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BioGraph: unsupervised biomedical knowledge discovery via automated hypothesis generation. We present BioGraph, a data integration and data mining platform for admission essay youtube the exploration and discovery of biomedical information. The platform offers prioritizations of putative disease genes, supported by functional hypotheses. We show that BioGraph can retrospectively confirm recently discovered disease genes and identify potential susceptibility genes, outperforming existing technologies, without requiring prior domain knowledge. Additionally, BioGraph allows for generic biomedical applications beyond gene discovery.
BioGraph is accessible at http://www.biograph.be . area under the ROC curve. Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Gene Ontology Annotations. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. To Learn? receiver operator characteristic. unified medical language system. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-r57 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
High-throughput methods for large scale and genome-wide identification of college admission essay disease-related genes often result in large sets of anti essays phone number potential targets requiring expensive and arduous experimental validation [ 1 ]. For the college essay youtube high-throughput discovery of genes associated with disease (further referred to as 'disease genes'), it is necessary to identify functionally interesting research targets among large sets of candidates. The latter often requires a thorough understanding of possibly indirect functional relations between the research subject and its putative targets. However, one of the most common problems facing biomedical researchers today is finding or keeping up with the knowledge relevant to research interests in advantages phones, the shear amount of available literature and data. Especially when required information is functionally only indirectly connected to a researcher's main field of interest, the data deluge becomes unmanageable. Based on best college admission essay the availability of large volumes of advantages and disadvantages phones curated biomedical databases, various methods for gene prioritization have emerged in recent years [ 2 ]. These computational technologies rank putative disease genes with the goal of identifying true disease genes as prominent genes in the ranking. College Admission Essay Youtube? Computational technologies are complementary to conventional 'wet lab' gene discovery technologies in that they can support the prioritization and comprehension of, for example, associated regions from genome wide association studies or linkage studies, allowing researchers to more efficiently select the most compelling variants for further study. A common prioritization approach is the identification of potential causative genes that complement sets of percentile the sat known genes associated with disease, utilizing genetic interaction networks, regulatory networks or high-throughput datasets [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. The statistical fusion of prioritizations from best multiple, heterogeneous resources allows for ranking by incorporating diverse types of knowledge [ 6 , 7 ]. Alternatively, literature mining is are mobile a related research theme that employs natural language processing to extract biomedical information from the literature and to adopt this information for admission the discovery of new knowledge [ 8 ]. Prioritization platforms commonly lack an easily accessible user interface for the formulation of anti essays queries and the intelligible interpretation of the results. One common problem is that most of the data mining platforms are supervised, that is, they require prior domain knowledge from the college admission essay user. For example, in disease gene prioritization techniques, it is commonly required to define a set of known disease genes on which the system can be trained for the identification of new genes. Since these training gene sets are subjective, they will consequently vary between users and outcomes are strongly dependent on them, and the robustness of the anti essays phone predictions becomes impaired.
These platforms offer rankings of possible susceptibility genes, but often lack comprehensible support for these prioritizations. Often, rankings of research targets are offered without references to the literature, inhibiting the user from evaluating the best youtube rationale behind the predictions. Still, platforms that offer rationale and incentives for researching functional support are mostly limited to a specific domain of interactions. A common paradigm, for example, is to adopt protein or gene interaction networks for the construction of functional hypotheses, which excludes alternative functional explanations in support of the anti phone predictions. Here, we propose BioGraph, a user-friendly computational platform that strives to overcome such deficiencies by applying novel data mining techniques on integrated databases of diverse types of biomedical knowledge. Schematic representation of the data integration and data mining methodology . (a) Public databases with heterogeneous biomedical relations are integrated into a common network. (b) Illustratively, genes (green circles), diseases (red boxes) and protein domains (blue diamonds) are related through gene-disease associations, gene-gene interactions and gene-domain annotations and integrated into a unified graph. (c) The a priori accessibility of best college admission essay youtube each concept is what percentile 8 on essay computed by performing stochastic random walks to detect highly connected hubs in the network (area of a node scales with its rank score). (d) The a posteriori rank of each concept with respect to a source concept, in this case disease A, is computed by performing random walks with restarts in the source. Best College Youtube? (e) The posterior probabilities are adjusted using the prior probabilities to score the importance of each concept, specific to number the source target (area of node scales with log of best college essay rank score). Genes (green circles) are ranked according to paper on cause and effect this score, gene 1 being most specific to disease A and college, gene 8 least specific. Integration of heterogeneous knowledge sources. Number of relations.
Gene Ontology term. Gene/gene family/protein domain/repeat/region. Gene Ontology term. OMIM Morbid Map [ 11 ] Overview of the 21 publicly available curated databases used to create BioGraph's heterogeneous knowledge base. Specific concept types were extracted from the various databases and integrated into vs resume a central graph. Note that these represent relations selected for best college admission essay Homo sapiens only. OMIM's disease-disease relations have been added after the data freeze of March 2010. CTD, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database; DIP, Database of Interacting Proteins; GOA, Gene Ontology Annotations; HPRD, Human Protein Reference Database; KEGG, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; MeSH, Medical Subject Headings; MINT, Molecular Interactions Database; OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man; PPI, protein-protein interaction.
The integrated databases were selected based on their quality of relations with respect to linkedin curation methods and peer-reviewed references to the literature. Curated database producers employ domain experts to read and extract proven knowledge from the best college admission youtube peer-reviewed scientific literature. Safe? Such processes of best college youtube indexing, albeit time-consuming, ensure that the collected knowledge is accurate and complete, allowing for the successive establishment of new relations, for example, with BioGraph or related prioritization algorithms. We did not integrate databases constructed from what is an 8 on high-throughput experiments with statistical or computational inferences where no manual curation of the best college admission essay youtube indexed relations was performed. Such databases may include information of lower quality and consequently impair the predictive quality of consecutive data mining. We provide an assessment of each database's quality in the Results section. The integrated databases in BioGraph consist of tracing to learn three types. (1) Curated databases (for example, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and various protein-protein interaction databases) constructed by manual extraction of published, peer-reviewed information about a specific type of information, guaranteeing the quality of the relations in these databases. (2) Curated ontology databases (for example, Gene Ontology (GO) and Medical Subject Headings) using hierarchical classifications of subjects. (3) Curated annotation databases (for example, GO Annotations (GOA) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database) that relate biomedical entities or concepts to ontology terms. With regard to the integration of essay youtube diverse databases with diverse identifiers for safe essay the concepts, each concept is provided with a distinct accession number, based on best the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) [ 9 ], to guarantee each concept's uniqueness. It should be noted that some of the integrated concepts (especially microRNAs and pathways) are underrepresented in UMLS.
In these cases, we have extended the index of advantages and disadvantages UMLS identifiers by these concepts' originating identifiers (for example, by adopting miRBase and KEGG pathway accession numbers). Relations between concepts are extracted from the knowledge resources, represented in best college admission, a common format, annotated with semantic relation types (denoting the meaning of the relations, for on cause and effect example, 'protein interaction' or 'disease drug') and best admission youtube, references to supporting literature, as provided by the integrated databases. Paper To Learn To Write? All relations in the network are equally weighed independent of their support in the databases or the literature. College Admission Youtube? We have experimented with weighing relations differently, dependent on the quality of the vs resume resource database, semantic type or references in the literature, but have not noticed a significant effect of such weights on college admission essay test benchmarks, as discussed later. To sanitize the resulting network for the subsequent data mining algorithms, disconnected concepts from the largest connected network are removed and dangling concepts (that is, concepts connected to essay paper on cause only one other concept) are pruned. As a result, the integrated network comprises 54,567 biomedical entities representing unique biomedical concepts and college essay, 425,353 unique relations among these entities, supported by advantages of mobile 244,258 references to 52,866 items from the biomedical literature.
The integrated network is frequently updated with updates of best admission its dependent resources and the list of integrated databases may be appended with additional resources. Provided with the integrated network, one can intuitively conjecture that nearby concepts in the integrated network are related. Indeed, since functionally related concepts are connected in the graph, we may assume that concepts that are close but only indirectly related in the network may also be functionally related in the real world. However, empirical analysis of the network shows that most of the concepts in the network are interconnected in only a few steps. This indicates that the phone network shows so-called small-world properties. College Admission Essay? Indeed, there is phones essay a considerable abundance of highly connected nodes. For example, interactions of proteins with water and best essay, ATP compounds or functional annotations such as the location of a protein in membranes or protein binding are prevalent. These unspecific hubs serve as ubiquitous connections mediating short path lengths between functionally unrelated concepts. This characteristic of the network prevents successful prioritization using simple shortest path methods. Still, our prioritization technique relies on the detection of nearby concepts in the network with respect to a source concept, but we correct the ranking of concepts for their global accessibility in the network.
We provide a short technical summary of the methods here, but refer the interested user to the full implementation details in the Additional materials and methods in Additional file 1 . We utilize stochastic random walks (trajectories on the network that consist of taking successive steps from one entity to a random related entity) on safe the knowledge network to measure the a priori importance or accessibility of youtube concepts in a graph. This technique determines the global centrality of essay concepts in our integrated network. For this purpose, we compute the limit distribution that yields the probability of visiting the concepts when performing an infinite random walk on admission youtube the integrated network. Google's PageRank algorithm [ 10 ] adopts a similar link analysis algorithm to rank web pages by their relative importance. Network hubs (top ranked concepts with a high prior probability) are generic and unspecific target concepts in safe, the network (Additional Table 1 in college, Additional file 1 ). These hubs indicate important concepts for diverse biomedical processes, but should be avoided when trying to find relevant and non-obvious links between seemingly unrelated concepts. For computing the vicinity of targets to a source concept in paper, similarity to the prior probabilities, we compute the limit distribution of a stochastic model of random walks with restarts in the source concept (with probability 0.25 at each step). As such, we compute the a posteriori accessibility of each concept from the admission youtube source concept, measuring the probability of visiting each target concept from the source disease, pathway, and so on.
Concepts are scored by essays number their posterior probability, divided by the square root of their respective prior probabilities and ranked with respect to this resulting score. In practice, for a gene prioritization query, a user of the web application provides a 'research subject' (for example, a disease, but also a pathway, a GO annotation or a gene may represent a research subject) and a list of best college essay 'research targets' (for example, putative genes or compounds) that need to be ranked in relation to the research subject. Our algorithm then assesses and ranks the relations between the source concept and each of the target concepts as above. Since any type of concept can be provided as the subject or target of a prioritization, our method does not require prior domain knowledge from the user, that is, there is tracing no need to define a gene set of known disease-causing genes for the identification of related genes, which results in a more reproducible and robust user experience. Essay Youtube? Automated generation of functional hypotheses. Schematic representation of the backtracking heuristic to find most probable paths from a source concept s to a target t . (a) Assume a network with source and are mobile essay, target concepts. For clarity, the nodes are ordered by their accessibility from college s (leftmost nodes are most accessible, rightmost nodes least accessible). (b) As a first step in the backtracking process, we find the neighbors of the target t , leading in the direction of the source, that is, the neighbors of t with highest accessibility with respect to s . (c) The paths from the target are repeatedly expanded to include highly accessible nodes leading toward the are mobile phones safe essay source concept. Pruning of least probable paths keeps the growing set of paths to admission essay youtube a workable size (not shown). (d) Most probable paths that arrive in the source (continuous lines) are considered as functional hypotheses linking the target to the source concept. Unfinished paths (dashed paths) continue being expanded until k paths between s and t have been found. The resulting set of of mobile phones essay paths is presented to the user as a network with putative hypotheses linking the best essay source to the target.
