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c.s lewis essay We owe gratitude to. http://cslewis.drzeus.net for the use of this image. Two of these articles were taken from the book, Present Concerns -- Essays by C.S. Lewis . Edited by and arbitration Walter Hooper. Published 1986. The third is for essay writing a excerpt from The Screwtape Letters -- Screwtape Proposes a Toast . Click [ Here ] to go directly to and arbitration the article, Democracy - or - 'I Am As Good As You Are !!' Click [ Here ] to go directly to at school essay the article, Democratic Education Click [ Here ] for an excellent article entitled, C. S. Lewis and the Meaning of essay on mediation Freedom Read more Excerpts From the Writings of against uniforms essay C.S. Lewis [ Here ] “It is Christ Himself, not the essay Bible, who is the corvette essay true word of God. The Bible, read in the right spirit and with the guidance of good teachers, will bring us to on mediation Him. We must not use the Bible as a sort of encyclopedia out of which texts can be taken for essay on nature use as weapons.” Equality is essay reprinted from The Spectator, vol. CLXXI (27 August 1943), p. 192.
I am a democrat (1) because I believe in the Fall of Man. I think most people are democrats for the opposite reason. A great deal of essay on nature democratic enthusiasm descends from the ideas of people like Rousseau, who believed in democracy because they thought mankind so wise and good that everyone deserved a share in the government. The danger of defending democracy on essay and arbitration, those grounds is that they're not true. Essay On Nature. Whenever their weakness is essay on mediation exposed, the people who prefer tyranny make capital out proper format of the exposure.
I find that they're not true without looking further than myself. Essay And Arbitration. I don't deserve a share in governing a hen-roost, much less a nation. Nor do most people #151; all the people who believe advertisements, and think in catchwords and against uniforms in schools spread rumors. Essay And Arbitration. The real reason for democracy is just the reverse. Mankind is so fallen that no man can be trusted with unchecked power over elkins his fellows. Aristotle said that some people were only fit to be slaves. I do not contradict him.
But I reject slavery because I see no men fit to be masters. This introduces a view of equality rather different from that in essay, which we have been trained. I do not think that equality is one of essay those things (like wisdom or happiness) which are good simply in themselves and for their own sakes. I think it is in the same class as medicine, which is good because we are ill, or clothes which are good because we are no longer innocent. I don't think the old authority in kings, priests, husbands, or fathers, and the old obedience in subjects, laymen, wives, and sons, was in itself a degrading or evil thing at all. I think it was intrinsically as good and beautiful as the nakedness of on mediation Adam and Eve. It was rightly taken away because men became bad and abused it. To attempt to restore it now would be the same error as that of the Nudists. Legal and economic equality are absolutely necessary remedies for the Fall, and protection against cruelty. But medicine is not good. There is no spiritual sustenance in flat equality.
It is a dim recognition of this fact which makes much of our political propaganda sound so thin. We are trying to be enraptured by something which is merely the negative condition of the good life. That is why the paper imagination of on mediation and arbitration people is so easily captured by appeals to the craving for inequality, whether in essay on nature, a romantic form of films about essay and arbitration loyal courtiers or in the brutal form of Nazi ideology. The tempter always works on some real weakness in our own system of elkins values -- offers food to some need which we have starved. Essay. When equality is treated not as a medicine or a safety-gadget, but as an ideal, we begin to breed that stunted and envious sort of mind which hates all superiority. That mind is the special disease of research paper democracy, as cruelty and servility are the special diseases of privileged societies.
It will kill us all if it grows unchecked. The man who cannot conceive a joyful and loyal obedience on the one hand, nor an unembarrassed and noble acceptance of that obedience on the other - the man who has never even wanted to kneel or to bow - is a prosaic barbarian. Essay And Arbitration. But it would be wicked folly to restore these old inequalities on the legal or external plane. Their proper place is elsewhere. We must wear clothes since the Fall. Yes, but inside, under what Milton called these troublesome disguises (2) . We want the essay on nature naked body, that is, the real body, to be alive. Essay On Mediation. We want it, on proper occasions, to appear -- in the marriage-chamber, in the public privacy of a men's bathing-place, and (of course) when any medical or other emergency demands. In the same way, under the necessary outer covering of legal equality, the whole hierarchical dance and harmony of our deep and joyously accepted spiritual inequalities should be alive. It is there, of course, in our life as Christians -- there, as laymen, we can obey #150; all the paper more because the on mediation priest has no authority over religion at school us on the political level.
It is there in our relation to parents and teachers #150; all the more because it is now a willed and wholly spiritual reverence. It should be there also in marriage. On Mediation. This last point needs a little plain speaking. Corvette Essay. Men have so horribly abused their power over women in essay, the past that to wives, of all people, equality is in danger of appearing as an ideal. But Mrs. Naomi Mitchison has laid her finger on the real point.
Have as much equality as you please #150; the more the better #150; in research paper, our marriage laws, but at some level consent to essay on mediation and arbitration inequality, nay, delight in inequality, is an erotic necessity . Proper Format Writing. Mrs. Mitchison speaks of women so fostered on a defiant idea of equality that the mere sensation of the male embrace rouses an undercurrent of resentment. Marriages are thus shipwrecked (3) . Essay And Arbitration. This is the tragi-comedy of the modem woman -- taught by Freud to consider the act of love the uniforms in schools most important thing in essay on mediation and arbitration, life, and then inhibited by feminism from that internal surrender which alone can make it a complete emotional success. Merely for religion essay the sake of her own erotic pleasure, to go no further, some degree of obedience and humility seems to essay and arbitration be (normally) necessary on format writing, the woman's part. Essay On Mediation And Arbitration. The error here has been to assimilate all forms of affection to that special form we call friendship. It indeed does imply equality. But it is essay on nature quite different from the various loves within the same household. Friends are not primarily absorbed in each other. On Mediation. It is when we are doing things together that friendship springs up #150; painting, sailing ships, praying, philosophizing, fighting shoulder to shoulder. Friends look in the same direction. Lovers look at against uniforms in schools essay, each other -- that is, in opposite directions.
To transfer bodily all that belongs to one relationship into the other is blundering. We Britons should rejoice that we have contrived to reach much legal democracy (we still need more of the economic) without losing our ceremonial Monarchy. For there, right in the midst of our lives, is that which satisfies the craving for inequality, and on mediation and arbitration acts as a permanent reminder that medicine is not food. Hence a man's reaction to Monarchy is a kind of test. Monarchy can easily be debunked, but watch the essay on nature faces, mark well the accents of the debunkers. These are the men whose taproot in Eden has been cut -- whom no rumor of the polyphony, the essay and arbitration dance, can reach #150; men to whom pebbles laid in reading, a row are more beautiful than an essay on mediation and arbitration, arch. Yet even if they desire mere equality they cannot reach it.
Where men are forbidden to honor a king they honor millionaires, athletes, or film-stars instead -- even famous prostitutes or gangsters. For spiritual nature, like bodily nature, will be served -- deny it food and proper for essay writing it will gobble poison. That is and arbitration why this whole question is elkins paper of practical importance. Every intrusion of the spirit that says , I'm as good as you into essay on mediation and arbitration our personal and essay on nature spiritual life is to be resisted just as jealously as every intrusion of bureaucracy or privilege into essay and arbitration our politics. Hierarchy within can alone preserve egalitarianism without. Romantic attacks on democracy will come again. We shall never be safe unless we already understand in our hearts all that the anti-democrats can say, and have provided for it better than they. Human nature will not permanently endure flat equality if it is writing extended from its proper political field into the more real, more concrete fields within.
Let us wear equality; but let us undress every night. (1) C.S. Lewis lived and wrote in England. Hence, his reference to being a Democrat had nothing to do with our (USA) Democratic Party. (2) John Milton, Paradise Lost (1667), Book IV, line 740. 18. Essay On Mediation. (3) Naomi Mitchison, The Home and a Changing Civilization (London, 1934), Chapter I, pp. 49-50.
Democracy - or - 'I Am As Good As You Are !!' The following is a excerpt from The Screwtape Letters -- Screwtape Proposes a Toast . (The scene is in hell at the annual dinner of the format for essay writing tempters' training college for young devils. The principal, Dr. Slubgob, has just proposed the health of the guests. Screwtape, a very experienced devil, who is the guest of honor, rises to reply:) Do you realize how we have succeeded in reducing so many of the human race to the level of essay on mediation and arbitration ciphers? This has not come about by accident.
It has been our answer #8212; and corvette essay a magnificent answer it is #8212; to one of the on mediation and arbitration most serious challenges we ever had to face. Let me recall to uniforms in schools essay your minds what the human situation was in the latter half of the nineteenth century #8212; the period at which I ceased to be a practicing Tempter and was rewarded with an administrative post. The great movement towards liberty and equality among men had by then borne solid fruits and grown mature. Slavery had been abolished. The American War of Independence had been won. The French Revolution had succeeded.
Religious toleration was almost everywhere on the increase. In that movement there had originally been many elements which were in our favor. And Arbitration. Much Atheism, much Anticlericalism, much envy and thirst for revenge, even some (rather absurd) attempts to revive Paganism, were mixed in it. It was not easy to determine what our own attitude should be. On the one hand it was a bitter blow to corvette essay us #8212; it still is #8212; that any sort of men who had been hungry should be fed or any who had long worn chains should have them struck off. But on the other hand, there was in the movement so much rejection of faith, so much materialism, secularism, and hatred, that we felt we were bound to encourage it.
By the latter part of the century the situation was much simpler, and also much more ominous. In the English sector (where I saw most of my front-line service) a horrible thing had happened. The Enemy, with His usual sleight of essay hand, had largely appropriated this progressive or liberalizing movement and perverted it to His own ends. Very little of its old anti-Christianity remained. Elkins Intermountain Paper. The dangerous phenomenon called Christian Socialism was rampant. Factory owners of the good old type who grew rich on essay on mediation and arbitration, sweated labor, instead of being assassinated by their work people #8212; we could have used that #8212; were being frowned upon by proper for essay their own class. The rich were increasingly giving up their powers, not in the face of revolution and commission, but in obedience to their own consciences. On Mediation. As for the poor who benefited by this, they were behaving in a most disappointing fashion. Instead of using their new liberties #8212; as we reasonably hoped and expected #8212; for massacre, rape, and looting, or even for perpetual intoxication, they were perversely engaged in proper format for essay writing, becoming cleaner, more orderly, more thrifty, better educated, and even more virtuous. Believe me, gentle-devils, the essay and arbitration threat of something like a really healthy state of society seemed then perfectly serious.
Thanks to Our Father Below, the threat was averted. Our counterattack was on two levels. On the deepest level our leaders contrived to call into in schools essay full life an element which had been implicit in the movement from its earliest days. Hidden in the heart of this striving for on mediation Liberty there was also a deep hatred of reading research personal freedom. That invaluable man Rousseau first revealed it. In his perfect democracy, you remember, only the essay state religion is permitted, slavery is restored, and the individual is told that he has really willed (though he didn't know it) whatever the Government tells him to uniforms in schools do.
From that starting point, via Hegel (another indispensable propagandist on our side), we easily contrived both the Nazi and the Communist state. Even in England we were pretty successful. I heard the other day that in that country a man could not, without a permit, cut down his own tree with his own ax, make it into essay and arbitration planks with his own saw, and use the planks to build a tool shed in his own garden. Such was our counterattack on one level. You, who are mere beginners, will not be entrusted with work of that kind. You will be attached as Tempters to private persons. Against them, or through them, our counterattack takes a different form. Democracy is the religion at school word with which you must lead them by the nose. The good work which our philological experts have already done in the corruption of human language makes it unnecessary to warn you that they should never be allowed to and arbitration give this word a clear and definable meaning.
They won't. It will never occur to them that democracy is properly the uniforms in schools name of a political system, even a system of voting, and essay on mediation and arbitration that this has only the most remote and tenuous connection with what you are trying to paper sell them. Nor of course must they ever be allowed to raise Aristotle's question: whether democratic behavior means the behavior that democracies like or the behavior that will preserve a democracy. For if they did, it could hardly fail to occur to them that these need not be the same. You are to use the essay on mediation and arbitration word purely as an against uniforms in schools, incantation; if you like, purely for its selling power.
It is a name they venerate. It is, of course, connected with the political ideal that men should be equally treated. You then make a stealthy transition in their minds from this political ideal to a factual belief that all men are, in ACTUAL FACT , equal. Essay. Especially the man you are working on. As a result you can use the word democracy to sanction in his thought the paper most degrading (and also the essay on mediation and arbitration least enjoyable) of all human feelings. You can get him to practice, not only research paper, without shame but with a positive glow of self-approval, conduct which, if undefended by the magic word, would be universally derided. The feeling I mean is of course that which prompts a man to say, I'm as good as you !! No man who says I'm as good as you !! believes it. He would not say it if he did. The St.
Bernard never says it to essay and arbitration the toy dog, nor the scholar to elkins paper the dunce, nor the employable to the bum, nor the pretty woman to the plain. Essay. The claim to equality, outside the strictly political field, is made only by those who feel themselves to be in some way inferior. What it expresses is precisely the itching, smarting, writhing awareness of an inferiority which the patient refuses to accept -- And therefore resents. Yes, and therefore resents every kind of superiority in others ; denigrates it; wishes its annihilation. Presently he suspects every mere difference of being a claim to superiority. No one must be different from himself in voice, clothes, manners, recreations, choice of proper format for essay food: Here is someone who speaks English rather more clearly and and arbitration euphoniously than I #8212; it must be a vile, upstage, la-di-da affectation.
Here's a fellow who says he doesn't like hot dogs #8212; thinks himself too good for them, no doubt. Here's a man who hasn't turned on the jukebox #8212; he's one of those goddam highbrows and elkins paper is doing it to show off. If they were honest-to-God all-right Joes they'd be like me. They've no business to essay be different. It's undemocratic . Now, this useful phenomenon is in itself by format no means new. Under the name of and arbitration Envy it has been known to the humans for thousands of years. But hitherto they always regarded it as the most odious, and also the most comical, of vices. Those who were aware of feeling it felt it with shame; those who were not gave it no quarter in others. At School Essay. The delightful novelty of the present situation is that you can sanction it #8212; make it respectable and even laudable #8212; by the incantatory use of the word democratic . On Mediation And Arbitration. Under the influence of reading this incantation those who are in any or every way inferior can labor more wholeheartedly and successfully than ever before to pull down everyone else to their own level. But that is essay and arbitration not all.
Under the same influence, those who come, or could come, nearer to a full humanity, actually draw back from essay on nature it for fear of being undemocratic . I am credibly informed that young humans now sometimes suppress an incipient taste for classical music or good literature because it might prevent their Being Like Folks; that people who would really wish to be #8212; and are offered the Grace which would enable them to on mediation be #8212; honest, chaste, or temperate refuse it. To accept might make them Different, might offend against the Way of Life, take them out of Togetherness, impair their Integration with the Group. They might (horror of horrors! ) become individuals. All is research summed up in the prayer which a young female human is said to have uttered recently: O God, make me a normal twentieth century girl! Thanks to our labors, this will mean increasingly, Make me a minx, a moron, and a parasite. Meanwhile, as a delightful byproduct, the few (fewer every day) who will not be made Normal and essay on mediation Regular and essay on nature Like Folks and Integrated increasingly tend to become in essay, reality the prigs and cranks which the rabble would in any case have believed them to be. For suspicion often creates what it suspects. (Since, whatever I do, the neighbors are going to think me a witch, or a Communist agent, I might as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb, and become one in essay on nature, reality.) As a result, we now have an intelligentsia which, though very small, is very useful to the cause of essay on mediation and arbitration Hell. That, however, is a mere byproduct. What I want to fix your attention on is the vast, overall movement towards the discrediting, and against in schools essay finally the elimination, of essay every kind of human excellence #8212; moral, cultural, social, or intellectual. And is it not pretty to notice how democracy (in the incantatory sense) is reading research now doing for us the essay on mediation and arbitration work that was once done by the most ancient Dictatorships, and by the same methods? You remember how one of the Greek Dictators (they called them tyrants then) sent an envoy to against essay another Dictator to ask his advice about the principles of essay on mediation and arbitration government.
The second Dictator led the corvette essay envoy into a field of grain, and there he sniped off with his cane the top of and arbitration every stalk that rose an inch or so above the general level. The moral was plain. Allow no preeminence among your subjects. Let no man live who is wiser or better or more famous or even handsomer than the against essay mass. Cut them all down to a level: all slaves, all ciphers, all nobodies. All equals. Thus Tyrants could practice, in a sense, democracy. And Arbitration. But now democracy can do the uniforms essay same work without any tyranny other than her own. No one need now go through the field with a cane. And Arbitration. The little stalks will now of themselves bite the essay on nature tops off the big ones.
The big ones are beginning to on mediation bite off their own in their desire to Be Like Stalks. My own experience, as I have said, was mainly on the English sector, and I still get more news from it than from any other. It may be that what I am now going to say will not apply so fully to the sectors in religion essay, which some of you may be operating. But you can make the necessary adjustments when you get there. Some application it will almost certainly have. If it has too little, you must labor to make the essay and arbitration country you are dealing with more like what England already is. In that promising land the spirit of at school I'm as good as you has already become something more than a generally social influence. It begins to on mediation and arbitration work itself into their educational system.
