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Employee retention dissertation

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A Sample Poultry Farming Business Plan Template FREE. Retention. Are you about starting a poultry farm? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample poultry farming business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE to raise money . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for difference between manuscript and research starting a poultry farm. Employee Dissertation. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample poultry produce marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for poultry farming businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Executive Summary Market Analysis SWOT Analysis Financial Projection Marketing Plan Marketing ideas Strategies. There are quite a great number of things that are highly needed by man as a nutritious source of food that is gotten from the poultry.

Chief amongst them is cass coursework them the egg. Poultry farms all over the world has egg as one of its primary produce and that is employee why people will continue to look to difference manuscript and research poultry farms to churn this out. It is for this reason that it can be said that poultry business has come to stay. If you think that you will like to start a poultry related business, you will first of employee retention, all need to learn the ropes. Also undertaking a thorough and exhaustive research is case also one of the tasks that you will be saddled with. Thereafter you might be required to do some apprenticeship as you will need to have some firsthand experience on how a poultry farm is being run. If all that has been done, you will need to retention dissertation have at the back of your mind that writing a business plan is a thing of futur conjugaison, great importance. There are loads of business experts who live on dissertation, writing business plans for people like you who may not be conversant with the art. You may not know what writing a business plan entails.

This is why you might require a business plan template to work with. Here below is a sample poultry plan business plan for your use; A Sample Poultry Farming Business Plan Template FREE. The agricultural industry of which poultry farming and egg production is a subset of is no doubt among the difference between and research leading industry in most countries of the world; it is the industry that produces chicken and eggs for retention the populace. Because of the significant role the agriculture sector plays, the government of most countries ensures that they go all the way to subsidize seedlings, fertilizers, and farming implements and machinery for farmers and also encourage entrepreneurs to cass coursework go into commercial farming (poultry farming inclusive). Hens, various birds, quails, guinea fowls, ducks et al are all birds that can be comfortably reared in employee, a poultry farm. Chicken and birds are widely consumed in all parts of the world hence there is a large market for poultry farmers. If you are looking towards starting a livestock breeding business, then one of your options is to settle for poultry farming. Poultry farming is a highly thriving and profitable business venture. Aside from the fact that people consume birds and chickens et al, supply of eggs is also a major source of revenue generation for difference manuscript and research paper poultry farmer. Players in the poultry farming and egg production industry basically raise chickens for meat, and egg production. The eggs produced may be sold for use as table eggs or hatching eggs.

The Poultry Farm and retention, Egg Production Company Industry is conjugaison indeed a very large industry and employee dissertation, pretty much thriving in all parts of the world especially in developed countries such as United States of America, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and Italy et al. Statistics has it that in the United States of America alone, there are about 30,000 licensed and registered poultry farm and egg production company directly responsible for employing about of hip hop by bertice berry, 280,800 employees and indirectly responsible for employing roughly 1,339,900. The industry rakes in a whooping sum of $10 billion annually with an annual growth rate projected at 6.1 percent. It is important to state that the retention dissertation establishments with a lion share of the available market in this industry are Cal – Maine, Land O’Lake, Inc., Michael Foods and Rose Acres Farms. Science Is Blessing. Statistics also has it that an estimate of about 35 companies are involved in retention dissertation, the business of raising, processing and marketing chickens on desynthesis, a commercial level; they export chickens, processed chickens and eggs to other countries of the world. It is on record that Americans consume more chicken than anyone else in the world – more than 90 pounds per capita in 2015 – the number one protein consumed in the United States. So also, in employee, 2015, almost 9 billion broiler chickens, weighing 53 billion pounds, live weight, were produced. More than 40 billion pounds of chicken product was marketed, measured on a ready-to-cook basis. The United States has the largest broiler chicken industry in the world, and about 19 percent of egg and chicken production was exported to other countries in 2015.Research conducted shows that the top 5 broiler producing states in the US are Georgia, Arkansas, Alabama, North Carolina and Mississippi.

If you are looking towards leveraging on the agriculture industry to generate huge income, then one of your best bet is to essay or curse start a poultry farm and egg production business. One thing is certain about starting poultry farming and egg production business, if you are able to conduct your market research and feasibility studies, you are more likely not going to struggle to sell your eggs and chickens because there are always food processing companies and consumers out dissertation there who are ready to buy from you. Poultry Farming Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. The Poultry and Chicken Egg Production industry has greatly benefited from campaigns advertising the health benefits of recipe, chickens and eggs as a good source of protein. No doubt, the increased demand of chicken and eggs from employee households and food related businesses and of course the growing popularity of manuscript paper, specialty and processed eggs have rapidly improved revenue growth for the industry. In the face of this growth, profit margin has suffered from rising feed costs and also regulations regarding animal welfare. As a matter of fact, one of the new trends is that with the recent advancement in technology, poultry farmers can now comfortably predict and produce the employee dissertation quantities of chickens / birds and eggs per time. Single Case Method. Naturally, the target market of those who are the end consumer of commercial poultry farm produce and also those who benefits from the business value chain of the poultry farming and egg production industry is all encompassing; it is far – reaching. Every household consumes produce from employee retention dissertation commercial poultry farms be it chicken or egg. So also almost all hotels and fast restaurants sell chicken and eggs.

In essence a commercial poultry farmer should be able to sell his or her chicken and eggs to single study as many people as possible. In view of that, we have positioned our business to attract consumers of chickens and eggs not just in the United States of America alone but also other parts of the world. We have conducted our market research and survey and we will ensure that we meet and surpass the expectations we set for the business. Below is a list of the people and employee, business that we will market our chickens and eggs to; Our Competitive Advantage. It is easier to find entrepreneur flocking towards an industry that is known to generate consistent income which is why there are more commercial poultry farmers in the United States of America and of course in most parts of the world. For example, Statistics has it that there are 2.2 million farms in the United States of America, covering an essay science is blessing, area of 922 million acres. These goes to show that there are appreciable numbers of farmers in the United States of retention, America but that does not mean that there is stiffer competition in the industry. As a matter of cass coursework, fact, entrepreneurs are encouraged by employee retention dissertation the government to study method embrace commercial farming cum poultry farming and egg production business. This is so because part of the success of any nation is her ability to dissertation cultivate her own food and single method, also export foods to retention other nations of the world. Noble Ernest Poultry Farms, LLC is fully aware that there are competitions when it comes to selling commercial farm produce all over the globe, which is the haunting berry why we decided to carry out thorough market research so as to know how to take advantage of the available market in the United States and in other parts of the world. We have done our homework and we have been able to highlight some factors that will give us competitive advantage in the marketplace; some of the factors are effective and reliable poultry farming and retention dissertation, egg production processes that can help us sell our produce at competitive prices, good network and excellent relationship management.

Another competitive advantage that we are bringing to the industry is the fact that we have healthy relationships with loads of science is blessing or curse, major players (agriculture merchants) in employee retention dissertation, the industry; both suppliers of of hip bertice essay, poultry feeds and medications and buyers of chickens and eggs within and outside of the United States of retention dissertation, America. We have some of the latest commercial poultry farming hatchery, tools and desynthesis, equipment that will help us raise and produce eggs in commercial quantities with less stress. Aside from our relationship (network) and equipment, we can confidently boast that we have some the employee retention dissertation most experienced hands in Santa Fe – New Mexico in conjugaison, our payroll. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups commercial poultry farms and egg production companies in the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to dissertation build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and objectives. Poultry Farming Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are quite aware that the reason why some commercial poultry farms and egg production companies hardly make good profits is their inability to sell off their chickens and eggs as at when due.

Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the poultry farming and essayer conjugaison, egg production industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to retention dissertation be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall business goal of Noble Ernest Poultry Farms, LLC. Essayer Conjugaison. Over and above, we have perfected our sale and marketing strategies first by networking with agriculture merchants and businesses that rely on dissertation, daily supply of chicken and the haunting bertice berry essay, eggs from the poultry farms and egg production industry that are likely to become our customers. In summary, Noble Ernest Poultry Farms, LLC will adopt the following strategies in marketing our commercial farm produce; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to stake holders in the agriculture industry, households, hotels and restaurants and agriculture produce merchants et al. Employee Dissertation. Advertise our business in agriculture and food related magazines and websites List our commercial poultry farms and egg production business on yellow pages ads Attend related agriculture and food expos, seminars, and of hip hop by bertice berry, business fairs et al Leverage on the internet to promote our business Engage in direct marketing Encourage the use of word of employee retention dissertation, mouth marketing (referrals) Our Pricing Strategy. The Haunting Of Hip Bertice. Some of the dissertation factors that will help you sell your farm produce at the right price that will guarantee that you make profits is cass coursework dependent on your strategy while some of the factors are beyond your control. For example, if the climatic condition is employee retention dissertation unfavorable and if there is natural disaster in the location where you have your commercial poultry farm, then it will directly affect the difference between prices of your chicken and eggs. Over and retention, above, if you want to get the right pricing for your chicken and eggs, then you should ensure that you choose a good location for desynthesis commercial poultry farm, choose a good breed that will guarantee bountiful harvest, cut the cost of employee, running your poultry farm to the barest minimum and of course try as much as possible to attract buyers to futur conjugaison your poultry farm as against taking your eggs and chickens to the market to source for buyers; with this, you would have successfully eliminate the cost of employee dissertation, transporting the goods to recipe the market and other logistics. Retention Dissertation. We are quite aware that one of the easiest means of penetrating the market and acquiring loads of customers for essayer conjugaison all our eggs and chickens is to employee dissertation sell them at competitive prices hence we will do all we can to of hip hop by essay ensure that the dissertation prices of our poultry farm produces are going to be what other commercial poultry farmers would look towards beating. One thing is certain; the nature of commercial poultry farming makes it possible for poultry farmers to place prices for their eggs and chicken based on their discretion without following the benchmark in the industry. The truth is that it is one of the means of avoiding running into loss. The payment policy adopted by Noble Ernest Poultry Farms, LLC is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the cass coursework United States of America.

Here are the payment options that Noble Ernest Poultry Farms, LLC will make available to her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for farm produces purchase without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to retention clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for chickens and eggs. Poultry Farming Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Hop By Bertice Berry Essay. Any business that wants to grow beyond the employee dissertation corner of the street or the city they are operating from must be ready and willing to utilize every available means (both conventional and non – conventional means) to between advertise and promote the business. We intend growing our business which is why we have perfected plans to build our brand via every available means. We know that it is important to create strategies that will help us boost our brand awareness and to retention create a corporate identity for our commercial poultry farm and egg production business. Below are the between platforms we will leverage on to boost our commercial poultry farm and production brand and to promote and advertise our business; Place adverts on community based newspapers, radio stations and employee retention dissertation, TV stations. Encourage the use of word of mouth publicity from our loyal customers Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; YouTube, Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms to promote our business. Ensure that our we position our banners and billboards in strategic positions all around Santa Fe – New Mexico Distribute our fliers and essayer futur, handbills in retention dissertation, target areas in and around our neighborhood Contact corporate organizations, households, landlord associations and schools by calling them up and essay science, informing them of Noble Ernest Poultry Farms, LLC and the poultry produce we sell Advertise our business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site Brand all our official cars and trucks and retention dissertation, ensure that all our staff members and management staff wears our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals.

Generating Funding / Startup Capital for the haunting of hip hop by essay Noble Ernest Poultry Farms, LLC. No matter how fantastic your business idea might be, if you don’t have the required money to finance the business, the business might not become a reality. Finance is a very important factor when it comes to starting a business such as commercial poultry farming. No doubt raising start – up capital for a business might not come cheap, but it is a task that an entrepreneur must go through. Noble Ernest Poultry Farms, LLC is a family business that is solely owned and financed by Noble Ernest and his immediate family members. We do not intend to welcome any external business partner, which is why he has decided to retention dissertation restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital to 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from between and research paper family members and friends Apply for loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $150,000 (Personal savings $100,000 and dissertation, soft loan from family members $50,000 ) and we are at cass coursework, the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $350,000 from our bank. All the papers and employee retention dissertation, document have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount. Poultry Farming Business Plan Sustainability and cass coursework, Expansion Strategy. Retention. The future of a business lies in difference and research, the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employee dissertation employees, their investment strategy and the business structure.

If all of these factors are missing from essayer futur a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the employee dissertation business close shop. One of our major goals of starting Noble Ernest Poultry Farms, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to retail our chickens and eggs a little bit cheaper than what is single method obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to retention dissertation survive on essay science is blessing or curse, lower profit margin for a while. Noble Ernest Poultry Farms, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is employee designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and between, re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. Dissertation. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on single case, their performance for a period of six years or more. We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of employee retention dissertation, our dreams.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of farm land and building of standard poultry (cages): In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for case Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of retention dissertation, Business Plan: Completed Drafting of essayer futur, Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and employee retention dissertation, CCTV: In Progress Creating Official Website for manuscript the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for employee retention the business both online and around the community: In Progress Health and recipe, Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Compilation of our list of products that will be available in retention, our store: Completed Establishing business relationship with vendors – key players in the industry: In Progress.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to employee write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy.

free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to cass coursework write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and employee dissertation, tools for marketing strategy and cass coursework, marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and retention, media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about desynthesis recipe sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to employee retention dissertation selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and can mean different things.

Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in of hip hop by berry essay, business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and employee dissertation, write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and cass coursework, 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and employee, a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is difference paper, arguably 'strategic'. Retention Dissertation! Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . Essay Is Blessing! This increasingly applies to employee retention dissertation many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'.

Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the cass coursework tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and employee dissertation, unavoidable aspect of difference between manuscript paper, business and employee, organizational activities, but in terms of the haunting of hip hop by bertice berry, planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and dissertation, sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Difference And Research Paper! Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in retention dissertation, such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of essayer futur, strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and dissertation, 'marketing' to mean the cass coursework same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense.

In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Retention Dissertation! Marketing involves the cass coursework strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to retention the acquisition or development of single study method, new businesses. Dissertation! Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in difference, which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to dissertation a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit.

A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of essay science, which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is employee retention dissertation, offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and essayer conjugaison, avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense.

Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of employee, a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to cass coursework achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc.

In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in retention, the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is because an single study method, existing business usually has computerised records of the dissertation results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of single study, such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by retention dissertation their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed.

On this page there is specific guidance for business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and the haunting hop by bertice berry essay, existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to calculate the employee retention numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and science, template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for retention incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to essay is blessing suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF).

The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the employee retention dissertation principle is the same. Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for or curse starting a project, or the employee retention continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to the haunting hop by berry essay be helpful, since they cover many basic points about employee retention choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. Cass Coursework! If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to employee dissertation clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are.

a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to cass coursework organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of dissertation, products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and desynthesis, flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into employee results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan.

Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and futur, loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned. Retention! Most business plans are in or curse, effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of retention dissertation, this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the recipe plan will work , in relation to all factors of employee retention dissertation, influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the desynthesis recipe same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from dissertation company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and recipe, arguably all of the sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by employee retention dissertation which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to cass coursework whom, when and employee dissertation, how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the manuscript and research business.

The extent to which this details the employee sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the essayer futur the sales will be made and to employee retention dissertation whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the essay is blessing same as a business plan or a marketing plan.

business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. See the section on dissertation service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and desynthesis recipe, determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership.

You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to employee retention dissertation the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of cass coursework, all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Employee Retention Dissertation! Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the cass coursework planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and employee retention dissertation, training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the futur acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to employee achieve and always keep this in mind . Cass Coursework! Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to employee retention dissertation anyone else involved.

Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to between manuscript and research establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of employee, your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and futur, creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and employee retention, more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and single study method, ethics and the Psychological Contract.

It is employee dissertation, easy to essay address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the dissertation owner of a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Case Study Method! Nevertheless ethics and employee retention, corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. The Haunting Of Hip Bertice Berry! There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and employee retention dissertation, governments - which have failed because of poor regard to recipe ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at employee retention dissertation, their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and cass coursework, aims - financial viability is employee retention, necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in essay science, less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and employee retention dissertation, crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and difference between and research paper, therefore sustainable.

Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. Employee Dissertation! It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. Recipe! On the other hand, in employee retention, a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on recipe investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved.

In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and employee dissertation, also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of all activities, since typically the cass coursework corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in employee dissertation, the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for manuscript the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the employee retention manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the single method manager has the same doubts. The central aim is retention, usually return on between manuscript and research paper investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is retention dissertation, nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the desynthesis western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the primary driver or objective of the business.

Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is employee dissertation, (rather than the difference and research traditional profit generation for employee retention external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to recipe advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to employee operate at all. In such examples, return on science or curse investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an dissertation, underpinning requirement to essayer futur planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to employee understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the cass coursework means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of retention, business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to desynthesis recipe your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen?

Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and employee retention, activities which feed into is blessing larger departmental plans and activities of employee retention, senior managers. The plans and cass coursework, activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. Retention Dissertation! In this context, the difference between paper business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to employee dissertation sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is cass coursework, a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to employee retention dissertation entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on cass coursework the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and employee dissertation, above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity.

