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Ap European History Summer Assignment 2012. Dustin Winski Jun 26th, 2012 AP Euro AP European History Summer Assignment 2012 Why did trade and travel decline after the fall of Rome? After the fall of Rome, with no government to supply protection or to keep the rads and bridges repaired, travel became difficult and dangerous. This danger, coupled with ignorance and lack of desire to change the situation by jhu resume guide the powerful lords, whose manors required little trade, led to the decline in travel and trade. Who was the first “Holy Roman Emperor” and how did he get that title? After restoring Pope Leo III in Rome from which he had been driven by invaders, Charlemagne was crowned by the Poe as “Emperor of the Romans”. The Frankish Kingdom them became known as the Holy Roman Empire, a name that would remain until the Empire was dissolved by Napoleon in 1806. What is the thesis narrative of the life, difference between the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire? The Holy Roman Empire was started by Charlemagne and was centered in France.

It was called the Holy Roman Empire#8221; due to the fact that the Pope crowned Charlemagne as the Emperor. Jhu Resume Guide. What were the critical essays, connections between “The Holy Roman Empire” and “The Church”? The Holy Roman Empire was an endeavor by the Catholic Church and Christian kings to restore in their own image the crumbled remains of the secular achievements of the ancient pagan Roman Empire. Define feudalism and describe the characteristics of its organization. Feudalism was also a social and economics organization based on a series of reciprocal relationships.

The king in theory owned the jhu resume guide, land which he granted to lords who in return would give service, usually in the form of military aid, to the king. For both, since the King#8217;s writ didn#8217;t extend directly through a country, they were often reliant on local governing mechanisms. Thumbnails Thesis. In practice, that usually meant the nobility of the region involved, whose loyalty was to their own family and its privileges rather than to the monarchy. What were the benefits supposedly derived from the feudal system? Who benefited the most? Feudal manors provided both political and social organization. They also were individual economics units , nearly self-sufficient due to medieval warfare, the difficulties to travel, and the resultant lack of trade. The feudal estate featured a manor-home, usually a fortified castle surrounded by protective walls, belonging to the lord, surrounded by fields, herds and villages where serfs lived and worked. What was the guide, importance of “The Church” and the Christian religion in the lives of the Europeans in the Middle Ages? Religion and critical essays on everyman the after-life became the focal point of thought and living. Jhu Resume. The influence of religion can also clearly be seen in thesis narrative of the of frederick douglass, the art, architecture, literature, and music of the time.

This was most likely cause because life was so hard on earth, the peasants endured it concentrating on and longing for their reward in the after-life. How did the ritual and sacraments of the Church establish a constant, ongoing relationship with its individual members? The believers of the Roman Catholic Church believed the seven sacraments kept an jhu resume, individual constantly connected to God and the Church from birth to death. The Church led the belief that one could only auto thumbnails, get to heaven through good deeds and observing the sacraments. How did the Church us the guide, powers of excommunication and interdiction in maintaining its power?

The idea of excommunicating individuals kept people from observing the sacraments which gave them the ability to enter heaven. Statement Of The. Also, whole geographic areas could be punished through interdiction which prohibited the performance of any of the sacraments in guide, that district. This made the auto thesis, Church more organized than any other political state in Europe. How was Education, learning and knowledge of Europe preserved during the lowest point of the Middle Ages, the so-called “Dark Ages”? Education was secured by jhu resume guide the people being put into strict division of social classes most notably the Church, peasants, and thesis statement narrative of the douglass the bourgeoisie. What was the dominant philosophy of the Middle Ages called?

Who was its most outstanding spokesman? What were its basic beliefs, and how did the jhu resume guide, philosophy view life and keywords understanding? The dominant philosophy of the late Middle Ages was best articulated by St. Thomas Aquinas and known as scholasticism. Who belonged to each of the three estates of medieval European society and jhu resume guide what was the primary duty of a member of each estate? How was this different from the social classes in modern society? The first of the estates were composed of the keywords, Church.

The main purpose for this estate would be to claim the authority of God. The second estate consisted of the nobility of #8216;society#8217;. The primary focus of the nobility were to function as warriors. The third estate had little to jhu resume guide no power in that time of society and composed of peasants and laymen. This changed throughout Europe with the coming of feudalism. This differs from modern society for essay, the facts of a more prosperous middle class.

Describe the guilds. Who made up their membership and what was their influence on the business practices of the late Middle Ages? In the jhu resume guide, middle ages, the #8216;Guilds#8217; were labor market intermediaries organizing training, working conditions. Essay On Corn. These merchants and craftsmen formed the basis for a new class of townspeople, the bourgeoisie. They would be the basis of the growing middle class. How did the guide, guilds improve the lot of freemen? How did they help business and trade?

How did they restrict its growth? The improvement of the freemen could be seen from a point of their increase of professions. The benefits of this system would be the systematic control and critical increase of certain professions that were needed at the time. This order was kept to maintain employment and necesity for the freemen. However, as a result of the control over the market, restrictions on personal choice ended up restricting its growth. Who were the bourgeoisie? Why did they not fit in the traditional class structure of the Middle Ages? The bourgeoisie were merchants and craftsmen formed the basis for jhu resume guide, a new class of town dwellers.

They did not fit into what would be considered traditional because of their system and auto thumbnails thesis plans of growing the middle class. Why was the jhu resume guide, social structure of essay on corn Europe challenged by the growing number of free townspeople and the changing economy? With the strengthening control of the kings, powers and influence of the feudal lords led to leaving more land in jhu resume, the hands of fewer people. This led to critical on everyman the even farther decline in the idea of feudalism. How did the Crusades help to begin the change from Medieval society into a modern society? The Crusades stimulated trade by jhu resume certain political, social, and economic changes. This was achieved by the unknowing attacks on persuasive essay, feudal lords and in turn gave the increased power to the kings. Guide. The changes developed after the old nobility lacked the wealth to keep up with the essay on corn, kings. Guide. Why are the Crusades sometimes called “Successful failures”?

The Crusaders led to the eventual fading out of feudal states in the most of auto Europe and is an important part of European expansion and colonialism. Why and in what ways did kings and central governments grow stronger at the end of the Middle Ages? The Kings helped facilitate the forming of countries by jhu resume guide uniting small feudal states into large kingdoms. They helped develop the idea of auto thesis a central government within these kingdoms. Jhu Resume. This centralized government was indeed stronger than the smaller micro-state governments . What obstacles stood in the way of the creation of strong central governments? Since strong central governments often emerge from weaker central governments or loose confederations a central government may also have to deal with regional lords who regard centralization as an infringement on essay on corn syrup, their own ower.

Why was the guide, re-establishment of trade so important to the transformation of Europe? Re-establishment of trade was very important due to the fact of the bourgeoisie wanting to create a wider middle class. This could not happen because of what current state Europe was in due to the idea of feudalism. Also, where there is any contact between two civilizations ideas will be traded amongst them, giving each civilization new ideas. Haven’t found what you want?

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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for guide, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to critical writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at guide, a time.

For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the sentence using the name of the author and title of the article (see format below). Thesis Narrative Life Of Frederick Douglass? Continue writing your summary by jhu resume guide writing the other underlined sentences in your own words.

Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below. Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. Critical Essays? See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and jhu resume make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the name of the essay anleitung, author and article and use author tags (see list below) to jhu resume let the reader know you are talking about what the thumbnails thesis, author said and not your own ideas. Guide? Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the persuasive essay keywords, name of the article and guide the author.

Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to critical the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article “How the jhu resume, Civil War Began, says that the critical, real reason. How the Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the guide, first sentence should be the main point of the article. English Essay? It should answer the guide, question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Critical On Everyman? Example: In How the jhu resume, Civil War Began by John Jones, the statement narrative douglass, author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to give the reasons and evidence for jhu resume, that main statement. In other words, what is the critical on everyman, main point the writer is trying to make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to jhu resume guide prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and statement life of frederick douglass if so, what does he or she do to refute them?

Here is a sample sort of guide sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is ___________ . The author’s main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is persuasive essay keywords ___________ . Guide? The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the of the life of frederick douglass, author's ideas. Jhu Resume? In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and Women in Conversation: Example response essay to auto thumbnails thesis Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the jhu resume, communication signals of the opposite gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience?

If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. On Everyman? You will want to consider what is effective and ineffective. You will analyze what the guide, author does that works and what doesn't work to support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the statement of the of frederick, task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. Jhu Resume? It may help you to on corn use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation.

TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into guide the history of essay on corn syrup discussion of that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is written, and the moment in time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview.

Breaking the large idea down into jhu resume guide these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from persuasive, three to all five of these elements. Each of the jhu resume guide, following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of thumbnails Author and jhu resume Reader. How is the essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the organization of the essay? How does the author try to auto interest the reader?

How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the jhu resume guide, support and evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to critical essays the reader? Does the jhu resume guide, evidence actually prove the point the author is trying to make?

Who is the author? What does he or she know about thesis statement of the life douglass, this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the jhu resume, author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for syrup, this audience? How does the jhu resume guide, author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective?

How does the author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to know more? Does the author explain enough about the history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is this essay effective or ineffective for this audience?

What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and persuasive essay on anorexia also check out Lisa Rayner and jhu resume Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the essay on anorexia, text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of jhu resume guide your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of auto thesis sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of language. Example: The organization of essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is guide shown by ___________ . Narrative Life Of Frederick? The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by jhu resume guide ___________.

The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the jhu resume guide, point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis. For example, in my sample reading the response about statement narrative of the of frederick douglass, Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to jhu resume guide current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is shown in auto, ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the audience by guide ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by persuasive essay inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. Jhu Resume Guide? For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the on everyman, exigence of ___________. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________.

I think the reader would react to this argument by ___________. I think that the guide, author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. English Essay? The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and jhu resume guide analyze.

Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and specific. It will use the essay, information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about guide, this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience.

You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the critical on everyman, author's position). You will agree with part of the guide, author's points and disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to persuasive essay on anorexia what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to jhu resume the essay? What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view?

What in the essay is new to essay you? Do you know of any information the guide, article left out that is thesis narrative life of frederick relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in guide, the essay? How much of your response is related to your personal experience? How much is related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay?

What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response. Here is syrup a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the jhu resume, links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and narrative of the life because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________.

Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is jhu resume guide ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. I like/dislike ___________ in persuasive essay keywords, the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and jhu resume guide Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7.

Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Cause and essay keywords Effect Essay Topics.

by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide. Is it necessary to include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you.

I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on the filed of International Business. Thank you so much!

I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in jhu resume guide, future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Essays? Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to put the information exactly in jhu resume, the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into english essay anleitung your own words.

I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. Guide? If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the essay on anorexia, reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from guide, getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the critical on everyman, reasons around a few themes and jhu resume organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an actual format to follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States.

Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an essay argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to jhu resume guide believe. Persuasive Essay Nervosa? The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and jhu resume guide cons of on everyman other ideas about that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Look at the links to guide the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the thumbnails, same as we've described here except that you would summarize the jhu resume guide, story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response.

If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example?

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. You might want to essay syrup see my article on How to jhu resume do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here.

Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by essay you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the jhu resume guide, way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of syrup this explaining is a great source for jhu resume guide, anything. You have to love everything about this site. This is the thesis statement life of frederick, best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States.

Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an guide article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and english anleitung the different sides of the argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an guide effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about english essay anleitung, burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for jhu resume guide, my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for on anorexia, aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States.

Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to jhu resume write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is narrative of the life douglass what prepares you for doing good research. This post has been of great help for me and my friends. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. Jhu Resume? It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the chart. However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for the information. Very good insight on analysis description.

I want to english anleitung thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over jhu resume, the world. On Corn? I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore! It's for literature :)

Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of guide writing over the years and thumbnails I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for jhu resume, me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from on everyman, United States. Hi Ercan!

Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at college here in guide, the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to be able to provide help for free to essay syrup improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey.

My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from jhu resume guide, United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne.

I have to persuasive essay keywords write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the guide, way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. Essays On Everyman? As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for jhu resume, Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago.

I am a student in University right now and I have to write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is essays on everyman structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and guide then get feedback from essay on anorexia, peers before re-writing. Jhu Resume? Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in keywords, one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. In the guide, end, it takes less time!

Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is essay really well written and jhu resume very substantial. Auto? I need to digest this information and start applying this in jhu resume guide, my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania?

That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Anleitung? Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to jhu resume guide people in other parts of the world! Good luck on essay on corn, your college career. I went back to guide graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting.

Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to the U.S. to go to essay college and guide play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and thesis of the life I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Just about to go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to guide be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from critical essays on everyman, United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and guide I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. Auto Thesis? I will have to think about doing some more topic ideas for guide, science classes.

I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved.

I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from persuasive essay keywords, United States. B. Jhu Resume Guide? Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of going to 4th of english July celebrations to my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to jhu resume hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position.

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and essay syrup Response essays and guide I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to thesis statement of the of frederick do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of jhu resume guide peer editing, which I think helped. This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well.

Many thanks made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub. You do a bibliographic entry in essays, either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from guide, United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from persuasive essay keywords, United States.

Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of jhu resume guide other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from essay on corn syrup, United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to jhu resume figure out how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written.

I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on thesis, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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My life as Barney the Dinosaur: Actor who sang and danced in 70lb purple costume for 10 years during the guide, height of the keywords, show's success reveals it was 120F inside the suit and he hadn't even wanted to audition for the role. By Ann Schmidt For 14:24 BST 01 Oct 2017, updated 16:02 BST 01 Oct 2017. David Joyner, 54, played Barney the dinosaur for jhu resume, ten years from critical essays 1991 to 2001 He always wanted to be an entertainer, but he didn't want to audition for Barney because he had never played a costumed role and wanted to be seen He was eventually convinced by jhu resume, the casting director to audition and had a dream he would get the critical, role A woman got the job at jhu resume guide, first, but she couldn't handle the pressure of a live performance and meet-and-greet in costume, so the role was given to David Despite how hard it was to dance and act inside the 70-pound suit, David loved it A Texas schoolteacher came up with the idea of auto thumbnails Barney 30 years ago because she wanted to make an educational show for her son, who loved dinosaurs. The parking lot of the guide, Texas mall was a sea of children fidgeting in folding chairs, strollers and their parents’ laps, craning to persuasive see the six-foot tall purple dinosaur as he ran onto the stage. Despite the bulky suit, Barney jumped into the air, waving his short, T-rex arms and spinning to the delighted screams of the children.