How far its operations there have gone at the present moment, I should not like to say with certainty. Nor does it matter. Once you have grasped the tendency, you can easily predict its future developments; especially as we ourselves will play our part in the developing. The basic principle of the new education is to be that dunces and idlers must not be made to feel inferior to intelligent and industrious pupils. That would be undemocratic.
These differences between the essay on nature pupils #8212; for they are obviously and nakedly individual differences #8212; must be disguised. On Mediation. This can be done on religion, various levels. At universities, examinations must be framed so that nearly all the students get good marks. Entrance examinations must be framed so that all, or nearly all, citizens can go to on mediation and arbitration universities, whether they have any power (or wish) to essay profit by higher education or not. At schools, the children who are too stupid or lazy to and arbitration learn languages and mathematics and elementary science can be set to format for essay writing doing the things that children used to do in their spare time. Essay. Let them, for example, make mud pies and call it modeling. Corvette Essay. But all the time there must be no faintest hint that they are inferior to the children who are at work. Whatever nonsense they are engaged in and arbitration, must have #8212; I believe the English already use the phrase #8212; parity of esteem. An even more drastic scheme is not impossible.
Children who are fit to essay proceed to a higher class may be artificially kept back, because the others would get a trauma #8212; Beelzebub, what a useful word! #8212; by being left behind. The bright pupil thus remains democratically fettered to his own age group throughout his school career, and a boy who would be capable of tackling Aeschylus or Dante sits listening to his coeval's attempts to spell out A CAT SAT ON A MAT. In a word, we may reasonably hope for the virtual abolition of education when I'm as good as you has fully had its way. All incentives to learn and all penalties for not learning will vanish. The few who might want to on mediation learn will be prevented; who are they to over-top their fellows? And anyway the intermountain teachers #8212; or should I say, nurses? #8212; will be far too busy reassuring the dunces and patting them on the back to waste any time on real teaching. We shall no longer have to plan and toil to spread imperturbable conceit and incurable ignorance among men.
The little vermin themselves will do it for essay and arbitration us. Of course, this would not follow unless all education became state education. But it will. That is part of the religion at school same movement. Essay On Mediation. Penal taxes, designed for that purpose, are liquidating the Middle Class, the class who were prepared to proper format writing save and spend and make sacrifices in order to essay and arbitration have their children privately educated. The removal of this class, besides linking up with the abolition of education, is, fortunately, an inevitable effect of the corvette essay spirit that says I'm as good as you . This was, after all, the social group which gave to on mediation the humans the overwhelming majority of their scientists, physicians, philosophers, theologians, poets, artists, composers, architects, jurists, and administrators.
If ever there was a bunch of tall stalks that needed their tops knocked off, it was surely they. As an English politician remarked not long ago, A democracy does not want great men. It would be idle to ask of such a creature whether by at school essay want it meant need or, like. Essay On Mediation. But you had better be clear. Essay On Nature. For here Aristotle's question comes up again. We, in Hell, would welcome the disappearance of democracy in the strict sense of essay and arbitration that word, the political arrangement so called. Like all forms of reading research government, it often works to our advantage, but on the whole less often than other forms.
What we must realize is that democracy in the diabolical sense (I'm as good as you, Being like Folks, Togetherness) is the finest instrument we could possibly have for extirpating political democracies from the and arbitration face of the essay on nature earth. Essay And Arbitration. The democracies were surprised lately when they found that Russia had got ahead of them in elkins intermountain paper, science. What a delicious specimen of human blindness! If the whole tendency of and arbitration their society is opposed to essay on nature every sort of excellence, why did they expect their scientists to excel? It is our function to encourage the behavior, the manners, the and arbitration whole attitude of mind, which democracies naturally like and enjoy, because these are the essay very things which, if unchecked, will destroy democracy. You would almost wonder that even humans don't see it themselves. Even if they don't read Aristotle (that would be undemocratic) you would have thought the French Revolution would have taught them that the behavior aristocrats naturally like is not the behavior that preserves aristocracy.
They might then have applied the same principle to all forms of government. However, I would not end on that note. I would not #8212; Hell forbid! -- encourage in your own minds that delusion which you must carefully foster in essay on mediation, the minds of your human victims. I mean the delusion that the fate of nations is in uniforms essay, itself more important than that of individual souls. The overthrow of free peoples and the multiplication of slave states are for us a means (besides, of course, being fun); but the real end is the destruction of individuals . For only essay on mediation and arbitration, individuals can be saved or damned, can become sons of the Enemy or food for us. The ultimate value, for us, of any revolution, war, or famine lies in the individual anguish, treachery, hatred, rage, and despair which it may produce. I'm as good as you is a useful means for the destruction of democratic societies.
It has, however, a far deeper value as an end in uniforms, itself --- as a state of mind which, necessarily excluding humility, charity, contentment, and all the pleasures of on mediation and arbitration gratitude or admiration, turns a human being away from almost every road which might finally lead him to Heaven. Democratic Education is Lewis's title for his Notes on the Way from Time and Tide, vol. XXV (29 April 1944), pp. 369-70. Democratic education, says Aristotle, ought to mean, not the education which democrats like, but the format for essay writing education which will preserve democracy. Until we have realized that the two things do not necessarily go together we cannot think clearly about education. For example, an education which gave the able and diligent boys no advantage over the stupid and essay on mediation idle ones, would be in one sense democratic. It would be egalitarian and democrats like equality. Corvette Essay. The caucus race in Alice in Wonderland, where all the competitors won and all got prizes, was a democratic race: like the Garter it tolerated no nonsense about merit (1) . Such total egalitarianism in education has not yet been openly recommended, but a movement in that direction begins to appear.
It can be seen in the growing demand that subjects which some boys do very much better than others should not be compulsory. Essay. Yesterday it was Latin -- today, as I see from proper writing a letter in on mediation and arbitration, one of the papers, it is Mathematics. Both these subjects give an unfair advantage to boys of a certain type. To abolish that advantage is format writing therefore in on mediation and arbitration, one sense democratic. Corvette Essay. But of on mediation and arbitration course there is in schools no reason for stopping with the essay and arbitration abolition of these two compulsions. To be consistent we must go further. For Essay Writing. We must also abolish all compulsory subjects, and we must make the on mediation and arbitration curriculum so wide that every boy will get a chance at something.
Even the boy who can't or won't learn his alphabet can be praised and corvette essay petted for something #151; handicrafts or gymnastics, moral leadership or deportment, citizenship or the care of guinea-pigs, hobbies or musical appreciation #151; anything he likes.. Then no boy, and no boy's parents , need feel inferior. An education on those lines will be pleasing to democratic feelings. Essay. It will have repaired the inequalities of nature. But it is quite another question whether it will breed a democratic nation which can survive, or even one whose survival is desirable. The improbability that a nation thus educated could survive need not be labored. Elkins Intermountain Paper. Obviously it can escape destruction only if its rivals and enemies are so obliging as to adopt the same system. A nation of dunces can be safe only in on mediation and arbitration, a world of reading paper dunces.
But the question of desirability is more interesting. Essay On Mediation. The demand for proper for essay equality has two sources -- one of them is among the noblest, the other is the basest of human emotions. The noble source is the desire for fair play. But the other source is the hatred of superiority . At the present moment it would be very unrealistic to essay on mediation overlook the importance of the against uniforms latter. There is in all men a tendency (only corrigible by good training from without and persistent moral effort from within) to and arbitration resent the existence of what is stronger, subtler or better than themselves. In uncorrected and brutal men this hardens into an implacable and disinterested hatred for every kind of excellence. The vocabulary of a period tells tales. There is reason to be alarmed at the immense vogue today of such words as highbrow, upstage, old school tie, academic, smug, and complacent. These words, as used today, are sores -- one feels the poison throbbing in them.
The kind of democratic education which is reading research already looming ahead is essay on mediation and arbitration bad because it endeavors to for essay propitiate evil passions -- to appease envy. There are two reasons for not attempting this. In the first place, you will not succeed. Envy is insatiable. The more you concede to it the more it will demand. No attitude of humility which you can possibly adopt will propitiate a man with an essay, inferiority complex. In the second place, you are trying to research paper introduce equality where equality is fatal.
Equality (outside mathematics) is a purely social conception. It applies to man as a political and economic animal. It has no place in the world of the essay on mediation and arbitration mind. Essay On Nature. Beauty is not democratic -- she reveals herself more to the few than to the many, more to the persistent and disciplined seekers than to the careless. Virtue is and arbitration not democratic -- she is format achieved by those who pursue her more hotly than most men. Essay On Mediation. Truth is not democratic -- she demands special talents and special industry in those to whom she gives her favors. Political democracy is doomed if it tries to extend its demand for equality into these higher spheres. Ethical, intellectual, or aesthetic democracy is death. A truly democratic education #151; one which will preserve democracy #151; must be, in its own field, ruthlessly aristocratic, shamelessly highbrow. Corvette Essay. In drawing up its curriculum it should always have chiefly in view the interests of the boy who wants to know and who can know (with very few exceptions they are the same boy).
The stupid boy, nearly always, is the boy who does not want to know. It must, in a certain sense, subordinate the interests of the many to those of the few, and it must subordinate the school to the university. Essay On Mediation. Only thus can it be a nursery of those first-class intellects without which neither a democracy nor any other State can thrive. And what, you ask, about the dull boy? What about our Tommy, who is so highly strung and doesn't like doing 'sums and grammar'? Is he to be brutally sacrificed to corvette essay other people's sons? I answer -- dear Madam, you quite misunderstand Tommy's real wishes and real interests. It is the aristocratic system which will really give Tommy what he wants. If you let me have my way, Tommy will gravitate very comfortably to essay the bottom of the form; and there he will sit at the back of the room chewing caramels and conversing sotto voce with his peers, occasionally ragging and occasionally getting punished, and reading paper all the time imbibing that playfully intransigent attitude to authority which is our chief protection against England's becoming a servile State. When he grows up he will not be a Porson (2) ; but the and arbitration world will still have room for a great many more Tommies than Porsons. There are dozens of jobs (much better paid than the intellectual ones) in which he can be very useful and very happy.
In addition, there will be one priceless benefit that he will enjoy -- he will know he's not clever. The distinction between him and the great brains will have been clear to him ever since, in the playground, he punched the heads containing those great brains. He will have a certain half amused respect for elkins paper them. Essay On Mediation. He will cheerfully admit that, though he could knock spots off them on the golf links, they know and do what he cannot. He will be a pillar of corvette essay democracy. He will allow just the right amount of rope to those clever ones. But what you want to do is to take away from Tommy that whole free, private life as part of the everlasting opposition which is his whole desire. You have already robbed him of on mediation and arbitration all real play by making games compulsory. Must you meddle further?
When (during a Latin lesson really intended for his betters) he is contentedly whittling a piece of wood into in schools essay a boat under the desk, must you come in to essay on mediation discover a talent and pack him off to the woodcarving class, so that what hitherto was fun must become one more lesson? Do you think he will thank you? Half the charm of carving the boat lay in paper, the fact that it involved a resistance to authority. Must you take that pleasure #150; a pleasure without which no true democracy can exist #150; away from him? Give him marks for his hobby, officialize it, finally fool the poor boy into the belief that what he is doing is just as clever in on mediation and arbitration, its own way as real work? What do you think will come of it? When he gets out into uniforms in schools essay the real world he is bound to discover the truth. He may be disappointed. Because you have turned this simple, wholesome creature into a coxcomb, he will resent those inferiorities which (but for you) would not have irked him at all. Essay And Arbitration. A mild pleasure in ragging, a determination not to be much interfered with, is a valuable brake on reckless planning and a valuable curb on the meddlesomeness of minor officials.
Envy bleating I'm as good as you , is, on the other hand, the hotbed of Fascism. You are going about to take away the one and foment the other. Democracy demands that little men should not take big ones too seriously -- it dies when it is full of little men who think they are big themselves !! (1) The Order of the Garter, instituted by King Edward III in elkins intermountain, 1344, is the highest order of knighthood. Lewis had in mind the comment made by Lord Melbourne (1779-1848) about the Order: I like the Garter; there is no damned merit in it. (2) Richard Porson (1759-1808), son of the parish clerk at East Ruston, near North Walsham, showed extraordinary memory when a boy, and by the help of on mediation and arbitration various protectors he was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge.
In 1792 he became Regius Professor of Greek at reading research paper, Cambridge.
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resume podcast Your Guide to Business School. Building the best MBA Application Resume: Resumes that Get You Accepted. You've done your research and on mediation and arbitration have a short list of reading paper schools you're applying to. Now you're working on your application and resume. In this podcast, admissions deans and essay on mediation a consultant give you solid advice on putting together your MBA application resume. This MBA resume can have differences from the resume you're use to apply for jobs. Our guests explain how they're different, what they're looking for, what catches their eye and what is an immediate red flag. They'll also discuss nuances in your resume such as writing style, format, what categories to in schools essay, include, and how to treat on-the-side projects you may have worked on.
Don't send your resume without listening to on mediation and arbitration, this show! Vicki L. Duran , Associate Director of MBA Admissions, The University of Texas at Austin, McCombs School of Business Jeremy Shinewald , MBA, Founder/President mbaMission Christine E. Sneva , Assistant Director, Admissions and Financial Aid Director, The Johnson School at Cornell University Kellee Scott , Senior Associate Director, MBA Admissions, Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California. Welcome to at school essay, MBA Podcaster, the on mediation and arbitration only broadcast source for cutting edge information and advice on the MBA application process. I’m Heidi Pickman. You’ve done your research and have a short list of schools. Now you’re working on your applications. You’ve slaved over corvette essay your essays. And Arbitration! Transcripts, recommendations and GMAT scores are on their way. Corvette Essay! All that’s left is to attach your resume. Make sure you’ve thought good and hard about it. Today’s podcast is essay and arbitration titled MBA Resumes: How to against uniforms in schools essay, Build the Best Applicant Resume.
In this podcast, admissions deans and essay a consultant give you solid advice on putting together your resume. Some of the issues they’ll address include writing style, format, what categories to include, and how to research paper, treat side projects. The aspect of the resume that makes it the easy part of your application is that once it’s done, it’s done and you can use it for every application. The not so easy part is that as with the rest of your application, you want it to shine and highlight your experience and tell your story. Christine Sneva is the Assistant Director of Admissions and Financial Aid Director at The Johnson School at Cornell University.
Sneva says the resume is one of the most important parts of the application. Sneva1 It tells a lot about on mediation you. So you need to be sure it is very clear, concise and highlights the most important pieces to your story. When you are looking at proper your resume if you only had one minute to introduce yourself what are some of the things that you would say? Vicki Duran is the Associate Director of MBA Admissions at the University of Texas at Austin’s McCombs School of essay on mediation Business. Duran says the elkins intermountain paper resume is an integral part of the application.
Duran1 “We like to see on essay, paper, on the resume, through essays, through the essay on nature whole application, what has this person accomplished and who are they.A lot of that comes through on the resume, whatever they believe is going to and arbitration, give us insight into what they’re going to bring to corvette essay, the program that’s going to and arbitration, enhance the experience of their peers in the classroom.And in many cases, because we only essay on nature get to know applicants on paper – if we haven’t met them on essay on mediation, the road or they haven’t been to campus for a class visit or to interview with us – that’s all we have to go by, what they have written on at school, their resume or in their essays.” Kellee Scott is the Senior Associate Director of MBA Admissions at the Marshall School of Business, University of essay on mediation Southern California.She explains why clarity is so important. Scott1 The longer it takes for us to figure out what you’re trying to say, that’s just more time we’re spending.The more concise you are, the more quickly we can get to the crux of what your experience is.Here’s the thing too.Think about the proper writing resume as your calling card to the interview.Because once we get to the interview, if we have to spend a lot of time trying to figure out your resume then it probably tells you that your resume is not written very well or is not written in essay on mediation and arbitration a very clear format.And then once you get to the interview level then we can talk more about your aspirations more about other things versus trying to figure out format for essay writing what exactly you were doing when. So a clear resume is important. Let’s get started and build your resume.Jeremy Shinewald, is the Founder/President mbaMission. Jeremy1 I think the most import thing that the candidates consider when they create their resume is that less is more.The resume has to very, very easily scanable.
Someone needs to be able to pick up on visual cues and get answers that they might not have even realized they’ve been seeking. Not having a cluttered resume where you put in every single detail of essay and arbitration your entire professional, personal community life is actually important and is something that a lot of candidates resist unnecessarily. A good place to begin whittling down information is with an essay on nature, outline says Christine Sneva. Sneva2 My advice is to essay on mediation, outline you believe is important to include in your resume on a separate document, create a format and then pull together the most important information on your list.When you see what is left over – is religion at school essay it necessary?You don’t need to essay and arbitration, say everything about you. Religion At School Essay! Hopefully a lot of that extra additional information and more will come through in an interview depending on the school if they invite you for an interview.Really include what is necessary to on mediation and arbitration, convey professional experience, your affiliations, your qualifications in addition to your bio and religion at school education.If you’re able to add significant accomplishments or even your personal interests, I really do think it’s a really nice touch, especially a personal touch that you can add to your resume.But don’t feel like you have to add this kind of essay on mediation information, only do it if there’s space.
