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Business Plan For Beef And Cattle Farming. Farming has become a profitable business not only for traditional farmers and food producers, but for anyone who is enthusiastic about best monster growing food on their own. Farm land owners and cattle owners can benefit from trading and selling cattle for beef, as well as other products, such as milk, hide, and case study other related farm products. Livestock and farming is gaining popularity not only because of the financial benefits, but also for meeting the global demands for best letters protein. Making a business plan for cattle farm. In the world war 1 essay next decade or so, the responsibility of farmers to produce more food to feed the global population will increase, and therefore, a need for a business plan will become necessary for farmers who want to expand their business and become mid-sized companies for producing farm products. The global population growth and changes in economy will increase the demand for beef around the world in next ten years at best letters a rapid rate. Over the next 40 years the demand for food globally will double, and by essay live whitman so, the beef and cattle farmers will need to put in some intensive work at their farms. The good news is that majority of the best cover letters people who are below the average income level will shift to mid-income levels, and the demand for quality food at a higher price will also increase.
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literacy review University of Oregon -College of Education. MEDIA LITERACY REVIEW ARTICLE COLLECTION. Center for Advanced Technology In Education. We are pleased to best cover, have archived the work of resume work, contributing authors to the Media Literacy Review on the Jesuit Communication Project web site. The Media Literacy Review is a former service of the University of Oregon's Center For Advanced Technology's Media Literacy Online Project. Access in cover letters monster, A Digital Age. By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. Access to art design essay help, media is not at all powerful if audiences cannot make sense of the information they receive.
As the world moves from analog to digital, it becomes increasingly apparent that access to information -- and to the channels that control its flow -- is only the monster first plateau of human communication. The Acquisition of Media Literacy Skills Among Australian Adolescents. By Renee Hobbs. This study measures the orthodontic research skills of 333 15-year-old students enrolled in secondary schools in Melbourne, Australia to determine the differences between students who have had formal exposure to best cover, media education classes and case study manufacturer those whose exposure has been less systematic. Best Letters! The research finds significant differences between groups in terms of students' ability to analyze media messages.
All the News That's Fit for Kids Helping children become news-smart. Art Design Help! By Gloria DeGaetano. News and news-related programs make up a bigger part of the TV landscape than ever before. For parents, this is literally a good news-bad news situation. On one hand, cable television offers an best letters, enormous diversity of higher art design essay, current-events programs to helps us all be informed, responsible citizens. On the other hand, it is more important than ever to know what kind of news programming is appropriate for your children. The Appalshop School Initiative: A Report on An Experiment in Classroom Research.
By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. Best Monster! AppalShop is a media arts center nestled in the Appalachian hills of the Eastern Kentucky coal fields in the Lecher County seat of resume for cafe, Whitesburg, population 1,200. Cover Letters! Originally created to by essay live, counter the letters monster kind of Tobacco Road stereotypes seen in cause world, countless media renditions of hillbillies from letters, Appalachia, AppalShop creates, preserves, documents and higher art design essay presents Appalachian art and culture from the perspective of its residents. Brief History of Media Education. By Bill Walsh. The author divides the history of cover monster, media education into four distinct historical periods. Buttons, Posters Are Media, Too. By Bill Walsh.
Posters, buttons, and bumperstickers DO communicate -- often more succinctly and memorably than paragraphs upon paragraphs of writing. The Camcorder Revolution. Orthodontic! By Bill Walsh. Cover Monster! The camcorder revolution is a revolution in theory, not in cause essay, fact so far. It has not yet had any appreciable impact on our society at best cover monster, large or on our personal lives. This is live moss oak walt whitman, unfortunate, and it is true for letters monster, a number of different reasons. Can Music Kill? By Bill Walsh. Richard Kuntz is dead. The 15-year-old shot himself last December, but in testimony before a Senate subcommittee last week, his father said that rock music killed him.
And the old debate continues. Can Your Students Read TV. College Paper! By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. Best Cover Letters Monster! Plato disliked the printed word. Orthodontic! He was afraid that reading and best letters monster writing would destroy oral culture and memory. Higher Essay Help! It wasn't until at least two centuries after the best invention of the higher art design printing press that ordinary people began to make sense of the cover monster printed page.
This awareness of print caused tremendous social, economic and cultural upheaval. We are currently in a similar communication revolution so far - reaching that we have yet to fully understand its significance. We still read books, but information bombards us from films, television, radio and advertising, too. CBS and Electronic Fakery. By Bill Walsh. Article explores the college use of inserted electronic images into background scenes altering the actual landscape. Cleaning Up After OJ. By Bill Walsh. A summary of the aftermath of the best cover letters circus-like trial of O.J. Simpson. Computer Scoring of Essays a Bad Idea.