Little did they know that Barney had been in jhu resume their midst only hours before on that November day in 2000. David Joyner, who wore the Barney suit for ten years on the beloved children’s television show and during live tours, decided to syrup arrive at his own performance early at the Colin Creek Mall in Plano, Texas, to sit among and chat with the parents and eager children - just not in the suit. David, now 54, always knew he wanted to be an entertainer; he just didn’t necessarily expect he would be performing from inside a giant purple dinosaur suit. He wore the 70-pound costume from 1991 to 2001, during the most successful years of the children’s television show, which premiered on television 25 years ago in April. ‘At first, you know, I had a hard time dealing with it. Barney’s getting all this popularity and no one knows it’s me,’ he tells ‘After a while, it was almost like God sat me down and jhu resume guide, said “I’m going to use all your talents to on everyman help bring love and joy to children”. ‘Once I kind of received that message and once I knew what Barney was doing and the effect that Barney was causing to so many different children and parents, then it became an jhu resume guide honor and then it became like, okay, this is a blessing, this is a joy. And I want to make this the essay, best thing that I’m possibly doing at jhu resume, this moment and to have fun doing it.’

Texas schoolteacher Sheryl Leach came up with the idea for Barney 30 years ago because she wanted to create an education television show for her son, who loved dinosaurs. Scroll down for video. Being Barney was no small task. While Bob West voiced the character, David was inside the cumbersome suit, walking around on set or stage during live performances, doing choreographed dance moves and picking up props. He even moved the english, eyes and the mouth, which was controlled by a bar attached to Barney’s bottom jaw that David had wrapped a sponge around and would bite and nod his head in order to move it. Temperatures inside the suit could reach up to 120 degrees, according to David. And even though he had limited visibility through Barney’s mouth, whenever the jhu resume, mouth was closed he couldn't see at all. To help him with that, David would practice as if he was blind and would 'try to feel the energy' of the people and set around him. 'Inside I'm nodding up and essay, down, it's hot, I'm sweating, but I've got props and then on top of that, the voice is guide, talking so I have to auto thumbnails thesis make sure my nod and my mannerisms are going with the guide, voice,' he says. 'And on top of that there's kids, there's lighting. You can't shadow their light. 'There's also set design.

There's props on the set. So you can't be walking through the set destroying things. and of frederick douglass, of course Barney’s head doesn’t turn because it’s all once piece so you have to portray emotion coming from this character as you’re talking and then also wanting to jhu resume show different gestures and mannerisms that’s not gonna take the character out of character, because Barney still has certain nuances.' Despite the of the life douglass, difficulties of the jhu resume guide, character, David took it all in stride, his cheery personality helping him coordinate. ‘On the inside, it almost to essay anleitung me seemed like I was playing the drums… But the key of it all was having fun because if it wasn’t for the fact that you’re having so much fun and so much joy then it could have been a cumbersome situation.' David initially hadn’t wanted to guide even audition for critical essays, the role of guide Barney. Though he had always loved entertaining people, he had never performed in english anleitung costume before and wasn’t sure he wanted to be covered up while he was acting.

‘Of course as an actor you want to be seen,’ David says. ‘[But] one of the cliches they say as an actor, you know, if you’re not comfortable, then that’s the role you want. Jhu Resume Guide? And of course, I wasn’t comfortable. On Everyman? I was like, I don’t know if I can do this. I don’t know if I can pull this off. But then it became the role you want, because you want something that’s going to challenge you.’ As the fifth of six children growing up in Decatur, Illinois, David loved being in jhu resume guide the spotlight. He would entertain his siblings by lip syncing to persuasive what was happening on jhu resume the television from a young age and as he got older, he was given the nickname of ‘Preacher’ by his classmates and friends because of the advice he would give and his ability to read into situations even if they weren’t explained to him.

‘I grew up Christian, in the Methodist faith, but on my father’s side there’s a lot of Native American background. My grandmother, who was very clairvoyant, she could see things before they would happen,’ he says. On Corn? ‘So even with the Christian upbringing, my family is guide, also very spiritual.’ Even in narrative of the life of frederick douglass school, David was always in jhu resume guide front of thumbnails people, on the public speaking team, giving speeches and MCing events and school assemblies. He says he gave his first sermon at jhu resume guide, the age of 16 and he was elected to essay anleitung do the benediction for guide, his high school graduation. Instead of going to a four-year school or even going straight into entertainment, David decided to attend ITT Technical Institute in english essay anleitung Indianapolis, Indiana, for his Associate’s Degree in jhu resume guide electronic engineering technology, with the intention of working for five years before following his dream of performing. But even as he was pursuing his degree, David still modeled and performed, singing, dancing and critical on everyman, even doing comedy, which he continued to do when he moved to Dallas, Texas, in 1984 for a job with Texas Instruments as a software analyst. When he wasn’t working, he did several routines including Michael Jackson, Prince, Fred Astaire and MC Hammer in private clubs and restaurants and he quickly gained a following. He ended up working at jhu resume guide, Texas Instruments for six years before he finally felt ready to leave. It was April 1990 when he found out on corn that there would be layoffs, including in his department, so he asked for a severance package so someone else could stay, since he was planning to leave. After his manager said no, he sat down, meditated and decided he would leave at the end of September that year.

A month after he made that decision, David decided to start taking acting classes and doing improv comedy on weekends because ‘even though I was making money dancing, modeling, performing, I was still not doing what I wanted to do as far as an actor'. As it turns out, the wife of the jhu resume guide, man who ran David’s acting workshops ran an acting school for auto, children. Guide? When they needed a substitute acting teacher to essays help prepare four- through six-year-olds for a workshop with casting directors and agents from Los Angeles, David agreed to step in. Using techniques he had learned while he was a live mannequin early in his performance career, he led the guide, children through warm ups that helped them focus and not fidget. His teaching impressed a local casting director, Shirley Abrams, who asked for his headshot and resume. ‘Little did I know, she was the casting director for Barney,’ he says. One week after he put in his two weeks’ notice in at Texas Instruments, Shirley Abrams sent him a request to audition for Barney. Though David initially turned it down, Abrams told him she wouldn’t take no for an answer and he eventually agreed to audition. At the time, Barney the show consisted of only on a few home videos, which Abrams sent to David to help him prepare for his audition. As he watched the essay nervosa, tapes the night before, he kept falling asleep on his couch.

When he finally went to guide bed, he still wasn’t sure what he was going to do the next day. However, because of the clairvoyance that he believes runs in his family, he says he has dreams that are like messages when he’s trying to figure something - out and that night was no exception. ‘I had a dream that night and in auto thumbnails thesis the dream, Barney passes out… [and] I have to give Barney mouth to mouth resuscitation to revive him,’ David says. But the next morning, he couldn’t figure out what the dream meant. On his way to the audition and in jhu resume the parking lot of the studio he saw two billboards for persuasive essay on anorexia, Southwest Airlines that said: ‘Breathe life into jhu resume your vacation’, but it didn’t click until he was walking inside. ‘It hits me as if the light just came on,’ he says. ‘Barney was dead. That’s why I couldn’t watch his videos. Barney is keywords, dead, I have to breathe life into Barney. And if I do that, I’m going on vacation!’

And he certainly brought in the energy Barney had lacked. The actors who were auditioning were supposed to wear a Halloween mask and dance to one of Barney’s songs, Mr Knickerbocker. Jhu Resume Guide? Though he introduced himself calmly, the moment the music came on David went wild. ‘My energy went from about five to 55 and they literally just kind of sat back in their chairs like this wind had blown them away… I’m sure they were sitting there going, what the critical on everyman, heck was that?’ he laughs. Despite their shock, they brought David in for jhu resume guide, more rounds of auditions and essay, he made it almost to the end, but the role ended up going to someone else at first.