Sneva’s advice has an for essay writing, added benefit. Sneva3 Once you do this, look at essay on mediation and arbitration your outline and what you have not included is maybe something that you want to put somewhere else in your application.We’re always talking about this holistic view of corvette essay looking at and arbitration files and I think candidates get really confused on intermountain, is how to on mediation and arbitration, use an reading research, optional essay, what do they need to include in another essay that maybe wasn’t touched on in another part of their application.This is a good way to start narrowing down how you want to really spread yourself out in that application. But that’s a subject for another podcast. One of the essay and arbitration elements you might want to proper writing, think about including in essay on mediation your outline is any international experience.It’s not necessary and if you don’t have it you shouldn’t feel at a disadvantage, but if you have it great. Shinewald has some great examples of how to include that information and research paper where. Shinewald2 If you’re in LA and essay working with the Tokyo team, even if you haven’t visited Tokyo, you’re still having an international experience because you’re working with them on a daily basis.So a lot of people have international experience and don’t even realize it.In terms of showing it on your resume, if you have it, certainly if it’s positive and you can offer specific bullets or if you were stationed somewhere, it can come across in information via your location.
If it’s on the personal side, you can mention ‘traveled to 41 different countries, highlights include climbing Mount Kilimanjaro’. Our consultant Jeremy Shinewald continues with how to structure your resume. Shinewald3 Start with professional experience, obviously the corvette essay most recent first. Go through all relevant positions.And try to break up your resume, even if you’ve been in the same firm – and again we’re talking about visual cues – try to break it up for on mediation, each position.That way you can show progress from step to step.After your professional experience, you might want to include a brief section on community leadership and then you can put in at school essay your academic experience or you can flip flop those and put your academic experience first and then put your community and personal at the end.It really depends on essay, the nature, the significance of essay your community leadership.If it’s quasi-professional – you’ve been a board member of a community organization – you can certainly put it after your work experience. Some people will after their community experience and professional experience will put a small personal section with a few quirky, potentially humorous hobbies, activities to on mediation, give their resume some personality. And that’s really the main structure. And there’s a standard preference for order of your experience that Kellee Scott explains. Scott 2 The key is chronological order. I think what slips some candidates up is corvette essay that sometimes there are industries where they need to put a skills-based resume together or they need to get long personal statements.And what they really need to do is look at the basic business format of resumes, which is essay on mediation chronological and not based on projects or skill sets.
That’s really what can bring the attention of the admissions officer really quickly. One way to give visual cues that Shinewald mentioned is to essay on nature, use bullet points. On Mediation! Vikki Duran says that a resume is easier to read with bullet points and essay on nature she gives a writing tip on on mediation and arbitration, how to make those bullet points effective. Duran2 We like to see results-oriented phrases. Corvette Essay! Led a five member team to on mediation and arbitration, develop an internal waste recycling project, resulting in religion at school and then giving the results of on mediation that. That’s why we like to see the bulleted items.And using action verbs at the start of those sentences.So whether it’s managed, designed, initiated, developed, led, supervised, words like that.
Shinewald says definitely don’t be passive and use words like ‘participated in’ or ‘joined’ and he gives an example of a good bullet point. Jeremy4 You want to show your specific action followed by specific results. And so, I was a speech writer for an ambassador for corvette essay, a few years and if I were to say to you ‘wrote speeches for ambassador’, it would have no impact. You’d have no additional knowledge of essay on mediation what I’ve done. But if I were to say to religion at school, you – I would choose a very deliberate action – ‘researched and wrote more than 50 speeches, greetings and toasts’, and then follow it up with a result ‘5 of which were published in The Washington Post,you would have a sense of essay my action, the consequent results of that action, which validates the proper action.The publications validate the speech writing. A resume can include a lot of information, and guess what – it needs to fit on one page – yes one page.Just listen to our guests. Sneva4 Typically a resume is really only one page or a business resume. Scott3 It is a marketing tool and essay the candidate wants to get the attention of the admissions officers as fast as possible.So the best resumes are a one-page chronological summary of their professional and educational experience to date. Jeremy5 I was at the AIGAC conference recently and intermountain someone asked the question about two page resumes and the Association of essay on mediation and arbitration International Graduate Admissions Consultants and one of the panelists who was an admissions officer joked and said “All together now” and all 8 admissions officers said “One page” all in unison.Again the key here is scanability. You want the reader to essay on nature, get key facts and the reader will get bogged down in minutiae and just skip over it.In my opinion, you’d rather offer 75% and have that person get 75% than offer 100% and have that person skip over essay on mediation and arbitration and get 25% or 50%.So less is essay on nature definitely more. But as Vicki Duran points out, there’s always the exception to the rule.
Duran3 The resumes would be more or less the same except with the executive MBA program, because those applicants typically have about 8-15 years of work experience, they’re not going to be able to and arbitration, do that very concisely on one page, so they’re probably going to have two pages. If you’re applying for a part-time program, no such luck with the two pages. Here’s Marshall’s Scott. Scott4 But for a full-time, part-time, the average age is for essay still about and arbitration 28, 5 years of experience, it should still be a one page chronological. Readability, scanability are part of why admissions directors like a one-page, organized resume, but Sneva says that there’s another reason. Sneva5 You know we see a lot of resumes that sort of look like what people would view as a C.V. or a resume that really catered to a specific industry that has some information that we don’t necessarily need.What we’re looking at is 3, 4, 5, sometimes even more pages of essay on nature a resume where after page 1 you’re sitting there thinking ‘this is essay on mediation not what we need, this is not the proper information we need on a resume. ‘ If I’m going to go to an alumni or if I’m going to go to a current student or someone in essay their career management center, I can’t even bring this information to them, because I can’t even get through all of this information just to say ‘this X candidate, this is the experience they have, this is what they want to at school essay, do.’ ‘Tell me more about essay that experience.’ When their being so in-depth and uniforms essay so specific about what they’re doing, that’s really not the goal in what you’re trying to do for a business resume and for a resume in your MBA application. It bears repeating – one page.
And just in and arbitration case you’re having trouble getting your resume down to one page and are thinking about tiny fonts… Shinewald has a warning. Jeremy6 Generally two pages is paper not okay and you shouldn’t make the on mediation font very small.You certainly can work with your fonts and work with your margins, but you have to use judgment in terms of editing yourself, so that you’re not getting to the point where someone is going to get bogged down, frustrated and move on. So no small fonts, it’s recommended to use a minimum of a 10 or 12 point font.Are there other ways to save space? Shinewald says yes. Jeremy7 You don’t need to at school, put 3 or 4 lines of your address, your email address, your phone number, etc. on this resume because it’s not like you’re walking into on mediation and arbitration, a job interview where you’re going to hand someone your resume and hope that they hold onto that and corvette essay use it to on mediation, call you back and they could lose it forever.It’s part of your application, they’re not going to call you via your resume. They’ve got all your information in their database and that’s valuable space that you can save.
Name and paper maybe a line and on mediation and arbitration get right to your professional entries. UT’s Duran confirmed the space saver. Duran4 I think its fine as long as their name is for essay listed on there because we have all of on mediation their contact information on their application, sometimes it’s easier for us to see their cell phone number on their resume as well, but it’s certainly not a critical factor and that would have no bearing on essay on nature, the decision one way or another. One issue that might come up while you’re trying to make your one page, chronological business resume is what if you have a side project, what if you are doing some consulting for a friend after hours or starting your own business? Should you include that information – absolutely, but how? Duran gives a good rule of thumb. Duran5 If they’ve been involved in helping someone with doing a start up or launching a website or something like that and essay on mediation they feel like that’s going to enhance their application or demonstrate to us another set of skills that will help them with their career goals – again based on what those career goals might be – then I would say to reading paper, go ahead and include that information in the body of their work experience section.But if you feel that it’s just something that stands out for them or adds another dimension to who they are and they just want to share that information with us, and they feel it’s still applicable, then I would include that in that additional section that I mentioned that they put in the bottom of their resume’. Sneva explains the on mediation value of including those significant, meaningful side projects . Sneva6 So if you have a full-time job at elkins intermountain a certain company that’s what you’re going to essay on mediation and arbitration, want to at school essay, make sure you’re listing first. And then we’re going to continue to on mediation and arbitration, follow down that resume and say ‘oh look, this is something that they started a year ago and reading paper it looks like they’re still doing that, it looks like it’s something that they’re doing while they’re working full-time.’ And in my mind I’m thinking this is something that I’d want to ask the applicant in an interview. And that’s a good thing. That’s really showing you a really good resume, when I’m coming out with questions that make the applicant very interesting and I’m very intrigued by and arbitration this applicant.
Now all of a sudden I’m saying ‘This is somebody that has a little bit more depth to uniforms in schools essay, them. We really want to bring them in for some questions.’ If you want to essay on mediation, include a side project in your professional experience, make sure to label it appropriately – for essay, example, ‘external consulting project’.Also, take care not to confuse the reader by going all over the place chronologically. And remember, the resume is part of the whole application, some things- like a side project or a gap in your resume might be better portrayed in on mediation and arbitration another space, like the optional essay which can explain gaps or quirks or anticipate questions that admissions committees might have about your experience. It’s really important to reading paper, explain those gaps because they send a certain signal and lead the and arbitration admissions officers, like Vicki Duran to form their own story about proper format you. Duran6 Gaps in employment and job hopping are things that send up red flags for on mediation, us.We would hope that if someone was doing quite a bit of job hopping or they haven’t worked in a couple of years that they use their optional essay to explain that to religion essay, us so that we’re not making up stories in and arbitration our own minds about against in schools what happened with this applicant or why they moved around so much. Gaps in your employment have already occurred – you can explain them, but you can’t change them now.What are some of the things that you can change or put another way – what are things that you shouldn’t do on on mediation, your resume? And what should you do instead? Scott5 I’ve seen people who have used very flowery fonts.You kind of want a very basic font that’s very clear. And Shinewald says that a laundry list of your responsibilities is a real problem and kind of meaningless. He offers a made-up example of what to not to do, why and how to fix it.
Jeremy9 ‘Responsible for proper, all marketing presentations, all client interactions during a major period of client acquisition for firm.’ And we have no sense of essay and arbitration exactly who the client was and what you achieved. Whereas if you could just deliberately write… ‘presented the Scheinwald proposal to the board of MBAmission, project accepted within four hours of presentation.’ UT’s Duran has a particular pet peeve that she’s seen on a few resumes. Duran7 when an individual is speaking in essay the third person on a resume. So they’re writing their resume’ project experience or work experience in a paragraph format and they’re speaking about themselves using their name, like Mr. Smith has completed this project, so they’re speaking about themselves in the third person. So that is not good. And Scott says be careful of and arbitration creative formatting. Scott6 For instance, I’ve seen an engineering resume where he decided to divide the for essay writing page in half and it was two block halves of information that almost looked like a newspaper page. And it took some time to kind of weed through that creativity to figure out ‘wait a minute, he started here and this is where he went next and then he actually got a promotion here.
I took us time to get that. And Sneva says while a typo is essay on mediation and arbitration a forgivable human mistake, it does send a signal. Sneva7 They either are producing a very sloppy application; they don’t care about our school well enough to make sure that they have edited, edited and looked over every possible detail; and maybe they’re not very detail-oriented. The more positive things that you can put forward, then you’re leaving us to our own assumptions of who you are. Kellee Scott says the MBA candidate pool seems to be getting younger and this brings up a specific problem that the religion millennial generation candidates should avoid. Scott7 You have to think about their lives as it is right now.We read about in high school they’re booked up every minute.They’ve got soccer, they’ve got this, they’re in organizations.Parents are carting them all over the place and that’s just what this generation has learned and grown up with and for them, those are accomplishments, those are achievements and it’s great for essay on mediation and arbitration, getting into undergrad. But once they get to the level of essay on nature MBA programs or at least the top MBA programs out there, it’s good that you’re active, but we’re hoping you’ve taken that activity into your college life and beyond, so you don’t have to essay, talk about what you did in high school. So Scott recommends.
Scott8 trying to remain current in what they’re doing.Because what I’ve seen lately is candidates who tend to put a lot of high school information, which is not necessary unless you’ve gone to corvette essay, some high visibility high school like a Bronx Science or Exeter and you were a valedictorian or a National Merit finalist. So write about your most recent jobs, what you did and what you accomplished, but don’t list your stint flipping burgers between your sophomore and on mediation and arbitration junior year in corvette essay high school. That’s what not to do… let’s go to the other extreme and talk about how to and arbitration, make your resume stand out. The most obvious is proper for essay result-oriented experience. Vicki Duran says unique experiences that show leadership and results stand out. Duran8 We’ve had astronauts or rocket scientists in essay on mediation and arbitration the program. That’s different, that’s interesting.We like to format for essay writing, see a progression in the scope of their job and their responsibilities over essay on mediation a number of years.Certainly that demonstrated leadership and that can come out in research the form of being on and arbitration, a board of religion at school a non-profit, leading a project on volunteer work. Certainly our military applicants have quite a few examples of leadership.If someone’s pursuing the on mediation and arbitration entrepreneurial concentration, the fact that they’ve already been involved in a start up; and even people that are working in an engineering job, but on at school, the side we’ve seen applications for people who have started a restaurant on the side while they’re working another regular full-time job. Essay And Arbitration! Just something interesting about that person that’s going to stand out and corvette essay make them a little bit different than other applicants. And Sneva has a not so obvious example.
Sneva8 We see so many resumes that don’t follow simple rules that when you do have one that’s very clear and simple, that’s actually the one that does stand out. Essay! (Laughs.) That’s actually the one that does look very special.In the past I have seen resumes that gave me exactly what I needed to proper format writing, know about the candidate and I could tell you what they wanted to do just by looking at that resume. On Mediation! Interestingly they also left me with questions about certain instances that made me very curious about this individual. Corvette Essay! That is someone I really want to meet, that is someone I really want to essay and arbitration, interview if I haven’t met them already, which makes them stand out in a way. Against Uniforms In Schools! After all, that’s really the goal of a resume is essay and arbitration getting to the interview to showcase and articulate what that resume says and come to life over essay on nature a conversation. And the goal of this podcast was to give you plenty of information to assemble the best resume that you can.And I do believe we’ve succeeded.
or more MBA information, to find a transcript of this show or to register for essay and arbitration, your bi-weekly MBA podcast visit MBAPodcaster.com. Join us on against in schools essay, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to get the latest news and insight in the world of business school. This is MBA Podcaster, I am Heidi Pickman. Thanks for listening and be sure to tune in and arbitration next time when we explore another topic of interest in your quest for an MBA. Stay up to date with the latest news, information, advice, and all our newly released podcasts and videocasts. MBA Podcaster is your online source for information, insight, and advice on the MBA admission process. We deliver relevant information and advice through biweekly audio segments for those planning to apply for a Master in Business Administration. Research! Topics include everything from a behind-the-scenes view of the admission process to post-MBA job opportunities and on mediation current market trends. Guests include Deans of various business schools, alumni, corporate recruiters, MBA consultants and more.
On each segment we go in-depth on a particular topic of interest to at school essay, an MBA applicant and interview relevant experts to help make your application process more efficient and successful. Listen for this week’s newest topic or browse our archive for the specific information you need to know. Drop us a line and essay tell us what you’d like to hear: [email protected] Leila Pirnia co-founded MBA Podcaster in January 2006 to provide… Janet Nakano is a host and producer for MBA Podcaster….
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When to Capitalize People’s Titles. When should you capitalize someone’s title? We get this question quite often so here are some rules and guidelines: Margaret Haines, Chairperson. Margaret Haines, chairperson. The president will address Congress. All senators are expected to attend.
The governors, lieutenant governors, and attorneys general called for a special task force. Governor Connelly, Lieutenant Governor Martinez, and Senators James and Hennessy will attend the meeting. Will you be holding a press conference, Madame President? Please give us your opinion of this latest development, Senator. We need your response quickly, Mr. President. We need your response quickly, President Obama. Will you help me with my homework, Dad?
Posted on essay, Thursday, October 14, 2010, at paper 10:35 am. 253 responses to “When to Capitalize People’s Titles” Pardon, but whenever referring to on mediation, the President of the United States, one always uses a capital. When has this changed? This blog follows the rules of The Chicago Manual of Style . According to Rule 8.1, “Proper nouns are usually capitalized, as are some of the reading research, terms derived from or associated with proper nouns. For the latter, Chicago’s preference is for essay sparing use of capitals—what is sometimes referred to as a “down” style. Although Brussels (the Belgian city) is against uniforms in schools essay, capitalized, Chicago prefers brussels sprouts —which are not necessarily from Brussels (see 8.60). Essay. Likewise, President Obama is capitalized, but the president is not (see 8.18-32). (In certain nonacademic contexts—e.g., a press release—such terms as president may be capitalized.”) I am writing a business proposal and I need to refer to the title Personnel and Training Sergeant…”The personnel and Training Sergeant will oversee the project”. Or is it the Personnel and Training sergeant will oversee the project”. Can you please advise.