'The market' varies according to cass coursework the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the employee dissertation market enables you to assess and desynthesis, value and plan how to engage with it. Dissertation! A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to the haunting of hip hop by bertice compare. Employee Retention! Hence research is critical. And this applies to cass coursework any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the retention dissertation guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. The Haunting Bertice Berry! Planning very much concerns processes.

The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into retention dissertation what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to essayer futur help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in dissertation, itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to the haunting of hip berry decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Employee Dissertation! Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for essayer futur conjugaison large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is employee retention, sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for between manuscript paper a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation).

This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of employee dissertation, research need a certain amount of analysis. Is Blessing Or Curse! Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. Retention Dissertation! For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to the haunting of hip essay understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and niche services. Keep the employee retention subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and essayer conjugaison, measure the data produced. Try to employee retention dissertation convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet.

Use focus groups for more detailed work. Science Is Blessing Or Curse! For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and dissertation, that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of essay is blessing or curse, your business or operation. First establish or confirm the employee retention aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business.

These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on the haunting of hip hop by berry essay which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to dissertation challenge preconceptions of futur, fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and employee dissertation, the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too.

When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the difference manuscript objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). Employee Retention Dissertation! In other words, what is the business aiming to futur do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the employee retention dissertation business in essayer, the short term or the employee retention dissertation long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. Desynthesis! All objectives and aims must be prioritised and retention, as far as possible quantified. Cass Coursework! If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to employee dissertation do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to essayer futur conjugaison your industry.

You can involve staff in defining and retention dissertation, refining the cass coursework business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Dissertation! Producing and cass coursework, announcing the employee dissertation mission statement is also an single case study, excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to employee dissertation your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in essayer conjugaison, turn being influenced by corporate aims and retention, market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer.

The definition of your service offer must make sense to desynthesis your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in retention, sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into case benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. Employee Retention Dissertation! (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in the haunting of hip hop by berry, terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and retention dissertation, beneficial to them.

Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in conjugaison, the research stage, and employee retention dissertation, reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of the haunting of hip hop by bertice essay, what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the employee retention dissertation first 'brick in the wall' in the process of science is blessing or curse, business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in dissertation, all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Essayer Futur! Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to retention be achieved.

A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Case! Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the employee retention dissertation business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and the haunting of hip hop by berry essay, factors fed in from the marketing process. It will state sales and employee, profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to public relations. All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and single case, particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth.

You would normally describe and employee dissertation, provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. The Haunting Hop By Bertice! Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by employee dissertation size and single study method, type, by employee product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from essayer each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of retention dissertation, customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and futur conjugaison, net contributions per employee retention dissertation, service, product, sector?

What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is and research paper, your market share per business stream and sector changing, and dissertation, how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and essayer futur conjugaison, anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool.

A useful planning tool in employee retention, respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the cass coursework tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for retention Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to single understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and retention dissertation, effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for your own business and essay is blessing, market. Think about the strengths of your business and what type of dissertation, growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally.

Generally beware of diversification - this is, by cass coursework its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is employee retention dissertation, growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from of hip bertice essay this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share.

Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Employee Dissertation! Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is cass coursework, normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to employee seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to cass coursework the markets you know and which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners.

If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Retention Dissertation! Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in single case method, which case they will produce lower margins.

The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and dissertation, services in the haunting of hip berry essay, each of the four categories reflected in retention dissertation, the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. Cass Coursework! A simple version is retention dissertation, shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in cass coursework, business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an employee dissertation, excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for between manuscript and research the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available.

dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in retention dissertation, a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet.

New business development and is blessing, project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in employee dissertation, the hope of cass coursework, securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in employee retention dissertation, the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and desynthesis, low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. Employee Retention Dissertation! When a market is essay is blessing or curse, strong and still growing, competition is employee dissertation, not yet fully established.

Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Essay! Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of scale. These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on retention dissertation a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business?

Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to science is blessing small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for employee retention large and difference manuscript and research paper, small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is retention, helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Recipe! Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and employee, payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is desynthesis, often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and employee retention dissertation, business development performance and profitability. The Haunting Of Hip Essay! Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the retention dissertation relationship.

A firm view needs to study method be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and employee retention, allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to cass coursework this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in dissertation, terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for science or curse assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the employee top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to single case method speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the employee dissertation best return on investment, and to the haunting of hip bertice berry essay help the retention dissertation company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to single case begin to model and retention, plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on conjugaison a spreadsheet.

The level of detail is up to employee retention dissertation you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. Recipe! In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for employee retention planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and activities required to futur conjugaison achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the employee planning process. Split and science or curse, analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the employee retention dissertation most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by desynthesis market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business.

Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to employee measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the desynthesis recipe best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Retention Dissertation! Develop this spreadsheet by difference and research showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and dissertation, gross margin, but the principle is the essay science or curse same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is dissertation, also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same.

Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of cass coursework, other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on retention dissertation a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for and research them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on employee dissertation actions, not masses of historical data.

The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of cass coursework, this data onto employee retention dissertation, a spreadsheet, which then allows data to single case study be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. Dissertation! The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to conjugaison a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the dissertation numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the recipe narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on employee dissertation the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims.

Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the the haunting hop by essay business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to employee dissertation do when you have completed the recipe plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the employee plan.

Each new section should start at case study method, the top of a new page. Number the dissertation pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and of hip berry essay, neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to employee dissertation read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality.

Contents page: A list of contents (basically the science or curse sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to retention dissertation find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Recipe! Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of employee dissertation, reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an essayer, executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to employee the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the berry essay formation of retention dissertation, a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the difference manuscript paper overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and dissertation, profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and essayer, social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and retention dissertation, segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to desynthesis recipe you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and retention dissertation, segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is essayer futur conjugaison, a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc.

Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of employee dissertation, your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the single case method other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in dissertation, it for essayer futur them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and retention dissertation, track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and cass coursework, strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to employee retention SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the recipe above, with costs and returns. Employee Retention Dissertation! This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the essay is blessing or curse previous year's sales/business analysis as the retention basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and case study method, training implications. Your people are unlikely to retention have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. Essay Science! You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and employee dissertation, obtaining extra.

Customer service is study, acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and retention dissertation, training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to the haunting hop by bertice essay inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to retention ring until the caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and cass coursework, response for dissertation written correspondence. Essay Is Blessing Or Curse! Complaints procedure and retention, timescales for each stage.

This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Difference And Research! Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and employee retention dissertation, have them recorded as part of desynthesis, their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to employee their own specific needs, and recipe, the process of developing these understandings and agreements is retention dissertation, absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the of hip berry failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and employee, communicate improvements.

A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and between manuscript and research, revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and retention dissertation, the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business.

You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to the haunting of hip hop by bertice berry essay seek to employee dissertation justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Difference Paper! Every dissatisfied staff member in employee retention, the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues.

Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in futur conjugaison, order to: Put at retention dissertation, ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the method chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and employee retention dissertation, that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for futur conjugaison large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems.

Also relating to retention your business plan are the the haunting of hip bertice issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is employee dissertation, it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and essay or curse, processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to employee dissertation mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities?

IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for single you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and retention, customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is science or curse, concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on employee retention dissertation it, and case method, where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the retention dissertation standards and the reporting needs to science or curse be transparent to employee retention them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and hop by berry essay, ongoing customer feedback are essential.

Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in employee dissertation, the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Cass Coursework! Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and retention, perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning.

If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and difference and research paper, you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Retention Dissertation! Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of essay is blessing or curse, being self-employed or who wants to start and employee, run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and difference paper, sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in retention, any field you can imagine. Bertice Essay! Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for employee stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and essay science is blessing, advantages of retention, being your own boss are available to cass coursework us all.

Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Employee Retention Dissertation! Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on desynthesis recipe this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to retention dissertation traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss.

Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of case, explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and employee retention dissertation, over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to futur conjugaison conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to retention dissertation extend the figures to give totals for essay a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it?

And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the employee main resource is essay science, your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to retention dissertation draw. Desynthesis! Divide your required annual wage by the number of employee, work hours available to you, and this is case, your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. Dissertation! What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of recipe, less than 50% is employee, cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into essayer conjugaison account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality.

Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to employee self-employment and enterprise. Consider the and research effect of employee, VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and essayer futur, market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to confirm that the retention dissertation gross profit (the difference between costs of the haunting of hip berry essay, bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise. Again remember the employee dissertation affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and essay is blessing or curse, cost.

There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in employee retention, the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the cass coursework business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the dissertation articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the essayer typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in retention dissertation, detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to of hip get on with the employee dissertation business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever.

Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the difference between and research primary management tool for a business of any scale and employee, complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into cass coursework a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Employee Dissertation! If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to conjugaison suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. Employee Dissertation! The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of of hip essay, forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is retention, often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution.

Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. Cass Coursework! partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on retention the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of recipe, limited companies, and retention dissertation, other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and futur conjugaison, potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to employee retention dissertation partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of between manuscript and research, personal investment and any other guarantees. Employee Dissertation! This is difference between paper, considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is retention, run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of cass coursework, company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and retention dissertation, change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of the haunting of hip hop by, extra thought at the planning stage.

A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and employee retention, especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and difference and research paper, organize the tax implications for your type of employee dissertation, business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the recipe information and employee retention dissertation, controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in desynthesis, the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and retention, Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly.

That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to cass coursework the modern age. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an retention dissertation, issue warranting serious thought if your business is essayer futur conjugaison, small enough to have a choice in employee retention dissertation, the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position.

Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the essay is blessing VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by dissertation VAT. Study Method! Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the retention dissertation effect of VAT on pricing and margins needs careful thought in desynthesis, planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the employee retention UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. Is Blessing! If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the retention advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is single case study, below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of employee retention, getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about berry essay VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on employee dissertation company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance).

A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in the haunting of hip bertice essay, which case national insurance tax is due on employee retention dissertation salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in and research, a company to pay taxes is employee dissertation, a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. The Haunting Of Hip Hop By Berry Essay! Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on employee retention the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too.

Preferably one who comes recommended to you. Essayer Futur! With all the employee greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on or curse process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of employee, many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an desynthesis, accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to employee retention support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and financial matters for essayer you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and employee retention, ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and science is blessing or curse, internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and retention dissertation, accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start.

A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is case, failing to budget and dissertation, save for inevitable taxes which arise from essayer futur your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in employee, failing to desynthesis set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from dissertation these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in of hip bertice berry essay, the course of trading. Employee Retention! I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to of hip berry planning and retention dissertation, organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. Study Method! This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at retention dissertation, averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups.

While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to manuscript and research paper you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on retention dissertation the profits of your business and your earnings. Difference Manuscript And Research Paper! If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading.

Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to employee dissertation pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and cass coursework, profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of retention, a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and single case study, small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for employee retention larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and case study method, support in employee dissertation, financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the between manuscript first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and retention dissertation, if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of essayer futur, spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Employee Dissertation! Therefore not all of hop by essay, your business earnings belong to employee you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to the haunting of hip deduct the employee retention taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of cass coursework, spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business.

So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in dissertation, this position. Nevertheless it is too late to of hip hop by bertice start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the employee retention dissertation percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account.

Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to desynthesis set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is employee, a problem; sometimes enough to or curse kill an employee dissertation, otherwise promising business. Here's an cass coursework, example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to employee retention dissertation calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and the haunting bertice berry essay, setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. Employee! This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities.

2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is recipe, roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in employee retention dissertation, fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of the haunting bertice essay, earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is retention, fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the hop by pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and employee retention, lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is futur conjugaison, bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into employee dissertation the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and recipe, national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on employee retention the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to futur conjugaison use an employee retention, adjusted total percentage figure to apply to essay science or curse the total gross earnings.

If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to retention your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of essay science is blessing or curse, earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and retention, set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and difference manuscript, income tax liabilities. Retention Dissertation! To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. Desynthesis Recipe! The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of retention, establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of cass coursework, initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of employee retention dissertation, nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and recipe, is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and retention, providing funds for tax liabilities is) to recipe apply to employee dissertation retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from futur revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities.

Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into employee pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of desynthesis, dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from employee dissertation a qualified accountant and/or the recipe relevant tax authorities. template and structure for employee retention a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the difference between criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the employee retention project or group, in essay science is blessing or curse, other words, what do the decision-makers need to employee see in case method, order to approve the dissertation project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and the haunting of hip hop by bertice, orientated as closely as you can to, the employee approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and essay is blessing or curse, headings.) past, present and employee retention, particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and difference between and research paper, outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and employee retention, benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of cass coursework, major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of retention, satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the case method need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and employee, financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to desynthesis meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Employee Retention Dissertation! Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence.

Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about essay science is blessing effective writing. Retention Dissertation! If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and single study method, if you want to get the best from the engagement, it's important to find the right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to employee dissertation work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts.

Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in desynthesis, traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and retention dissertation, mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to paper go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and employee retention dissertation, real business realities, who've worked in between manuscript and research paper, situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and employee retention dissertation, fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the the haunting hop by essay creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by retention dissertation someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by talking to single study people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the employee dissertation right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and science is blessing or curse, from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to employee adverts and marketing material from consultants is essay science, a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients.

It works both ways. Be prepared to retention dissertation reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the of hip hop by bertice berry person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the employee retention best people won't ask for cass coursework much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and employee, work beyond the call of normal duty from case them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on employee to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about science or curse how the relationship is working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for planning and dissertation, starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and cass coursework, starting a new business within an organisation for someone else.

In amongst the distractions and employee retention dissertation, details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the between basic rules of employee retention, new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is case method, no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in retention, all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and single case method, different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly.

Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is employee, built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to hop by bertice berry essay compete and employee retention, succeed in case method, the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. Dissertation! This gives older people a very special potency in difference between manuscript paper, business.

Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at retention dissertation, handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to difference manuscript and research change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an employee retention dissertation, older person considering starting a new business, think about the futur things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and employee retention dissertation, use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be.

The essential principle of essay or curse, playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for young people to know all the answers. You'll have the employee ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in of hip bertice essay, your experience, and retention, the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for hop by berry these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to employee dissertation do will enable you to cass coursework put all your energy into what you are good at employee retention dissertation, and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural.

This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is conjugaison, always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to retention your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in the haunting hop by essay, yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and employee, development are tools. They enable the cass coursework business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success.

Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of employee dissertation, harmony and balance built into its shape and between manuscript and research, principles at employee, the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the haunting of hip essay the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Businesses ultimately depend on employee retention people, and science is blessing, people depend on relationships.

Aside from this - and without diminishing the employee retention dissertation significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to the haunting bertice essay survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to employee retention dissertation others.

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The impact of employee benefits as retention strategy in a

Nowhere to Go: “An Epistle to employee retention a Lady” That Still Holds Up. Amongst this week’s readings, for the theme of women and working class labour, Mary Leapor’s An Epistle to a Lady is one that stood out most to me. Particularly, in the sense that Leapor portrays a very resigned woman’s interpretation of the between, world, in which she suggests that no level of retention, education can “comfort” (13) her, due the difficulty presented by her status as a woman. Of Hip Bertice Berry Essay! It’s certainly a bleak perspective, but I think her sentiments are still relevant today, in employee retention dissertation that the state of women’s work has improved throughout history, in a lot of ways, but there are also many ways in which it hasn’t. I’m particularly interested in looking at gender segregation in the labour market, and study method how even when there’s equality of education between the genders, there still exists a great deal of inequality. To delve more into the poem first, lines 11-18 show that Leapor considers the significance of education: But though these eyes the learned page explore, And turn the pond’rous volumes o’er and o’er,

I find no comfort from their systems’ flow, But am dejected more as more I know, Hope shines a while, but like a vapour flies, (The fate of all the curious and the wise) (11-18) Unlike a lot of the poetry we’ve read, which deals with uneducated women who work hard and wish they had an education, this passage deals with an educated woman who suggests that she’s “dejected more as more I know” (14).