‘They gave the role to jhu resume a young lady and then they asked me if I would be backup and I said sure. But I pretty much knew I had the essays on everyman, role because it had already been spoken into jhu resume my spirit,’ he says. He was right. Statement Douglass? Before the television show started, Barney had several live performances. When the woman did her first appearance, she couldn’t handle it. Guide? She needed to get out persuasive keywords of the costume during a meet and greet with the children and she never came back. ‘A lot of different things took place that she wasn’t comfortable with and couldn’t handle,’ David says. ‘So after that they gave me a call and asked if I would consider being Barney.’ When he was first turned down for the role, David realized that it was probably because he brought more energy than the producers were used to, so he decided when he was asked back to take the role, he would tone down the jhu resume, character.

But when he attended his first live performance and heard the cheers of children while he was still behind the curtain, he couldn’t contain himself once the english anleitung, music started. ‘My adrenaline is taking over jhu resume, now, I come leaping out of this thing, jumping up and down on the stage, going from side doing bell kicks, the other side doing bell kicks waving and I’m having a blast,’ he says. That was just the beginning for the energetic purple dinosaur. Essay Syrup? David continued to jhu resume bring that energy over the next ten years as he played the part and he worked hard to make sure he was prepared and persuasive nervosa, fit to be Barney. ‘Number one, I had to make sure my body, mind and spirit was in top physical condition,’ he says. ‘I wanted to make sure that while I was inside, I wanted to be as happy as possible because I also understood, kids pick up on jhu resume energy and kids are more spiritually connected than adults are, but they just aren’t aware of it intellectually and so I knew that I had to radiate loving happy energy at all times. ‘One of the narrative of the of frederick douglass, things that I learned to always do, too, is I would pray before I get in costume. And I would ask God to allow his loving divine spirit to flow through me, through the guide, costume, and let that draw the children in.’ At one point, David even had to get surgery on english essay his wrist because he kept signing so many autographs for children.

'At first, I'm doing the cortisone shots and the doctor was like, You know you could stop signing autographs. I'm like, I can't do that!,' David says, laughing. Jhu Resume Guide? 'So then I finally had the essay on corn syrup, surgery and it was finally taken care of after that.' But after ten years, David was ready for jhu resume, a change. The show was getting ready to take a year-long hiatus, and ‘as an essay keywords actor and a performer, you always want to go to the next level’. ‘After ten years, after prayer and meditating on it, I felt it’s time to jhu resume guide move on. It’s time to move to Los Angeles to go to do other acting and critical on everyman, if not, then I’ll probably still be stuck in jhu resume guide the costume,’ he says. At first, when he moved to thesis life of frederick LA, David offered to help out with Barney if they ever needed help, though once he joined the Screen Actors Guild, he could no longer play the role of Barney on television since it was a non-union job. He also kept the jhu resume guide, fact that he had played Barney for english essay, ten years a secret. ‘At first I was asked not to jhu resume guide put Barney on essay my resume,’ he says and jhu resume, because he wanted to be taken seriously as an essays on everyman actor, he didn’t. However, as he continues to audition for guide, different television roles, he talks about his time as Barney frequently, especially relishing the essay on corn syrup, small moments, such as when he was able to sit with the audience members before his live appearance in guide Texas in 2000. ‘That little technique changed a whole lot of things for me as a performer,’ he says. ‘It took me to even a higher level as a person because knowing I’m a very spiritual person, one of the things that I’ve always tried to do is not just connect with people, but connect with your spirit, connect with your energy, connect with who you are.

'Not this shell that makes you up, but who you truly are… Because when you connect with someone on persuasive on anorexia a spiritual level, it takes you to a whole different level of appreciation for that person.’ Since Barney, David has had roles on numerous television shows including Veep, Shameless, 24, and That 70’s Show. He also did another children’s costumed character called Hip Hop Harry, which was on Discovery Kids from 2006 until 2010. The show still produces YouTube videos in multiple languages and the character appears on children’s apps. But even though he has moved on in his career, David is jhu resume guide, still thankful for english essay, his time as Barney. ‘One of the greatest things that I can say I’ve taken away from it is the fact that I love people.

Because I had to jhu resume guide interact with so many different people, so many different nationalities, economic backgrounds, but yet still try to auto connect with them on a spiritual level and connect with them on a higher frequency, so to speak. That even to this day, I just love people. I love being kind, I love being nice. ‘It’s just so great to know that when you put your head down on your pillow at night that you’re making a difference. You’re not out here trying to harm people or take advantage of people or be deceptive toward people, but you’re really enjoying life, having fun, really being kind and considerate in jhu resume guide the things that you do. He adds: ‘Of course, I’m human, there are some things that come at you constantly that you have to thumbnails look at jhu resume guide, and go, oh man, why, why, why, but I always look at it as, okay, there’s a lesson here.

There’s something that I’m supposed to learn here. And then move forward to that. Essay? And a lot of jhu resume guide that has come from just interacting with people, from being Barney and taking on essay that ambassador role.'

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Admission Essay for Accounting Major essay. Since my high school days, I had fancied to be an engineer. However, during my first few days of joining high school, an incident occurred that was a turning point to my career wishes. I had lost all my school fees! I imagined how my parents had struggled in jhu resume guide, providing me the persuasive essay on anorexia, school fees. I thought of the previous incidents where I had lost money or misused money in unclear circumstances. The only problem this time round was that the loss was much bigger; the entire school fees for that year had gone missing in my custody. Even though the repercussion from my parents was not that severe, the recommendation was that, I was never to be allowed to jhu resume, carry money again. What kind of life would I have if I were unable to manage and control my finances? I asked myself this question several times. It is then that I changed my mind to have a career in essays, the finance.

Soon after this incident, I embarked on reading about investment and saving from books, and the financial pages of my local newspapers. I learned that you do not have to be employed in order to jhu resume, start saving and planning for investments. By the end of my high school, I had saved enough money to invest in the minimal stock exchange. However again, I lost virtually all the money in this investment because of minimal knowledge in stock exchange and Forex investment. For the first time, the words of Vicktor Frankl that “nothing in the world can help one survive even the worst conditions as the knowledge that there is meaning in statement of frederick, one’s life” become a reality to jhu resume guide, me. Life to essay nervosa, me was not just success but failures as well. How many times one could wake up after every failure was now more meaningful to me. I developed a very high passion to study finance, stock market and jhu resume, economics. This is auto thumbnails thesis, what I exactly went for. Jhu Resume Guide. In a small family of 3 to 4 members, who are related, share a common culture and way of doing things, it takes tremendous effort to satisfy every member’s needs and to keep them bonded together as a unit because of the critical, different opinions they hold and the limited resources.

One key major resources that is limited is finance, and guide, world over cases have been reported on the poor financial management form family units to corporate like the Enron which crumbled due to narrative of the, poor financial management. Jhu Resume Guide. Therefore, a good mastery of the essay syrup, management and use of finances is not only good for the corporations that one works for, but at a very personal and family level. Companies are putting on a global face with offices getting dotted on every continent of this world. It is therefore imperative to have economies and financial accounting knowledge of different nations and continents as an important ingredient in jhu resume guide, the workplace. A formal training in advanced accounting will enable me to overcome workplace challenges and provide leadership in financial management and operations within the company I will be working for. What better it would be other than studying advanced accounting at XXX University for my graduate course in the United State.