Our blog Capitalization of elkins paper Job Titles states, “When the appears in front of the job title, do not capitalize.” Therefore, write “The personnel and training sergeant will oversee the project.” Given what your response above says, would this be correct usage: Correctional Seargent will be in charge of disciplinary proccessing. The correctional sergent in charge of disciplinary proccessing will work a Monday through Friday schedule? Capitalization has a lot of gray areas. The rule of and arbitration thumb is to lowercase job titles when not used with names. Therefore, we recommend not capitalizing correctional sergeant. Correctional sergeant will be in charge of disciplinary processing.
The correctional sergeant in charge of disciplinary processing will work a Monday-through-Friday schedule. This is a perennial question around here: if you capitalize the names of departments, i.e., History Department, then how do you express the elkins, title of the essay and arbitration, department chair: Joe Smith, chair of the against in schools essay, History Department or. Joe Smith, chair of the history deparment. This becomes even more problematic when you’re dealing with titles like head of essay school vs head of School. Because chair, chairman, chairwoman, chairperson, head of school , etc. Elkins. are generally considered job titles, capitalize these titles immediately preceding the name when used as part of the name.
Some policies capitalize job titles immediately following the name when the word the essay and arbitration, does not appear in reading research, front of the job title. Others do not. Joe Smith, Chair of the History Department, will be speaking to . . . Joe Smith, chair of the History Department, will be speaking to . Essay On Mediation And Arbitration. . Elkins. . I’m really stuck with what to on mediation, capitalise or not in this paragraph! Can you help me please?? Thank you so much! General Sir Mike Jackson GCB CBE DSO is an Advisory Board member and served as UK Chief of the intermountain, General Staff (CGS) from 2003-2006, the culmination of four and a half decades in the British Army.
After a degree in essay on mediation, Russian studies he joined the against, Intelligence Corps in 1963, transferring to the Parachute Regiment in 1970. He served as Commander in Chief, Land Command from 2000, Commander Kosovo Force in 1999, Commander NATO Allied Rapid Reaction Corps from 1997, and Director General Development and Doctrine at the MOD. His active service has included command at company and brigade level in essay on mediation and arbitration, Northern Ireland, and divisional command in Bosnia. General Sir Mike Jackson GCB CBE DSO is an advisory board member and served as UK chief of the general staff (CGS) from 2003 to uniforms in schools, 2006, the essay on mediation, culmination of four and a half decades in the British Army. After a degree in uniforms in schools essay, Russian studies he joined the essay on mediation, Intelligence Corps in 1963, transferring to the Parachute Regiment in essay on nature, 1970. Essay And Arbitration. He served as commander in elkins, chief, land command, [note comma] from 2000 [from 2000 to when? Maybe it should be “in 2000”], commander Kosovo Force in 1999, commander NATO Allied Rapid Reaction Corps from 1997, and director general development and doctrine at the MOD. On Mediation And Arbitration. His active service has included command at company and brigade level in Northern Ireland, and divisional command in religion essay, Bosnia. Writing “Mary Jones, Head of School, is on mediation, asking all parents to . Intermountain. . .” directly contradicts your recommendations stated here: http://data.grammarbook.com/blog/capitalization/capitalization-with-job-titles/
There you say that “Sam Woo, Finance Director, delivered our third-quarter projections” should instead be written as: “Sam Woo, finance director, delivered our third-quarter projections.” Perhaps I’m missing something, but I don’t see the distinction between ‘Head of School’ and ‘Finance Director’ that would warrant the difference. As part of essay on mediation a periodic in-house review of past blog posts, we recently edited both our response of August 10, 2011, and our Capitalization of Job Titles post to clarify that job titles immediately following a name are not ordinarily capitalized. Against Uniforms In Schools. In other words, this comes more under the heading of guidance than rule. What about this? “The president of our country lives in the White House.” There are two grammar rules which apply to your sentence. According to and arbitration, Rule 5 in the “Capitalization” section, “Capitalize the essay on nature, titles of high-ranking government officials when used before their names. Do not capitalize the civil title if it is used instead of the and arbitration, name.” Also, Rule 2 says, “Always capitalize a proper noun.” Since the word president is not used before a name, it is essay on nature, not capitalized. Because White House is a proper noun it should be capitalized. Therefore, “The president of our country lives in on mediation and arbitration, the White House.” In a news release, is it John Smith, assistant FEMA admistrator for hurricanes- or – John Smith, Assistant FEMA Administartor for against Huricanes.
Joe Brown, U.S. Forest Service regional director – or – Joe Brown, U.S. Forest Service Regional Director. Some policies capitalize job titles immediately following the name when the word the does not appear in front of the job title. Therefore, John Smith, Assistant FEMA Administrator for Hurricanes and Joe Brown, U.S.
Forest Service Regional Director might be acceptable, although two authoritative sources, The AP Stylebook and The Chicago Manual of Style , would advise against it. Just so I’m clear, I would write: ” As vice president of operations, John Doe is responsible for..” rather than “As Vice President of Operations, John Doe, is responsible for. ” Since the title is not part of the name, it does not need to be capitalized as long as John Doe does not insist it be capitalized (the “ego rule”). (The ego rule) Yes, I’ve noticed that, too!Numerous ‘higher titles’ have corrected me when I use lowercase on titles as you have described above. On Mediation And Arbitration. I’ve given up to the ‘ego rule.’ That is a wise thing to do in the workplace! My daughter’s fourth-grade teacher insists that some proper names, such as Grandma or Dad, are not capitalized. For example, “Last week, grandma took us out for dinner.” Grandma is not capitalized, according to the teacher. In this example, isn’t Grandma considered a proper name, since it refers to a specific person? Yes, you are correct.
When the word Grandma is used as a proper name it should be capitalized. “Last week Grandma took us out for dinner.” If you were to say, “Last week my grandma took us out for reading dinner,” then it would not be capitalized. The same goes for on mediation Dad, Mom , and Grandpa . I have a question similar to religion essay, Linda’s. Essay. Working in a law office, I get conflicting instruction on the capitalization of the word plaintiff. My belief is when the sentence is something like, “As you can see, the elkins intermountain paper, plaintiff has no evidence of…” it is lowercase. On Mediation. But in this sentence, “As you can see, Plaintiff has no evidence of…”, it is corvette essay, uppercase. Is that correct?
Or is plaintiff always lowercase as some of my colleagues suggest? Your understanding of the grammar rules is on mediation, correct, however, it is essay on nature, our understanding that there are specific rules for legal documents. Essay On Mediation. We suggest consulting The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, published by the Harvard Law Review Association. Should we capitalize Boards and not independent directors, as follows? Thanks. “The Boards and the independent directors hereby determine…”
The Chicago Manual of Style says, “The full names of administrative bodies are capitalized. Adjectives derived from them are usually lowercased, as are many of the generic names for for essay such bodies when used alone.” Therefore, “The boards and and arbitration, the independent directors hereby determine…” I have a question about place names: Yosemite National Park and Glacier National Park – these are all capitalized…but is corvette essay, it: Yosemite and Glacier National Parks or Yosemite and Glacier national parks? Policies differ on this point. It could be either one. I was wondering if this capitalization is correct: “Mrs. Jane Doe is the Dean of Students.”
“Mrs. Jane Doe is the essay on mediation, dean of students.” Since it is not part of her name, you do not need to proper format, capitalize. Mrs. Jane Doe is the and arbitration, dean of students. Iam the new Principal at…
should I capitalize new Principal?? Or write I am the new principal at… Since it is not part of your name, you do not need to capitalize. I found your entry and reading, your subsequent responses most helpful! Thanks! We’re glad you found our website valuable.
I am currently updating my resume. When I list my job experience, do I capitalize the titles of my positions held? Example: Assistant Principal, Carter High School, Houston, TX. Also, under the objective, do I capitalize principal and essay, high school in “Seeking a Principal position in a High School…” or “Seeking a principal position in a high school…?” Thank you!
Love your website! In running text, The Chicago Manual of reading research paper Style lowercases titles but caps the essay on mediation, names of departments: James Smith, director of reading paper Human Resources. On a resume, business card, diploma, door plaque, or such, the title may be capped: Michelle Walker, Vice Principal, Fairview High School, New York, NY. In your objective statement, since the essay on mediation and arbitration, words principal and high school are used generically, do not capitalize. Also, since the word principal has several different meanings, we recommend rewording to: Seeking a position as principal in religion at school, a high school … what about titles with “former”?
Former President George Bush or former President George Bush ? thank you very much! Unless the and arbitration, word former is at the beginning of a sentence, it should not be capitalized. According to Rule 8.20 in format for essay writing, Chicago Manual of on mediation and arbitration Style (16th ed.), when a title is elkins intermountain paper, used in essay on mediation and arbitration, apposition before a personal name–that is, not alone and as part of the name but as an equivalent to uniforms in schools, it, usually preceded by “the” or by essay on mediation and arbitration, a modifier–it is considered not a title but rather a descriptive phrase and is therefore lowercased. e.g., the corvette essay, empress Elizabeth of Austria (but Empress Elizabeth of Austria); former president Carter; former presidents Reagan and on mediation and arbitration, Ford; the then secretary of state Colin Powell. Our response of March 15, 2012, only addressed the word former because reference books do not agree on whether to corvette essay, capitalize president . As you noted, CMOS would not capitalize it while the Associated Press Stylebook would (12th edition, p. And Arbitration. 214). In these sorts of cases, we recommend that you simply be consistent. Do baby boomers, generation xers, and millennials get capitalized or remain lower cased? The baby boomers are reaching retirement age. OR The Baby Boomers are reaching retirement age. The generation xers/gen xers job hop. OR The Generation Xers/Gen Xers job hop.
The millenials work long hours. The Millennials work long hours. What I do to one, I want to do to all as I am sometimes using all of them in the same sentence. Two of the most reputable reference books, The Chicago Manual of Style and The Associated Press Stylebook , recommend that terms denoting generations are best lowercased. (It should be noted that many publications do not agree.) CMOS , however, recommends that the single letters X, Y, Z , etc. should be capitalized. Therefore, baby boomers, generation Xers, millennials. “AP caps Gen X; the rarer millennial is usually lowercase.” (tweet from @apstylebook, 10/16/2009) Jane, thanks for all the at school essay, good counsel. So, in on mediation, “Jack Jackson, President of paper CEI, will address the on mediation and arbitration, senate,” “president” is properly capitalized? Policies differ. See note at September 22, 2011, above.
I am translating documents (speeches) from corvette essay French to English. The rules for capitalization are very different between the two languages. And Arbitration. I would like to reading research paper, know if it is essay on mediation, necessary to capitalize the generic titles at the beginning of a speech when used in the opening address, such as: Representatives of the Ministry of Education, university presidents, excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, dear friends: We are gathered here today to… Representatives of the Ministry of Education, University Presidents, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, dear Friends: We are gathered here today to… Thank you for your help. Generic titles are not capitalized in English unless they are being used as a direct address. Honorific titles and respectful forms of address (except sir and ma’am ) are capitalized in any context. By direct address do you mean when talking directly to essay on nature, them? So the beginning of a letter would read like this?: “Good after-noon Gentlemen,”.
Yes, direct address means speaking directly to the person or persons. Essay And Arbitration. The word afternoon does not have a hyphen. Also, our Rule 5 of Commas says, “Use commas to set off the name, nickname, term of endearment, or title of a person directly addressed.” Therefore, writing “Good afternoon, Gentlemen” is correct. We do not know the essay on nature, purpose of your letter, however, a formal business letter typically uses a colon instead of a comma after the salutation. Mayor John Doe is essay, speaking and says, “as mayor, I will…” Do I capitalize mayor in this sentence since the word ‘the’ does not precede the job title? Since the word “mayor” is intermountain, not immediately preceding his name, nor is it immediately following his name, do not capitalize. When you do not know (or cannot remember) someone’s name, but wish to refer to that person with that person’s title, is the title capitalized? For instance: Bill Summers, the on mediation, artist, taught me…. The Artist I met taught me…. If I refer to corvette essay, my dad as “Dad”, that becomes his name, so it is capitalized, right?
Does that apply to and arbitration, someone like, the artist above? When reading the web-site, I see that Rule 3 almost applies to for essay, what I need, but not quite. Can you clarify, please. Capitalize a person’s title when it precedes the name. Do not capitalize when the title is acting as a description following the name. Ms. Petrov, the chairperson of the essay on mediation and arbitration, company, will address us at noon. Any help you can offer would be much appreciated. See note at corvette essay September 22, 2011, above. On Mediation. When the word Dad is used as a proper name it should be capitalized. Captain.
I am not sure how to capitalize. I was a Marine, so my inclination is that the title of EVERY officer is capitalized – joke. I assume Captain Jones is capitalized. What about the following examples: The captain is essay on nature, waiting. The captain just looked at him. On Mediation. Go see the reading research, captain. The captain was standing just out essay and arbitration, side the door. The captain sent me.
Thanks for your help. The Chicago Manual of Style says, “As is the essay on nature, case with civil titles, military titles are routinely capitalized in the literature of the essay on mediation, organization or government with which they are associated. Nonetheless, in formal academic prose, most such titles are capitalized only when used as part of a person’s name.” Therefore, your sentences with “captain” in lowercase are correct. Should I capitalize the job titles such as vice president if the name of the company is in front of teh title, sam with the board? would I say the ISS Vice President or ISS boad or simply ISS vice president and ISS board? Policies vary. Proper. See note at September 22, 2011, above. All of the following examples could be acceptable: Michael Baxter, ISS Vice President, will be the on mediation, guest speaker. Michael Baxter, ISS Board, will be the guest speaker. Michael Baxter, the ISS vice president, will be the guest speaker.
Michael Baxter, the ISS board member, will be the guest speaker. We publish several catalogs for noncredit programs that include biographies of in schools instructors. Many of these include gratuitous capitalization, which I ruthlessly decapitate. I’d like your comment on the capitalization of essay master gardener, meaning a credential based on a program of education and reading research paper, practice, used thusly: “Jane Jones has been an active Master Gardener since 2011.” Since I lowercase professor emeritus, I am inclined to lc, but I am getting an argument. Regarding academic degrees, The Chicago Manual of essay and arbitration Style says, “Spelled-out terms, often capitalized in institutional settings (and on business cards and other promotional items), should be lowercased in normal prose.” It seems that your catalog may fall under the category of “promotional items,” which may explain why you are getting an argument. AREAA will meet members of congress. AREAA will meet members of Congress. Proper Writing. Which sentence is correct? In one of your examples, “The president will address Congress,” the word is capitalized. The Chicago Manual of Style recomends that the full names of legislative and deliberative bodies, departments, bureaus, and offices should be capitalized. The United States Congress, the US Congress, and Congress are all included in this list.
When I want to refer to essay and arbitration, the “legislative body” or the in schools essay, “legislative branch” as a whole, shall I use upper or lowercase on “legislative” or not? Both “legislative body” and and arbitration, “legislative branch” should be lowercased. Love your website. Elkins Intermountain Paper. Its very helpful. I’m a nursing instructor and essay on mediation, need some guidance. Religion Essay. Should you capitalize the and arbitration, names of religion hospital departments. Are employees working in the Emergency Department or on the Maternity Ward for example?
In another context, will the capitalization rule change: the patient was admitted to and arbitration, the emergency department. Uniforms Essay. I want to capitalize this. It is the name of the place. And as a last note, how would you say this: The Attending is essay on mediation, Dr. Smith. Is Attending capitalized? In another context, it would look like this: Dr. Smith is the Attending.
I think your rule says if ‘the’ appears then it should read: Dr. Smith is the attending. Thanks for format writing your help! The Chicago Manual of Style says, “The full names of on mediation and arbitration institutions, groups, and companies and the names of their departments, and often the shortened forms of such names (e.g., the Art Institute), are capitalized. At School. A the on mediation and arbitration, preceding a name, even when part of the official title, is corvette essay, lowercased in running text.” Therefore, the emergency department and the maternity ward are correct or Loyola Emergency Department , for example, if no the is used. Essay On Mediation And Arbitration. Regarding attending , since the word the is present, do not capitalize. Thank you SO MUCH for your website! I use it often (I hate to admit just how often!)
Please, can you give me guidance on capitalization in prayers? Specifically, I do know to capitalize all names of God, and pronouns such as He / His. Do you also capitalize You / Your, Thee, Thy, and Thine? I would think you might capitalize Your will, for example, but what about Your servant? And I’ve seen indications that it would actually be Your Will. Help!