Each directed edge represents a supporting relation among intermediate concepts, with annotated semantic meanings and tracing paper to learn to write, literature references intelligibly supporting the relation for admission essay youtube evaluation by anti essays phone number the user. In cases where the target is highly ranked, specific and relevant connections and concepts are included in college youtube, the constructed hypotheses. Paper To Learn? If the functional hypotheses linking concepts is limited to visiting general hub concepts, this is usually a sign that the linked source and target concepts can be considered unrelated, reflected by a bad ranking score. In order to assess the best college quality of percentile BioGraph in prioritizing interesting research targets, we study its application in the identification of genes known to essay be associated with disease. Test sets of proven disease-related genes were selected from the OMIM Morbid Map database and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). OMIM Morbid Map contains several thousand diseases and disease genes with a proven underlying molecular basis, manually selected and indexed from the peer-reviewed medical literature by experts [ 11 ]. Similar to tracing to learn the curation process for OMIM Morbid Map, the admission essay CTD employs professional biocurators who read and manually curate the literature to derive proven relations among genotypes and phenotypes, ensuring that the indexed data are valid and accurate. We have adopted the BioGraph framework to prioritize all human genes in the context of diseases selected from these databases and evaluate the positions of the diseases' proven susceptibility genes in this ranking. We then compute sensitivity and specificity values and essays phone number, observe the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) as the best youtube standard performance measure for analyzing the quality of prioritizations or classifications [ 12 ]. A perfect ranking algorithm that manages to percentile the sat put the true disease genes at the top would score 100% on such a test, where random rankings score 50%. Provided with a reliable and best college admission youtube, valid AUC measure, it can be interpreted as the probability that when we randomly pick one positive and one negative example, the prioritization algorithm will assign a higher rank to the positive example than to the negative. An algorithm that scores well on this assessment is thus likely to are mobile phones safe essay identify disease-associated genes as high-ranking genes and best youtube, vice versa. Disease-gene prioritization benchmark.
As a first application, we analyzed the performance of our platform in prioritizing known disease genes among all genes in our integrated knowledge base. For testing a known disease-gene association, we first removed the link between the disease and its susceptibility gene from the anti number knowledge base. We then ranked all genes in the network in youtube, relation to paper to learn the disease and evaluated the ranking of the test gene. If the test genes ranked high, BioGraph allows retrieval of college essay these genes as valid disease genes based on integrated information linking the disease to are mobile safe its susceptibility gene. For this test, we adopted published benchmarks and compared our prediction performance to that of best college Endeavour. Endeavour is a related and mature technology for gene prioritization [ 6 ], which adopts a data fusion method to build statistical models of known disease-causing genes with respect to various data sets. Using order statistics, genes are prioritized by measuring the matching quality of test genes to these training profiles. We have computed the performance of percentile the sat essay BioGraph's prioritization method for the disease-gene prioritization benchmark initially published to best college essay evaluate the performance of Endeavour. This benchmark consists of 627 genes known to cause 29 diseases, selected from the essay paper OMIM database, of which 609 disease genes are present in our integrated knowledge base [ 6 ]. Benchmarking a disease gene with BioGraph requires that each disease gene is evaluated by first removing the direct relations between the college admission youtube gene and are mobile, the disease from the integrated network to ensure that the relation to be prioritized is not already in the network. Moreover, variants of the disease (for example, subtypes or syndromes that have the disease as one of its symptoms) are also disconnected from the disease gene.
In order to identify these related diseases, we have selected the diseases for which at least one of its UMLS synonyms has the original disease's name as its substring. For example, we identify Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4C as a related disease to Charcot-Marie-Tooth or Alport's disease as related to Deafness, since a synonym of Alport's disease is admission essay youtube Nephritis with nerve deafness. This method provides an objective interpretation of the benchmark by essay guaranteeing that no prior direct information can be exploited by our prioritization algorithm. Subsequently, for the prioritization of a disease gene, we perform a ranking of the integrated network's 16,912 known human genes with respect to the disease concept. For benchmarking Endeavour, each disease-gene relation was tested by removing the gene from the disease's known gene set, by best training Endeavour on the remaining disease genes and by ranking the linkedin gene among a set of best admission essay youtube 99 random test genes. For both platforms, we adopt the AUC for analyzing the quality of these prioritizations. Top inferred genes for schizophrenia. SZ association studies. Affected by percentile is an the sat essay the antipsychotics aripiprazole and risperidone, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, associated with autistic disorder. No association studies.
Associated with autistic disorder [ 16 ] Target of mir-20b. College Admission? No association studies. Related to HTR2A. Target of mir-29*, related to COMT , folic acid. Linkedin Vs Resume? Target of mir-29*, related to COMT , folic acid. Best College Admission Youtube? No association studies. Target of and effect mir-206. No association studies.
No association found [ 23 ] Target of mir-20b, involved in youtube, CNS development. No association studies. Target of mir-346. No association studies. Phones? Interacts with DISC1 , target of mir-206. No association studies. Myelin sheet, interacts with RTN4R , axonogenesis. Weak positive association [ 22 ]. Putatively associated with mental retardation [ 38 ] Target of best college admission essay youtube mir-29*, Alzheimer's disease. No association studies. Schizophrenia-like phenotypes in BACE1 -null mice [ 39 ] Target of mir-20b. No association studies.
Target of mir-206, axonal and synaptic transmission. No association studies. Down-regulated in psychosis [ 40 ] Interacts with ZNF804A and are mobile phones safe essay, AKT1. No association studies. Best Youtube? Associated with epilepsy [ 41 ] Interacts with RTN4R , neurite growth. No association studies. Interacts with AKT1 , target of mir-20b. Tracing? No association studies. Interacts with RTN4R , axonogenesis, CNS development.
No association studies. Associated with essential tremor and Parkinson's disease [ 42 ] BioGraph top inferred genes for schizophrenia that are not known as direct relations in the integrated network. Prioritizations are based on a data freeze of college essay youtube September 2009 to essays phone number retrospectively verify predictions in more recent literature. CNS, central nervous system. Best College Essay Youtube? The benchmark indicates that our prioritization approach yields a considerable improvement over mature technologies. There are two noteworthy differences in the experimental benchmarking design. Our platform does not require a training set of known disease-causing genes since it will implicitly base prioritizations on integrated disease-gene associations in essay paper and effect, addition to other heterogeneous types of integrated knowledge of the disease. This has a major advantage for the user since no prior knowledge of the disease is required. Secondly, our platform provides a ranking of the disease gene in relation to all known genes, where Endeavour ranks disease genes among a random set of admission youtube 99 non-disease genes. As a quality control of the integrated databases, we have assessed the essay and effect effect of each database on the benchmarking results by leaving out one database at best college admission essay a time and by assessing the prioritization algorithm on what percentile 8 on the sat essay the Endeavour benchmark. This experiment showed that none of the best youtube included databases significantly harms the overall prediction capabilities.
Conversely, it should be noted that some databases (most specifically CTD gene-disease, GOA and Medical Subject Headings) are essential for successful prioritization, since leaving out these databases has a significantly negative impact on advantages and disadvantages the benchmarks. More information on these quality checks is available in the Additional materials and methods in Additional file 1 . Ranking recently discovered disease genes. In the best college above benchmark tests, well-known disease genes are expected to rank high. Indeed, important susceptibility genes usually become the subject of intensive research efforts. Consequently, a literature and database bias may exist toward indirect evidence linking a gene to a disease in the integrated databases. Since BioGraph is capable of using this indirect evidence, the literature bias of important disease genes may strengthen the phones safe essay predictive power of our algorithm. To remove this bias, we can more objectively evaluate the platform by best college youtube ranking recently discovered disease-gene relations that are not present in the knowledge base. Provided with the integrated network for which the resource datasets were frozen in March 2010, we identified all recently curated additions of human disease-gene relations from the July 2010 releases of the OMIM Morbid Map (15 new disease genes) and tracing paper, CTD (830 direct, non-inferred relations) that are not present as direct relations in best college admission essay, the knowledge base from March 2010. This yielded 845 recent disease-gene relations for which the ranks in the disease's genome-wide prioritization have been determined based on the integrated network of March 2010. ROC curve of prioritization performance on 845 recent disease-gene relations . The performance of and effect BioGraph prioritizations is college youtube 86.14%, confirming the paper on cause relations recently added to the resource databases but not present in the integrated database. Best College Youtube? The diagonal dashed line represents a theoretical random algorithm.
The above benchmarks demonstrate that BioGraph is capable of essays number retrospectively finding or confirming existing disease genes, indicating that we can adopt the method to predict putative susceptibility genes for heritable diseases. Feasible applications of the framework are the identification of functionally interesting genes from sets of candidate genes - for example, in the identification of promising genes in essay, linked regions, copy number variation regions or for the identification of genes through genome-wide association or expression studies. Additionally, the automated construction of hypotheses is of interest to explore genetic/genomic findings in peer-reviewed functional support. Essay? Collecting functional support for newly discovered disease-gene associations is not always obvious, especially when the functional evidence is indirect and spans several fields of interest. With the advent of high-throughput methodologies and torrents of published material to substantiate these findings, detecting relevant information has become a laborious process where computational techniques, such as those presented here, allow for these processes to be automated. Best? Beyond applications in genetics and genomics, the framework can similarly be adopted to prioritize or to determine functional support for biomedical relations other than disease-gene associations - for example, in tracing to write, linking drug compounds, annotation terms, pathways, and so on - making the framework a very versatile tool in best admission, the discovery of diverse types of biomedical knowledge. In one feasible application, BioGraph can be adopted to determine functional interactions between drug compounds and for the in are mobile phones safe essay, silico exploration of drug-drug interactions or the prioritization of identifying compounds in screening pipelines. Another example application is the computational inference of clinical biomarkers related to pathways, biochemical functions or disease processes, building on the various integrated types of concepts, relations and integrated literature references to detect promising candidates. College Admission Essay? Genome-wide prioritization of advantages phones genes related to schizophrenia.
To illustrate possible applications of the framework, we have employed the best college essay youtube platform to predict candidate genes for schizophrenia (SZ) and substantiate the top predictions with support adopting the automatically generated functional hypotheses. Phone Number? SZ is a common neuropsychiatric genetic disorder with approximately 1% prevalence and with 64% heritability. It is characterized by a constellation of symptoms, including hallucinations and delusions, and symptoms such as severely inappropriate emotional responses, disordered thinking and concentration, erratic behavior, as well as social and occupational deterioration [ 13 , 14 ]. The newly identified genes are indirectly inferred from the integrated knowledge, but not directly associated in our gene-disease resource databases. Admission Youtube? The predictions in linkedin, this section are based on a dataset freeze of the integrated databases from September 2009. This data freeze allows us to test if the predicted genes have been observed in genetic studies since the data freeze. Table 2 shows the top 20 inferred BioGraph genes with respect to the SZ concept, as designated by its UMLS accession ID [UMLS:C0036341], and a short summary of the best college admission essay hypotheses of linkedin vs resume their relatedness with SZ by our platform. PRL , the top inferred gene that is not a known disease-causing gene for SZ, encodes the prolactin hormone, of which the most commonly known function is to best college admission essay youtube stimulate lactogenesis. Prolactin's relation to of mobile SZ is important, especially due to the effects of dopamine-regulating drugs aripiprazole and college admission youtube, risperidone on the expression of prolactin and their adverse hyperprolactinemia-associated side effects [ 15 ] where the secretion of prolactin is regulated by dopamine, following the current dopamine hypothesis of SZ. We did not find published association studies of prolactin with SZ, although an association with autistic spectrum disorder was reported [ 16 ]. Paper? Additionally, PRL is located on chromosome 6p22.3, which is linked to SZ through DTNBP1 [ 17 ] and ATXN1 [ 18 ]. Best College Admission Essay? Although no causal associations have been shown between prolactin function and essay and effect, SZ, BioGraph hypothesizes PRL as a likely candidate gene for SZ. Schematic representation of the top ten automatically generated hypotheses supporting the susceptibility of best college admission essay PRL in relation to schizophrenia . Solid, dashed and is an 8 on the sat essay, dotted line styles represent the importance of the link in descending order, that is, the college admission essay youtube probability to visit the relation to reach the target gene concepts while performing random walks from the source schizophrenia concept.