XXX is a renowned institute where I will get an opportunity to essay, interact and learn from individuals who are as passionate about this subject. My career aspiration is to make a mark in the field of financial accounting and by bringing such changes where there would be a win win situation between the management and other stakeholders of the company. I am hard working, able to meet deadlines, can work and deliver under pressure and have above average academic abilities to tackle the heavy workload that comes with a degree program. I will adhere to all the rules and regulations governing your institution and will endeavour myself in doing exactly what brought me to your institution. My main area of jhu resume guide focus being business related studies, I am well aware of what is required of me as a student in order to transition smoothly into keywords today’s business careers. Having acquired fundamental knowledge in business, economics and law as I pursued my International Business major, I am now ready to venture into the accounting waters in a major way. Therefore, my choice of a higher learning institution is one that will impart the necessary verbal and quantitative reasoning skills that will propel me to the front of the jhu resume, modern business world. The ability to critical essays on everyman, put theory to practice cannot be overlooked as far as acquiring higher education is jhu resume guide, concerned. Persuasive Essay Keywords. Being a leading world economy, United States offers just the right platform for anyone interested in learning about the dynamics of an active market. Guide. The recent economic crisis that swept across the statement narrative life of frederick, US had many predicting the end of jhu resume its economical dominance in the world, still in essays on everyman, a modern day wonder well versed and educated economical gurus put in place counter measures that have seen things start to look up for the United States whereas many other countries with similar predicaments are still wallowing. While many may be hesitant about the situation in US right now, it is just the right time and place for an economy and jhu resume guide, stock markets scholar.

With the respective parties being more vigilant of the situation and thesis statement narrative of the life, just having added to their knowledge bank a few other pointers, it is really proving an irresistible learning field for jhu resume guide, anyone who in future hopes to be in the helm of thumbnails a dynamic market in its own right. I believing by instilling ethics and morality to young people will to towards making the world a better. Guiding young people on importance of jhu resume guide avoiding drugs, sexual immorality and persuasive essay keywords, having a moral upright life has been a rewarding experience to me in my local community. Always being in a position to develop a good rapport with young people, I possess a talent for encouraging and advising others in a way that helps them to understand the importance of positive living. I have also voluntarily helped younger members with reading difficulties. I am hardworking, assertive, and extremely motivated person who can work well in a team or as an individual. A part from financial matters, environmental issues are very much dear to me. Following the current deteriorating environment due to jhu resume, greenhouse effect, I have been developing great interest in the matter. I am therefore looking forward to joining the environmental club and conservation group in the university. Statement Narrative Of Frederick Douglass. On an informal note, I am looking forward to jhu resume guide, learning different dance styles, introduce the local dance to the university, and allow different students and lecturers to thesis, learn about my culture.

I will too benefit from the cultural diversity of the jhu resume guide, population at XXX University. Culture is an important tool in the work place. I enthusiastic about handball and thesis of the life, occasionally I play in the college team. Being an active theatre participant has seen me scope several awards. I believe a good future lies with saving now. I am therefore a hobby trader on jhu resume guide the stock market (NSE).

My interested started while I was in my first year after being given the responsibilities to manager my father’s equity portfolio. My business motto is “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket”. Thank you and looking forward for your acceptance.

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conclusions BIOINITIATIVE 2012 – CONCLUSIONS Table 1-1. Overall, these 1800 or so new studies report abnormal gene transcription (Section 5); genotoxicity and single-and double-strand DNA damage (Section 6); stress proteins because of the fractal RF-antenna like nature of DNA (Section 7); chromatin condensation and loss of DNA repair capacity in human stem cells (Sections 6 and jhu resume 15); reduction in free-radical scavengers – particularly melatonin (Sections 5, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17); neurotoxicity in humans and english animals (Section 9), carcinogenicity in humans (Sections 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17); serious impacts on human and animal sperm morphology and function (Section 18); effects on offspring behavior (Section 18, 19 and jhu resume 20); and effects on brain and cranial bone development in the offspring of critical essays animals that are exposed to jhu resume guide cell phone radiation during pregnancy (Sections 5 and 18). This is only a snapshot of the evidence presented in the BioInitiative 2012 updated report. BIOEFFECTS ARE CLEARLY ESTABLISHED.

Bioeffects are clearly established and persuasive occur at very low levels of exposure to guide electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency radiation. Bioeffects can occur in the first few minutes at levels associated with cell and cordless phone use. Bioeffects can also occur from just minutes of exposure to mobile phone masts (cell towers), WI-FI, and wireless utility ‘smart’ meters that produce whole-body exposure. Chronic base station level exposures can result in illness. BIOEFFECTS WITH CHRONIC EXPOSURES CAN REASONABLY. BE PRESUMED TO RESULT IN ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS. Many of these bioeffects can reasonably be presumed to persuasive nervosa result in jhu resume, adverse health effects if the exposures are prolonged or chronic. This is because they interfere with normal body processes (disrupt homeostasis), prevent the body from healing damaged DNA, produce immune system imbalances, metabolic disruption and lower resilience to disease across multiple pathways. Essential body processes can eventually be disabled by incessant external stresses (from system-wide electrophysiological interference) and lead to pervasive impairment of metabolic and reproductive functions. LOW EXPOSURE LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH BIOEFFECTS.

AND ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS AT CELL TOWER RFR EXPOSURE LEVELS. At least five new cell tower studies are reporting bioeffects in the range of 0.003 to 0.05 ?W/cm2 at lower levels than reported in on anorexia nervosa, 2007 (0.05 to 0.1 uW/cm2 was the range below which, in 2007, effects were not observed). Researchers report headaches, concentration difficulties and behavioral problems in jhu resume guide, children and adolescents; and sleep disturbances, headaches and concentration problems in adults. Public safety standards are 1,000 – 10,000 or more times higher than levels now commonly reported in mobile phone base station studies to cause bioeffects. EVIDENCE FOR FERTILITY AND REPRODUCTION EFFECTS: HUMAN SPERM AND THEIR DNA ARE DAMAGED. Human sperm are damaged by critical essays, cell phone radiation at very low intensities in the low microwatt and nanowatt/cm2 range (0.00034 – 0.07 uW/cm2). There is guide, a veritable flood of new studies reporting sperm damage in humans and animals, leading to substantial concerns for fertility, reproduction and english health of the offspring (unrepaired de novo mutations in sperm). Exposure levels are similar to jhu resume those resulting from on corn syrup, wearing a cell phone on jhu resume guide the belt, or in critical, the pants pocket, or using a wireless laptop computer on jhu resume guide the lap. Sperm lack the ability to critical repair DNA damage. EVIDENCE THAT CHILDREN ARE MORE VULNERABLE.

There is good evidence to suggest that many toxic exposures to the fetus and very young child have especially detrimental consequences depending on when they occur during critical phases of growth and development (time windows of critical development), where such exposures may lay the seeds of health harm that develops even decades later. Existing FCC and jhu resume guide ICNIRP public safety limits seem to be not sufficiently protective of life douglass public health, in particular for the young (embryo, fetus, neonate, very young child). The Presidential Cancer Panel (2010) found that children ‘ are at special risk due to their smaller body mass and rapid physical development, both of which magnify their vulnerability to known carcinogens, including radiation. ‘ The American Academy of jhu resume Pediatrics, in a letter to Congressman Dennis Kucinich dated 12 December 2012 states “ Children are disproportionately affected by environmental exposures, including cell phone radiation. The differences in bone density and the amount of fluid in a child’s brain compared to an adult’s brain could allow children to absorb greater quantities of essay on corn RF energy deeper into their brains than adults. It is jhu resume guide, essential that any new standards for cell phones or other wireless devices be based on thumbnails protecting the youngest and most vulnerable populations to ensure thay are safeguarded through their lifetimes.” FETAL AND NEONATAL EFFECTS OF EMF. Fetal ( in-utero ) and jhu resume guide early childhood exposures to cell phone radiation and wireless technologies in general may be a risk factor for hyperactivity, learning disorders and behavioral problems in school. Fetal Development Studies: Effects on the developing fetus from in-utero exposure to cell phone radiation have been observed in both human and animal studies since 2006.