The Chicago Manual of in schools essay Style (8.94) says, “Pronouns referring to God or Jesus are not capitalized.” (Note that they are lowercased in on mediation, most English translations of the Bible.) I am wondering about punctuation for people with multiple titles. I run conferences where many of the speakers have several roles, which are pertinent to the subject matter. Do I simply pick one? If I can use multiple titles, how do I separate? i.e. Religion At School Essay. Joe Smith, President CEO, Acme INC; Chair, Human Rights Org. Separate the titles just as you have done, using a semicolon to essay and arbitration, separate units of a series when one or more of the units contain commas. Avoid using abbreviations in essay on nature, formal writing (but you may have to use them if you do not have room in essay, the printed conference program).
Capitalization policies vary: Joe Smith, President and Chief Executive Officer, Acme Incorporated; Chairperson, Human Rights Organization OR Joe Smith, president and chief executive officer, Acme Incorporated; chairperson, Human Rights Organization. I have a question with regards to corvette essay, punctuation surround professional titles. I’m a Registered Nurse and on mediation and arbitration, my full title is corvette essay, as follows: Brock Wallace BSN, RN, CEN. I did some research and found out that you must list the degree that can not be taken away first so the BSN as it is a bachelors degree, next I found out that licensure then certifications come next in essay, that order which I did. My question is this should there be a comma after the religion, name preceding the degree or should there simply be a space and then list with commas? Thank you so much for the help. On Mediation And Arbitration. This has always bugged me as Brock Wallace, BSN, RN, CEN looks like a lot of commas. Yes, a comma is placed after the name.
In some cases people choose to omit lower-level degrees. That avoids using so many commas. It’s up to you. I’m writing a script with someone. Occasionally we will have one character (A) call another character (B) “sir” or “ma’am” or “son”. Religion At School. I believe IF they are acting as proper names the first letter should be capitalized. My co-writer thinks not. Here is an example:
Have you been smoking marijuana, Son? My co-writer wouldn’t capitalize “son”, but I would. We agree with The Associated Press Stylebook and with your co-writer that these terms should not be capitalized. It’s puzzling because all those Hallmark birthday cards when speaking to “Dad” capitalize dad. I did think that I learned in school that if you are calling your father, dad, then it gets the same treatment as a name, hence you capitalize the “D”.
Is this a different rule or does it still adhere to the same rule? It is a different rule. Chicago Manual of Style’s rule 8.35 refers to this as a kinship name . “Kinship names are lowercased unless they immediately precede a personal name or are used alone, in place of a personal name.” Let’s write to Aunt Maud. Please, Dad, let’s go. If “Dad” and “Mom” are capitalized when used instead of a person’s name, what about essay and arbitration, other family names like “son” or “daughter”? i.e., “I love you, Dad.” “I love you, too, Son”?
Chicago Manual of Style’s rule 8.35 refers to this as a kinship name . “Kinship names are lowercased unless they immediately precede a personal name or are used alone, in research, place of a personal name.” Therefore, capitalizing “Son” is correct in essay, your sentence. I am attempting to submit a follow up letter to for essay writing, an interview and on mediation, I can’t tell whether I should state the sentence as: . . . hope I am selected as a candidate for the next phase of the interview process. . . . hope I am selected as a candidate for essay on nature the next phase in essay and arbitration, the interviewing process. The term interview process is more commonly used than interviewing process . Paper. A better choice in on mediation and arbitration, your sentence might be hiring process . I hope I am selected as a candidate for the next phase of the hiring process. Religion At School. OR.
I hope I am selected as a candidate for the next phase of the essay on mediation, interview process. I work for a church and am often asked to add a sentence to our bulletins such as the one that follows: “the flowers are presented by research paper, the Smith family.” Should the word “family” be capitalized after the surname? This has been bugging me and I’d like to print it correctly! Thanks so much. The word family should not be capitalized after the on mediation and arbitration, surname. I am proofreading a book and the word laird came up.
Is this capitalized eg She sat in place of religion at school essay honor beside the laird. OR if you say the essay on mediation and arbitration, ‘laird of the McTavish clan’would it be capitalized? Thank you in advance for yor reply. No, it would not be capitalized in either case. In your June 21, 2012 reply to Bev Harrison, you say that neither of the two examples of laird which she gives should be capitalized.
And yet, Grammarly (advertised on your website) wants me to capitalize laird in every instance on at school, the grounds that it is and arbitration, a proper noun. Can you please clarify/comment? The term is used generically in reading research paper, the sentences, not as a proper noun. Therefore, we do not recommend capitalizing it. While we find Grammarly to be a good resource, there will always be some disagreement between any two grammar books or websites. I believe you are missing a rules of capitalization. The word “God” is capitalized as are references to God, as in “In the beginning the Word was God.” In fact I find some sources capitalize the preceding “The” as well, as in “In the beginning The Word was God.” Perhaps this could slip in under capitalizing titles but I feel it should rightly be more specific. Thank you for your suggestion. The Chicago Manual of St yle’s rule (8.90) states, “Names of deities, whether in monotheistic or polytheistic religions, are capitalized. Satan (but the essay and arbitration, devil)
Rules 8.91 and 8.92 go on to say, “Alternative or descriptive names for God as supreme being are capitalized. the Holy Ghost or the Holy Spirit or the corvette essay, Paraclete. the Supreme Being. Words for transcendent ideas in the Platonic sense, especially when used in a religious context, are often capitalized. Good; Beauty; Truth; the essay and arbitration, One”
In a user manual that documents who is elkins intermountain, responsible for each procedure: The City Manager will . Essay And Arbitration. . . The city manager will . . . Our recently-departed editor maintained that if a title was held by more than one person it was never capitalized. But if only one person held the proper format, title, (Senior Vice President of on mediation and arbitration Customer Service) it was always capitalized. I can’t find this rule anywhere so far. Your ex-editor was referring to essay on nature, job titles that are used generically. The rule in our blog Capitalization of Job Titles states, “When the appears in essay, front of the job title, do not capitalize.”
What are the at school essay, rules for on mediation and arbitration capitalizing job titles when they are accompanied with the official department name (in a user manual)? The Minnesota Department of against uniforms essay Public Safety probation officer and on mediation, the Department of paper Justice office coordinator shall respond to inquiries within 24 hours. Would probation officer or office coordinator ever be capitalized? Our blog Capitalization of essay on mediation Job Titles says, “When the appears in front of the job title, do not capitalize.” Therefore, your sentence is correct as written. A question. In the proper for essay, sentence “I was named Chair of ….” the Chair would be capitalized? And in “as chair, I…” chair would not be capitalized. Is that correct? A rule in essay on mediation, our blog Capitalization of Job Titles reads “Capitalize job titles immediately preceding the name when used as part of the name.” For job titles immediately following the name, policies differ.
See the entry at September 22, 2011, above. Examples: We asked Chairperson Leong to join us at the meeting. Ms. Leong, Chairperson OR chairperson, will join us at the meeting. Ms. Leong, Chair OR chair, will join us at the meeting. From what I read above, I understand that since these titles become before the name that they are capitalized. Is this correct? Floyd Arts Community Member, Radford University Art Professor and essay on nature, Nationally-Known Artist, Liam Johnson, will discuss the on mediation and arbitration, objectives of the corvette essay, meeting. Two of the essay on mediation and arbitration, titles in your sentence could fall under the gray area of “descriptive” titles rather than actual job titles.
The Chicago Manual of Style ‘s rule (8.29) says, “When preceding a name, generic titles that describe a person’s role or occupation—such as philosopher or historian —should be lowercased and treated as if in against in schools essay, apposition.” Certainly Radford University Art Professor is a job title and should be capitalized. Essay On Mediation. Floyd Arts community member and nationally-known artist sound more like descriptive titles. I recommend not capitalizing those terms. Of course, the ego rule described in our blog Capitalization of Job Titles could affect your decision. Regarding comma use, our Rule 1 of religion essay Commas says, “To avoid confusion, use commas to separate words and word groups with a series of and arbitration three or more.” Therefore, use commas to separate all three titles. Also, the rule in our blog Commas with Appositives states, “When an appositive is proper format for essay writing, essential to essay, the meaning of the noun it belongs to, don’t use commas.” Therefore, you do not need commas before or after Liam Johnson . Floyd Arts community member, nationally known artist, and Radford University Art Professor Liam Johnson will discuss the objectives of the meeting. Which is correct: SGS’s director of accreditation or SGS’s Director of elkins intermountain paper Accreditation. A major rule in our blog Capitalization of essay on mediation and arbitration Job Titles states, “Capitalize job titles immediately preceding the name when used as part of the name.” Many companies also capitalize job titles immediately following the name when the word the essay, does not appear in front of the job title. And Arbitration. Others prefer lowercase in those situations. SGS’s Director of Accreditation Jennifer Jackson will be the keynote speaker.
Jennifer Jackson, SGS’s director of accreditation, will be the keynote speaker. OR Jennifer Jackson, SGS’s Director of against uniforms Accreditation, will be the keynote speaker. When wrinting the minutes of a meeting, should the title of a company official be capitalized when it follows a personal name? The minutes were taken by Bryan Victorson, Secretary. The minutes were taken by Bryan Victorson, secretary. Although we do not recommend it, you will sometimes see job titles immediately following the name when the word the does not appear in essay on mediation, front of the job title.” The minutes were taken by Bryan Victorson, Secretary. How about when writing dialogue?
As in: “So what should we do?” asked the President. “I don’t know,” replied the Secretary of Defense. Should President and Secretary of Defense be capitalized? Our Rule 5 of reading Capitalization states, “Capitalize the titles of high-ranking government officials when used before their names. On Mediation And Arbitration. Do not capitalize the civil title if it is used instead of the essay, name. The president will address Congress. All senators are expected to attend. The governors, lieutenant governors, and on mediation and arbitration, attorneys general called for a special task force.
Governor Fortinbrass, Lieutenant Governor Poppins, Attorney General Dalloway, and Senators James and Twain will attend.” The same rule applies when writing dialogue. “So what should we do?” asked the president. “I don’t know,” replied the secretary of defense. I edited the titles to lowercase; I’m glad to corvette essay, know I followed the style correctly.
Your site is great. Thank you so much! We are glad that our site was helpful. My question is this: If you go on Wikipedia and see the heading: how should it be capitalised? A good one is Focal character. That’s the grammar of it.
For me, I would write it Focal Character, as it’s a adjective but referenced as a proper noun because technically it’s a name of something being explained. Wikipedia appears to follow the practice of on mediation and arbitration capitalizing only the first word of the against essay, heading and any proper nouns that may be part of the heading. On Mediation. Focal character is not a proper noun. The word focal is an adjective describing the common noun character . Please guide me regarding the proper format, usage of capitals in essay, this sentence – I visited the research paper, national park in essay on mediation, Mumbai. Question:Will it be National Park or national park? Unless you specifically name the corvette essay, national park, do not capitalize it. I visited the national park in Mumbai.
I visited Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Mumbai. When ending a sentence with chair indicating a chairperson does it need to be capitalized. Essay And Arbitration. Such as. If you should have any questions please contact the chair. Our blog Capitalization of Job Titles contains the rule “When the appears in front of the job title, do not capitalize.” Since the word “the” appears before the word “chair,” do not capitalize. What is the capitalization rule for the word “gentlemen” if you are using it to directly address a group of men in a dialogue? I know that the uniforms essay, Chicago Manual of Style says the words “sir” and “ma’am” are not capitalized, and it seems to essay on mediation and arbitration, me that the rule for “gentlemen” and proper format for essay, “ladies” would be the same (respectful forms of address).
However, there is an example in on mediation and arbitration, CMS under 8.19 that is confusing to me. That rule states, “A title used alone, in place of a personal name, is capitalized only in corvette essay, such contexts as a toast or a formal introduction or when used in direct address.” One of the examples given is: “Ladies and and arbitration, Gentlemen, the Prime Minister.” I believe “Prime Minister” is the example “of a title used alone, in place of a personal name. Essay. . .in such contexts as a . . .formal introduction”. Having said that, it is noted that in the example given, “Gentlemen” is also capitalized, and on mediation and arbitration, I would not think that it should be. Please explain whether “gentlemen” should be capitalized in the following example: “Please sit down, gentlemen,” said the vice president.
Thank you for your assistance. In keeping with the essay on nature, Associated Press’s capitalization policy, we would not recommend capitalizing “gentlemen” in essay and arbitration, “Please sit down, gentlemen.” We also would differ with “Ladies and Gentlemen, the Prime Minister.” We would make it “Ladies and gentlemen, the prime minister.” In my novel, a sister, speaking to her brother, will say something like “Where did you get that idea, kiddo?” Or “Hey, little brother, …” Little Brother or little brother? And what about addressing royalty? “Yes, your grace.” “Yes, my lord.” Or should those titles always be capitalized? Your site is fabulous! Thank you for sharing the rules and providing some great examples. Words such as “kiddo” and “little brother” are often called terms of endearment or pet names. The following question and answer about the capitalization of these names can be found in the Q#038;A section of the Associated Press Stylebook:
Q. Would you capitalize terms of endearment such as Sweetie, Pumpkin, etc.? What about calling someone “young man”? – from Anderson, Ind. on Wed, Feb 22, 2012. A. Informal terms of address are lowercase. Same for young man . Therefore, do not capitalize these names. The Chicago Manual of Style’s Rule 8.32 says, “Honorific titles and corvette essay, respectful forms of address are capitalized in any context.” They do, however, list the following exceptions to the rule:
my lord, my lady. When addressing an envelope to a family do you capitalize the word “family” or leave it lower-cased? The Larsen family or The Larsen Family. Capitalize family in an address on essay and arbitration, an envelope, but not when used in corvette essay, a sentence. The Larsen Family.
114 Main Street. Anytown, New York 10055. We saw the on mediation, Larsen family at church on Sunday. I love this blog. Thank you for this! Question: When a character in fiction is referred to solely by religion at school, a title or honorific preceded by the definite article, should that be written in lowercase? And in translations of allegorical short stories or fairy tales should “The Princess” or “The King ” also be in lowercase? (I.) The family stood in awe of “the Lady.” The Lady was was refined. The Lady was the arbitress of taste. The Lady tempered all conversation, regulated all social events.
In short, the Lady was a crashing bore. (Should “the lady” be lowercase?) (II.) The Colonel lived on an inadequate pension, but suited up each day in full regimentals and processed through town, touching his brim by on mediation, way of salutation, or removing his hat and smiling expansively whenever the Widow Esther approached. Essay On Nature. (Should “the colonel” and “the widow” be lowercase?) (III.) The Emperor banished Sister Bright Jade from the realm. But the Emperor was cursed thereafter. Essay On Mediation. (Should “the Emperor” be lowercase if the tale is entirely about research paper, him?) I’m also reminded of essay on mediation Nicholas Nikleby in reading research paper, which one of the child actors is humorously referred to as the Prodigy in multiple chapters. The Chicago Manual of Style’s rule 8.34 states,”In references to works of on mediation and arbitration drama or fiction, epithets or generic titles used in place of names are normally capitalized.” Therefore, write the Princess, the King, the reading paper, Lady, the Colonel, the Widow, the essay, Emperor, and the Prodigy. How does one capitalize and hyphenate “vice-president” in essay on nature, the list of officers on letterhead? It should be written without a hyphen: “Vice President.” Can you please address the use of and arbitration commas in titles for business card use, i.e. our VP requests in the line under his name that I remove the elkins intermountain, comma between Vice President and on mediation, Business Development, so it is simply Vice President Business Development rather than Vice President. Essay On Nature. Business Development. And Arbitration. Is this a new or acceptable style for business cards?
I cannot find a source to address this format question. And when I apply this format to other titles, it seems more obviously wrong, i.e. Director Recruiting instead of essay Director, Recruiting. Thanks for this helpful website. Correction: …so it is simply Vice President Business Development rather than Vice President, Business Development. Although we have not been able to find any coverage of business cards in the leading style manuals, perhaps we can draw upon the principle of consistency as well as the “ego rule” mentioned in essay, our blog, Capitalization of at school Job Titles. We have commonly seen such titles in the form “Vice President of Business Development.” A comma could be considered a replacement for essay and arbitration the word of essay on nature . Essay And Arbitration. Our preference would be “Vice President of against essay Business Development” or “Vice President, Business Development.” However, our ego rule generally applied says that you may have to ignore some rules in real life. On Mediation And Arbitration. If someone in religion at school essay, your office (as in essay on mediation, your boss) wants his or her title written in against essay, a certain way, then do so. For consistency, however, it would be best if your company decided on a format and essay on mediation and arbitration, stuck to it. Do you capitalize Ron Goodman, The Treasure of Senior Class for a high school student?
When the word the reading research, appears in front of a title, do not capitalize. Senior class should not be capitalized unless a specific senior class is named, making it a proper noun. Ron Goodman, the essay on mediation, treasurer of senior class. Ron Goodman, Treasurer of Washington High Senior Class of 2013. Which is the correct form when addressing royalty in essay, writing: “Yes, my King.” or “Yes, My King.” Your site is essay and arbitration, a font of essay on nature information, and I hope you can help. After performing an essay on mediation and arbitration internet search for “how to essay, address royalty in writing,” we have concluded that this is an area of specialized expertise about which we are not qualified to essay on mediation, give advice. Elkins. What we did find on a couple of sites was the recommendation to use “Your Majesty.” Iam having trouble in this sentence Do you think he will be our next Vice President? Why is vice president capitalized? Since the title is not part of a name, it should not be capitalized.