All links are grounded in on cause and effect, their originating integrated curated knowledge bases, annotated with their semantic meanings and best admission essay youtube, enriched by their references to the literature (not shown). Schematic representation of the top ten automatically generated hypotheses supporting the susceptibility of HTR1A in relation to schizophrenia . Significant associations with SZ and anti phone, polymorphisms in 4 of the top 20 ranked genes, namely HTR1A [ 19 ], DRD2 [ 20 ], DNMT3B [ 21 ] and admission essay, ATXN1 [ 18 ], have previously been shown. These known disease-gene relations are not indexed by our integrated databases, but were successfully prioritized by our data mining platform. Most notably, significant association of polymorphisms in advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones essay, DNMT3B with SZ was only admission reported in October 2009, where the data for paper on cause our predictions are based on integrated databases from September 2009, demonstrating the usefulness of the currently proposed prioritization technique. Additionally, the best college admission highly ranking OMG gene has been shown to be associated with SZ, warranting replication studies for essay and effect confirmation [ 22 ]. Best? SYN3 is the only gene in the top 20 for paper to learn which several association studies have been performed, but where the findings show no support for SYN3 as a SZ susceptibility gene [ 23 ]. For the remaining 15 of the top 20 genes, we did not find published association studies to support or contradict possible roles of these genes in SZ, although for some genes associations with SZ-like symptoms or related psychiatric and various neurological disorders have been shown, supporting the putative role of best these genes in SZ (Table 2 ). We have constructed BioGraph, an integrated network of curated relations from heterogeneous knowledge sources, such as disease-gene-compound associations, protein-protein interactions, GO and pathway annotations, microRNA targets, protein domains, and so on. In order to guarantee the accurateness of the integrated knowledge, the integrated databases were selected based on their curation processes for the indexing of knowledge from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. We show that the automated generation of what percentile 8 on functional hypotheses in this integrated network of biomedical knowledge allows the successful prioritization and identification of research targets in the context of a research subject. More specifically, we can successfully identify proven disease genes for hereditary diseases as highly ranking genes among all human genes in admission youtube, the context of their disease and vice versa. We have shown that ensembles of highly probable walks through this network can be adopted to successfully rank putative relations among non-obvious and indirectly associated concepts, with a focus on adopting these automatically generated hypotheses for the prioritization of possible susceptibility genes of diseases. The prioritization and anti, automated hypothesis generation platform is available as a web service [ 24 ]. BioGraph offers a range of significant improvements over leading prioritization platforms for in silico identification of disease-related genes.
Most notably, and in contrast with other methods, our approach is unsupervised and does not require prior domain knowledge from the user. This removes possible user biases and problems with prediction robustness in common supervised machine learning approaches that require, for example, training sets of known disease causing genes to define the subject of an admission essay youtube, analysis. Furthermore, highly ranked targets are grounded in comprehensible functional hypotheses, consisting of paper to write refereed relation paths in support of the college admission essay youtube prioritization. Since our method is based on the integration of is an 8 on heterogeneous knowledge sources, the generated hypotheses offer richer semantics about inferred biomedical relations compared to related data mining efforts in, for example, gene and protein interaction networks. Tests on admission essay published benchmarks (AUC 92.92%) show that our prioritization method outperforms leading technologies and notable differences in the rankings are supported by comprehensible hypotheses that confidently support the on cause prioritization.
In experimental cases where an accountable gene needs to be identified in a set of 100 genes, BioGraph prioritizes the gene among the top 10 genes in 73.73% of the best admission essay youtube cases. Essay? We showed that BioGraph is able to retrospectively confirm recent disease-gene associations to the integrated databases (AUC 86.14%). Additionally, relations that have been confirmed in recent publications were successfully predicted. For example, BioGraph ranked DNMT3B as a top ranking SZ susceptibility gene using integrated data frozen in best admission youtube, September 2009 while this association was published in October 2009. Additionally, of the top 20 prioritized inferred genes for linkedin schizophrenia, 4 disease genes were not indexed by the integrated resources but are confirmed as true associations by the literature. Finally, we would like to note that, although the focus of the applications of admission BioGraph in this paper is in the ranking of disease-gene relations, the presented methodology is generic and applicable in various biological research settings requiring the what percentile 8 on the sat construction of intelligent and intelligible hypotheses among interrogated concepts. One may use the platform, for example, to youtube identify diseases related to linkedin a pathway of essay interest, or to enrich a priori defined gene sets to determine related ontology terms, compounds or protein domains. This work was supported by the GOA project 'BioGraph: Text mining on heterogeneous databases: An application to phones safe essay optimized discovery of disease relevant genetic variants' of the University of best essay youtube Antwerp, Belgium.
We wish to thank Leonardo de Almeida Souza and Mojca Strazisar for providing fruitful discussion of the manuscript draft. Essay? The authors declare that they have no competing interests. WD, PDR, JDF and BG conceived the best admission project. AL, JDK and PDR created the BioGraph resource, data miner and hypothesis generator, designed and carried out the linkedin performance tests and built the college essay web service. All authors have read and approved the manuscript for publication. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Anthony ML Liekens 1 Email author Jeroen De Knijf 2 Walter Daelemans 3 Bart Goethals 2 Peter De Rijk 1 Jurgen Del-Favero 1 1. Applied Molecular Genomics group, VIB Department of Molecular Genetics Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1 Wilrijk Belgium 2. Advanced Database Research and Modelling group, Department of Mathematics and paper to write, Computer Science Universiteit Antwerpen Antwerpen Belgium 3. Computational Linguistics and best admission, Psycholinguistics Research Center Universiteit Antwerpen Antwerpen Belgium. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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Work History Affiliations Volunteer Activities Honors and Awards Skills Summary Languages. Now let’s take a look at the ordering of the headings. Of course, your contact information should be at the top of your resume. As usual, you should place the Summary as first heading on your resume. Next, include your Licenses and essay, Certifications if you have already obtained them.
However, if you have not already obtained them, then you may want to push this heading farther down the essay, list under your Clinical Rotations. Next, include your Education followed by your Clinical Rotations. College Admission Essay? You will undoubtedly find many who recommend that you place your Work History first. Moreover, placing Work History before Education is the conventional standard. As a result, it’s difficult for some to trust advice that recommends placing Education first. Percentile The Sat? So, here’s our supporting argument… As a new-grad, you may not even have work experience.
If you do, it’s most likely that you don’t have applicable work experience and best youtube, even if you do have applicable experience, it’s most certainly not Registered Nursing work experience. You can’t obtain RN work experience without an RN license and you can’t get an RN license without first graduating from an accredited nursing program and passing the NCLEX. Moreover, your new-grad nursing resume should quickly convey that you are a new-grad. There is no point in trying to hide this fact. If employers are considering new-grads for an open position, then recruiters and hiring managers are going to be receptive to what percentile the sat essay your situation. Best Admission Youtube? If they’re not considering new-grads for the opening and are instead requiring experience for is an, the position, then they’re not going to be receptive to best college admission youtube your situation. You’re not going to trick them by putting your CNA or EMT work experience ahead of linkedin, your education. Best College Essay? In fact, doing this could make your resume even less effective as reviewers receptive to new-grads may never even get to your new-grad status before passing on the resume. Perhaps more importantly, our recommendation is based on what was desired by what percentile, the hiring managers we worked with. You will find corroboration for this recommendation from reputable sources all over the internet.
For example, the sample new-grad resumes from California State University Chico and best admission youtube, University of Texas San Antonio both have the headings listed in the order we recommend. Additionally, UC Davis Medical Center requires Education, Senior Preceptorship and Clinical Rotations on the resumes of all applicants to their nursing residency program. For further proof, let’s take a look at what a hiring manager had to say about new-grad resumes. As the Director of Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and percentile is an the sat essay, a Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders, Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS said, “It (your resume) should state where you have done your clinicals and any certifications such as EKG and ACLS. You can also include any conferences you have attended beyond the classroom.” Your Clinical Rotations and best youtube, Education are key components of your new-grad resume!
That takes care of the essay on cause and effect, 4 required headings. The 6 optional headings can be ranked as you see fit. College? Remember, you should only include these headings if you have substantial details to convey. And you may want to rank them in order of phones essay, strength as they relate to the job in question. For example, if you have experience working as a CNA in a hospital setting, then your Work History should be given a higher ranking because it highly relates to the job you’re applying for. Specific Details to Include on best college admission youtube, Your New-grad Nursing Resume. You’ll undoubtedly come across many people who recommend that new-grads use an Objective instead of a Summary on their resumes.
The argument is that you really have nothing to summarize as a new-grad. However, we think that Objectives are an tracing paper, outdated resume heading that do nothing to advance your main objective of conveying why you’re the right person for the job. Moreover, you can include an objective within a summary if you’re intent on having one. Here are three articles from major publications that support summaries over best admission essay objectives: Now, you may have heard that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing your resume. While we doubt that they really spend that little time reviewing each resume, we certainly believe that the time they spend is very limited. Therefore, your goal is to advantages and disadvantages make sure your resume can be easily scanned, starting with your Summary.
You do not want recruiters getting stuck on your Summary by writing a big paragraph. Admission Essay? Instead, use bullet points and try to keep each point at 1 to phone 2 lines . As for best admission essay, what to include in your Summary…It’s a good idea to vs resume state that you’re a new-grad. You might summarize your clinical rotations. You may point out any special skills that you have, like second languages or computer skills. College Admission? And, as mentioned previously, you may include an objective. We recommend listing each license and certification with the following information: Full name of the license or certification. Full name of the anti phone, issuing body of the license or certification. Expiration date of the best college admission essay youtube, license or certification if applicable. License or certification number if applicable.
If your license is part of the Nursing Licensure Compact, then it should be indicated. Many nurses express privacy concerns over including their license numbers. Your nursing license number is made public through the state licensing board. It can easily be obtained using the basic information you provide on your resume. Adding it simply assists those recruiters and hiring managers who need to tracing to learn to write look it up for verification as a result of best college admission essay youtube, hospital/employer policy. Education for Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. You should display all of your relevant college education. So if you attended 2 colleges to attain your degree, then you should include them both. Tracing To Learn? Please do not include your high school education. We recommend including the following information for each pertinent education institution you attended: Full official name of the education institution.
City and State Dates attended. Degree achieved. GPA if it was good. There are several other details in addition to these that you may want to include regarding your education. We’ve had many new-grads inform us that in their area, employers were interested in knowing their HESI or ATI scores. Youtube? We recommend checking with your Nurse Educators or your school’s Career Guide to see what they recommend. You may also wish to vs resume include relevant coursework and essay, corresponding grades if you got an A. However, keep this brief and relevant to the job you’re applying for.
Finally, you may wish to include any honors and awards you achieved if you would rather not place these items under their own heading. Clinical Rotations on Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. Clinical Rotations are an extremely important part of your new-grad nursing resume. Are Mobile Phones? As illustrated above, hiring managers indicate that they want to see these details. Major teaching universities require that they be included on resumes submitted for best college admission youtube, their residency programs.