Divan et al (2008) found that children born of mothers who used cell phones during pregnancy develop more behavioral problems by the time they have reached school age than children whose mothers did not use cell phones during pregnancy. Children whose mothers used cell phones during pregnancy had 25% more emotional problems, 35% more hyperactivity, 49% more conduct problems and 34% more peer problems. (Divan et al., 2008). A precautionary approach may provide the frame for decision-making where remediation actions have to be realized to prevent high exposures of children and pregnant woman. (Bellieni and Pinto, 2012 – Section 19) EMF/RFR AS A PLAUSIBLE BIOLGICAL MECHANISM FOR AUTISM (ASD) Children with existing neurological problems that include cognitive, learning, attention, memory, or behavioral problems should as much as possible be provided with wired (not wireless) learning, living and sleeping environments, Special education classrooms should observe ‘no wireless’ conditions to reduce avoidable stressors that may impede social, academic and behavioral progress. All children should reasonably be protected from the physiological stressor of significantly elevated EMF/RFR (wireless in on everyman, classrooms, or home environments). School districts that are now considering all-wireless learning environments should be strongly cautioned that wired environments are likely to provide better learning and teaching environments, and prevent possible adverse health consequences for both students and faculty in the long-term. Guide. Monitoring of the impacts of wireless technology in learning and care environments should be performed with sophisticated measurement and data analysis techniques that are cognizant of the on corn, non-linear impacts of EMF/RFR and of data techniques most appropriate for discerning these impacts.

There is sufficient scientific evidence to warrant the guide, selection of essays wired internet, wired classrooms and wired learning devices, rather than making an expensive and potentially health-harming commitment to wireless devices that may have to be substituted out later, and jhu resume guide Wired classrooms should reasonably be provided to all students who opt-out of wireless environments. (Herbert and Sage, 2012 – Section 20) Many disrupted physiological processes and impaired behaviors in people with ASDs closely resemble those related to biological and health effects of EMF/RFR exposure. Biomarkers and indicators of disease and their clinical symptoms have striking similarities. Broadly speaking, these types of phenomena can fall into one or more of thesis several classes: a) alteration of genes or gene expression, b) induction of change in brain or organismic development, c) alteration of phenomena modulating systemic and jhu resume brain function on english an ongoing basis throughout the life course (which can include systemic pathophysiology as well as brain-based changes), and jhu resume guide d) evidence of functional alteration in domains such as behavior, social interaction and attention known to persuasive essay nervosa be challenged in ASD.Several thousand scientific studies over jhu resume, four decades point to serious biological effects and health harm from EMF and RFR. These studies report genotoxicity, single-and double-strand DNA damage, chromatin condensation, loss of DNA repair capacity in human stem cells, reduction in free-radical scavengers (particularly melatonin), abnormal gene transcription, neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, damage to sperm morphology and function, effects on behavior, and effects on brain development in the fetus of human mothers that use cell phones during pregnancy. Cell phone exposure has been linked to altered fetal brain development and ADHD-like behavior in the offspring of pregnant mice.Reducing life-long health risks begins in essay, the earliest stages of jhu resume embryonic and fetal development, is accelerated for the infant and very young child compared to adults, and is not complete in young people (as far as brain and nervous system maturation) until the early 20’s. On Corn. Windows of jhu resume critical development mean that risk factors once laid down in the cells, or in epigenetic changes in the genome may have grave and english anleitung life-long consequences for guide health or illness for every individual. All relevant environmental conditions, including EMF and RFR, which can degrade the persuasive essay on anorexia nervosa, human genome, and jhu resume guide impair normal health and development of species including homo sapiens, should be given weight in defining and essay keywords implementing prudent, precautionary actions to protect public health. Allostatic load in autism and autistic decompensation – we may be at a tipping point that can be pushed back by removing unnecessary stressors like EMF/RFR and building resilience. The consequence of ignoring clear evidence of large-scale health risks to global populations, when the risk factors are largely avoidable or preventable is too high a risk to take.

With the epidemic of autism (ASD) putting the guide, welfare of children, and their families in peril at a rate of one family in persuasive essay, 88, the rate still increasing annually, we cannot afford to jhu resume ignore this body of evidence. The public needs to persuasive essay nervosa know that these risks exist, that transition to wireless should not be presumed safe, and that it is very much worth the effort to minimize exposures that still provide the benefits of technology in learning, but without the threat of health risk and development impairments to guide learning and behavior in the classroom. (Herbert and persuasive essay keywords Sage, 2010 – Section 20) THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER IS AT RISK. The BBB is a protective barrier that prevents the flow of jhu resume toxins into sensitive brain tissue. Increased permeability of the BBB caused by essay syrup, cell phone RFR may result in neuronal damage. Many research studies show that very low intensity exposures to RFR can affect the blood-brain barrier (BBB) (mostly animal studies). Guide. Summing up the research, it is more probable than unlikely that non-thermal EMF from cell phones and auto thesis base stations do have effects upon biology. A single 2-hr exposure to cell phone radiation can result in increased leakage of the BBB, and 50 days after exposure, neuronal damage can be seen, and at the later time point also albumin leakage is demonstrated . The levels of RFR needed to affect the BBB have been shown to be as low as 0.001 W/kg, or less than holding a mobile phone at guide arm’s length.

The US FCC standard is 1.6 W/kg; the critical essays on everyman, ICNIRP standard is jhu resume guide, 2 W/kg of energy (SAR) into brain tissue from cell/cordless phone use. Essay Keywords. Thus, BBB effects occur at about 1000 times lower RFR exposure levels than the US and ICNIRP limits allow. (Salford, 2012 – Section 10) If the blood-brain barrier is vulnerable to serious and jhu resume guide on-going damage from wireless exposures, then we should perhaps also be looking at essay the blood-ocular barrier (that protects the eyes), the blood-placenta barrier (that protects the developing fetus) and guide the blood-gut barrier (that protects proper digestion and thumbnails nutrition), and the blood-testes barrier (that protects developing sperm) to see if they too can be damaged by RFR. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES CONSISTENTLY SHOW ELEVATIONS IN RISK OF BRAIN CANCERS. Brain Tumors : There is a consistent pattern of increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma associated with use of mobile phones and jhu resume guide cordless phones. “Based on epidemiological studies there is a consistent pattern of narrative of the increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma associated with use of mobile phones and cordless phones. The evidence comes mainly from two study centres, the Hardell group in guide, Sweden and the Interphone Study Group.

No consistent pattern of an increased risk is seen for meningioma. A systematic bias in on anorexia, the studies that explains the results would also have been the jhu resume guide, case for meningioma. The different risk pattern for tumor type strengthens the findings regarding glioma and acoustic neuroma. Meta-analyses of the Hardell group and Interphone studies show an increased risk for auto thesis glioma and acoustic neuroma. Supportive evidence comes also from jhu resume, anatomical localisation of the essays on everyman, tumor to the most exposed area of the brain, cumulative exposure in jhu resume, hours and essay on corn syrup latency time that all add to the biological relevance of an increased risk. In addition risk calculations based on estimated absorbed dose give strength to jhu resume the findings . (Hardell, 2012 – Section 11) “There is reasonable basis to conclude that RF-EMFs are bioactive and have a potential to cause health impacts. There is a consistent pattern of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma associated with use of wireless phones (mobile phones and cordless phones) mainly based on results from case-control studies from the of the of frederick douglass, Hardell group and Interphone Final Study results.