Do you think he will be our next vice president? I’m writing a screenplay where one of the character’s names is the number 251. What would you do in this situation? What should I do when the name 251 is at the beginning of the on mediation, sentence? I know this kind of encompasses the rules with numbers but there is format for essay writing, no where to as a question on that page. There are no grammar rules for numbers as names.
Our Rule 16 of Writing Numbers states, “Write out a number if it begins a sentence.” That does not seem like a good idea if the number is a character’s name since that would essentially be changing the “spelling” of the and arbitration, name. Religion At School Essay. Since you are the author of the screenplay, you can set your own rules and be consistent. For instance, how does this person pronounce his or her name? Is it “two hundred fifty-one”? “two fifty-one”? “two five one”? Or is it something else? At the beginning of on mediation a sentence, you can decide whether or not to write the name out as an alternative to “251.” Just be consistent throughout the screenplay.
Im writing a paper about Governor Bobby Jindal I am not sure if I need to capitalize “This is the governors last term and ………. Thanks in advance. PS I’m thinking that it should be lower case but I am just not sure. Our Rule 5 of research Capitalization states, “Capitalize the titles of high-ranking government officials when used before their names. Do not capitalize the civil title if it is used instead of the name.” Therefore, do not capitalize “the governor’s last term . On Mediation. . .” As Principal-in-Charge of the chemical engineering portion of this project, Bill will ultimately… Would you capialize “Principal-in-Charge”? Since the job title is not used as part of a name or as a direct address, do not capitalize.
In a press release, when writing John Doe has been promoted to Executive Vice President – is that title initial capped or not? Since the job title is not used as part of a name or as a direct address, it would not usually be capitalized. The Chicago Manual of Style does, however, note in its Rule 8.1 that “In certain nonacademic contexts—e.g., a press release—such terms as president may be capitalized.” I cannot find a source for this question about the capitalization of titles in direct discourse. “Thank you, detective” or “Will I survive, doctor?” We would capitalize in these case: “Hello, Senator,” and against, “Yes, General.” But what about the first two instances here? Thanks! I’m glad I found this site. We recommend capitalizing Doctor when it is essay, used as a direct address. Will you take my temperature, Doctor? Therefore, write the following:
Thank you, Detective. Will I survive, Doctor? I am a court reporter and essay on nature, looked at essay on mediation and arbitration Rule 6 of Capitalization: “Capitalize any title when used as a direct address.” (nominative of address) — Well, I have an issue in dialogue QA — using Ma’am instead of witness/deponent’s name — e.g. “Do you know the difference between a guess and an estimate, Ma’am?” (My belief “Ma’am” is used instead of her name – in reading research paper, this case, Ms. Flores – and it is essay, therefore a noun of address throughout, and should be initial capitalized on direct address. Corvette Essay. These are go-arounds between my proofer and on mediation and arbitration, myself, the reporter?? What say you, Ms.
Jane? The Chicago Manual of Style’s Rule 8.32, dealing with honorific titles and respectful forms of address, specifically states that the words sir and ma’am are lowercased. Since these words are primarily used as a direct address, we would follow Chicago ‘s rule. I am writing in against uniforms in schools, an essay in which I want to use the following phrase: “Under the Presidency of Barack Obama” “Under the Presidency of President Barack Obama” Which one is the correct way to make the statement and capitalize it? Write “under the presidency of Barack Obama.” I just wanted to on mediation, point out that the religion, capitalization of essay and arbitration days of the week and months was not included on the website. As a Canadian who uses French as well, which doesn’t capitalize such words, I second-guessed my intuition that we do indeed capitalize such words in intermountain, English.
If I am not the essay on mediation, only one, then others might find it important to have this rule included. You are right, this is not mentioned on corvette essay, the website. However, your timing is just right. We are preparing a new edition of The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation and will be revising the on mediation and arbitration, website accordingly. Elkins Intermountain. Capitalization of days of the week and the names of months will be included in the new edition. I am updating a policy. The sentence says “If the oxygen level falls below 150 inches, the Administrator on Call will be notified.” Is this correct? Since the job title “administrator on call” is not used as part of a name or as a direct address, do not capitalize. “If the essay on mediation and arbitration, oxygen level falls below 150 inches, the administrator on call will be notified.” Being a forefront player in intermountain, the interior industry in Bangalore, we decorate the surroundings of Offices/Houses which exemplifies creativity in every sense of the word and and arbitration, create ambience that is impressive and inspiring to all. Being a forefront player in corvette essay, the interior industry in Bangalore, It decorates the surroundings of Offices/Houses which exemplifies creativity in every sense of the word and essay on mediation, create ambience that is impressive and against uniforms, inspiring to all.
Which one is correct? (After Bangalore, it/we) Sir, kindly elaborate it. Use “as” rather than “being” to introduce your sentence. Also, instead of “a forefront player,” you need to and arbitration, use the plural noun “forefront players” to uniforms essay, agree with the pronoun “we.” The verbs must all agree with “we,” therefore write “decorate,” “exemplify,” and “create.” There is no need to capitalize the words “offices” or “houses.” Add commas after “houses” and “word,” and insert the article “an” in front of essay on mediation “ambience.” Thank you. It was really helpful. You are welcome.
Thanks for your great advice! Looking for guidance on when to elkins intermountain paper, capitalize titles of certified professionals. For example, one may go through a certification process to on mediation and arbitration, become a CPST, which stands for reading Child Passenger Safety Technician, or a CPSTI, which stands for Child Passenger Safety Instructor. If you aren’t using the title with a person’s name, should Instructor and Technician be capitlaized? For example, “CPS Technicians and Instructors put their knowledge to essay on mediation, work through a variety of community based activities.” “In order to become a CPS Technician, you’ll need to pass the CPS Certification Course.”
If you are not using the title with a person’s name, the term should not be capitalized. We assume that “CPS Certification Course” is the official name of the course and therefore should be capitalized. CPS technicians and instructors put their knowledge to work through a variety of community-based activities. In order to become a CPS technician, you’ll need to pass the CPS Certification Course. Williams, Inc. was founded in 1991 by my father, David Williams (Chairman of the Board). *Does “father” need to be capitalized in format writing, this instance? Rule 2 in on mediation and arbitration, our blog Kinship Names: To Capitalize or Not to Capitalize? says, “Do not capitalize a kinship name when it is not part of the personal name but is a word describing the personal name.
This usually occurs when the kinship name is preceded by articles such as the, a, or an ; or possessive pronouns such as his, her, my, our , or their.” Therefore, write “Williams, Inc. was founded in 1991 by my father, David Williams (chairman of the essay on nature, board).” Titles are customarily lowercase except directly in front of a name. Should the following titles in the sentences below be capitalized? BTW – there is essay on mediation and arbitration, no period since the sentences are bulleted. The account executive and the subject matter expert will provided the proposed facility and proposed solution (if the solution has not been determined, the corvette essay, kickoff call may need to on mediation and arbitration, be delayed) The Account Executive and uniforms in schools, the Subject Matter Expert will provided the and arbitration, proposed facility and proposed solution (if the format for essay writing, solution has not been determined, the kickoff call may need to be delayed) The Proposal Manager and on mediation and arbitration, the Account Executive will identify a win strategy to incorporate throughout the writing, proposal response. Titles should only essay and arbitration be capitalized if they precede a proper name when used as part of the name. Uniforms In Schools. Some authorities also capitalize titles if they immediately follow the name without the word “the.” However, the Associated Press Stylebook does not recommend capitals in that case. I’ve a few examples that are troubling me – have I dealt with them correctly? – Physician Su was promoted to the position of Deputy Manager of the hospital’s Administrative Department.
– It was even predicted that he might one day become Deputy Director of Human Resources. – They discussed the issue at the annual meeting of the hospital’s permanent committee. – From 7:30 to 9:30am he had breakfast and meetings with important guests such as the hotel director or manager, the head of the local construction department, the head of the and arbitration, local real estate department, the vice director of the town’s trust fund and so on. Capitalization has a lot of gray areas. The rule of essay thumb is to lowercase job titles when not used with names.
Therefore, we recommend not capitalizing deputy manager or deputy director of human resources. (This rule is often overlooked in promotional materials.) We also suggest lowercase for the generic-sounding administrative department , since all hospitals have administrative departments. Your third sentence is correct. In your last sentence, we’d put a space after 9:30 and a comma after am . Essay On Mediation And Arbitration. The phrase “and so on” seems unnecessary. You may want to simply put “and” before “the vice director” and end the sentence after the elkins, word fund. Physician Su was promoted to the position of deputy manager of the hospital’s administrative department.
It was even predicted that he might one day become deputy director of on mediation and arbitration human resources. From 7:30 to 9:30 am, he had breakfast and meetings with important guests such as the hotel director or manager, the head of the local construction department, the head of the local real estate department, and the vice director of the town’s trust fund. In the sentence, “I talked to FBI agents Brown and Smith yesterday.”, should “agents” be capitalized? This is a close call, but we see agent as a job description, not a title, so we recommend lowercase in reading research, your sentence. However, in a sentence like We saw Agent Smith , we think most writers would opt for a capital A . When I say John Doe, Secretary pro tem, of the organization. Is “pro tem” capitalized? Some editors capitalize pro essay on mediation and arbitration, tem , while others do not. I know that when referring to a family member in a sentence such as “My husband went to town,” the word “husband” is a common noun and is therefore not capitalized.
However, what if a wife in a work of fiction directly addresses her husband in this fashion, “My lord husband …”, should it be as I wrote it, or, since the wife is speaking directly to elkins intermountain, the husband, should it be, “My Lord Husband” or “My lord Husband”? And obviously, “my” is capped here because it starts the sentence, but if the phrase is in the middle of essay a sentence, would “my” ever be capped? Thank you for clarifying these gray areas. This is a gray area indeed. Would you have similar problems with “my dear husband”? If “my lord husband” is used as a direct address, some writers may well use capitals, but many would not. “The art teacher complemented the at school essay, students on the good job they did dyeing their T-shirts.”
“The Art teacher complemented the on mediation, students on the good job they did dyeing their T-shirts.” Since the job title is not used as part of a person’s name, do not capitalize. Also, the word complimented is not spelled correctly. The art teacher complimented the students on the good job they did dyeing their T-shirts. Would you capitalize “clan” such as Masrur of the Fanalis Clan? Or Masrur of the Fanalis clan? Following The Chicago Manual of essay on nature Style’s example of “a Ouachita tribe member,” we recommend “Masrur of the and arbitration, Fanalis clan.” During dialogue,where no name is invoked should the proper format for essay writing, title captain be capitalized or not? Capitalize formal titles when used as a direct address.
Please let me know which is the correct way to sign the title as acting president of on mediation a local college: 1. John Doe, acting President; 2. John Doe, Acting President; 3. Corvette Essay. John Doe, President (Acting); 4. John Doe, President (acting). Thank you for on mediation and arbitration your help, your lessons are valuable. There are several guidelines and reading, rules to consider in responding to your question. We recently revised our blog “When to essay on mediation, Capitalize People’s Titles” to reflect that titles may be either capitalized or lowercased in the complimentary close of a letter. Corvette Essay. However, when considering the “acting” portion of the signature line you are considering, our Grammar Rules for Capitalization section advises that occupations or job descriptions are not the essay on mediation, same as titles and should not be capitalized.
Finally, our blog “Capitalization of Job Titles” alerts us to the “ego rule” where, if someone in your office (as in your boss) wants his or her title capitalized in all situations, then do so. Therefore, you have three options (whether you place “acting” or “Acting” in parentheses after the name or not is up to you): Valuable read as always. Love your blog. I do some editorial work for digital marketers and keep coming across use of writing capitals when it comes to essay on mediation, their titles. An example would be: The next ORIAN Workshop is quickly approaching and if you’ve received this email, you are eligible to corvette essay, attend! As you already know, the ORIAN Membership is designed to essay, take you from Digital Marketer to Digital Brand Expert. Question: In this case would you capitalize: “workshop”, “membership”, “digital marketer”, and “digital brand expert”?
Appreciate any tips. Thank you! We are glad you find our blog valuable. We do not recommend capitalizing any of those terms. It is common for companies to use capital letters for corvette essay their various job titles and departments, but that doesn’t mean you have to. I sit on a bylaws and policy committee for on mediation an organization to which I belong and we are in the process of uniforms in schools essay reviewing both documents. On Mediation And Arbitration. We have had some lively discussions about capitalization of titles. An example would be: The elected officers of the uniforms, FCBR shall be: a President, President-Elect, Treasurer and a Secretary. The governing body of the FCBR shall be a Board of Directors consisting of the President, President-Elect, Treasurer, Secretary, the Immediate Past President and seven (7) elected REALTOR® Members of the FCBR.
If you could give me an essay example of how the sentence should be structured so I could take it back to the committee, I would appreciate it. Thank you for your help. The elected officers of the FCBR shall be: a president, president-elect, treasurer, and secretary. The governing body of the FCBR shall be a board of directors consisting of the president, president-elect, treasurer, secretary, the essay on nature, immediate past president, and seven (7) elected REALTOR® members of the FCBR. Hi, Thank you for this post. Essay On Mediation. I’m writing an corvette essay article about the mayor of essay on mediation our county. At the beginning I refer to him by name.
Throughout the article do I capitalize his title if I’m using it instead of his name? “This article is about Mayor John Doe. The Mayor (or mayor?) was born in reading research paper, 1947. He went to school locally. The Mayor (or mayor?) was a good sport while I was interviewing him….” We do not recommend capitalizing “mayor” if it is used instead of the on mediation, name. I have a similar question to the previous one, only this time it’s about whether to against in schools essay, capitalize the word “park” after naming a specific park earlier in the document. “Visitors come to Grand Canyon National Park for many reasons, including to enjoy the beautiful Colorado River. Essay. The Park recently released a study about the health of the river, which found that…” Is park capitalized in the 2nd sentence?
Would your answer be the same if “the Park” was a couple of sentences later? Capitalization is fraught with gray areas. If you are working on government documents or representing a government agency, our blog Capitalization of Governmental Words says, “When you refer back to elkins, a proper noun using a shortened version of the original name, you may capitalize it.” Therefore, the author has some leeway in essay on mediation, government work. However, we generally tend to side with the AP Stylebook and would recommend not capitalizing in this instance. Not to get too technical here, but is it really “the park” or even “Grand Canyon National Park” that issued the report, or should it be the National Park Service that issued the report? When writing dialogue, and against uniforms essay, a character addresses another using a term of endearment such as Hey beautiful, or using any other term to essay and arbitration, address them, other than their proper name, should that term be capitalized? Informal terms of address are usually lowercase. I know to lowercase occupations before full names, but what if the occupation comes before just a surname? If the corvette essay, title and name are used as a direct address, it should be capitalized.
The word owner sounds more like a description rather than a job title or occupation. We cannot imagine addressing someone as “Owner Smith.” Similarly, “Director Spielberg” is not a form of address we’re likely to see either. Examples: Do we have a game on essay on mediation and arbitration, Saturday, Coach Sykes? When is the research paper due, Professor Ames? Our blog Capitalization of Job Titles says, “Capitalize job titles immediately preceding the name when used as part of the research, name. Example: We asked Chairperson Leong to join us at essay on mediation the meeting .” in the corvette essay, case of the classification. for example, assume there were different classifications of on mediation and arbitration druids, call them levels or ranks if you will. so one class if purifier druids; another class is corvette essay, necrotic druids; another class is defiler druids… my question is this: is the word ‘druid’ supposed to be capitalized; or, is the word denoting the essay and arbitration, druid’s classification supposed to paper, be capitalized? or… weird thought, should they both be capitalized? P.S. this question is in relation to a fantasy novel series that i am writing.
Thank you for your time; it is much appreciated. Based on the information you provided, we do not recommend capitalizing either word. If using the word “child” as a title of endearment, can it not be capitalized in the middle or end of the sentence? [“Come here, Child.”] It does follow the same placement and function as “dear” or “sweetie” when used in that manner. On Mediation. It replaces the name of the child, and the child is being addressed with it. This has sparked some debate between another writer and I.
The word child in your example sentence is considered a “term of endearment,” and it is usually not capitalized, even when used as a direct address. When writing a title after a proper noun, in this case a company name, should the title be capitalized? ex. “Contact your Facebook Account Manager for details.” Only the format, proper noun is capitalized, unless it is a job title immediately preceding a name when used as part of the and arbitration, name. “Contact your Facebook account manager for details.” Sorry if this has been answered previously, but would ‘officer’ or ‘mayor’ be capitalized? As per say, ‘Officer John,’ or ‘the mayor would like to see you.’ May you please explain when are appropriate times to capitalize? Our blog Capitalization of Job Titles explains these capitalization rules in further detail. One of the rules in essay on nature, that blog says, “Capitalize job titles immediately preceding the on mediation, name when used as part of the elkins intermountain paper, name.” Therefore, it is essay, correct to write “Officer John.” Another rule says, “When the appears in proper format, front of the and arbitration, job title, do not capitalize.” Therefore, write “The mayor would like to see you.” I often have to against uniforms in schools essay, refer to on mediation, an individual in my writing who is both a Reverend and who holds a Doctoral degree.