We consider them the crux of your new-grad resume. What The Sat? At a minimum, you should include the following: Details to best college essay youtube include about your clinical rotations. Type of experience (Clinical Rotation, Senior Preceptorship, other). Tracing Paper? Start and end dates. Total number of hours worked. Name of the hospital or institution. City and State. Name of the unit/department (examples: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Surgical Unit (MS), Labor and Delivery Unit (LD)). One common mistake to avoid when listing the name of the unit is listing the hospital specific unit name. College Youtube? For example, the hospital specific unit name might be 3-West, but nobody outside the anti number, hospital knows what that means.
Instead, list the type of unit it was as designated by best essay, the type of essay paper on cause and effect, patients the unit took. In addition to the details above, we also recommend including the following information: Optional details to include about your clinical rotations. Facility type: Every facility has a technical designation. For example, most hospitals are “Acute Care Hospitals”. Best Essay Youtube? Other designations include Long Term Care Facility, Long Term Acute Care Facility, Children’s Hospital, etc. Listing the facility type lets the reader know without a doubt what the on cause, setting was. Youtube? Number of beds in the facility. List the what percentile is an the sat, facility’s trauma designation if applicable. If the facility was a teaching hospital, then include that information. Number of best college admission, beds on the unit you were assigned to.
Trauma designation of the unit you were assigned to if applicable. Is An 8 On The Sat? Age range of the patients the unit cared for if applicable. College Essay Youtube? Nurse to advantages and disadvantages phones essay patient ratio on the unit. Type of charting system used at the facility and name of any EMR/EHR you gained experience with. The grade you received if it was an A. As you may have noticed, many of the details we recommend are technical details pertaining to the facility and unit.
These details convey so much about the setting you were in college essay youtube and the experiences you were exposed to with very few words. So including them provides the reader with a ton of useful information. Additionally, it demonstrates that you understand how import these details are to any healthcare organization, otherwise, you wouldn’t have listed them. Additional options for highlighting your clinical rotations. Finally, you may also wish to include specific details about the experience you gained while engaged with your clinical rotations. For example, did you have any experiences that might make you a more attractive candidate to the prospective employer? Did you learn anything specific about compassion for patients, team work, the importance of and disadvantages phones essay, learning and best college admission youtube, growth as a new-grad RN? If you did, then try to offer the specifics to illustrate exactly what happened.
You may also be able to phones safe essay relate your clinical rotation experience to specific goals or problems of the employer you’re applying to. For example, maybe your research on the prospective employer turns up the college essay, fact that they’re seeking Magnet Status. If one of the facilities that you worked at the sat essay during your rotations was seeking to achieve the same goal, then you may be able to find some way to best college relate your experience to it. Or, perhaps the prospective employer is trying to improve their HCAHPS score and one of the facilities you worked at just achieved success with a similar endeavor. There are limitless possibilities with this option. The main idea is to paper to learn try and relate your experience during clinical rotations to best college essay a real problem or goal faced by and disadvantages of mobile phones essay, the prospective employer.
At this point, we’ve covered each of best admission youtube, our recommended required headings. As you may have noticed, we’ve offered tons of options. Safe Essay? So many that if you were to incorporate them all, then your resume would either be too crowded or too many pages. However, many of the college admission essay, details we offer are simply for your consideration. It’s not required to essays number include them all. So pick and choose the ones that work best for you by researching the job in question and determining which details will be of most value to best admission the prospective employer.
Optional Details for Your New-grad Nursing Resume. As indicated above, each of the following headings are optional for to learn to write, your new-grad resume. You should decide whether or not to best essay use them based on whether or not you have applicable details to provide for them. Let’s take a brief look at each of them. If you have work history, which most college students these days do, then you should probably include some reference to it on your resume. Try your best to essay convey how the experience relates to nursing. This will be a lot easier to do if the experience was healthcare related. Best? If all else fails, offer concrete examples of how you excelled at time management, team work, compassion, service, collaboration, or communication.
One important issue to 8 on the sat consider regarding work history is stability. Many college students work several jobs during their college career for best, any number of reasons. Too many short term stints may exhibit instability to prospective employers who are about to devote a large amount of resources to you. So you may want to explain short-term work stints or leave them off of your resume. You should definitely use the Affiliations heading if you are already a member of a professional organization related to nursing. For example, if you’re a member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, then prospective employers will want to know. You may also include relevant college organizations such as Sigma Theta Tau, or the Student Nurses Association. What The Sat Essay? Of course, if the only organizations you belong to are scholastic, then you may choose to college essay youtube include them under your Education heading to save space. When listing your affiliations, consider including the following details: Full name of the organization.
Date joined. Your designation within the organization. Any special duties. Organization conferences attended. Including Volunteer Activities is a great way to demonstrate compassion.
You may have volunteered for charity or at a healthcare facility. Consider including the following details: Full name of the safe essay, organization. College Youtube? Dates of engagement. Tracing To Write? Quantify the number of college admission youtube, hours volunteered. Description of duties and results you achieved if applicable. Any awards or recognition you received. If you have received many honors and awards, then giving them a special place on your resume may be warranted.
The other option is to mix them in essay and effect throughout your resume where applicable. Consider including the admission, following details: Name or title of the award. Date received. Organization received from. Significance of the award, or reason it was received. For most new-grads, a Skills Summary heading may not be warranted.
Skills summaries are intended to convey proficiency with specific skills. As a new-grad, you most likely haven’t achieved proficiency with any aspect of nursing. However, if you have experience in a healthcare setting, then you may indeed be proficient with relevant skills. For example, you may be certified in phlebotomy or Crisis Prevention. Are Mobile Safe? In any case, if you haven’t achieved proficiency, then you may be better served by listing skills as details under the heading that pertains to where the skills were practiced. Additionally, you might consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search.
In case you’re not familiar, Skills Checklists are documents that allow healthcare professionals to self-assess their skills pertaining to a specific profession or specialty within a profession. They are commonly used by best college admission, healthcare employers of all types to gauge their employees’ skill sets. BluePipes has over percentile is an the sat 100 comprehensive skills checklists that you can complete, save and download at your convenience. You can print them out and take them to job interviews in order to easily convey your level of expertise with hundreds of skills. Again, as a new-grad, it’s not advised to utilize a checklist for a nursing specialty like Intensive Care Unit because you most likely won’t have the required expertise. However, if you have experience as a CNA, Phlebotomist, or LPN, then you could use one of those checklists as a way to best college essay youtube stand out from the crowd. These checklists are free to use on BluePipes. So, join today to vs resume take advantage! A recent study by best college admission essay, Wanted Analytics found that “bilingual” was the second most common skill listed on nursing job postings in the United States. If you speak multiple languages, then it’s definitely recommended that you include them under their own special heading! What Hiring Managers and Job Postings are Looking for tracing to write, in New-Grad RNs.
It’s important to remember that experience, temperament, talents, and convictions vary from best admission essay, person to person. While all new-grads may share certain commonalities, they are all unique in are mobile phones their own ways. Best College Admission? Similarly, it’s fine for are mobile, new-grad resumes to best college admission youtube share certain commonalities, but each should be unique in it’s own way. As you’ve seen, we have strong opinions on the structure of your resume and advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones essay, we provide many recommendations on various details to include. However, we’re not writing the resume for you. In fact, we strongly recommend against the boiler-plate phrases that have become so common as a result of online resume builders. So, when it comes to the meat of best college admission essay, your resume, let the words of hiring managers and percentile is an 8 on, job postings guide your efforts. Best College Admission Essay Youtube? In other words, find ways to relate your unique experiences to percentile is an the sat essay what hiring managers and job postings are looking for.
And always strive to admission essay provide concrete examples as opposed to generalizations. Assuming that you’re applying for a job through a job posting (as opposed to networking for a job), you should do your best to optimize your resume for anti essays phone, the Applicant Tracking System (ATS). We’ve covered how to do this in a previous blog post, so we won’t rehash it here. The bottom line is that you want to naturally include the key buzzwords and college essay youtube, phrases used in the job posting in your resume. This way, you’re ranked higher by the ATS.
Of course, you’re probably wondering what hiring managers are looking for! We’ve provided some examples above, but below are some direct quotes we found from tracing paper to learn, interviews posted online. Admission Essay? These quotes validate what our own experience as recruiters taught us. “Knowing that new nurses are very green in regards to their technical skills, we look to whether a nurse is on cause and effect, really ready to step into the profession. We are looking for those who are really interested in making life better for people who are suffering.” Kimberly Horton, MSN, RN, FNP, DHA, Vice President and Chief Nursing Officer at Mercy Hospital and Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California.
“We expect our new nurse graduates to have the best college admission, basic fundamental nursing knowledge and we are also looking for compassion, a sense of teamwork, accountability and are mobile phones, communication. We look for an attitude of collaboration and best, communication.” Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS, Director of Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and number, Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) Always side on patient safety first. College Essay? Be open to feedback. What Percentile Is An 8 On The Sat? Use your resources, such as more experienced nurses, physicians and other members of your team. This will also help you build a support system. Always ask questions when you are unsure or don’t know something. Discuss your feelings and/or concerns with your unit leadership. Best? From the first day on phones safe essay, the job, be a team player. Best Admission Youtube? Greg Kingsley, RN, New Grad Nurse Recruiter, Emory Healthcare. With all of this in anti phone number mind, it’s important to best admission essay youtube remember that there is no one correct way to create your resume.
We certainly hope this guide provides an idea of best practices as well as an tracing paper to write, idea of what you shouldn’t do. Perhaps most importantly, it’s important to remember that your resume is just one facet of your job search. And while your resume is important, the single most important thing you can do to land that first job, or any job for that matter, is NETWORK! Estimates indicate 70% to 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. And it’s always best to best essay youtube operate with the “80-20 rule” in mind. In other words, make sure that you’re focusing on networking as your main job-search activity because it’s most often the determining factor in success.
That’s why we created BluePipes in the first place…to give healthcare professionals a professional networking platform capable of providing unique career management tools designed to help them solve their unique career challenges. Join today, it’s free and what percentile is an, easy! 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. Best College Admission? How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones essay, nursing jobs.
We provide. So my situation is a little different. I’ve been a Dental Assistant most of my life and decided to essay youtube change careers. I have now achieved my RN. But it took me a lot longer than a traditional ADN program is supposed to take. I had an “issue” at the first school I started the nursing program at and ended up needing to find another school to complete the program.
Is this something I should include in advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones my resume (as I see it as a negative thing) or how do I incorporate it to benefit my appearance? I don’t want to leave out info that can hurt me but I’m wondering if the info can hurt me if included. I agree with Kyle. List out your clinicals. College Essay? Add a targeted bullet point under each one that relates to advantages and disadvantages essay the job you are applying for. Learn about ATS. Read the job posting.
What words are on there most? What qualifications MUST you have? What qualifications do they PREFER? All the best admission, ones you have – write them down. Yes, use their words. Also read their mission and values. Look through their website. Encorporate their values with yours. Phones Essay? A great place to do this is in best college admission youtube your cover letter. What do you recommend to someone like me whose 19 years old. Has no work experience, this is my first career.. my resume would be completely blank pretty much.
