Postman uses the remainder of the sipser, first part of his book to describe decline of the printed word in America. He begins with describing 'typographic' America at its peak. Postman describes a country -though not a nation- where the ability to read was nearly universal among men, and, where foreign reading materials were abundant (P. 34). The way in editing the essay which he describes the empowerment that the average person may have felt is interesting for homework sipser my third argument [that Postman contrasted typographic America with the editing, wrong era of the sipser, electronic age].
By 1772, Jacob Duche could write: 'The poorest labourer upon the shore of the Delaware thinks himself entitled to deliver his sentiment in matters of religion or politics with as much freedom as the cafe essay, gentleman or scholar. ' (P. 33) The printing press dominated the homework, minds of typographic Americans. Their modes of thought mirrored the construction of terrace at night essay, books and pamphlets. Books were linear, impersonal, rational, and historical. The written word was never read 'live'. People's minds functioned in these same ways. People were rational and thought historically and therefore linearly. Public discourse in typographic America was fundamentally rational and intelligent. Advertising and politics were based on reasoned argument [for the sipser, most part]. According to Postman, the change in public discourse occurred because of the change in the media available to the public.
The first major change that Postman notes is the invention of the essay of diwali, telegraph. While it is interesting to note that the industrial revolution, and the rise of the urban centres occurred at sipser roughly the same time as the invention of the of the essays, telegraph, it is the later event that most effected the way that people think and behave. Following the telegraph came the homework sipser, photograph. The telegraph changed the meaning of intelligence and information. In preliterate days, intelligence was synonymous with memory. Essay Of Diwali. In the sipser, typographic age, intelligence became synonymous with rationality. With the the essay, electronic age heralded in by the telegraph, intelligence became the ability to homework sipser, sift through large amounts of data. News in the qualities typographic society consisted of homework sipser, useful facts and information. Postman describes a type of apathy ratio, what he calls an 'information-action ratio' (P.69).
In typographic America, efficacy as seen through individual responses to 'news' was significantly higher than it is in modern televisual America. The telegraph made trivia in place of news. Surely people in Finland could finally know the day to day events that occurred in Lorado Texas, but, why would they want to? According to Postman, the telegraph made the ultimate in life essay, United States one nation [this was also coincident with the Civil War and the United States' great era of homework, wars of conquest]. The telegraph allowed people on the Pacific and the Atlantic shores to know the minutiae of each others every day lives. While the telegraph trivialized the goal in life essay, public space with useless information and 'factoids' the homework sipser, photograph came along to act as a magnifying glass for these details. The photograph increased the impact of the proliferating factoids, by giving them a face and a presence greater than a thousand words. By the time the photograph and the telegraph had become ascendant, the public discourse had irrevocably changed. Advertising became irrelevant, irrational, and the first slogans were developed [following shortly after such election slogans 'fifty-four forty or fight' or 'Tippacannoe and Tyler too' or the Democratic Party's anti-Republican song 'Nigger Doodle Dandy'].The era of the photograph and ultimate goal in life essay the telegraph are what Postman calls 'the peek-a-boo world'. Homework Sipser. Part two of the book focuses on the particular ills of the televisual age.
The greatest ill, and one that Neil Postman had focused on in the past, is the decline in education in favour of entertainment. A prime example for essay of diwali Postman is 'The Voyage of the homework, Mimi' series. Editing The Essay. This series is a study that involves a great deal of time on behalf of children in order to study whales and navigation among other things. Homework. None of essay of diwali, these things are relevant to homework sipser, education in any traditional sense of the word. Postman's analysis of that particular series is that it is an example of the the qualities, education changing in order to meet the needs of television. While there are more books in print in the television age, they do not have the impact of their fewer but more serious predecessors.
As was the case with the Voyage of the sipser, Mimi series, books seem to have become 'audio-visual aids'. Books have lost their seriousness. Books in essay of diwali the modern context no longer command the attention that they once did. The printed word in the modern context is a visual aid, it celebrates the dominant medium and is constructed around television's conventions. For example, a glance at any of the Fin de Siecle 'best 100 [or 1'000 et al.] lists that currently proliferate, would show what books are considered to be of substance to this society. In the Globe and Mail's list of the best history books are, a picture book, Atlas of World History, and homework ESPN Sport Century.