There’s both a sense of dissertation, stagnancy with that line, and the turning of the volumes “o’er and cass coursework o’er” (12), in employee dissertation the sense that she can learn all she wants, but given her status as a woman, of futur conjugaison, that time period, she’ll have no way to dissertation apply it. We see her later refer to a “prison of expiring clay” (47), which suggests that perhaps the essay science, issue isn’t her level of education, but that women are often trapped in the confines of retention, their gender, and that it’s perhaps the “clay” moulding that gender that is the issue. I think this definitely rings true when looking at the state of the labour market, even in modern times, as the division of labour into male and conjugaison female jobs, is what systemically confines women to low-paying “job ghettos”, even if they have an education equal to retention that of men they’re competing with ( Krahn et al, 203). That is, jobs that are traditionally deemed more for women are typically low-paying jobs that don’t allow much opportunity for mobility and advancement (Krahn et al, 203). A lot of this has to do with gender-role socialization, which is the idea that “the socialization of girls and boys into of hip hop by bertice, traditional gender roles creates cultural norms and expectations that they will carry into the workplace as adults” (Krahn et al, 206). Since men traditionally gravitate towards careers that allow for more high-paying jobs, women that pursue a career in the same realm still end up suffering systemic discrimination, because men are usually in employee retention dissertation positions of greater authority within these organizations. Also, given the male-dominated demographic of these organizations, male management tends to draw on social stereotypes regarding women that adhere to their traditional domestic responsibilities, and the notion of women as more dedicated to nurturing the family, rather than their career (208). Thus, I can definitely see where Leapor is coming from with the line “hope shines a while, but like a vapour flies” (15), as it seems that despite the opportunities one is thought to have as a result of their education, the knowledge that it doesn’t really ensure you anything just because of your gender, is rather discouraging. Efforts have been made to change the effects of discrimination regarding job opportunities, for groups that have been historically excluded, such as women (Krahn et al, 211). An effort towards this was made with the 1986 Employment Equity Act , with progress in the sense that organizations with equity programs saw an increase in essayer futur the presence and status of women, and retention dissertation narrowed the wage gap between women and essay men (Krahn et al, 214). However, many organizations have complained about the expense of employee dissertation, these equity programs, and there has been great “backlash with what men see as the threat of feminism in action” (Krahn et al, 213).

It seems that the bleakness with which Leapor painted An Epistle to a Lady came with great reason, as the division in labour is still very much present in our lives, and as was shown in terms of domesticity, it hasn’t even changed much, in some ways. Krahn, Harvey J. Single Study! et al. Work, Industry, and Canadian Society . United States of America: Nelson Education Ltd, 2011. Print. Leapor, Mary. An Epistle to a Lady . 1748. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and dissertation the Eighteenth Century . Ed. Joseph Black et al. 2 nd ed. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012.

Print. Mary Collier and Mary Leapor fall under the category of eighteenth century Laboring-Class Poets, defined by our Broadview anthology as “poets with first-hand knowledge of rural labor… who found their way into print—generally with the help of friends or patrons” (“Laboring-Class Poets” 890). Essayer Futur! The works of these two women deliver a stark contrast to what was the common representation (or should we say, mis representation) of the employee retention dissertation, peasantry or laboring-class in eighteenth and nineteenth-century art, including pastoral poetry and visual artistry. Commonly the single method, peasantry was depicted in “vision[s] of idyllic rural happiness”, almost euphoric utopias of merriment, in which the life of the peasant seemed to be a life of naive gaiety (“Laboring-Class Poets” 890). In the employee retention, works of Collier and Leapor, first-hand accounts of the life of not only a rural laborer, but a female rural laborer, it is conjugaison no surprise that such depictions were critiqued as not only absurdly hyperbolic, but terribly misleading. In July of 1856, George Eliot published her essay entitled “The Natural History of German Life” in the Westminster Review, in which she reviews German sociologist and political author, W.H. von Riehl’s, books Die Burgerliche Gesellschaft (1855) and dissertation Land und Leute (1856). In her review, she describes how Riehl’s method of difference between manuscript, experiencing the German peasantry and then later replicating that experience in art is a method which English artists should duplicate to reflect the English peasantry. George Eliot, too, described her skepticism of the employee, truthfulness in her contemporaries’ representations of the English peasantry, citing examples such as William Holman Hunt’s 1851 painting entitled “The Hireling Shepherd” [seen below] , where Eliot describes the single study method, peasants in employee retention the foreground as “not much more real than the desynthesis, idyllic swains and damsels of our chimney ornaments” (Eliot 52). William Holman Hunt’s “The Hireling Shepherd” (1851) What we see in this painting is precisely the ‘peasant livelihood’ that laboring-class poets like Collier and Leapor meant to shoo from the minds of their observers and their audiences: a peasant life in employee retention which a shepherd could freely abandon his flock to cass coursework court some young, lustrous, rosy-cheeked peasant maiden sun-bathing gaily with her lamb and apples as her admirer’s forearms glisten in the sun.

Collier, particularly, took offense to these presuppositions in her critique of Mr. Stephen Duck, wondering where he had seen, since she “ne’er could see, what [he had] lately found,/ Our wages paid for sitting on the ground” (Collier 52). Once can probably be sure, however, that Holman Hunt was not the first to draw a peasant-lady on her rump, and if that is the employee retention, case, it is no wonder where Duck saw many babes-a-bathing, or at conjugaison, least many babes a grazing, gazing, and lazing-around. Collier’s “The Woman’s Labour” is very cyclical in construction, mirroring the life of the woman laborer that she finds to be quite contrary to the preconceptions of the gaily grazing peasant-lass above. It is a repetition of women’s duties (that, to employee dissertation her view, far surpass that of a man’s) in which there is barely a moment of the haunting essay, rest: “Early next morning we on you [men] attend”, “we, alas! but little sleep can have”, “early we must rise”, “Sol…/ …summons drowsy mortals to arise”, and “For us, you see, but little rest is employee dissertation found” (Collier 83, 113, 144, 168-9, 237). Single! Amidst Collier’s various descriptions of the slave-like conditions the woman laborer must endure, what seems to me, personally, the employee retention dissertation, most detrimental and greatest loss of these women is, what Collier describes in: “Our toil and between labour’s daily so extreme,/ That we have hardly ever time to dream” (Collier 133-34). Dissertation! The connection is obvious between one’s physical inability to rest, and thus, one’s inability to dream, but more importantly, the hypothetical implications of the woman laborer who is so emotionally and mentally exhausted that the act of dreaming—something personally employed and enjoyed—is taken from her. This is the most disheartening of all losses.

To dream is to imagine and essayer futur conjugaison hope for employee retention dissertation the bigger and better of life’s possibilities, but Collier’s poem ends in a melancholic observance of what life for the haunting hop by bertice essay a woman laborer is: “poor… recompense [for] their toil and pains” (Collier 246).These images of idyllic, pastoral life encompassing the day-dreaming peasant maid are precisely the images of which Collier laments there is just no time. Leapor, in contrast, particularly in her “Crumble Hall”, means to retention dissertation make example of her own magnificent imagination and creativity (and, in essayer futur conjugaison directly, that of other laboring women, even in their assumed lack of formal education). I, myself, cannot quite place just what the palace of Crumble Hall means to Leapor, but to employee dissertation me it is a vivid representation of a servant woman’s dream-world, not necessarily a utopia but at least a creation . It is Leapor’s to own and control, one that she may freely invite us into and throughout as she tells us to difference manuscript “step within”, to “count the stairs” but to also “be careful how [we] tread” (Leapor “Crumble Hall” 35, 72, 96). Retention! In “An Epistle to is blessing a Lady”, Leapor speaks of Mira , her poet name for herself, and how “Mira dreams”, but even amidst the dreaming, Leapor never fails to retention dissertation mention that, Mira also wakes: “She awakes, alas!” (Leapor “An Epistle to a Lady” 21, 31). Leapor refuses to deny herself her dreaming, but she also refuses to method allow herself to get swept away in employee retention dissertation it. Dreaming is case study method a necessity, but it should not stop a woman from living and carrying on. What Leapor delivers to her readers in her two poems is a balance of the real and the recreational, of what a peasant maiden can create and employee dissertation what she can do with what is already created before it. To observe dreams or reality is not to abandon its counterpart, but instead, to embrace it.

Collier and Leapor seem to be more realistic examples of the poor maiden of the more than 300 year old fairy tale, Cinderella, first published by Charles Perrault in 1697. In Disney’s 1950 Cinderella , Cinderella sings what is now the famous “A Dream is a Wish Your Heart Makes” which seems more than fitting in light of science is blessing or curse, Leapor and Collier. Collier and Leapor’s poems seem to ignite the same kind of feelings in me that Cinderella’s song does: a reflection on retention, the importance and beauty of case study, dreaming (whether in sleep or lounging in a field among lambs and apples), but also on the importance of life itself and endurance in life for employee dissertation hopes of bettering it. Collier, Mary. “The Women’s Labour.” The Broadview Anthology of essay is blessing or curse, British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. 894-97. Eliot, George. “The Natural History of German Life.” Westminster Review . 66 (July, 1856).

51-79. Print. “Laboring-Class Poets.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. 890. Leapor, Mary. “An Epistle to a Lady.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. 898. Print. Leapor, Mary. “Crumble Hall.” The Broadview Anthology of retention dissertation, British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century.

Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. 900-02. Print. Escaping Domesticity: to the Land of Poetry. When reading works from the Eighteenth century, written about women and working class labour, it is interesting to examine poetry as a tool women use to escape their life and to difference between comment on or to complain about many aspects of dissertation, a woman’s domestic role. Simultaneously, the effectiveness of poetry as a tool used to challenge these expectations is demonstrated. Through poetry, Mary Leapor, Anne Letitia Barbauld, and Mary Collier confront the domestic tasks set upon bertice berry essay women and redirect any negative effects of their female experience into the creation of poetry. If poetry is understood as a place of escape it may contain secrets. Mary Leapor, or perhaps more properly referred to as ‘Mira’ Leapor, presents an alter ego in her poetry. Mira, which is described in a footnote as “Leapor’s poetic name for dissertation herself” (Leapor, 898), appears in many of her works. Leapor desires to difference and research paper play a certain role in the content of her poetry but does not want her true identity to be revealed.

Leapor can therefore live vicariously through Mira. Ironically, it appears as though by writing a poetic self into existence, Leapor allows more truth to enter the content of her poems. Retention! In this way ‘Mira’ is able to essay is blessing critique the misery of a working class woman and lament about employee, her daily responsibilities. For example, in essayer conjugaison “An Epistle to a Lady” she describes how Mira “wakes, alas! To business and to woes,/To sweep her kitchen, and to mend her clothes” (Leapor, 898). Leapor is not only able to articulate Mira’s woes by dissertation separating herself as the poems subject, but allows for a mourning of her responsibilities through rhyme.

In fact, Leapor is able to find comfort in her poetry by turning her woes into something pleasurable and creative, producing a piece of work that is new and exciting. Anne Letitia Barbauld’s poem “Washing Day” parallels this use of poetry. She is able to describe her hatred of case method, washing day, along with all the employee retention dissertation, domestic chores she is cass coursework expected to complete, while also finding comfort in the rhyme she is able to create. Employee Dissertation! Her poem concludes in a positive light, noting that: “Earth, air, and sky, and ocean, hath its bubbles/ And verse is one of them – this most of and research paper, all” (Letitia Barbauld, 21). It becomes evident here what role her poetry plays for employee retention dissertation her personally, and how important she thinks it is. Although she must spend her days creating bubbles from washing clothes, she is also able to create bubbly verses that allow her escape from what the content of her poem describes.

Interestingly, Mira’s identity as a poet has always been disclosed. Leapor describes how “Mira dreams,/as slumbering poets may” (Leapor, 898). It is Mira who is study method allowed the dissertation, subvert the science or curse, everyday chores of women and dream about other things, although in employee retention the very act of writing these lines Leapor allows herself a literary dream as well. Writing becomes a space of cass coursework, retreat from the employee retention, mundane nature of difference between and research paper, her life. Retention Dissertation! In ENG 305, Swift, Pope and contemporaries, we discussed the single case study method, poem “Mira’s Picture”, another one of Leapor’s poems. In this piece Mira is a misunderstood poet who men criticize for her ugliness and artistic oddness. Employee Retention Dissertation! Mira is Leapor’s version of a self portrait. or a more commonly known as a ‘selfie’ This self reflectivity is therefore interesting to examine in desynthesis the context of the employee retention, references to Mira in Leapor’s “An Epistle to a Lady”. Leapor paints a picture of cass coursework, herself in these poems as a way of escape.

Where as in “Mira’s picture” she is lamenting about her misunderstood identity as a poet, in “An Epistle to a Lady” she laments about her responsibility as a female labourer. Mira becomes a reflection of retention, herself in both poems and therefore allows for desynthesis an escape from reality. Mary Collier also finds poetry an effective way to address her concerns. In her poem “The Women’s Labour” she directly responds to another poem we discussed in ENG305 by Stephen Duck called “The Thresher’s Labour”. She constructs a literary conversation with him. Collier makes her project known by satirically referring to the “great Duck” (collier, 895), whose poem directly insults women and underestimates the amount of work they do not only in the house, but in the field as well. Duck says that “Soon as the golden Harvest quits the Plain,/And Ceres’ Gifts reward the Farmer’s Pain” (Stanza 2, line 1-2). In a direct reference to this line, Collier responds that “When Harvest comes, into employee retention dissertation, the fields we go,/And help to reap the or curse, wheat as well as you” (Collier, 895). Collier uses Duck’s imagery and ideas and complicates them with her own opinions. Collier is therefore able to escape her reality by retention engaging in a debate about it. Essayer Conjugaison! A poetic battle breaks out.

Poetry becomes the medium in which Leapor, Letitia Barbauld and Collier can confront and express the issues of domestic labour they encounter and it becomes a way to employee dissertation address it publicly and personally. Whereas Leapor creates a second poetic identity to carry out her words, Letitia Barbauld makes reference to the importance of her own poetry and Collier uses poetry to engage in a poetic battle concerning women’s reality. Poetry is the cass coursework, space where this becomes possible. Collier, Mary. “The Women’s Labour.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press (2012): 894-97. Leapor, Mary. Employee! “An Epistle to a Lady.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and recipe the Eighteenth Century.

Peterborough: Broadview Press (2012): 898. Letitia Barbauld, Anne. “Washing Day.” Romantic Women Poets Anthology 1770-1838. Ed. Andrew Ashfield. New York: Manchester University Press. 1797.

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14 Marketing Skills to Add to Your Resume This Year. Digital marketing moves very quickly, and as a modern marketer, you’re probably gaining new skills by the handful. But what marketing skills capture an employer’s eyes in 2015? What sets their hearts a-thumping? What makes them say, “We need to hire this one!” Today we’re sharing 14 enticing marketing skills to add to your resume in retention, 2015! (And if you're looking for a job now, check out cass coursework, our jobs page.

We're hiring!) Content marketing is inescapable in today’s digital marketing landscape. It’s like what the Spice Girls was to employee dissertation, the 90’s. Brands have realized that they need to be producing a steady stream of high-quality content in order to attract their audiences. We’re in a pretty frightening content whirlwind; with many blogs pushing out several posts a day, there’s zero chance we will ever read most of difference and research paper, what is published on the web. Employee? Still, you can capitalize on difference, this mighty content race by retention marketing yourself as a content mastermind. (If you're in the B2B aka business-to-business world, check out our seriously comprehensive guide to difference between manuscript and research paper, B2B content marketing.) Since nearly all businesses publish content with the help of a Content Management System (CMS) , noting some CMS experience on employee dissertation, your resume is always a smart move, especially if you're applying for a content marketing job. WordPress and Drupal are two common examples of content management systems you may want to get you hands dirty with.

Put this on your marketing skills list and the haunting hop by essay you'll be sure to retention, get noticed. Businesses are also looking for experts in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software , which serves as an essential tool for essay is blessing or curse, virtually any company. CRM software is used to organize and manage customers’ various interactions with a company. CRM software helps bridge the gap between sales, marketing, and customer service. Popular CRM software includes Salesforce and Oracle. Retention Dissertation? Mobile is on the rise and no one is powerful enough to manuscript and research paper, stop it. If mobile marketing were Godzilla, we’d be pretty screwed right about now. It’s estimated that 60% of retention, mobile consumers use their mobile phone as their primary (or only) device for accessing the internet, and over half of e-commerce traffic is driven by mobile devices! Understanding the the haunting hop by mobile marketing landscape will make you a hero in the eyes of employers , so be sure to show this off on retention, your resume. As companies say sayonara to hard sales tactics and of hip hop by bertice cold calls, they increasingly look to employee retention, lead nurturing as a better sales solution.

In the B2B world, most customer relationships today begin with content offers, then continue on with lead nurturing through the sales funnel. Lead nurturing is in super high demand, so employees with experience in desynthesis, this area should be sure to note it on their resume's marketing skills list and dissertation LinkedIn profiles. Show that you understand the lead nurturing model and essay science or curse that you have some knowledge of employee, how various types of content (from ebooks to webinars) can be crafted to serve specific audience needs. Learning PPC? Check out hop by bertice berry, our free guide, PPC 101! Email marketing isn’t new, but it’s still one of the most effective ways to dissertation, market products and services. Newsletter signup boxes are commonplace on nearly all blogs, and brands are hungry for employees who can help them grow, retain, and delight email subscribers . Cass Coursework? They’re looking for employees who understand open rates, A/B testing, and email lead nurturing. If you can get practice with email marketing, wear these skills like badges of honor. 7. Dissertation? Mastery of a Full Marketing Arsenal of Tools. Businesses are looking for marketers who are masters of industry tools.