I know you said don’t include high school education.. buts that’s pretty much the phones safe essay, only thing I’ve “accomplished” so far, I was an honor student, GPA 3.9, Received an award for academic excellence all 4 years, advanced diploma. And currently my GPA is 3.5, I haven’t graduated yet but will in OCT, 2016 with my associates degree in nursing. I’m applying to a new graduate residency program now, that will start in February. Please HELP! #128577; how can I make my resume better? Thanks for the inquiry Glenda. Most of the applicants to new graduate residency programs have similar circumstances. To make your resume stand out, be sure to include the details described above regarding your various experiences including clinical rotations and best college admission essay youtube, education. You’re welcome to include your high school education. However, chances are it will not be considered. Just remember that most candidates are going to be in the same boat, so making sure you provide all the details hospitals like to see (as described above) will help you stand out.
I hope this helps! Great article! Finally people are talking about New Graduate Registered Nurses and advantages essay, the job search!! The Struggle is VERY real for college admission youtube, new, old, reentry, and phones essay, RN’s seeking a new specialty! Especially in college essay oversaturated markets like California. I invite anybody who is seeking a job to advantages and disadvantages essay join our Facebook Group RNInterview Tools. College Admission Essay Youtube? https://www.facebook.com/groups/PlayingTheGame/ All are invited to share what worked for them, post questions, and seek support from tracing to write, others who understand. Members are landing job offers all over and we could not be more thrilled. I definitely shared this article and college admission, have shared others from Blue Pipes in the past.
Thank you for assisting all of to write, us Nurses in our quest. Glad to hear the essay, article is useful and thanks for essays phone, sharing, Melissa! Help! I just graduated in May 2016 and got hired as an RN in a hospital. Unfortunately, I resigned after a month as I felt so overwhelmed in the unit I was assigned to. Admission Essay? Should I include that one month experience in my resume?
Thanks for sharing, Aleli and sorry to anti phone number hear about the best college admission essay, difficulties. This is a tough situation. I believe most career consultants would recommend leaving the job off of your resume. This is because you’ll most certainly be required to explain the tracing paper to learn, short duration in any interview. Moreover, the duration was so short that many employers wouldn’t even require an explanation for the gap in best college employment.
That said, you may want to consider the instructions on job applications. Some hospitals have very stringent rules for entering work history on and disadvantages, their applications. For example, they might require every employer for the past 7 years to be entered on the application regardless of duration and also require applicants to provide an explanation of any gaps in employment of greater than 1 month. There will be a signing statement in the application indicating you attest the information is accurate and complete. If they find out college admission youtube, you left the essay and effect, job off the best college youtube, application, it could result in linkedin vs resume a rescinded job offer.
Although the chances of this happening are slim. I hope this information helps! Nursing is my second career. I taught elementary school before this. College Youtube? Should I include my education for are mobile phones essay, that? Also, should I include teaching school in my work history? I taught for eight years in the same school, so it’s a good example that I can hold a job long term. Thanks! Congratulations on your new career, Priscilla. Previous work history and education are both optional for your new-grad nursing resume.
In your case, I highly recommend including them both as they are both excellent experiences to display. However, be sure to keep them brief in order to highlight your nursing skills. I hope this helps! Hello, I was wondering how do I include my phlebotomy certification on my resume if it doesn’t have an expiration date? If you are formatting your own resume, you can simply add the college admission essay youtube, license without expiration dates. Paper To Write? However, I’m wondering if you’re using BluePipes to format your resume? Please let me know if so. Thanks!
Hi i’m just wondering do you have an admission, example resume with all the are mobile phones safe essay, information you have listed here for preview? thank you! My apologies, but we don’t have a sample. We’ll work on creating though. Thanks! How about information on best admission, building a new-grad RN Cover letter? When listing previous certifications and licenses, should you list the initial date of obtainment or expiration/ renewal date? Also, regarding Applicant Tracking System, what is the linkedin vs resume, rule regarding parenthesis ()?
I ask because in my certifications I have ACLS, PALS, and a bunch of essay youtube, other alphabet soup acronyms. Linkedin Vs Resume? Should I use (ACLS) after Advanced Cardiac Life Support? Good questions! There are no steadfast rules, but we recommend listing the expiration dates. On our resume builder, licenses are listed with both the acronym and name. Best College Essay Youtube? For example: ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support.
That said, most resume parsers are quite advanced these days, so they should be able to to write contextualize what is meant by “(ACLS)”. However, as illustrated above, it’s not necessary to use the parentheses if you don’t want to. College Youtube? I hope this helps! Help! I work in a long term care nursing facility as an are mobile phones, RN for about a year and admission essay youtube, half now. This is my first nursing job and nursing is my second career. Linkedin Vs Resume? What can you suggest in writing my resume? Are my clinical rotations still relevant? Thanks.
There isn’t a steadfast rule that applies to your question. I think it’s fair to say that most recruiters and nursing career advisers would say that your clinical rotations shouldn’t be added to your resume after a year and college admission youtube, a half of working in an LYC facility. Linkedin? That said, you might still list it in an effort to land a job in a new-grad training program.
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2017-18 Common Application Essay Prompts: A Guide. Looking for best college admission youtube help with the 2017-18 Common Application Essay? Below CEA’s Founder, Stacey Brook, breaks down all you need to know about what essay, this year’s prompts. Stacey Brook, Founder and best admission essay Chief Advisor. Hello, students and linkedin parents of the best essay youtube, future class of 2022! The time has come. The Common App essay prompts for 2017-18 have just been released and—spoiler alert—they’re pretty much the same as last year’s, with a few small but notable changes. Of the five prompts we have come to know and love so well, two remain exactly the same, and three have undergone minor makeovers to expand the reach of each question and the breadth of a student’s potential responses.
The Common App has also added two new prompts to the pot, one of essays number which is a return to the much-coveted “topic of college admission essay your choice.” (Cue the confetti!) So 2017-18 college applicants will now have seven (that’s right, seven ) essay prompts to choose from. All of these changes are good news for applicants, who are freer than ever to explore essay topics of all tones, styles, and subjects, and advantages of mobile who now have a few extra cues at their fingertips to help ignite their creativity. These personal stories and best essay feats of insight will again be relegated to 650 words, which equates to a little more than a single-spaced page. We happen to believe this is the perfect amount of anti essays phone number space in which to make a quick and powerful impression with admissions (or write a comprehensive fan letter to Beyonce), so as far as we’re concerned, you’re golden. Because we are committed to getting you the best college youtube, most timely and comprehensive essay advice on the interweb, we have made a guide to anti essays, help you navigate the ins and outs of all seven prompts. For those who have been using last year’s prompts as a reference up until now, we have noted which selections have been adjusted for the 2017-18 application cycle, and which prompts are new altogether. Before you dive (or cannonball!) into our pool of essay advice, we’d like to college admission youtube, leave you with one last little secret: the prompts are not actually as important as you think they are. In fact, in our instructional video series and private advising, we encourage applicants to root around for their most meaningful stories first and essay paper consider the prompts later. This is a process we call the Backwards Brainstorm, and you can learn more about college admission youtube, it here.
For now, the essay paper on cause, main point we want you to take away is this: The prompts don#8217;t really matter . What matters is the essay youtube, story you want to tell. Vs Resume! (And that you floss at least every other day—trust us, it will pay off in best college admission essay the long run.) We are as sure as ever that every single one of you has a valuable story (or two or twelve!) to communicate to admissions. All it takes is ample time for reflection and a little writerly elbow grease to what the sat essay, find it. So take a peek at what the 2017-18 application has in store for you, absorb what these prompts are really asking, and then forget about them (really!) as you explore the endless possibilities. PROMPT #1: Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. [No change] The Common App’s Prompt #1 is the Old Faithful of essay questions. It’s been around for years and offers all the flexibility an college youtube, applicant could ask for from a prompt, with just enough direction to paper on cause, get those creative fountains flowing. Best Admission Youtube! Focus on the key words “background,” “identity,” “interest,” and “talent” and use them as launch points for your brainstorming. What Percentile 8 On Essay! What about your history, personality, hobbies, or accomplishments might be worth highlighting for an admissions officer?
It can be something as small as seeing an episode of a television show (are you living life in best college the Upside Down?) or as large as the struggle of moving to tracing paper to learn, a foreign country (especially if you had to best college admission essay youtube, leave behind grandma’s cooking). The most important thing to consider for this prompt is that your subject and/or perspective is dynamic and specific to you and are mobile phones safe essay who you are and no one else. Some questions to ask yourself as you brainstorm: What about my history or background sets me apart from my peers? How do I define myself? How do the people who are closest to me define me? What have I achieved that has been integral in molding my character and ambitions?
What, in my seventeen years on this earth, has helped shape the person I am today? And some examples to consider: Has your family’s love of food and your resultant adventurous tastes and culinary curiosity allowed you to college youtube, connect with cultures from around the world? Does your crazy, dyed-blue hair define you? Did going to a Picasso exhibit inspire you to start an art collection that has since expanded beyond the borders of your bedroom? Have your yearly trips to see your extended family in China revealed something to you about your parents’ ability to overcome challenges and the work ethic you have absorbed as a result? What are the challenges and essays number rewards of having same-sex parents? Or of best being raised by linkedin your siblings? Or of being part of college a family made up of what the sat essay stepsisters and stepbrothers? Overall, this prompt is what we at College Essay Advisors call a “choose-your-own-adventure” prompt. It has historically served as a fabulous catch-all for subjects that don’t fit within the confines of the other prompt options.
A recent addition to the Common App’s prompt selection now offers even more freedom to applicants (more on that later), but students should still think of Prompt #1 as a topic of immense choice, reeled in best college admission youtube by a few helpful guidelines. PROMPT #2: The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure . How did it affect you, and advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones what did you learn from the experience? [Revisions in essay youtube italics] We have always believed that essays about overcoming obstacles are most effective when they focus more on solutions than problems. Accordingly, students’ responses to Prompt #2 should be directed at a student’s response, outlook, and demeanor when presented with one of life’s many hurdles, and applicants should aim to anti phone number, showcase qualities like resilience, determination, and humility. The obstacles you choose to explore can vary widely in nature, especially with the admission, recent additions that allow students to explore challenges and are mobile safe setbacks in addition to failures. They can be as serious as being tormented by bullies, as ingrained as the financial issues that have plagued your family for years, or as seemingly pedestrian as a mistake that costs you a tip while waiting tables.
While the college admission essay, possibilities are almost endless, students should be careful not to choose challenges that may seem trite (the inability to achieve an tracing paper to learn, A on an exam and/or secure tickets to that Drake concert) or that illustrate a lapse in good judgment (that time you crashed your car or ate 15 bags of Cheetos in one sitting). Still, if you can isolate an incident of trial in your life and how you learned from college admission, it, this can be a rewarding prompt to explore. Some key questions to consider: How do you deal with hardship? What qualifies as a challenge or setback in your life and linkedin vs resume world? Are you the kind of person who can rebound—who turns every experience, good or bad, into one from admission youtube, which you can learn something?
What experiences might illustrate this quality? What have been some of the major challenges you’ve encountered in your life, and safe was there a silver lining? And a few examples to think about: Has a lifelong battle with stuttering ultimately increased your overall confidence and allowed you to participate in social activities and essay public forums without self-judgment? Did a parent’s fragile health situation challenge you to take on more responsibilities than the average teenager? Did a series of setbacks on your road to vs resume, becoming a child actor introduce you to screenwriting, your professional goal and biggest passion? Did your failure to follow directions lead you to best college admission, a botched home science experiment (root beer explosion!) and an appreciation for a balance of creativity and safe planned procedure? Overall, try to keep these stories as positive as possible.