He prefers to be addressed as Rev. Dr. in formal communications. I’m trying to essay on nature, figure out if I’m supposed to essay on mediation and arbitration, use any punctuation in a sentence referencing the person. For example, “Rev. Dr. Elkins Intermountain Paper. Ronald Fast will be speaking at…” The periods used in the abbreviations are the only punctuation marks required.
You may also wish to see our entry for the word “Reverend” in our Confusing Words and and arbitration, Homonyms section. Here is a line from an paper article: “This music is on mediation, as seductive as any on the planet,” says St. Louis Symphony Orchestra Music Director David Robertson. I presume that, because of the rules above, “Music Director” stays as it is? Could you explain how is “Dad” a title? “Music Director” is correctly capitalized in your example. (See our Rule 4 of Capitalization) Dad becomes a title when it is used in place of a personal name. Paper. (see our Rule 1 in the blog Kinship Names: To Capitalize or Not to Capitalize?) Please help.
I am sending a cover letter and essay and arbitration, I am unsure if I should capitalize child study team, Washington school secretary and Director of Special services in my opening paragraph. Please read below. “Energetic Administrative Assistant that is dedicated and focused. Has accrued three years experience in a staff support role for the child study team, Washington School secretary and Director of Special Services. Excels at religion at school prioritizing, completing multiple tasks and on mediation and arbitration, following through to achieve project goals. Essay On Nature. Personable attitude while maintaining open lines of essay and arbitration communication among child study team members, district secretaries, teachers and related service providers.” Also, I have included on my resume’ this bullet point, “Multidisciplinary team; OT, PT Speech, Behaviorist, Social Workers and Psychologists.” Should these titles be capitalized? I really appreciate your website. It is so valuable. We noticed that your paragraph for the cover letter is made up of incomplete sentences.
We recommend writing a cover letter in formal prose with complete sentences. If you are not using a job title with a person’s name, the term should not be capitalized. Therefore, write “administrative assistant,” “Washington School secretary” and “director of special services.” We see no reason to at school essay, capitalize “child study team.” Capitalization and punctuation are optional when using single words or phrases in essay on mediation and arbitration, bulleted form on a resume. When writing a formal letter and religion at school, placing the recipient’s name and title at the top of the letter above the recipient’s address, which is correct? John Smith, President. or John Smith, president. As the blog states, “We recommend capitalizing a person’s title when it follows the name on the address or signature line.” But what about in dialog, when a character is talking to essay and arbitration, a police officer? As is, “Good morning, Officer.” “Will do, Officer.” The officer’s name is used in at school essay, the text but not the dialog, so the essay on mediation and arbitration, characters presumably don’t know his name and aren’t familiar with him.
Help! As noted in Rule 6a of at school essay Capitalization, “Capitalize a formal title when it is used as a direct address.” The word Officer is used as a direct address in your example, therefore it is capitalized. And Arbitration. But it’s important to note that there are some direct-address terms that are discretionary, and many writers would not capitalize them. Research. Examples: my friend, darling, dude, old buddy . The more formal the title, the more likely it is to be capped. “Hello Good Doctors,” Capitalize Good and Doctors? In a letter heading, put a comma after “Hello” and capitalize “Good Doctors.” Otherwise, we would not use caps. Is this correctly capitalized, “In 2000, she was promoted to dean of the mathematics department and in 2004 she was named the Dean of Planning, Research, and Development,” since “Dean of Planning, Research, and on mediation and arbitration, Development” is religion, what she was named? The rule in our post Capitalization of Job Titles says, “When the appears in front of the essay on mediation and arbitration, job title, do not capitalize.” “In 2000, she was promoted to dean of the mathematics department and in 2004 she was named the dean of planning, research, and development.” I understand the rule about not capitalizing a title after the word “the.” What about the word “our,” i.e., ….I will forward your request to our executive director.” Should the title be capitalized in elkins paper, this case? In the post above I neglected to mention the use of the name following the title. Essay. “I will forward your request to religion essay, our executive director, Jack Marson.” If the essay on mediation, name of the person follows the title, do you capitalize the title?
The same rules would apply to titles with “our” as with “the.” Do not capitalize, even if the name of the person follows the title, if the name is preceded by a comma. When writing reports, I’m pretty sure that “the suspect” and “the victim” do not need to essay on nature, be capitalized; however, when we start to refer to them more specifically, such as, “Suspect #1” and “Victim #2” I am unsure whether or not they should be capitalized. On Mediation And Arbitration. Please help! In “suspect No. 1” and “victim No.
2” the only thing that needs to intermountain, be capped is the N in “No.,” the essay on mediation and arbitration, abbreviation of number (unless the use of “#” is standard for your purposes). Greetings of the day ! I would like to corvette essay, ask whether we should capitalize the on mediation, first letter of the principal in a sentence below : I would like to see Principal Eric, please? Is the quotation mark below correct : “Where is the book ?,” asked Ramly. Our post “Capitalization of Job Titles” says, “Capitalize job titles immediately preceding the name when used as part of the name.” Therefore, capitalize Principal in essay on nature, your sentence. Also, the sentence is essay, not a question, and the comma is unnecessary. Write “I would like to proper format for essay writing, see Principal Eric please.” Your quotation should be written as follows, with the question mark replacing the comma: “Where is the book?” asked Ramly. If writing “Captain Ruso walked in the door. He held a brief meeting. As the captain left the room everyone clapped.
Would I capitalize captain in “As the Captain left the room. The rule in our post Capitalization of Job Titles says, “When the appears in front of the on mediation, job title, do not capitalize.” What if you were running for essay on nature a role such as school captain or student body president? Would you write the and arbitration, following: I am runnig for student body president. Or would it be capitalised? Do not capitalize. See our post Capitalization of Job Titles for research more information. I am writing a paper and I using phrases such as, “My goal is to on mediation and arbitration, become chief financial officer.
Does chief financial officer need to be capitalized? It does not need to be capitalized in that particular sentence. Thanks for this. Exactly the answer I was looking for, and CMOS wasn’t much help. For use in a cv, how would it be capitalized;
John Doe, Consultant in Charge of religion Suppliers. John Doe, Consultant in charge of on mediation Suppliers. And a second question, how would you capitalize “in charge of” in a headline? Thanks a lot for your help. Titles should be lowercased unless they are followed directly by a name according to The Chicago Manual of Style and The AP Stylebook . However, people often take liberties with capitalization in resumes and CVs. We do not recommend capitalizing the phrase “in charge of religion essay suppliers.” We need to see the headline in its entirety to give advice on capitalization. I write letters for on mediation and arbitration a physician. In the middle of the text, is it Dr.
Doe, pulmonologist, or Dr. Doe, Pulmonologist? Thank you. Titles immediately following the name do not ordinarily require capitalization. I would like to know whether the proper format for essay writing, professional title in the following sentence should be capitalized:
I was appointed/elected Secretary General of the union. Your quick response will be greatly appreciated. The rule of thumb is to essay, lowercase titles when not used with names. Therefore, we recommend not capitalizing secretary general. Please clarify the capitalization of the religion at school essay, word “team” in the following. Essay On Mediation. Which is correct: A) The Marketing Team is reading research paper, responsible for managing… B) The marketing team is responsible for essay on mediation and arbitration managing… Thank you for religion at school essay answering our questions! I’ve read through all the questions on this blog category and am still confused if I should capitalize the words “sir” or “ma’am” when used as a direct address.
“He took the money and said, “Thank you, sir.” Is this correct? Is it a term of endearment? It’s not a term of essay and arbitration kinship. What category does it fall into? It occurs to me that it could be a description of uniforms in schools sorts, as in “Kind sir, please accept my apology.” How about “Nice to meet you, fine lady!” Thank you in essay, advance! The Chicago Manual of Style does not recommend capitalizing the word sir. We consider fine lady a term of endearment and would not capitalize.
Should it be: Nice speech, Mayor. Elkins Intermountain. or Nice speech, mayor. And Arbitration. ? The final rule in this blog post says, “Capitalize a title when used as a direct address even when the uniforms essay, person is not named.” Therefore, write “Nice speech, Mayor.” do you capitalize the word attorney when referring to a specific attorney? Example: This letter is on mediation, a follow up to your conversation with Attorney Jane Doe. This may be considered a gray area to some, but “attorney” is more of a job description than a title. In Schools Essay. (You wouldn’t say Attorney Doe the way you’d say Mayor Doe.) We recommend lowercase. The Squadron imparts training on Armament subjects to ab-initio trainees of Weapon Fitter trade and is headed by Squadron Commander of the rank of on mediation and arbitration Wing Commander. The query is whether the usage of capital is religion at school, justified.. We see no reason to capitalize the terms. What about and arbitration, this example, from the “praise” section of a book’s front matter (“professor emeritus” here):
“I recommend this excellent book.” —T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D., Jacob Gould Sherman Professor Emeritus of Nutritional Biochemistry, Cornell University. Titles immediately following the name do not ordinarily require capitalization, however, some spelled-out terms that should not be capitalized in normal prose are often capitalized in promotional materials. We would lowercase the area of reading paper study. Essay And Arbitration. Also, upon research it seems that the spelling should be Jacob Gould Schurman. I work at a school where an English teacher consistently capitalizes the religion, grade level of essay and arbitration students, ex.: “Last week Seniors Joe Smith and Suzy Lou and Juniors Bobby Jones and Nancy Drew…” I insist that this is incorrect, but she insists it is writing, correct. Essay. Can you please clarify? You are correct. The Chicago Manual of Style’s Rule 8.28 gives the following recommedation: Terms denoting student status are lowercased.
freshman or first-year student. The Chicago Manual of Style does not address the capitalization of a second word in a hyphenated kinship name such as “great-grandmother.” I found the answer I needed among your questions and responses above. Thank you for providing useful, tactful responses! How about in news post for a law firm? (like announcing awards, meetings, presentations, etc) In each post, we start off with the firm’s name, attorney title, then the attorneys name. Do I capitalize Attorney following the essay on nature, persons name? Ex. XYZ Attorney John Smith presented zada zada on zada zada. Ex. XYZ Attorneys John Smith and and arbitration, Mary Jane secured a victory for zada zada on corvette essay, zada zada.
Am I getting it? Our post Capitalization of Job Titles says, “Capitalize job titles immediately preceding the name when used as part of the name,” and “Titles immediately following the name do not ordinarily require capitalization.” Since the job titles in your example sentences immediately precede the names, the words Attorney and on mediation, Attorneys are capitalized. However, if following the for essay, name, you would write: John Smith, attorney for XY#038;Z, presented zada zada … Here’s an unusual one: What if a homeless man goes by the moniker, “The Mayor of Palisades Park”? Would you refer to him as the Mayor, or would it be lowercase mayor even if Mayor is the only name he goes by?
The Chicago Manual of Style’s Rule 8.33 says, “A descriptive or characterizing word or phrase used as part of, or instead of, a person’s name is capitalized. A the used as part of such a name is not capitalized (except, e.g., at the beginning of a sentence). How would you capitalize the following uses of essay on mediation board: “President John Smith welcomed Mr. Jones to corvette essay, the board.” Also, “The board announced the appointment of on mediation a new trustee, Bill Jones.” One more example. “ABC, Inc. announced the appointment of Bill Jones to its Board of Directors.” We see no reason to capitalize board or board of directors in your sentences.
I would capitalize the Board of at school essay Directors as opposed to ‘a board of directors’ because the former is an entity while the latter could apply to anyone. Generic terms associated with governmental bodies are generally lowercased; however, the full names of institutions, groups, companies, and the names of their departments are capitalized. The Chicago Manual of Style uses the following example to show the difference: the Board of Trustees of the University of Chicago; the essay, board of trustees; the board. When replacing a proper name with a job title or generic reference do you capitalize the replacement? Example: Borrower came into corvette essay Bank to speak with Loan Officer. (Sue came into South Side Bank to speak to Terri). We would not capitalize the on mediation and arbitration, terms in your sentence. I am an investigator. I write my reports in essay on nature, 3rd person, so I often will refer to myself as “This Investigator.” For instance, “While speaking with the subject, this Investigator observed their speech to be slurred and on mediation, their movements slow.” Or, “This Investigator noted many inconsistencies in the witness’ statement.” Is it proper to in schools essay, capitalize “investigator” since I’m referring to myself? Our post Capitalization of Job Titles says, “When the appears in front of the essay on mediation, job title, do not capitalize.” The same is true when this appears in proper writing, front of on mediation and arbitration a job title. Therefore, we do not recommend captializing “this investigator.”
Also, our Rule 11 of Pronouns says, “The use of they and their with singular pronouns is frowned upon by many traditionalists. To be consistent, it is a good practice to try to essay, avoid they and its variants (e.g., them, their, themselves ) with previously singular nouns or pronouns.” Since the word witness is and arbitration, singular, we recommend specifying the at school essay, gender using his or her. If you wish to avoid both pronoun disagreement and disclosure of gender, you could adjust your sentence to “While speaking with the essay on mediation and arbitration, subject, this investigator observed slurred speech and slow movements.”
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Mediation and Arbitration Essay Sample
Cosmetics Manufacturing Business Plan. Bluespa distributes quality personal care products, fitness apparel and related accessories. This is accomplished through a combination of company-owned retail outlets and wholesale distribution. The initial launch for skin care products will be our Water range. The products in this range have been developed in our labs in Brittany. Essay? The Brehat archipelago is unique in the entire world for its wide range of corvette essay sea algae and seaweed. For four billion years the warm waters of the essay on mediation Gulf Stream have been flowing north along the French coast creating a unique ecosystem. The details of our product development and the relationship between the sea and the human body will be explained in greater detail in the marketing section. Against In Schools Essay? In this section we intend only to essay on mediation and arbitration, define the initial product range, each products benefits and our pricing strategy.
Our methodology in choosing the elkins intermountain paper water range for our initial launch is essay based on reading paper two primary issues: The benefits of thalasso treatment are just coming to light in America. Our name and logo make this launch of products from the sea a natural. We will be able to develop a meaningful and moving product story through this relationship. Purpose: Finishes cleansing and leaves skin perfectly clean. Relieves, soothes and softens skin. Essay? Reactivates the physiologic epidermis' functions. Prepares the against uniforms skin for on mediation, make up.
Hydrates the entire upper layer of corvette essay epidermis. Primary ingredients: Corallina officinalis contains trace elements of and arbitration marine minerals and in excess of corvette essay 300 enzymes. They promote elasticity of the dermis' structural fibers (keratogenesis). This ingredient prepares the skin for cosmetics. Critmum maritimum extract adds purifying and essay on mediation regenerating properties. Rose water contributes a relaxing effect.
Use: Spray on corvette essay nightly after make up removal and before applying night creams or during the day to relieve stress and brighten the essay on mediation complexion. Eye makeup remover. Purpose: Removes eye make up. Soothes and relieves sensitive skin in eye area. Fortifies eyelashes. Primary ingredients: Rhodophycea extract promotes remineralization and hydration of format for essay skin while fortifying eyelashes. Rose water to tone sensitive skin while soothing and relieving eye shadows. Use: Soak on cotton ball lightly and gently apply on eyelids to remove make up. Purpose: Soothes skin during make up removal. Gently removes impurities from the skin without damaging the epidermis hydrolipidic film. Primary Ingredients: Crithmum maritimum extract is rich in essential oils with regenerating and anti-inflammatory properties.
Shea butter to nourish the skin and add suppleness. Palm oil and Groundnut oil act as cleansing agents and essay on mediation soothe the corvette essay skin. Skin types: Sensitive, delicate and essay and arbitration mature skins--gentle enough to be suitable for use as a baby cream. Use: Apply on face and neck nightly to remove make up. Finish with Biocatalyst Tonic. Multi protection day cream. Purpose: Acts like a second skin.
Penetrates deep into epidermis to insure protection, promote elasticity and improve suppleness. Clarifies skin while soothing and hydrating. Primary ingredients: Ulva lactuca extract, a fragile green algae that can resist wave pressure up to 20 tons per cubic centimeter because of an elastic fiber network similar to elastin. This extract provides hydrating and protective properties that protect against our increasingly aggressive environment. Shea butter nourishes skin and acts against dehydration.
Skin types: Dry and Normal. Use: Gently massage a few drops onto clean and toned skin each morning. Regenerating facial scrub (micro marbles) Purpose: Cleans off dead skin cells to promote regeneration of healthy new cells. Enlightens complexion and imparts radiance to the skin. Softens and essay on nature purifies the essay on mediation epidermis. Primary ingredients: Spherical micro-marbles exfoliate without causing irritation. Religion? Crithmun maritimum extract purifies epidermis and boosts cell regeneration. Use: Every other week for essay on mediation, dry and sensitive skins, weekly for oily and proper writing normal skin types.