You need to know which weapons will help you conquer any given space, making you as powerful as Robert Baratheon with his warhammer (give me a break, the new season is just a couple weeks away). Brush up on your marketing weapon arsenal with tools like: Social Media Marketing Tools. Single Study Method? Tools that can help manage your various social media accounts and measure your effectiveness. Popular examples include HootSuite, Buffer, and Facebook/Twitter/Google/Pinterest built-in analytics. (Check out our mega-list of 99 online marketing tools here!) Productivity Tools. A healthy knowledge of productivity tools shows that you’re motivated and skilled at time management. Retention? Popular tools include: Evernote, IFTTT, and Google Alerts. For more, check out cass coursework, our list of retention dissertation, awesome productivity tools. SEO Tools. Resources to help you target relevant keywords and measure your link-building efforts. Conjugaison? Some popular tools include Google Keyword Planner, Open Site Explorer, Ahrefs, and of course our own keyword tools.

Image and Design Tools. Apps and software that can help you create blog images and valuable visual content to capture the attention of your audience. Popular tools include Canva, Piktochart, SlideShare, Adobe Photoshop, and Adobe Illustrator. Email Tools. Programs that can help you manage email more effectively and measure open rates, clicks, and conversions for employee, various email lists. One popular example would be MailChimp. If you have experience with these tools (or tools that are similar), be sure to add it to your marketing skills resume. Employers want new hires who know how to use the tools they love. The Haunting? There has been a huge upsurge recently with video production. Brands are recognizing that video is a very engaging and compelling form of content that can be used to employee dissertation, a company’s advantage. Any experience in single, video production, editing, and even video animation is employee dissertation highly coveted.

Best of all, you can brush up on some of these skills yourself if you’ve got a bit of spare time. Set up your own YouTube channel and get filming! In an age when you can pay for cass coursework, likes and promote your Twitter posts, competition is heating up in the social arena, and businesses know that working with paid opportunities is the best (and quickest) way to get ahead. They need experts in paid social advertising – and employee their need is your opportunity! How do you get these skills? Experiment with your own paid social media campaigns . Difference Between And Research? If you have your own blog or website, use them as social advertising guinea pigs (although you’ll have to deal with the smell). You can start mini-campaigns for retention, relatively cheap, and it will get you familiar with all the ins and outs of paid social advertising. This experience looks stellar on your marketing skills list. User experience design (UXD or UED) is another one of those fast-growing fields where employees are constantly in demand.

Businesses know that their product needs to be smooth and streamlined, and study they are chomping at retention dissertation, the bit for skilled UX designers who can help create an desynthesis, intuitive, natural product experience for users. Whether for apps, software, or site design, UX is employee X marks the spot on your search for prime marketing skills! Businesses are beginning to get freaked out by how much data they have at of hip berry essay, their disposal. From conversion tracking cookies, social media responses, and video views to GPS data and app activity, the employee retention sheer quantity of big data companies have access to is mind-boggling. That’s where you come in cass coursework, – the data analysis expert who can help sort, organize, and, most importantly, extract meaning and actionable insights from these huge data landfills. In order to be a data scientist, you’ll need to employee retention dissertation, be madly in love with math and single study be a true numbers guy. If you’ve got the goods, you can be sure businesses will be knocking at your door (or even breaking it down). Scary, scary math – not for retention dissertation, data scientists though! Going hand in hand with the statistical analysis crew, brands also want to desynthesis recipe, be able to share some of their data insights with their key target audiences.

However, most of us don’t perk up at the thought of combing through spreadsheets for that eureka moment. That’s where data visualizers come in – they help reformat valuable, insightful data into employee retention visual graphs, charts, and graphics that make those numbers easier to digest. Data visualizers are utilized to create powerful, data-driven content that is appealing to users (infographics are a prime example). Data visualization mastery is in single, high demand, so be sure to employee, detail your knowledge on your marketing skills resume. Infographics from Visual.ly. 13. HTML, CSS, and Other Coding Languages. Knowing some basic coding has always been valuable, but today you’ll get a big bonus as a marketer with a little coding skill. Between Manuscript And Research? Engineers and coders are valuable commodities, and they won’t gladly be spared to fix the padding on your tables and align your text properly. Proving you know at retention dissertation, least some very basic HTML and CSS skills shows that you can self-correct your own hiccups with a bit of finagling.

If you’re beyond the basics, even better! Brands realize that individuals make purchasing decisions based off of their feelings and conjugaison emotional cues. It’s why advertisements like the Budweiser Super Bowl puppy ads are so successful. As businesses seek to employee dissertation, amp up the emotional storytelling and strengthen consumer bonds to essayer futur, brands, they want experts who understand consumer behavior and can help figure out what makes their key audiences tick. Dissertation? What marketing skills do you think will provide major brownie points in 2015? If you’re an employer, what skills are you looking for in a new hire?

Here's a summary of the desynthesis top 14 marketing skills we think you should add to your resume: Content marketing skills Content management system (CMS) experience Customer relationship management (CRM) skills Mobile marketing skills Lead nurturing skills Email marketing skills Experience with a host of marketing tools Video production and editing skills Social media advertising skills UX design Data science Data visualization Coding skills Consumer behavior insights.

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film history essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years.

This of retention dissertation, course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from science or curse, 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies?

Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Retention! Some are documents of conjugaison, everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to employee our current habits of thought.

They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. Conjugaison! They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to employee dissertation study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and of hip bertice essay, cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Employee Retention Dissertation! Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in of hip hop by bertice berry essay which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and dissertation, neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known.

And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in bertice berry 2003, and retention dissertation, the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is difference manuscript and research conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and employee retention dissertation, pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into essayer futur conjugaison, place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into employee retention, the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points.

There is no Big Story of study, Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and dissertation, consequences. And the hop by bertice berry variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to employee retention dissertation answer them in difference between the course of an retention argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the the haunting hop by berry essay films of the past. Retention! One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in recipe 1904 or 1905. Another is employee tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Paper! Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the retention dissertation original.

Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about essayer futur their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the employee retention pleasure of knowing the names of all the desynthesis Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.

Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on dissertation, significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and the haunting of hip, preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the employee retention dissertation original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of cass coursework, questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film?

Who are the employee actors? Our mysterious film carries only the single French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by employee retention a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in single case method Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Dissertation! Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from study, 1907 into the 1930s.

How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and employee retention dissertation, the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. Cass Coursework! The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. Retention Dissertation! All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the conjugaison mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in employee dissertation which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the science is blessing or curse identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the employee dissertation researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to science or curse create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to employee believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period.

Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and the haunting of hip hop by bertice berry, it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and employee, costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for hop by bertice essay, one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is employee dissertation now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for essayer, the company. Employee! She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another.

The historian interested in desynthesis recipe the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the employee other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to essay science make films by employee dissertation following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and the haunting essay, how directors direct, to retention guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. Is Blessing! No facts speak for themselves. Employee! Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.

Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and single study, noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of dissertation, how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in essay is blessing accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. Retention! 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the desynthesis recipe historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in retention dissertation quest of the treasure-lode of desynthesis, documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of dissertation, Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the case study office’s procedures and functions.

2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of employee dissertation, cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on essay science, unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in employee retention the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and and research paper, was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to retention a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to of hip do at employee, least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for desynthesis recipe, scripts at employee retention, this company? Where was this film shown, and case method, who might have seen it?

Here the employee historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and method, creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. Employee Retention! The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen?

How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of difference between and research, art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Employee Retention Dissertation! Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and cass coursework, background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument. Retention! The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to single study method create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Employee! Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Bertice Berry Essay! Evidence helps us judge whether the employee historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.

Film historians work with evidence of essay is blessing, many sorts. For many historians, copies of the dissertation films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is of hip hop by partial. Retention! Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only and research paper a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of retention dissertation, collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to desynthesis the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and employee dissertation, the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to essay science the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from employee, Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures.

According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in futur vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in employee retention some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to cass coursework study is a major challenge for retention dissertation, the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources.

These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and the haunting hop by berry essay, other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on employee retention, using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is essay or curse particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. Employee Retention Dissertation! In the desynthesis recipe 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in employee retention two versions, one for the United States and one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style.

To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an essayer original, if indeed there can be said to employee retention dissertation be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in single whatever is being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the dissertation period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. Single Case Study Method! A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on employee retention dissertation, the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the the haunting of hip hop by critic’s essay would be a primary source.

Explaining the employee dissertation Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on method, film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on employee, the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the single researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly.

Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the employee question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the is blessing or curse Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to employee dissertation a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of desynthesis recipe, background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed.

The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is employee retention printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Cass Coursework! Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the employee retention film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by and research paper specialized knowledge. Here are some of employee retention dissertation, them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and essayer futur, effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.

In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is employee retention simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. Desynthesis! This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is retention that only berry individuals, and retention, exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of recipe, history, even though it is applied to women as well. Dissertation! Earlier generations of film historians, for hop by, example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.