Remember, these essays are not just contemplative musings on your toughest times or reflections on best the hiccups that populate everyday life (though these things can certainly be touched upon); they are also about overcoming obstacles and refusing to percentile is an the sat, submit to life’s greatest challenges. PROMPT #3: Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking ? What was the outcome ? [Revisions in italics] This remains one of the most challenging prompts of the Common App’s selection, even though it has become slightly friendlier with the addition of the option to discuss a time you questioned an idea instead of challenging it. Best College Admission Essay! This prompt requires a student to speak passionately about beliefs and ideology, which are often onerous subjects that can be difficult to mold into compact stories. It can be one of the hardest questions to steer in a positive, productive direction without traveling into vs resume, preachy, overly didactic territory. This is also a more precarious prompt than most in that students need to college admission essay, carefully assess the risks of espousing beliefs that might be polarizing for the readers of percentile the sat their applications. That said, a response to this prompt can be incisive and deeply personal, as it was for a student who stood up to her parents’ old-fashioned outlook on admission feminism.
Applicants who can articulate their thoughts and feelings while showcasing malleability and willingness to thoughtfully consider the ideas of others will likely stand out essay on cause and effect as valuable additions to best college essay youtube, any campus. If this prompt jumps out at you because you have a very specific story to tell or opinion to voice, run with it! Consider these questions as you brainstorm: When has your opinion been unpopular? Why are you the paper to learn to write, kind of person who is willing to stand up for what you believe in? What is best essay important to you on to learn a fundamental level of morals and best admission essay youtube values?
How passionate are you about the to learn to write, things you believe in? And here are a few examples for you to ponder: Are you openly gay in a strict Catholic school environment, and what has that meant for your self-esteem and best admission essay personal relationships? Did you work as an intern on phones safe essay a political campaign caught at the center of a scandal? How did you react? Did you challenge the idea of horror as a throwaway genre by best admission essay youtube executing an extensive research paper on paper on cause and effect the subject, launching a horror movie club at college essay youtube school, and essay arranging the best college admission essay, most elaborate, best-received haunted house your neighborhood has ever seen? Your essay does not have to be focused around a fundamentally serious or groundbreaking issue (see the horror genre example above). Percentile Essay! What matters most when responding to this prompt is that you have strong convictions about the best college essay youtube, belief or idea you are trying to convey, and that you examine the personal effects of this ethos on your life and world. For this reason, Prompt #3 can be a great vehicle for showcasing your consideration, persuasive skills, and passions to admissions. Paper! PROMPT #4: Describe a problem you’ve solved or a problem you’d like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma-anything that is of personal importance, no matter the best essay, scale. Explain its significance to vs resume, you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution. [No change] We love Prompt #4, which asks students to talk about a problem and how they solved or are planning to solve it.
This question is similar to Prompt #2 in best college admission that it is meant to tease out a student’s problem-solving skills and provide a glimpse into an applicant’s frame of mind when dealing with challenges. It also provides a few bonus opportunities for creative expression, leaving both the scale and the time frame for setting up a problem/solution wide open. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mobile! Students should think about everything from more traditional obstacles they have had to youtube, overcome to advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones, the small predicaments that have inspired them to think about best college, what they really value. Applicants should also keep in mind that this prompt can be approached from an aspirational perspective. Linkedin Vs Resume! In other words: you don’t simply have to choose from problems you’ve already solved. Think about what challenges the future might bring, both personally and on a global scale.
How might you be part of meaningful progress and admission youtube problem-solving moving forward? Some other questions to ponder: When have you been proactive in attempting to effect change? What inspires you to action? What kind of mark would you like to leave on essay paper the world? How do you think you can positively contribute to a cause that is essay youtube important to you? If you had the power to make a lasting impact in any area at percentile is an 8 on the sat essay all, what would it be? And examples to use as food for thought: Has your love of nature inspired you to college admission essay youtube, start a charity to help save local endangered species? Did your desire to make a stronger, non-tearable hockey lace launch you on an entrepreneurial adventure you never fully anticipated? Has your commitment to phones safe essay, pursuing medical research inspired you to contact your favorite professors and researchers looking for summer lab positions, and to read every scientific paper you can get your hands on?
It is important that the problem you choose is best essay linked to your life and world in advantages of mobile essay a meaningful way. The whole purpose of this essay-writing exercise is to reveal something valuable about yourself to admissions, so be sure to youtube, link the problem you highlight to your passions, actions, or aspirations. And don’t forget to detail at what percentile 8 on least a few steps you would/could take to solve your chosen quandary. While the best college essay youtube, prompts don’t really matter in percentile is an essay the initial conception phases of an college, essay (as you now know), once you’ve backed into advantages and disadvantages of mobile essay, your prompt of choice, following instructions to the fullest and answering all parts of each question are critical. Best College Admission Essay Youtube! PROMPT #5: Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of what percentile 8 on the sat personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others . [Revisions in best college admission italics] This is the most heavily revised of last year’s prompts, which used to ask students to and disadvantages of mobile, describe a transition from best admission essay, childhood to of mobile essay, adulthood. The purview of the inquiry has been expanded to best college, ask about anti essays phone, personal growth in general, leaving the lessons and timing of an best college admission, applicant’s transformation more open-ended. Students are also now free to reflect on a “realization” in and disadvantages phones essay addition to an “event” or “occurrence.” While a realization that changes your understanding of the essay youtube, world will likely be sparked by a concrete marker (i.e., an event or accomplishment), we are happy to tracing paper to learn to write, take the added flexibility from you, Common App. Thank you very much.
There are a few things to note when unpacking this prompt. Best College Essay! Keep in mind that the words “accomplishment” and “event” leave themselves open to phones safe essay, interpretation; thus, an essay inspired by this question can tackle anything from best college youtube, a formal event to a very small occurrence. A formal event or accomplishment might include anything from obvious landmarks like birthdays or weddings, to achievements like earning an award or receiving a promotion. More informal examples might include something as simple as meeting a special person in your life, taking a car ride, or eating a particularly meaningful meal. Linkedin! We have often found that smaller, less formal events make for more surprising and memorable essays, but as with any of the other prompts, as long as you can answer with originality and put a unique twist on your subject matter, all ideas, formal or informal, big or small, are fair game. Your reflection on what you learned and how you grew will be a source of great insight for admissions, and you want to make sure your essay highlights the best admission, intangible qualities that don’t show up anywhere else on an application. Some other things to consider: How do you react to periods of tracing paper to learn to write transition? What inspires a change in your perspective? When have you had a “eureka” moment, and how has it impacted the way you lived your life thereafter? What were the moments in life that fundamentally changed you as a person?
When did you learn something that made you feel more adult, more capable, more grown up? Did your expansion of a handmade stationery hobby into a full-fledged business give you the motivation and wherewithal to combat the effects of a debilitating illness? Have you learned to love the football team playback sessions that force you to routinely examine your mistakes but also to welcome constructive criticism and point yourself toward self-improvement? Did a summer-long role as the U.S. President in a mock government and diplomacy exercise bring out leadership skills you never knew you had? What did playing bridge at best admission youtube a senior citizens’ home each week show you about the and disadvantages of mobile phones, value of enjoyment over competition? How did this change the way you interact and connect with others? The most important thing to best college admission youtube, keep in mind when searching for are mobile safe these moments is the best college admission essay youtube, element of growth, understanding, and transformation.
The event, accomplishment, or realization you discuss should be something that helped you understand the world around you through a different, more mature lens. And, as with Prompt #4, be sure to answer all parts of the question. PROMPT #6: Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more? [New!!] This is one of the Common App’s brand new additions for tracing the 2017-18 application cycle, and we cannot contain our nerdy excitement, especially since this prompt was built to college essay, highlight a student’s inner nerd. College, one could argue, is largely about the pursuit of knowledge, so you can imagine it would be quite appealing for an admissions officer to have a meter for what essay your level of self-motivated learning, along with a better understanding of how and why you choose to pay attention to college admission youtube, the things that intrigue you.
This is a full-on peek into your brain: how you process information, how you seek out new sources of content and inspiration. How resourceful are you when your curiosity is essay on cause piqued to the fullest? The answer to this prompt should also reveal something to admissions about the breadth or depth of your interests. For example, if you’re interested in admission essay studying astrophysics, you might choose to discuss a concept that shows how far your exploration of the sciences truly reaches. How consumed are you by this passion you are choosing to pursue academically? Some key questions to consider: What floats your boat? Do you have an appetite for knowledge about something specific? Or as we’ve asked in the breakdown for Prompt #1: What do you love, and why do you love it?
What lengths have you gone to in order to acquire new information about or experiences related to a topic of interest? How do you typically seek to enrich your knowledge when something appeals to you? Do you have a favorite corner or the library (or internet)? A mentor who is open to answering your burning questions? What about the process of learning, especially about subjects that call out to you, is satisfying? And a few examples to phone, get those wheels turning: Did the idea of open source code inspire you to create a tech startup with a few of your friends? What projects do you work on, and why is the college admission essay, idea of sharing information still so revolutionary? Did getting an internship at of mobile essay an accounting firm inspire you to start each day by checking the markets? Do you participate in a mock trading club that allows you to admission youtube, use the expertise you gather from culling through economic news and analysis online and beyond? On any given Sunday morning, will we find you lost in the literature of Kurt Vonnegut or immersed in a collection of stories by Isaac Asimov? Have you taught yourself to master the compositions of Mozart and Beethoven and break down the advantages phones, songs of Bruno Mars by college youtube ear in your spare time?
Do you have an advantages of mobile essay, obsession with pizza so intense it led you to best youtube, study bread-making and keep a pizza journal that documents the 700+ slices you’ve consumed thus far? (We know someone who did this—really.) How is pizza-making more scientific and/or artistic than the average person realizes? Whatever you’re into, embrace it. Show your feathers. Let your freak flag fly (within reason, obvs). This prompt is phones about the pursuit of best college knowledge and your desire to vs resume, proactively challenge yourself. Whether you are devouring the classics on your Kindle or nerding out over the perfect cheese for calzone-making, your attachment to a subject may inspire admissions to want to learn more about it…and you. PROMPT #7: Share an essay on best admission any topic of your choice. It can be one you’ve already written, one that responds to are mobile, a different prompt, or one of your own design. [New!!] IT FINALLY HAPPENED. The return, not of the college admission essay youtube, king, not of the phones essay, Jedi, not even of the Mack, but of the topic of your choice. Feared by some, coveted by others, and legendary in its existence, regardless of where you stand on the issue, this is a newsworthy edition to the 2017-18 Common App prompt choices.
For years, students have been treating Prompt #1 (which asks about your background, etc.) as Topic of Your Choice Light—it wasn’t exactly the delicious, full-freedom version students were looking for, but they were able to make it work in a pinch. Perhaps it was the Coalition Application’s inclusion of a topic of your choice in best college admission their first-ever round of essay topic options (which will remain the same this year) that pressured the the sat essay, Common App to bring back the best essay youtube, any-flavor-you-wish option to their application. Regardless of the reason, applicants around the and disadvantages essay, world likely let out a big exhale when they saw they could serve up a big scoop of Prompt #7 to admission essay youtube, admissions this year. While we won’t know for advantages of mobile essay sure until the Common App’s full release (which usually happens in August), we are guessing that students might be required to fill in college youtube a custom prompt to match their essay response for to learn this true choose-your-own-adventure style query. For this reason, we recommend having a question of your own making at the ready if you choose to take advantage of Prompt #7. It will be good to have it on hand, just in case, and it’s also a fun exercise in wrapping your head around what exactly you are trying to accomplish with the subject you’ve chosen and best essay the essay you have created. Some questions to consider as you brainstorm, in addition to all of the ones we’ve posed thus far: What do you want admissions to know about you that they wouldn’t be able to glean from your transcript, test scores, or teacher recommendations? What are the stories that come up over and over again, at the dinner table or in the cafeteria with your friends, that might give admissions some insight into who you are and what is important to you? If you had ten minutes alone in a room with an admissions officer, what would you want to talk about or tell him or her about yourself? What would you bring to a college campus that no one else would or could?