Among the best seller lists are a book of editing the essay, lists, a book by a television writer, a book by a faded hockey star, a book by a movie writer, a book of trivia. While there are more books in print today than ever before, it is homework likely that they are to be gems such as ESPN Sport Century, as opposed to Walden or the Native Son. Postman concludes his book by analyzing this 'dangerous' lack of substance brought on by the essay, conventions of the television age. Postman uses two of homework sipser, major metaphors of the how to write, decline of western society. the first is the Orwellian. Today the totalitarian state is confined to only a few fourth rate and declining states such as Myanmar and Belarus and sipser so its position as primary threat to Western Liberty has given way. In the place of the Orwellian thought police and big brother is Aldous Huxley's 'Brave New World'. The brave new world of Postman's interpretation is one where television has taken the place of Huxley's 'Soma' [an ecstacy like drug]. People have forsaken their liberty and democracy in favour of simple and constant pleasures. Postman concludes that television has created a Brave New World where the statescraftsmen are given free hand by a public more interested in their leader's private affairs than their economic policies. This new world where seriousness is mocked, and where depth of imagination, and attention span have gone into steep decline is one that has put democracy and freedom in grave danger.
Postman proposes that the solution to of the, the current state of affairs is to inoculate the populous through education. People would be educated to understand the television epistemology, and to not just become media savvy, but to homework, become aware of the myths that surround the dominant medium. The current dominant medium in the United States and Canada is editing the essay television. Other media, such as radio, and homework print are complementary to television and have very little independent sway over societal mores. Protection Environment. Postman's analysis could only homework sipser, take into account society up to the mid 1980's. The Qualities Essays. That society lacked the homework sipser, internet, and such venues as digital cable and inexpensive satellite dishes. Postman derides libertarians for attacking government censorship but failing to take on van gogh terrace at night essay the oligarchy of the big-three networks. In his discussion of the typographic age, Postman describes the empowerment of the common man by his ability to converse and understand every subject of importance.
Postman takes especial note of Benjamin Franklin's views on the importance of the pamphlet. Homework. Each of these points noted by Postman can lead to a different final conclusion if extrapolated into the internet age. To begin with, the modern era of between seventy and five-hundred television channels should have been easily foreseen by the essay Postman. He noted the lack of homework, attention by the general public, and how that brief attention span was created by television. The television of Postman's study was, by current standards, conservative, and for lack of a better word, 'deep'. The oligarchy of the three networks is gone, replaced by a constellation of specialty television networks [though production is essay of diwali now owned by a few industrial concerns].
Attention spans are even briefer, and homework sipser every whim under the sun can be served by the essay its own television network. Contrary to Postman's original argument that the product of a populace obsessed by entertainment is political apathy, entertainment can create political involvement. While Postman described the efficacy felt by homework sipser the people of the typographic age, he failed to note that part of the efficacy was inspired by such public proceedings as the public hanging. Postman failed to realize that a public raised on scripted spectacle, would be enraptured by live reality. Cafe Terrace At Night. In a world of instant communications, there is homework sipser enough live spectacle to keep every audience entertained. Of Our Environment. This entertainment can be translated into efficacy through such means as instant television poll, something that Postman only briefly touched on. Postman's description of the transition from literate to televised worlds and homework sipser the coincident transformation of society from write a essay literate and rational to base and excitable is not entirely accurate. He fails to take into homework sipser, consideration other factors such as the second industrial revolution and the expansion of liberty within countries which may explain the general decline in the public discourse.
Postman places the blame for how to a essay the decline in rationality solely on the dominant medium of communications. Furthermore, Postman writes that people have lost the sense of homework sipser, efficacy vis a vis the state. While people may be voting less, they may be participating more. Protest groups, lobby groups, special interest groups, petitions, and essay of diwali the like have proliferated in post-industrial society. People may have transferred their trust from the state to sipser, the epistemic community and van gogh cafe terrace they may have done this because of a new involving medium.
Bibliography Postman, Neil, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Buisness, Penguin Books (Toronto: 1986).