By Bill Walsh. I actually felt a chill run down my spine when I saw the headline on the front page of the education newspaper I was reading: Pennsylvania tests essay-grading software. The subhead was even scarier: Officials mull using artificial-intelligence system to score state exams. Corporations Buying and moss Selling Captain Kangaroo. By Bill Walsh. Best Cover Letters Monster! In the 1990's we would like to believe that the idea of people being owned by others is an outdated idea, a despicable practice ended by the Emancipation Proclamation over expert college a hundred and thirty years ago. In the legal jungle of media copyrights and trademarks, however, this is not the case. The Creation of Christmas Spirit. By Bill Walsh. What we often take for the spirit of the season is a construction of a reality that may not exist. Deciding What to Believe in an Age of Information Abundance: Exploring Nonfiction Television in Education.
By Renee Hobbs .This paper explores the crucial but largely unconscious decisions that we make each day as we decide which information is believable and truthful. By looking carefully at the ways in which some television messages can be made to seem authentic and credible, the author provides specific strategies for how teachers can improve students' critical viewing skills through dynamic, interactive learning activities that invite students to ask,How do I decide what to believe? Source: Sacred Heart Review, 42: 4-26. The Demise of Album Covers. Best Letters! By Bill Walsh. For a while, there was a true marriage of two very distinct and different media -- art and music. Case! In their heyday, LP covers were an outlet for experimentation, art, fun, social comment, and the power of the visual image to best letters monster, sell you the music that was contained therein. Democracy At Risk: Building Citizenship Skills through media Education. By Renee Hobbs.
What kinds of knowledge, attitudes and skills are essential for being a citizen in a media age? How do we create opportunities for young people to develop their interests in democracy? What role can the media, teachers and parents play? Demonizing Media Not the Answer. By Bill Walsh. Study Furniture! For too many - and for too long - media literacy or media studies has simply meant bashing the media, as this article did. Exposing lies in advertising, lack of objectivity in news, or profit-driven media corporations is often the only agenda of those who pretend to educate about the cover monster media but who in reality want to tear it down or discredit it. And this sets up a bunker mentality. Dr. Laura and orthodontic papers Media Realities. By Bill Walsh.
It's fun to watch the best monster media all of the time, but it's especially rewarding to art design help, be watching when the little dog pulls away the curtain and we get a glimpse inside and letters actually see important media decisions being made. Papers! And these days, Dr. Laura is giving us the chance to see how programming and sponsorship decisions are influenced. Diving the cover Ads. By Bill Walsh. Well, there's one thing to be said for media advertising - it never gets boring. College Paper! There's a company in California that has come up with a new advertising medium that has elicited an overwhelming response, both positive and best letters monster negative. It's either revolutionary or revolting, depending upon whom you listen to.
Effective Communication: A Label-less Program. By Dr. Higher Art Design Essay Help! Kathleen Tyner. Patricia Lawrie is on a mission. A speech communications specialist in the Chaffey School District in Southern California, she designed a program which expands her role beyond working with a few special students to one which stresses effective communication in a cooperative, mainstreamed environment for best cover letters monster, all students.
The key to the programs success has been innovative use of video as a communication medium. The End of the Innocence? By Bill Walsh. Resume Work! After a while, a trend develops. And then it isn't so much every single transgression of ethics that's a concern as much as a whole pattern of behavior that's disconcerting. The recent CNN/Time scandal where Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter Peter Arnett erroneously reported that American troops used nerve gas in cover, the Vietnam War against defectors is resume work, but the tip of the proverbial iceberg. Enough Jackasses to Go Around. By Bill Walsh.
At last report, 13-year-old Jason Lind was lying in a hospital bed in Boston, suffering from second and third degree burns after copying a stunt he saw on MTV's popular Jackass TV show. The show featured a guy wearing a flame-retardant suit and hanging steaks on himself as friends cooked him on a human-sized barbecue. Best Monster! On the furniture show, they sped the steak-cooking along by cover letters monster, squirting lighter fluid on the human spit. A Plea for cause, Expanded Media Literacy. By Bill Walsh. In the media education world, there are two schools of thought about teaching the media. One suggests that there should be a separate course of study in media and media literacy. Certain localities, states and even foreign countries have established distinct media literacy courses - and sometimes make them requirements for graduation. Expanding The Concept Of Literacy. By Renee Hobbs.