And a few examples of potential subjects and tracing to learn their related (custom!) prompts: Were you born with a congenital eye defect that literally (and metaphorically) affects how you see the world? ( Q: How is your perspective on the world unique?) Do you spend 40 minutes each Friday night tutoring a class of best admission essay youtube elementary school students in Cambodia? How has that impacted the way you mete out linkedin vs resume your time and assess your commitments? ( Q: What is the value of 40 minutes?) Did your parents let your older brother choose your name? What was his inspiration? (Please tell us your name is Gaston.) What does your name represent for you? How has it impacted your interactions in the world? ( Q: What’s in a name?) While being able to write about whatever you wish sounds great in admission youtube theory, some students find—especially at the beginning of the brainstorming process—that they are debilitated by the “topic of essays your choice” option because it offers too much choice. If that is the best college essay, case, fear not! Use some of the other prompts as starting points for your brainstorming and tracing paper to learn to write freewriting journeys. College Essay Youtube! Begin keeping a diary (now!) and jot down subjects, events, and memories as they float to the surface.
Now that you have read our handy-dandy prompt guide and understand what admissions is looking for from these prompts, you could very well have a notebook filled with ideas that are ripe for expansion by the time you sit down to write. So don’t worry about having too many ideas, or not having enough ideas, especially at the beginning of the phone number, topic selection process. Once you figure out college essay what you’d like to and disadvantages of mobile phones essay, say (and maybe even after you draft the crux of the essay itself), see if your concept fits one of the first six prompts. Trying to back into a more specific prompt option may inspire an best admission, interesting spin on the story you are trying to anti phone, tell—one you may not have thought of otherwise. If, after careful consideration, your magic essay topic does not work within the confines of Prompts 1-6, you are in luck. The glorious, all-encompassing Prompt #7 will be here to catch you.
With some brainstorming and hard work, every student can uncover a story worth telling in response to one of these prompts. Remember, admissions wants a glimpse of best essay youtube your personality, your values, your interests and your passions. They want to get an idea of what kind of attitude and percentile the sat energy you will bring to the classroom and campus life. So take a few minutes to probe your memories, collect your stories and strike up that creative core. Every student has a fabulous essay inside of them – these prompts can help you find yours.
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Chinese media, advertising, and urban life. Tie Ning became president of the Chinese Writers' Association as the seventh congress of the organization met in best college essay youtube Beijing earlier this week. The buzz in most papers was that this election is a promising step toward improving and advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones, revitalizing China's literary sector. College Essay Youtube! Can installing a new president in the CWA actually accomplish that goal? What is it that the to learn Association does, exactly? CWA, which was formally established in 1953 out of an earlier writers' association formed in 1947, publishes the best admission youtube journal Writers' Digest , and several years ago it took over publishing authority for several journals (mostly in literary fields, but it also puts out Global Entrepreneur ). It also runs a press (Writers' Publishing House), operates several institutes (including the National Museum of Modern Chinese Literature and the Lu Xun Literature Institute), and awards a few major literary prizes. The association is linkedin vs resume tasked with bringing up new writers and cultivating the college development of the literary sector. It represents writers in to write international exchanges, and best college admission youtube, it works to protect their rights.
However, as a government organization, the first duty of the CWA as listed in vs resume its own introduction is to organize writers to study Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory, and to study the guiding policies of the best essay party. The position of the CWA as a ministerial-level agency sits uneasily with some people. A Southern Metropolis Daily editorial reflected on are mobile essay the Association's situation and the possible effect Tie Ning's election could have. David Bandurski at the China Media Project translated the college admission youtube piece and linkedin vs resume, provided commentary; here's an excerpt: The column points out that since the best essay disintegration of the Soviet Union, the China Writer's Association has been unique worldwide in being a nominal association of writers in fact operated by a national government. In typical Southern Metropolis Daily style, the editorial argues that the China Writer's Association should move in the direction of a civic organization, representing the interests of freely creating writers over and against party ideology. [Excerpts]: No matter when, where or under whatever system, true writers must represent the spirit of linkedin human freedom €” independent thought and free imagination form the best college essay foundation of their act of advantages and disadvantages phones creation. Therefore, the first task of the China Writer's Association must be to do as much as possible to best college admission essay, protect writers' freedom of creation, and not to limit that freedom through the hardening forces of power and ideology as an official organization.
Parochial ideology and wrangling over benefits [to the party] all have the potential to stifle free creation. Writers, who are dispersed, often do not have the strength to resist [these trends] . It is incumbent on the China Writer's Association, as for any professional association, to gather that strength and clear away these obstacles in the cultural arena so that literature can be resplendent . we place great expectations on the youthful Tie Ning €” not only that she might continue to write good works after her appointment, but more that she might, through the peculiar organization of the what is an 8 on the sat China Writer's Association [IE: an officially-controlled professional association] beat her drum for the creative conscience of China's writers. This was just one of a flood of articles that expressed hope that the young, beautiful female writer Tie Ning €” at 49, the youngest incoming president in CWA history, and not yet half the age of the best college previous president €” would bring a breath of vs resume fresh air to a stodgy organization. One could claim, however, that the presidency is largely a figurehead €” it has been vacant since Ba Jin passed away last fall, and for the last few years of his tenure he was completely incapacitated. The author of the SMD opinion piece responded to this objection the next day in a follow-up column in the Xiaoxiang Morning Post : Some friends said to me, in an organization like the CWA power rests in the hands of the secretary; the admission youtube presidency is only a name. This involves the division of power between the party and the government, as well as rules governing the effective use of phones safe power, and I won't discuss it here. From the organizational chart of the CWA, one can see that the presidency is a position with real power. And when Tie Ning was vice-president of the Hebei Writers' Association, she once said, I'd rather be an official (to assist young writers) €” it's apparent that this is not an idle position.
What I'd like to say is that utilizing administrative power to do good is undoubtedly not a bad thing, but the strength of the CWA and college admission youtube, the CWA president comes out vs resume, of the abilities of the professional association as well as the integrity and prestige of its leadership. Things like the CWA and writers' associations actually exist all over the world; it's just that most of them are not supported by the government, and they have no administrative power. For example, Sai Jinhua* served as president of the admission American Authors Guild, B¶ll served as president of the German center of International PEN, and paper on cause and effect, Rushdie served as president of the American center of International PEN. And just from essay youtube, searching the news, their effectiveness is not necessarily less than that of the China Writers' Association. There certainly was a political and essays number, ideological emphasis to this year's congress. College Essay! The first small-group discussion session focused on Hu Jintao's important speech, in which harmony was mentioned no fewer than 24 times. Reactions from a number of essay paper famous writers were reproduced in the media; here is a sampling of best college essay some of the more harmonious: · Jia Pingwa, author of and disadvantages phones essay Turbulence and Ruined City : I was rocked and touched listening to the general secretary's report. I felt the creative environment and creative space was quite relaxed. On the question of literary heritage and admission, innovation, general secretary Hu's perspective was novel, deep, and even more respectful of is an the sat artistic norms; you could say that this indicates that a time of high-volume, high-quality literature is now upon us. Best College Essay! In addition, the report had quite the literary grace - not a character could be deleted. · Zhou Meisen, vice-president of Jiangsu Writers' Association:
Harmonious culture is not friendly feelings. Exposing problems, on one level of meaning, is percentile the sat a way to drive the construction of a harmonious society. · Cheng Xianzhang, director of the Guangdong Literature Institute: What is harmony? Is harmony, I'm OK, you're OK, we're all OK? I believe it is not. Harmony should contain two sides: one is the subjective side, that is, you need to have harmony with yourself, you need a sense of best college essay satisfaction. Anti! The other is objective, you need to have harmony with society, there needs to be comprehension, understanding, and respect.
· Peng Mingyan, vice-president of Guangdong Writers' Association: The responsibility of an author is to use the admission youtube conscience and reflection of a literary artist to find disharmony within harmony, and after finding the and disadvantages phones reason for this disharmony and the means to youtube, eliminate the number disharmonious elements, to best essay youtube, push society to a more harmonious development. · Cao Wenxuan, vice-president of Beijing Writers' Association, PKU professor, children's author: In President Hu Jintao's important speech there was a high-frequency word, harmony. I really like this word. Vs Resume! Harmony is an issue in traditional Chinese philosophy and aesthetics. Looking dialectically, the best college admission youtube emphasis now is on widening harmony; that is, there still exists a bit of paper and effect disharmony. The literary ranks are currently harmonious, but artistic works are currently not very harmonious. If any of best admission essay you casually pick up a magazine or a literary work and phone number, flip through it, you will get the sensation that base, vulgar, volatile artistic works are really no longer rare. I often say to my friends that in best essay youtube today's fast-paced, busy, utilitarian times, reading this kind of low, fast-food stuff will stop you up and make you uncomfortable. Last year I went with a friend to Sweden for the award ceremony for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
I really did not want to go in; I stood there in the hall thinking: such a bright hall, such an elegant scene €” how could they give the Nobel Prize in Literature to number, Jelinek, an best college admission youtube, author who depicted such abnormality and illicit sex? Can't literature have a bit more harmonious beauty? Not long ago, I reread Tolstoy's War and Peace , and percentile 8 on the sat, as before, my eyes brimmed with tears, because the novel shone with the best college brightness of humanity. Much of the linkedin vs resume readership likes to watch Korean soaps these days, perhaps because they contain so much traditional, harmonious culture. So then, why does some of best college essay youtube our literature today incline toward the poisonous, the essay paper on cause and effect ruthless, the dead? In our literature there should be more of the harmonious beauty of traditional Chinese culture. Jia Pingwa and Cao Wenxuan in particular were raked over the coals for their views, which were seen by college essay, some bloggers and and disadvantages of mobile phones essay, forum posters as toadying €” was Hu's speech really that perfectly crafted? Other reactions were more sanguine €” what else could they say €” and pointed to youtube, Jia's history of writing controversial books that were not exactly harmonious themselves. This is tracing paper to write not the first time that this issue has been brought up €” the CWA has been attacked for irrelevance on one end and its contribution to an environment that's actually hostile to good literature on best college youtube the other. Some commenters brought up Sha Yexin's question, How can you ask a writer like Louis Cha to write wuxia novels according to linkedin, the spirit of the 'Three Represents'?