Epidemiological evidence gives that RF-EMF should be classified as a human carcinogen. Based on our own research and review of jhu resume guide other evidence the existing FCC/IEE and ICNIRP public safety limits and reference levels are not adequate to protect public health. New public health standards and critical on everyman limits are needed. EVIDENCE FOR GENETIC EFFECTS. Eighty six (86) new papers on genotoxic effects of RFR published between 2007 and guide mid-2012 are profiled. Of these, 54 (63%) showed effects and 32 (37%) showed no effects. Forty three (43) new ELF-EMF papers and two static magnetic field papers that report on genotoxic effects of ELF-EMF published between 2007 and mid-2012 are profiled. Of these, 35 (81%) show effects and essay 8 (19%) show no effect. EVIDENCE FOR NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS.

One hundred fifty five (155) new papers that report on neurological effects of RFR published between 2007 and mid-2012 are profiled. Of these, 98 (63%) showed effects and 57 (37%) showed no effects. Sixty nine (69) new ELF-EMF papers (including two static field papers) that report on genotoxic effects of jhu resume guide ELF-EMF published between 2007 and mid-2012 are profiled. Of these, 64 (93%) show effects and 5 (7%) show no effect. EVIDENCE FOR CHILDHOOD CANCERS (LEUKEMIA) With overall 42 epidemiological studies published to date power frequency EMFs are among the most comprehensively studied environmental factors. Persuasive Essay. Except ionizing radiation no other environmental factor has been as firmly established to increase the risk of childhood leukemia. Base-station level RFR at levels ranging from guide, less than 0.001 uW/cm2 to essay 0.05 uW/cm2. In 5 new studies since 2007, researchers report headaches, concentration difficulties and behavioral problems in guide, children and on everyman adolescents; and jhu resume sleep disturbances, headaches and concentration problems in english, adults.

MELATONIN, BREAST CANCER AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE. MELATONIN AND BREAST CANCER. Conclusion : Eleven (11) of the 13 published epidemiologic residential and jhu resume occupational studies are considered to english provide (positive) evidence that high ELF MF exposure can result in decreased melatonin production. The two negative studies had important deficiencies that may certainly have biased the results. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that long-term relatively high ELF MF exposure can result in a decrease in jhu resume, melatonin production. Essay Keywords. It has not been determined to what extent personal characteristics, e.g., medications, interact with ELF MF exposure in decreasing melatonin production. Conclusion : New research indicates that ELF MF exposure, in vitro, can significantly decrease melatonin activity through effects on guide MT1, an important melatonin receptor. There is strong epidemiologic evidence that exposure to ELF MF is a risk factor for AD. There are now twelve (12) studies of ELF MF exposure and AD or dementia which . Auto Thumbnails Thesis. Nine (9) of these studies are considered positive and three (3) are considered negative. The three negative studies have serious deficiencies in ELF MF exposure classification that results in subjects with rather low exposure being considered as having significant exposure. Jhu Resume. There are insufficient studies to formulate an opinion as to whether radiofrequency MF exposure is a risk or protective factor for AD.

There is now evidence that (i) high levels of peripheral amyloid beta are a risk factor for AD and (ii) medium to high ELF MF exposure can increase peripheral amyloid beta. Of Frederick. High brain levels of amyloid beta are also a risk factor for AD and medium to jhu resume high ELF MF exposure to brain cells likely also increases these cells’ production of amyloid beta. There is considerable in vitro and essay animal evidence that melatonin protects against AD. Therefore it is certainly possible that low levels of melatonin production are associated with an increase in jhu resume, the risk of AD. (Davanipour and Sobel, 2012 – Section 13) STRESS PROTEINS AND DNA AS A FRACTAL ANTENNA FOR RFR. DNA acts as a ‘fractal antenna’ for EMF and RFR.The coiled-coil structure of DNA in the nucleus makes the molecule react like a fractal antenna to a wide range of frequencies.The structure makes DNA particularly vulnerable to essays EMF damage.

The mechanism involves direct interaction of guide EMF with the DNA molecule (claims that there are no known mechanisms of interaction are patently false) Many EMF frequencies in essay on corn syrup, the environment can and do cause DNA changes. The EMF-activated cellular stress response is an effective protective mechanism for cells exposed to a wide range of guide EMF frequencies. EMF stimulates stress proteins (indicating an assault on the cell). EMF efficiently harms cells at essay a billion times lower levels than conventional heating. EVIDENCE FOR DISRUPTION OF THE MODULATING SIGNAL. HUMAN STEM CELL DNA DOES NOT ADAPT OR REPAIR. Human stem cells do not adapt to chronic exposures to non-thermal microwave (cannot repair damaged DNA), and damage to DNA in genes in other cells generally do not repair as efficiently.

Non-thermal effects of microwaves depend on variety of biological and physical parameters that should be taken into account in setting the safety standards. Emerging evidence suggests that the SAR concept, which has been widely adopted for safety standards, is not useful alone for guide the evaluation of health risks from non-thermal microwave of mobile communication. Anleitung. Other parameters of exposure, such as frequency, modulation, duration, and dose should be taken into account.Lower intensities are not always less harmful; they may be more harmful.Intensity windows exist, where bioeffects are much more powerful. A linear, dose-response relationship test is probably invalid for testing of RFR and EMF (as is done in chemicals testing for toxicity). Resonant frequencies may result in biological effects at very low intensities comparable to jhu resume guide base station (cell tower) and other microwave sources used in mobile communications. These exposures can cause health risk. The current safety standards are insufficient to protect from non-thermal microwave effects. The data about the effects of statement narrative of the of frederick douglass microwave at super-low intensities and significant role of jhu resume duration of exposure in these effects along with the data showing that adverse effects of non-thermal microwave from gsm/UMTS mobile phones depend on carrier frequency and type of the microwave signal suggest that microwave from base-stations/masts, wireless routers, WI-FI and other wireless devices and exposures in essay on corn syrup, common use today can also produce adverse effects at prolonged durations of exposure. Most of the jhu resume, real signals that are in use in english, mobile communication have not been tested so far. Very little research has been done with real signals and for durations and intermittences of jhu resume exposure that are relevant to essays on everyman chronic exposures from mobile communication. In some studies, so-called “mobile communication-like” signals were investigated that in fact were different from the real exposures in such important aspects as intensity, carrier frequency, modulation, polarization, duration and intermittence.

New standards should be developed based on knowledge of mechanisms of non-thermal effects. Importantly, because the guide, signals of mobile communication are completely replaced by other signals faster then once per persuasive on anorexia, 10 years, duration comparable with latent period, epidemiologic studies cannot provide basement for cancer risk assessment from upcoming new signals. In many cases, because of ELF modulation and additional ELF fields created by the microwave sources, for example by jhu resume guide, mobile phones, it is difficult to distinguish the effects of persuasive essay nervosa exposures to jhu resume ELF and microwave. Persuasive Essay On Anorexia Nervosa. Therefore, these combined exposures and their possible cancer risks should be considered in combination. As far as different types of microwave signals (carrier frequency, modulation, polarization, far and near field, intermittence, coherence, etc. ) may produce different effects, cancer risks should ideally be estimated for guide each microwave signal separately. The Precautionary Principle should be implemented while new standards are in progress. It should be anticipated that some part of the human population, such as children, pregnant women and groups of hypersensitive persons could be especially sensitive to the non-thermal microwave exposures. N. EFFECTS OF WEAK-FIELD INTERACTIONS ON NON-LINEAR BIOLOGICAL OSCILLATORS AND SYNCHRONIZED NEURAL ACTIVITY. A unifying hypothesis for a plausible biological mechanism to account for anleitung very weak field EMF bioeffects other than cancer may lie with weak field interactions of pulsed RFR and ELF-modulated RFR as disrupters of synchronized neural activity. Electrical rhythms in jhu resume guide, our brains can be influenced by external signals. Critical. This is consistent with established weak field effects on jhu resume guide coupled biological oscillators in living tissues.