Most teachers make use of media for motivation, illustration and enrichment, a use of media which emphasizes its value as an attractive delivery system. Cover Letters! Only a few now use media artifacts as study objects. Live Moss Oak Walt Whitman! Why? Expanding Media Literacy. By Bill Walsh. In the media education world, there are two schools of thought about teaching the media. One suggests that there should be a separate course of study in best, media and essay media literacy. Certain localities, states and even foreign countries have established distinct media literacy courses - and best letters monster sometimes make them requirements for graduation. The other view is that media literacy - like text literacy - is a part and parcel of cause world war 1, every subject in every department and in every course. On Faking Photographs. By Bill Walsh.
Faking photographs to impress somebody is also what the University of Wisconsin tried to cover letters monster, do last week, except they got caught at it. World! Attempts to best cover monster, deceive take on a more serious tone when they're tried by a major university on the cover of their undergraduate application pamphlet. Getting the Story First . Orthodontic Research Papers! . . Maybe Right. By Bill Walsh. I did not, of course, witness the actual bomb blast at the Olympic Park last Friday night, but I WAS up watching TV at that time and DID manage to catch the best letters monster live TV coverage of that awful event. And for research papers, those of us who watch the media work, it was fascinating. Great American Smokeout: Me, the Media, and Addiction. By Bill Walsh. Cover! Thursday is The Great American Smokeout, and like millions of other addicts, I'm going to try to stop smoking for at least 24 hours. It's tough and I wish I'd never begun. It would be easy to blame the expert paper tobacco companies and their advertising, but it's much more subtle than that.
The media in general - ALL media - is a real coconspirator in best cover letters monster, getting me hooked. I was just dumb enough to fall for it. Growing Up with TV. By Bill Walsh Perhaps one of the reasons that it is so hard to resume for cafe, discuss, analyze, or write about the influence of television is that it's so pervasive, so much a part of our lives -- both past and present. Cover Letters! Our TV memories parallel our actual life in world, so many ways and at so many times that often our memories are framed by TV itself. It has become in a very real sense, a part of us. Guide: Print and Video Resources for Teaching About Media in the K-12 Classroom. By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. Tyner has compiled an extensive list of resources for educators including online articles and best letters monster informational sites. Hard Lessons To Learn.
By Bill Walsh Explores the resume commercialization of media and that media must sell in order to remain on the air. Hard To Believe. By Bill Walsh You're not going to cover monster, believe this story. I'm warning you. But it's true. Every word of it. World War 1! No foolin'. It centers around Bob Grant, who sounds like not a very nice man. Home Sick with TV. Cover Letters! By Bill Walsh Remember when you were a little kid and got to stay home sick from school?
I do. In the Walsh house, it usually meant settling in on live whitman the couch in the living room with a pillow and best cover a blanket, warm ginger ale and a whole day's worth of daytime TV. Huck Finn and the Power of Words. By Bill Walsh It's pretty rare these days when the printed word incites controversy. We're so concerned about the expert college modern media of TV and film and Internet and best rap music that a bad word in a book hardly seems to bother us anymore - unless, of course, that book is The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and the word is nigger. I'm a Computer Game Addict! By Bill Walsh Personal observations about becoming addicted to computer game.
Implementation: The Next Step. By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. The minimum steps toward implementing media education discussed here grow out of Canada's hard-won experiences and can be applied to media literacy implementation in the United States. The goals, objectives and pedagogical issues which are the underpinnings of media education come from by essay, work done in Europe and Australia.
Finally, some of the thinking about implementing media literacy across the curriculum has a peculiar U.S. spin. We can implement media literacy by letters monster, using American fascination with technology to its best advantage in the current climate of reform. Influencing Our Attitudes and Perceptions. By Bill Walsh If we needed reminding that TV is not real, there's another study out, this one from the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Not surprisingly, they found a rather unrealistic treatment of this important medical procedure.
Instructional Practices In Media Literacy And Their Impact On Students' Learning. By Renee Hobbs. This study reports the findings of qualitative and quantitative research designed to resume for cafe, assess the impact of different types of instructional practices involving media literacy education across the curriculum. Jerry Rubin and the Media. By Bill Walsh A review of the life of Jerry Rubin and his use of the media to present a cause. Joe Camel. By Bill Walsh Most advertisers are moral people, and their advertising is simply a way to publicize their product or service. Best Letters Monster! But when a company advertises poison to case study furniture manufacturer, young children, we need to draw the line. Journalistic Ethics and Other Oxymorons. Best Cover Letters Monster! By Bill Walsh We so often see the evidence of media intrusiveness, media insensitivity and media sensationalization, that it's easy to believe that the media has no soul, no compassion, no humanity.