Others referred to Wang Lixiong's widely-circulated statement announcing his withdrawal from the CWA in 2001. Wang, author of the popular apocalyptic thriller Yellow Peril and more recently known for his writing on Tibetan culture, tossed out his membership in disgust over the association's emphasis on ideology and political work. Best College Admission Youtube! There doesn't seem to be an percentile is an, English version of his statement online, so here is a rough translation: # To the Chinese Writers' Association: After reading the speeches, resolutions, and summations in the first issue of best college essay youtube Writers Bulletin (2001) that I just received, I have decided to withdraw from the Chinese Writers' Association. To explain why I would make such a decision, I performed some calculations on the first piece in on cause the bulletin, Abstract of Comrade Jin Binghua's address to the closing ceremony of the best college admission essay sixth session of the fifth congress of the Chinese Writers' Association; the following is a list of the frequency certain words are found in the text: Party: 24; Jiang Zemin: 8; general secretary: 3; Deng Xiaoping: 6; Ding Guangen: 2; Central Propaganda Department: 2; Central: 5; Propaganda chief: 6; Three Represents: 6; Marxism-Leninism: 2; Mao Zedong Thought: 2; Advanced culture: 6; Important thought: 5; Directing thought: 2; Great banner: 2; banner: 3; Strategically advantageous position: 4; Leaders: 4; Direct: 7; Advocate: 2; Aim: 1; Guide: 2; Direction: 10; Orientation: 2; Guiding principle: 4; Policy: 3; Carry out: 4; Politics: 6; Overall situation: 12; Stable: 3; Propaganda: 2; Socialism: 10; Main melody: 5; Task: 4; Offering: 2; Double Hundred: 2; Two Do's: 2; Seize: 2; Firmly grasp: 1; Grasp: 2; Lift high: 3; Struggle: 6; Put into linkedin effect: 6; Study: 9; Lecture: 9; Earnest: 8; Strengthen: 4; Persevere: 12; Responsibility: 3; Consciousness: 7; Thought: 15; State of affairs: 8; Organization: 2; Position: 1; Core: 1. The entire document totaled 4468 characters; the words above totaled 666 characters, accounting for 14.9% of the text. These words alone are able to depict what the content is; here are a few short excerpts:
We request writers to understand clearly the overall situation, to consciously listen to and serve the overall work situation of the party and the country. on major issues related to best essay, political direction, social stability, welfare of the people, national unity, and national solidarity, consciously listen to to learn to write, and serve the overall stable situation of reform and development. The larger group of best admission writers and workers in the literary field must consciously uphold the guiding position of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory, and oppose pluralism in guiding thought. Writers should have consciousness of politics, consciousness of the overall situation, and consciousness of their responsibilities. Hold fast to the key mission of making an offering to the 80th anniversary of the founding of the to learn to write Party; hold tight to the key note of walking with the party with a single heart and best admission essay, pursuing development as a united nation. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mobile Essay! During the best college essay creative process, keep a practical hold on the relevant policies, and never forget that literature must serve the overall stable situation of reform and development. Literary works whose contents concern major historical events or individuals of the party must strictly respect the spirit of the CPC's Resolution concerning some historical issues of the Party, Resolution concerning some historical issues of the essay paper and effect Party since the youtube nation's founding, and relevant central government documents. Content that reflects the leadership of the party or the country must be handled in is an essay strict accordance with the relevant regulations of the admission central government. Writing realistic subject matter should emphasize positive descriptions. Literary works whose content reflects ethnic groups and religion, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macao, or international affairs must apply for views from government departments in essay paper on cause and effect accordance with procedure.
You might say that the best college youtube above words are merely what a newly-installed official said, so here is the entire text of the to write Resolution of the sixth session of the fifth congress of the China Writers' Association: Resolution of the sixth session of the fifth congress of the China Writers' Association, held 14-16 January, 2001, in Beijing. Under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of Comrade Jiang Zemin's Three Represents, the session conscientiously studied the important speech given by admission youtube, general secretary Jiang Zemin at the discussion with comrades from the central propaganda department, as well as the important speech presented by Ding Guangen at the propaganda department session; it studied the essays phone number speech comrade Li Peng gave representing the Central Propaganda Department, and engaged in earnest, enthusiastic discussion on both the literary world and the practical work of the best college essay Association. The session believes that comrade Jiang Zemin's important speech is farsighted and deep, a guiding plan of essay on cause action for creating a new makeup for best admission essay youtube socialist literary work. The literary world must study hard, profoundly comprehend, resolutely carry out, and use it as guidance for future work. The session deliberated and passed CWA 2000 Work Summary and CWA 2001 Key Work Points. The session resolved to add comrades Jin Binghua and Luo Guanfu as committee members for the fifth national congress of the CWA. Comrade Jin Binghua was elected as vice-president of the fifth national congress of the CWA. The session urged all writers and literary workers to closely unite in the surroundings of the party and central government with comrade Jiang Zemin at the core; and guided by Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of general secretary Jiang's three represents, persevere in the direction of the phones safe two do's, carry out the guideline of the double 100s, and best admission youtube, resound with the are mobile phones safe main melody of The Communist Party is good, Socialism is good, and youtube, reform and opening up is good.
Promote more works with deep thought and exquisite artistry to phones, present on best essay youtube the 80th anniversary of the founding of the party. With a spirit of the lofty responsibility of socialist literary work, earnestly work on all planning projects for are mobile phones safe essay the sixth congress of the China Writers' Association. Enterprising and revived, compose new works for the new century of literature for admission socialism with Chinese characteristics. This resolution passed by the entire assembly of the paper CWA totals 543 characters; 413 of them talk politics. Best College Admission! Similar writing appears in the same issue of percentile is an the sat Writers Bulletin , eight pieces in total. Looking at best admission essay youtube this stuff, I thought of a story: A man from the northeast trained a parrot. Phone! If you pulled his left leg, he would say Hello; if you pulled his right leg, he would say, goodbye. One day, the northeasterner suddenly wondered, if you pulled both legs of the parrot at the same time, what would he say? So, he gave it a try, and the parrot said to best youtube, him, Son of a bitch!
You trying to kill me? €”€” This story demonstrates that even a parrot, who's just imitating, can sometimes come up with something new to number, say. What is strange is that the Chinese Writers' Association, which brings together nearly all of the country's best wordsmiths, knows only how to admission essay youtube, speak this dead language. I can't help but think €” is it that China's writers are naturally all corpses, or is it that the China Writers' Association wants to, and is in the process of, turning China's writers into corpses? In the 80s, Chen Huangmei, my elder, and Shi Tiesheng, my friend, brought me into on cause the Association. Although I never looked to college admission essay, the association to advantages and disadvantages phones, gain any sort of benefit, I at least thought that becoming a member was a kind of honor. Typically, my personality is admission essay neither impetuous nor demanding; I can understand the impotence of individuals and organizations in China's special environment. However, in view of the words above, there is no longer any honor to speak of, only a writer's shame. For this reason, I hereby declare that as of today, I have withdrawn from the China Writers' Association.
2 May 2001, Beijing. Has there been progress? Tie Ning's address at the closing ceremony of this year's congress uses harmony 12 times, and starts off with the following passage: During the congress, the representatives conscientiously listened and enthusiastically discussed general secretary Hu Jintao's important speech at on cause and effect the opening ceremony. Everyone unanimously agreed that comrade Hu Jintao's important speech opened up a new direction for a new phase of Chinese literature in the midst of our construction of a socialist harmonious society, and has major guiding significance for the prosperous development of youtube socialist literary work. Everyone also heard the phone number report on the domestic situation presented by State Council Premier Wen Jiabao, and the report on the international situation presented by State Councilor Tang Jiaxuan. Everyone gained a new understanding of the Central Committee's great strategic deployment for college the construction of vs resume a socialist harmonious society, and gained a new appreciation for the mission and responsibility of literary workers. However, as Wang Lixiong alludes to in his statement, this is best college admission essay youtube probably just standard boilerplate for the first speech of advantages and disadvantages of mobile essay a newly-installed official. And despite all the references to current political buzzwords, Tie Ning's address says nothing explicit about literature serving the best youtube party or government €” it leaves out completely that section of Jin Binghua's address that dealt with review and censorship of sensitive topics.
So that's a start, at least. Whether having a functioning president for paper to learn to write the first time this century will start any major changes in the way CWA operates is something that, given the speed of best admission youtube bureaucracy, will probably take quite a while to make itself felt. Essay On Cause And Effect! In the best admission essay meantime, we can at least be grateful that writers are no longer being urged to write in service of the three represents. Note : Sai Jinhua (µ›‡‘Š±) was a famous courtesan in the late Qing, who later accompanied her diplomat husband to Europe. She was the what percentile essay image of an independent woman, but I found no information regarding any presidency of the Authors Guild, which doesn't list its past presidents anywhere. It's possible some American author's name is rendered phonetically into Chinese as µ›‡‘Š±. Addendum : It's probably an error on admission the part of a clueless editor; Pearl S. Buck apparently presided over the Authors Guild in the 1960s, and her name in phone number Chinese is µ›ŹŤŹ . China Media Project: Writer Tie Ning becomes first female chairman of college admission youtube China Writer's Association Xiaoxiang Morning Post (Chinese): How will the beautiful young female author Tie Ning guide the CWA? People Online (Chinese): Writer representatives divide into groups to discuss President Hu Jintao's important speech Southern Daily via Netease (Chinese): Famous writers collectively study Hu Jintao's speech Pro State in Flames (Chinese): Jia Pingwa: About to climax Rolia.net (Chinese): Wang Lixiong: Statement of Withdrawal from the China Writers' Association China Federation of Literary and Arts Circles (Chinese): More documents and commentary on the congress China Writers' Association (Chinese): homepage Wang Lixiong image from Tibet.org. Tags for this entry: Comments on The Chinese Writers' Association: what good is it?
As it happens, I€™m about halfway through reading Wang Lixiong€™s brilliant book about Tibet. Is An 8 On The Sat Essay! Every page brims with honesty and sincerity. And at the same time, he is college admission youtube one of the few writers of prose that I€™ve read in Chinese (granted, not a lot) who has combined a novelists eye for description and vivid use of and disadvantages of mobile phones essay un-stale language, combined with a good historian€™s sense of objectivity and brevity. I wonder if that sort of college admission writing is safe essay only possible under a more free system. What prizes does the college essay youtube CWA give out? I wonder, to what degree do the books that receive those prizes reflect the current political goals? The big prizes the association runs are the the Mao Dun prize (novels), the Lu Xun prize (short fiction, poetry, essays, translation, and criticism), and the Children's Literature prize. Are Mobile Phones Safe! The Lu Xun prize is a decade old, the others were started in the early 80s. Admission Essay! They're all supposed to reflect these political goals, at advantages and disadvantages of mobile essay least according to the charters (see descriptions here), but it's probably easier to criticize a work for obviously not living up to Marxist-Leninist goals than it is to actually identify those goals in a work, at least these days. The Mao Dun prize has been criticized its last two rounds (it's awarded every four years) for being out of touch, but the accuracy of that claim is best essay youtube debatable - people complain about awards all the time if their favorite doesn't win. Interestingly, SF author Wu Yan reports that out advantages of mobile phones essay, of the 953 delegates (selected from 7690 association members), just 48 were children's authors, compared to 367 fiction authors and best college essay, 125 theorists and critics.
Of course, that's far better representation than the SF writers - just six of them were at the congress. Interesting. I can't say that I recognize that many of the Mao Dun winners, and I haven't read any. My wife really liked €Š©†–Żž—š„‘¬¤Ľ€‹, and €Šął‡ˇš„¸–•Ś€‹seems popular. What books enter the canon of literature in China, and how that happens seems to be a fascinating process. I wonder how much power do these people have in that process?
I always thought enhancing the role of sci-fi was a good way to popularize scientific knowlegde (™®ŹŠ§‘¦źĄŻ†). Pearl Buck's Chinese name is linkedin rendered as µ›ŹŤŹ ĽŚthat's probably the Xiaoxiang Morning Post piece mistaken it as µ›‡‘Š± the courtesan. But this really leads to youtube, funny effect, I enjoy it;-) You're probably right, William. I couldn't find any mention of an AG presidency for on cause and effect Buck when I searched earlier, but I just ran across this JFK letter to her thanking her for his AG membership card, however, so that's probably what it is. I've added an update to the post.
This article is really great, even from the college essay youtube viewpoint of a Chinese reader, as me. I just wonder how a foreign editor could know China so well (esp. China's cultural arena as in this article) if he was not that smart.