Biological systems of the thumbnails thesis, heart, brain and gut are dependent on the cooperative actions of cells that function according to principles of non-linear, coupled biological oscillations for their synchrony, and are dependent on exquisitely timed cues from the environment at vanishingly small levels (Buzsaki, 2006; Strogatz, 2003). The key to synchronization is the jhu resume, joint actions of cells that co-operate electrically – linking populations of anleitung biological oscillators that couple together in large arrays and jhu resume guide synchronize spontaneously. On Corn. Synchronous biological oscillations in cells (pacemaker cells) can be disrupted by jhu resume, artificial, exogenous environmental signals, resulting in thesis, desynchronization of neural activity that regulates critical functions (including metabolism) in the brain, gut and guide heart and circadian rhythms governing sleep and hormone cycles (Strogatz, 1987). The brain contains a population of oscillators with distributed natural frequencies, which pull one another into synchrony (the circadian pacemaker cells). Strogatz has addressed the unifying mathematics of of the of frederick biological cycles and jhu resume guide external factors disrupt these cycles (Strogatz, 2001, 2003). “ Rhythms can be altered by a wide variety of agents and that these perturbations must seriously alter brain performance” (Buzsaki, 2006). Synchronous biological oscillations in cells (pacemaker cells) can be disrupted by artificial, exogenous environmental signals, resulting in desynchronization of neural activity that regulates critical functions (including metabolism) in the brain, gut and essay on anorexia nervosa heart and circadian rhythms governing sleep and hormone cycles. Jhu Resume Guide. The brain contains a population of oscillators with distributed natural frequencies, which pull one another into synchrony (the circadian pacemaker cells). Thesis. Strogatz has addressed the unifying mathematics of biological cycles and external factors disrupt these cycles.

EMF AND RFR MAKE CHEMICAL TOXINS MORE HARMFUL. EMF acts on the body like other environmental toxicants do (heavy metals, organic chemicals and pesticides). Both toxic chemicals and guide EMF may generate free radicals, produce stress proteins and thumbnails cause indirect damage to guide DNA. Where there is essay anleitung, combined exposure the damages may add or even synergistically interact, and result in worse damage to genes. EMF IS SUCCESSFULLY USED IN HEALING AND DISEASE TREATMENTS. “The potential application of the up-regulation of the HSP70 gene by both ELF-EMF and nanosecond PEMF in clinical practice would include trauma, surgery, peripheral nerve damage, orthopedic fracture, and vascular graft support, among others. Regardless of pulse design, EMF technology has been shown to be effective in bone healing [5], wound repair [11] and neural regeneration [31,36,48,49,51,63,64,65,66]. In terms of jhu resume guide clinical applica- tion, EMF-induction of elevated levels of thumbnails thesis hsp70 protein also confers protection against hypoxia [61] and jhu resume guide aid myocardial function and survival [20,22]. Given these results, we are particularly interested in the translational significance of effect vs. efficacy which is not usually reported by designers or investigators of EMF devices.

More precise description of EM pulse and essay on anorexia nervosa sine wave parameters, including the specific EM output sector, will provide consistency and “scientific basis” in reporting findings.” “The degree of electromagnetic field-effects on biological systems is known to be dependent on a number of jhu resume guide criteria in the waveform pattern of the persuasive essay nervosa, exposure system used; these include frequency, duration, wave shape, and relative orientation of the fields [6,29,32,33,39,40]. In some cases pulsed fields have demonstrated increased efficacy over jhu resume guide, static designs [19,21] in essay on corn syrup, both medical and experimental settings.” (Madkan et al, 2009) ELF-EMF AND RFR ARE CLASSIFIED AS POSSIBLE CANCER-CAUSING AGENTS – WHY ARE GOVERNMENTS NOT ACTING? The World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified wireless radiofrequency as a Possible Human Carcinogen (May, 2011)*. The designation applies to low-intensity RFR in general, covering all RFR-emitting devices and exposure sources (cell and guide cordless phones, WI-FI, wireless laptops, wireless hotspots, electronic baby monitors, wireless classroom access points, wireless antenna facilities, etc).

The IARC Panel could have chosen to classify RFR as a Group 4 – Not A Carcinogen if the evidence was clear that RFR is not a cancer-causing agent. It could also have found a Group 3 designation was a good interim choice (Insufficient Evidence). IARC did neither. NEW SAFETY LIMITS MUST BE ESTABLISHED – HEALTH AGENCIES SHOULD ACT NOW. Existing public safety limits (FCC and ICNIRP public safety limits) do not sufficiently protect public health against chronic exposure from very low-intensity exposures. If no mid-course corrections are made to persuasive on anorexia nervosa existing and outdated safety limits, such delay will magnify the public health impacts with even more applications of wireless-enabled technologies exposing even greater populations around the jhu resume, world in daily life.

SCIENTIFIC BENCHMARKS FOR HARM PLUS SAFETY MARGIN = NEW SAFETY LIMITS THAT ARE VALID. Health agencies and thesis statement of frederick regulatory agencies that set public safety standards for ELF-EMF and RFR should act now to adopt new, biologically-relevant safety limits that key to guide the lowest scientific benchmarks for persuasive essay harm coming from the recent studies, plus a lower safety margin. Jhu Resume Guide. Existing public safety limits are too high by several orders of magnitude, if prevention of bioeffects and minimization or elimination of resulting adverse human health effects. Most safety standards are a thousand times or more too high to protect healthy populations, and even less effective in protecting sensitive subpopulations. SENSITIVE POPULATIONS MUST BE PROTECTED. Safety standards for sensitive populations will more likely need to be set at statement narrative of the life of frederick douglass lower levels than for healthy adult populations. Sensitive populations include the developing fetus, the infant, children, the elderly, those with pre-existing chronic diseases, and jhu resume those with developed electrical sensitivity (EHS). PROTECTING NEW LIFE – INFANTS AND CHILDREN. STANDARD OF EVIDENCE FOR JUDGING THE SCIENCE. The standard of evidence for judging the scientific evidence should be based on good public health principles rather than demanding scientific certainty before actions are taken.

WIRELESS WARNINGS FOR ALL. The continued rollout of wireless technologies and essays on everyman devices puts global public health at risk from unrestricted wireless commerce unless new, and far lower exposure limits and strong precautionary warnings for their use are implemented. EMF AND RFR ARE PREVENTABLE TOXIC EXPOSURES. We have the knowledge and means to save global populations from multi-generational adverse health consequences by reducing both ELF and RFR exposures. Proactive and immediate measures to reduce unnecessary EMF exposures will lower disease burden and jhu resume rates of premature death.

DEFINING A NEW ‘EFFECT LEVEL’ FOR RFR. On a precautionary public health basis, a reduction from the BioInitiative 2007 recommendation of 0.1 uW/cm2 (or one-tenth of a microwatt per square centimeter) for cumulative outdoor RFR down to essays something three orders of magnitude lower (in the low nanowatt per square centimeter range) is justified.