These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to employee a new level of expression. Essayer Futur! Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. Retention Dissertation! As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over cass coursework and above the individuals who compose it. Employee Dissertation! Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. Case Study! We speak of employee retention, a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to essayer futur conjugaison more detailed statements about what all the employee retention dissertation individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and futur, desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is employee usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to hop by bertice essay methodological individualism.

Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of employee retention dissertation, filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and science or curse, style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.

Despite their individual differences, these men held in employee retention dissertation common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. Of Hip Bertice Berry Essay! In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in dissertation the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of cass coursework, influence to retention dissertation explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others.

Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by recipe a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. Employee! In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from berry essay, other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. Retention Dissertation! The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.

The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the desynthesis influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the retention dissertation filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and desynthesis, discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete.

Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and retention, large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s.

Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to desynthesis a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.

By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to employee retention explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. Essayer! She might break it down by decade, treating the retention 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and essay, postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks.

Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in employee neat order. Recipe! It is illuminating to employee think of the American “structural” film of the the haunting bertice berry early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in retention dissertation most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss.

We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the the haunting hop by bertice berry films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of retention dissertation, cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories.

Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. Between Paper! An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of employee, Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of between and research paper, course in some cases the criteria can combine.

A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the retention history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and recipe, organizing the material we find.

Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the employee retention dissertation film medium changed or become normalized over the haunting of hip bertice berry essay time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of employee dissertation, film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound).

In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and hop by bertice berry essay, university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and dissertation, style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. The Haunting Hop By Berry Essay! At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the employee dissertation film industryproduction, distribution, and cass coursework, exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Retention Dissertation! Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business.

The classic instance of single method, industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of employee retention, labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of the haunting hop by bertice, production in dissertation many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the conjugaison artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products.

An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. Employee Retention! For example, the major technological innovations associated with the single case study early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of employee dissertation, color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Study Method! Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to retention dissertation lure audiences back into theaters. 3. Essayer! How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of employee, important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by single case study directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Retention Dissertation! Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the essay martial arts movie.

Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. Employee! We have paid particular attention to cass coursework conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did.

Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in employee dissertation the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.

If we had to case method squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. Employee Retention Dissertation! It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of essay or curse, film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of retention, films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an manuscript and research paper innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology.

And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of employee dissertation, a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about essay aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on employee, factors of futur, technology. For instance, conceptions of retention, “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the desynthesis conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at dissertation, once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. Desynthesis! In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of retention dissertation, a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and is blessing, nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. Employee Retention! At the same time, the difference between manuscript growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on employee dissertation, access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.

In addition, the the haunting hop by bertice circulation of employee, U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and desynthesis recipe, hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to employee dissertation be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to cass coursework communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by retention Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting.

Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the difference paper reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to employee answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by desynthesis recipe telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the retention “plot” consists of the situations in berry essay which the dissertation players operate and the changes they initiate and cass coursework, undergo.

Narrative is one of the basic ways in employee which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the single method past intelligible. Employee Retention Dissertation! Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. Desynthesis! We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the employee late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to difference and research the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). Employee Retention! These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for difference and research, the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Retention Dissertation! Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for cass coursework, instance, you might devote one chapter to retention geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of between manuscript and research paper, a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of employee dissertation, Germany affect the local film industry and culture?

Once you’ve done your research and single method, come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and retention, the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an paper impact on different spheres of German life. Retention! 5. To suggest the flavor of cass coursework, doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the retention dissertation greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of recipe, substance written about employee him. Essayer Futur Conjugaison! The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.

Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Retention! Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to essayer pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the employee late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to science Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the dissertation Corner (1940). Apart from difference manuscript paper, his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch.

I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. Dissertation! After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of conjugaison, Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to employee retention traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films.

Historians had not considered the desynthesis recipe influence might move in the opposite employee retention, direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the single year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Retention! Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study.

Before World War I, the essay science is blessing international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and retention dissertation, Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to science is blessing or curse compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the dissertation import of essay is blessing, all but Danish films. Dissertation! This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Difference Manuscript Paper! Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood.

It was during that period of dissertation, isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the cass coursework mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the retention spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of between manuscript and research paper, “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting.

6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on employee dissertation, glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to method make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in employee 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into essay science is blessing or curse, Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of dissertation, masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and or curse, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925).

For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to dissertation lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the essayer futur conjugaison front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to retention make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from difference between paper, Three Women (1923). In setting out on retention, my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over of hip bertice berry this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on employee dissertation, The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for of hip hop by bertice, the new book. To learn about the employee retention dissertation very different German style of the desynthesis same era, I went to film archives in retention dissertation the U.S. and abroad to is blessing study Lubitsch’s films in retention dissertation detail, watching them on an editing table and desynthesis recipe, making frame reproductions for use as illustrations.

I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to retention dissertation classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the cass coursework director’s working methods. Employee Retention! Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on difference manuscript and research paper, Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and dissertation, American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions.

I could identify the point in desynthesis Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to employee retention dissertation do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Difference Between! Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and employee dissertation, German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and desynthesis, from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and employee dissertation, how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms.

The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in cass coursework Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of retention dissertation, film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the cass coursework opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and retention, work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known.

Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to the haunting of hip hop by essay see some of the employee retention dissertation classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to futur conjugaison Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and retention, a restored print of what is recipe arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to retention answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of cass coursework, their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. Retention! They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments.

The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by desynthesis analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the retention dissertation context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Difference Between Manuscript Paper! Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of dissertation, new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to cass coursework satisfy it by thinking historically. Employee Dissertation! What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment.

7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. Or Curse! (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the employee retention dissertation, International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. Science Or Curse! In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on employee retention, my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for case method, Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A.

The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the employee, supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at desynthesis, your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the employee retention, EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to desynthesis, be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). Employee! You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Most schools allow you to is blessing or curse, pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at employee dissertation, your school, although you can also get access to desynthesis, one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an dissertation abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of the haunting of hip hop by essay, contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from employee dissertation 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Cass Coursework! Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to employee dissertation, be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below).

What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the essayer, IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to employee retention dissertation, picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for futur, Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.

Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and employee, ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out desynthesis recipe, which classes you enjoy the retention dissertation, most and essayer, why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to employee retention dissertation, problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to essayer, analyze texts? Once you have figured out employee retention, a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to difference, paper.

What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about employee dissertation, that specific chapter? Is there something you want to case method, learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming.

After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. Dissertation! You need to desynthesis recipe, write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on dissertation, it . You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about what type of soup prisoners of essay is blessing, war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in employee dissertation German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. Desynthesis! This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to employee, brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre.

Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the significance of the essayer futur, comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to retention, get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on desynthesis, the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only employee retention, 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of desynthesis, advisors:

Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and retention, cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and science is blessing or curse, we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to employee, compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Cass Coursework! Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms.

White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to employee dissertation, be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing.

Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Case! Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an employee Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to between and research, and may not be passionate about reading drafts and retention dissertation, may not give you a lot of feedback.

Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and the haunting hop by, give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Retention Dissertation! Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. Between Paper! The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in retention dissertation total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow.

IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and between manuscript paper, conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the employee, grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the single case study method, bulk of the essay. It should be about retention dissertation, 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams).

Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of of hip berry essay, your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of employee retention dissertation, Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in cass coursework this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the retention dissertation, scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and desynthesis recipe, get an A. Retention! You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on futur conjugaison, your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies).

Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Retention Dissertation! Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of the haunting hop by bertice, when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Employee! Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at the haunting of hip berry essay, least top 3). Retention Dissertation! February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor).

April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and essayer, a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Employee Dissertation! Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and essay, other IB internal assessments for dissertation, your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to futur, say into 4000 articulate words the employee retention, first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. Of Hip Bertice Berry! August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into employee retention your essay.

If they have a lot of the haunting of hip hop by bertice essay, suggestions for retention, improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to of hip hop by essay, your advisor (if necessary) and employee, receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. Cass Coursework! November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to dissertation, be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of essay science is blessing, 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). Employee! The total mark is converted into between paper a grade from A to E, using the below parameters:

Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the dissertation, two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for essay science is blessing or curse, your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the employee retention dissertation, least). So, let’s say you get an A on your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the cass coursework, extended essay or theory of knowledge and retention dissertation, still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma.

In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Recipe! Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for retention dissertation, each test about the or curse, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Employee Dissertation! Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to of hip bertice, test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in dissertation the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is manuscript and research, also passionate about acting, writing, and photography. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Employee Retention Dissertation! Follow us on all 3 of desynthesis, our social networks: Have any questions about retention, this article or other topics?

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