Apply gently on clean skin, rinse with water and apply Biocatalyst Tonic. Hydrating Cream Mask. Purpose: Softens skin. Provides equilibrium for cutaneous functions. Regenerates, while providing firmness. Maintains hydration of the epidermis. Primary ingredients: Ulva lactuca extract is essay on mediation efficient in fighting skin slackening. Codium tomentosum extract provides long-lasting deep hydration of the upper epidermal layer. Enriched vitamin A, for skin regeneration. Skin types: Is suitable for research, all skin types but most beneficial for sensitive skin. Use: Apply on face, around eye contour area and on the neck after a gentle exfoliation.
Allow to settle for three to five minutes, then wipe off excess with a soft tissue. Purifying Cream Mask. Purpose: Smoothes skin. Regenerates, enlightens and firms the skin. Deep cleans the essay skin, while purifying and balancing the sebaceous functions. Maintains hydration of the upper layers of the epidermis. Primary ingredients: Laminaria digitata extract. Corvette Essay? This brown algae has anti-lipasic and sebostatic activities to fight against inflammation and regulate sebaceous secretions. Critmum maritimum extract rich in essential oils that purify the epidermis and boost cellular regeneration. Vitamin A palmitate, to reinforce suppleness.
Skin types: Oily and combination skins. Use: Apply on face (except eye area) and neck after a peeling or when skin is tired. Essay On Mediation And Arbitration? Allow to at school, settle for five to seven minutes, then gently remove excess. Purpose: Forms a polymeric mask that cleans the skin and lightens the on mediation and arbitration complexion. Primary ingredients: Diatomaceous micro algae, Corallina officinalis and Laminaria sp. Essay On Nature? combine to increase cell metabolism. Use: Apply to face weekly. Leave on the face approximately ten minutes then peel off starting from the neck. Royal sea cream (remineralizing face, body and hair algae mask)
Purpose: Toning, relaxing, remineralizing and detoxifying for the face, body and essay on mediation and arbitration hair. Research Paper? Used as a hair mask it nourishes the bulb, soothes the scalp and strengthens the hair shaft. Applied on the body it becomes a remineralizing source. Primary ingredients: Rhodophycea and Pheophycea provide minerals necessary to improve metabolism and elasticity of essay on mediation and arbitration skin fibers. In addition they aid in the elimination of religion at school skin toxins. Red seaweed adds hydrating properties to the upper epidermal layer that are essential to skin suppleness. Use: Weekly apply product in thick layers, leave on for ten to fifteen minutes. Essay On Mediation And Arbitration? Finish with a shower or a shampoo.
Body lotion (intensive hydration) Purpose: Fights dryness, restores and maintains hydrolipidic film, nourishes, regenerates, prevents aging and improves elasticity. Protects skin from the essay harsh environment. On Mediation? Leaves the skin firm and smooth. Primary ingredients: A powerful marine osmoregulator extracted from green seaweed and elkins paper Chondrus crispus extract maintain an in-depth long-term hydration rate of the epidermis. Carraghenans work on the skins surface with the and arbitration skins natural proteins to create a protective film. Vegetable oil from Karite butter increases cell regeneration and reading research paper insures suppleness.
Use: Apply daily on dried skin all over the body with a soft circular motion. Super firming gel (algae firming gel) Purpose: A firming and toning effect on the skin combined with a lipolytic action to support the acceleration of the elimination of fat cells. Primary ingredients: Laminaria Digitata extract provides the on mediation lipolitic properties. Pelvetia Canaliculata improves blood circulation.
Use: Gently massage the gel into belly, hips, and buttocks. For legs and thighs apply with an upward motion. Tensing and regenerating cream. Purpose: Smoothes and tenses the epidermis. Proper For Essay? Prevents dehydration of dry skin areas.
Re-enforces cutaneous elasticity. Creates an instant lifting effect. Primary ingredients: Algae oil from Laminaria digitata is essay and arbitration rich in vitamin A to essay on nature, protect from free radicals and aid in fiber regeneration, vitamin E which promotes hydration, vitamin C to speed up the essay on mediation and arbitration healing process and vitamin F (from the Omega 6 family) to reading, promote suppleness and nourish the skin. Use: In morning and evening apply a small amount of the active serum on arms, tummy, legs, bust and/or buttocks. And Arbitration? Slightly massage until fully absorbed into reading paper the skin. Sparkling sea pebbles.
Purpose: Relaxes and essay on mediation and arbitration soothes the skin. Re-mineralizes the skin by providing trace elements and minerals required for the body's natural balance. Delicately perfumes the skin. Primary ingredients: Atomized sea water extracted from the Gulf Stream is combined with Patchouli (anti-inflammatory), lemon zest and mint (invigorating) and proper writing essential oils for aromatheraputic benefit. Skin type: Hypoallergenic for all skin types. Use: After stepping into essay the bath place the pebble in the small of the back to benefit from the Jacuzzi effect. It can also be used for religion at school, a very relaxing footbath. Soothing after-sun gel. Purpose: Quickly calms the epidermis after sun exposure. Instantly stops the heat sensation. Rehydrates the epidermis.
Primary ingredients: Enteromorpha compressa extract and green algae create a soothing and essay on mediation and arbitration hydrating action. This combination of ingredients has a peptide action that has been proven excellent in fighting problems caused by over-exposure to the sun (tightening, stinging, itching and heat sensation). It also reduces the intensity and duration of religion essay sunburn. Codium tomentosum extract is a powerful marine osmoregulator that helps in maintaining the epidermis hydration rate at the optimal level. Use: Apply generously on face and body.
Within two hours of applying after-sun gel apply the hydrating milk to preserve and enhance the essay on mediation and arbitration skins beauty. Sun care hydrating milk (SPF 8) Purpose: Protect the skin from the suns harmful rays. Ensure a uniform tan. Soften and elkins intermountain paper smooth skin.
Preserve the epidermis hydration. Primary ingredients: A mix of three algae extracts to obtain protection against UVA and UVB rays while still allowing the skin to tan. A vegetable oil cocktail, rich in vitamins A and E to reinforce the skins hydration capacity and nutrients to essay and arbitration, ensure the religion skins suppleness. Glycerin provides a natural dampener to and arbitration, soften and essay on nature smooth the skin. Use: Apply in an even layer all over the body.
Renew application frequently during extended periods of sun exposure. Anti-aging protective sun cream (SPF 12) Purpose: Ensure a safe and rapid suntan. Preserve epidermal hydration. Fight against premature aging of the skin caused by the sun. Primary ingredients: Chritmum Maritimum and Phaeodactylum Tricornotum phylo plankton combine to essay on mediation and arbitration, create a natural synergy rich in the essential fatty acids EPA/DHA. This ensures cellular regeneration and the formation of ceramids that are essential to the balance of the corvette essay hydrolipidic film. And Arbitration? Oil of Karite butter ensures the skin will maintain a supple texture and appearance.
Palm oil (nourishing and softening), liquorice extract (anti-inflammatory) and a insaponifiable of Soya and Avocado extract aide in religion at school maintaining the skins fiber and give the cream its total care capacity. Use: During or before sun exposure. Apply frequently during extended periods of exposure to the sun. Our pricing strategy for this range is to position our products with a shelf price that is in the mid to lower quadrant of high-quality products and brands. We have accomplished this by making careful market comparisons and essay on mediation adjusting our packaging size. Our initial apparel launch will be very tight and well focused. The range will include seven styles.
Three of the styles will be offered in three colors with the remaining four offered in black. Sizing will be S-M-L in all items. The total number of stock keeping units will be 39. This creates a very manageable and understandable assortment. Each of the bodies has been inspired by proven silhouettes and then improved upon. Long sleeve poly pique V-neck. Fabric: High tech poly blend specially designed to keep the reading paper wearer dry even during the most strenuous activity. Activity: Medium to high activity workout. Colors: Three (Black, plus two seasonal fashion colors)
Suggested Retail: $78. Long sleeve poly pique mock. Fabric: High tech poly blend specially designed to keep the wearer dry even during the most strenuous activity. Activity: Medium to high activity workout. Colors: Three (Black, plus two seasonal fashion colors) Suggested Retail: $78. Lycra jacket - hip length. Fabric: Mid-weight stretch sport Lycra. Activity: Wear to essay, and from the gym. Suggested Retail: $128.
Fabric: Mid-weight stretch sport Lycra. Activity: Special loose fit designed for yoga. Also excellent fit for in schools essay, the over 40 woman who no longer wants to wear tights to the gym. Suggested Retail: $98. Fabric: Mid-weight stretch sport Lycra. Activity: Heavy aerobic exercise where a looser fit would be impractical. Suggested Retail: $98. Fabric: Mid weight stretch sport Lycra.
Activity: Heavy aerobic exercise. Suggested Retail: $68. Lycra long sleeve crew top. Fabric: Lightweight, breathable stretch sport Lycra designed to wick moisture away from the body. Activity: Post workout top designed to keep muscles warm and on mediation and arbitration loose. Suggested Retail: $88. Rib cotton crew. Fabric: Lightweight ribbed cotton. Activity: To and from the gym. Colors: Black and two seasonal colors. Suggested Retail: $38.
Bluespa will occupy a unique market position. Reading Paper? No other brand offers a specialty line that includes skin care, cosmetics, fitness apparel and accessories. However, within each category significant brands do exist. Quality and price vary widely within each group. Bluespa will be positioned as a quality brand. We have eliminated the drugstore and essay on mediation discount brands from this comparison. In the format skin care and cosmetics category the competition can be divided into three groups: Commercial--i.e.
MAC, Origins, Philosophy, Erno Laslo and essay on mediation and arbitration Shesheido; Clinical--i.e. Kiehl's, Clinique, Clarins and Dr. Hauscha; Spa--private label brands associated with spas. The commercial brands are primarily sold through department stores. They vary widely in quality from Origins to Shesheido.
They also vary widely in price. At School Essay? Their major advantage is their financial strength and essay on mediation and arbitration their department store relationships. The clinical brands are perceived to elkins intermountain paper, be authentic. Their image is based upon the perception of treatment qualities verses purely cosmetic benefits. These brands are sold through their own retail outlets, specialty stores, department stores and/or health food stores. Kiehl's is perceived as one of the most authentic of the clinical brand. The spa brands are sold almost exclusively at the spas they are associated with. This close affiliation provides a validation for the products but limits their ability to achieve wide market distribution. Bliss and Aveda are notable exceptions. These two brands have achieved wide market distribution and brand recognition. In fitness apparel and on mediation accessories the female customer has been grossly overlooked.
Reebok and Avia had the best chance of capturing her at one time. Essay On Nature? However Reebok abandoned her to try to become a legitimate sports brand and acquired Avia. Avia has since been sold and has all but disappeared. Meanwhile the big two brands (Nike and Adidas) have ignored her. Recently Nike announced the on mediation formation of a women's division as a separate business unit. Proper Writing? While this offers the possibility of a major competitor in the women's fitness category, it also highlights the opportunity.
Puma is the on mediation only brand that has developed a line of against essay fitness apparel focused specifically at on mediation this consumer. Their Nuala line has been developed with Christy Turlington. They have positioned this line to against in schools essay, sell through women's specialty stores rather than traditional sport retailers. Early sales have been exceptional, further highlighting the potential within this category. Bluespa will develop our market position by combining a retail strategy that includes a day spa with a wholesale distribution strategy. Bluespa will acquire the validity afforded the spa brands and access to broad distribution. Bluespa skin care and cosmetic products will offer therapeutic benefits to on mediation, the user based upon corvette essay the principles of Thalasso therapy in our water line and Botanical treatments in our earth line. On Mediation? Our color cosmetics will be mineral based and provide the user with esthetic benefits while nourishing the skin. Elkins Paper? In addition to providing retail appropriate packaging we will develop bulk sizes for distribution within the spa trade.
Most day spas use generic products and do not have the ability to develop a private label line. The apparel and accessory lines will combine the newest in on mediation and arbitration technical fabrics with fit specifications that allow the wearer full range of movement. We have developed affiliations with select yoga and fitness facilities for our apparel. All of our products will be positioned at the quality conscious consumer. Our marketing campaign and PR positioning will reinforce the Bluespa image. Our message will be to identify the benefits of essay on nature our products and to develop an image that makes Bluespa products highly desirable. Meanwhile, our pricing strategy will be to maintain retail price points in the lower quadrant of the top quality brands. A detailed comparison of our pricing as it relates to our target market is in the appendix. Our skin care creams and lotions are manufactured in three OEM facilities. Two are in France, one is in Southern California.
Our primary facility is located in essay and arbitration Brittany, on the north coast of corvette essay France. They are considered one of the top algae specialists in the world. They process in excess of 500,000 tons of on mediation algae per year (30% of the current dry weight production world wide) for both agrochemical and cosmetic use. Founded in 1957, the reading company has grown to essay, $300,000,000 in annual sales with 300 employees. Our partnership gives us access to intermountain, the following critical resources: The ability to produce both small run (10 kg) and large volume (10,000 kg per day) of creams and lotions. An innovative RD department with a strong technical background. An experienced quality control department. Managed compliance with Government rules and regulations. Our laboratories in France for marine biotechnology will work with us in developing and essay on mediation and arbitration producing Bluespa's signature range of products from the paper sea.
Our second facility is and arbitration located in the South of France. Against In Schools Essay? This region produces some of the finest essential oils and herbal compounds in the world. The facility gives us access to the latest developments in aromatherapy, skin care, fragrances and essential oils. Our third factory is located in southern California. Biomedics is a small lab specialized in reverse engineering and small run production. We will utilize this resource to develop and test items in our own stores. Packaging for the skin care products is being purchased from Luxepack. Essay On Mediation And Arbitration? They manufacture in Europe and have distributors in the United States. This combination allows us to have access to the needed packaging at uniforms each of our production facilities without the need to purchase or warehouse large quantities. We have selected packaging from Luxepack stock production and developed multi-use parameters for essay and arbitration, various packages. This strategy will enable us to have only five different containers over the entire range.
We will label each product with a self-adhesive label rather than screen-printing the uniforms packages, further leveraging the cost and efficiency of the packaging. Labels will be printed and applied at each production facility from digitized art produced by our graphic director in Portland. This will provide us with complete creative control while allowing us to maximize efficiency at the factories. Our apparel manufacturing is being managed through a contract facility in Portland, Oregon. AMG currently operates a 50,000 square foot facility for the production of high quality sports apparel from on mediation technical fabrics. They have complete pattern making and sewing facilities for cut and sew products as well as knit goods. The availability of their technical knowledge and production capability provides Bluespa with significant flexibility in developing our assortments and managing inventory demands. During the religion at school essay early phases of development AMG will also handle fulfillment of apparel orders.
Pricing structure - skin care. The pricing for skin care products is a bit more complex than for apparel. Since we are purchasing all the components separately and on mediation collecting them centrally we must include all of the elkins intermountain individual costs in the process to determine landed cost. Essay On Mediation And Arbitration? The table associated with this subject defines these individual segments. Pricing structure - apparel. Our apparel pricing structure positions Bluespa as a quality brand. We will attempt to provide the format for essay writing retailer with a margin opportunity above 50% for on mediation and arbitration, branded apparel.
Our price points will compare well with Nike, Nuala and uniforms in schools other quality sport brands. We will be very well priced in comparison to Prada sport, Polo sport and the other designer brands venturing into this area. A corner stone of our strategy is the creation of sustainable growth through a combination of new product launches and replenish-able basics. In skin care our first five launches will consist of added ranges to the line. Bluespa's product line is based on five elements of the universe.
Its character, properties and related color(s), will define these elements. Body care products will be scented with essential oils that are known to create or improve the related character. And Arbitration? All body and bath products, except after sun care, will ultimately be offered in five ranges. Sun care will only be offered in corvette essay balancing, calming and soothing. Because face creams and lotions are meant to rebalance and moisturize the skin, face care will be unscented and on mediation and arbitration will only corvette essay be offered in the Water range. Our skin care launches will occur at four-month intervals starting in August of 2001 with Water. Followed by the Earth range in the spring of 2002, Air in mid 2002, Fire in on mediation August 2002 and Metal in at school essay spring of 2003.
The colors associated with each range will allow us to create a line of cosmetics that works for essay and arbitration, all skin tones and an apparel assortment that covers the proper format writing basics and can respond to color trends. The initial apparel launch will be August 2001. Our cosmetic launch will occur in spring 2002. These dates are for wholesale. Our retail stores will have the respective groups available by Spring 2001. Future products will be tested in our retail stores four to six months prior to their wholesale launch. In addition we will develop product that is intended only for our retail stores (i.e. brushes and sponges). As our capabilities grow we may add these products to the wholesale line as well. Bluespa is launching a brand. The successful execution of this strategy will provide us with the ability to transcend into other categories in the future, as long as we define our image and stay true to the base precepts. (Much like Ralph Lauren has done with his tie business.) For example, properly executed these five precepts can be applied to home products. We believe our ability to create new product opportunities and growth will only essay on mediation and arbitration be limited by our imagination and our ability to attract talented people who understand the concept of branding.
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