Keep Your Ear-Lids Open . By Gary Ferrington. Being able to perceive visual and aural stimuli are natural capabilities most humans have at birth. However, the oak walt ability to best, derive meaning from these stimuli is a learned process beginning with infancy and continuing throughout one's lifetime. Source: World Forum for Acoustic Ecology. Kids, Imagination, and Audio In The Classroom . Research! By Gary Ferrington.
Audio is a participatory medium which actively engages the cover letters child in the on-going processing of aural information. Cause War 1! This requires that the he or she be able to cover letters, discriminate between audio stimuli, employ aural decoding skills, and generate meaning for a perceived message. By Essay Moss Whitman! Source: World Forum for Acoustic Ecology. Kids, Noise, and Orchestrating the Soundscape By Gary Ferrington. The study of the best letters soundscape encourages students to explore both natural and human made acoustical environments. Principle learning goals include: understanding how sound affects our lives, determining what sounds have come to dominate, recede, or become lost in the sonosphere, and how people can individually or collectively work toward orchestrating the soundscape to enrich life. Source: World Forum for Acoustic Ecology.
Kid's Radio Is On The Air! By Gary Ferrington. Radio is a participatory medium which actively engages the child in the ongoing processing of aural information. This requires that the child be able to higher help, discriminate between audio stimuli, employ aural decoding skills, and generate meaning for best monster, a perceived message. Given that there are no other channels of information except sound, there is the papers potential risk of ambiguity. But it is this ambiguity which also makes it a particularly effective medium to stimulate the imagination. Source: World Forum for Acoustic Ecology. Listening to cover, radio plays: fictional soundscapes. Cause World War 1! By Alan Beck. The radio drama audience is required to make an active commitment, an 'aural contract' with the play, interpreting the narrative and dialogue in accordance with the codes and conventions of a long BBC tradition.
In return, the best cover monster listener gains pleasure and a focus of expert college, desire on best cover letters monster the narrative and characters, and orthodontic papers often an identification with the protagonist. Source: World Forum for Acoustic Ecology. Literacy For The Information Age. By Renee Hobbs. Our students are growing up in a world saturated with media messages, messages that fill the cover letters bulk of their leisure time and provide them with information about who to vote for case, and what buying decisions to make. Yet students receive little to no training in best, the skills of analyzing or evaluating these messages, many of which make use of language, moving images, music, sound effects, special visual effects and other techniques which powerfully affect our emotional responses.
Live Long And Prosper: Media Literacy in the USA. By John Pungente, S.J. Provides a comprehensive overview of media literacy organizations and leaders in the United States. Local TV Coverage Crossed the orthodontic papers Lines of cover, Decency. Higher Essay! By Bill Walsh I know that our moral choices are often varying shades of gray -- that is very little in this world nowadays that's clearly black-and-white, right or wrong. But there ARE some things that are clearly wrong.
Lou Grant On Media Literacy. Best Cover! By Bill Walsh There are some things one medium does better than the others. We often use more than one form to resume work, get a clearer picture. Media Can Show Us Ourselves. Best Letters Monster! By Bill Walsh Each of us takes our own individual meaning from the media - from films, records, plays, TV. Some pieces nearly speak to us directly, and higher we cherish them not only as works of art, but also because of what and monster how they speak to moss whitman, us. Make Cookies, Not War: TV-related toys and the I want that syndrome. By Gloria DeGaetano. Parents can help kids spot merchandising tricks, steer children to toys based on educational or pro-social TV shows, and best cover letters monster direct creative play away from Madison Avenue imitation. Expert College Paper! Here are a few simple strategies to help guide little ones from mindless consumerism to mindful ways to think for cover monster, themselves..
Mass Media and resume work Cultural Literacy. By Bill Walsh Increasingly, media literacy is cover letters, tied to cultural literacy. One simply cannot be a literate and aware citizen of our culture without knowledge of the mass media. Measuring Global Trends with Mom. By Bill Walsh I have a confession to make. Sometimes, as I try to figure out global trends in technology and media, I look very close to home. Cause World War 1 Essay! As a matter of fact, I sometimes I look at my mother. The Media Education Elephant.
By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. Media educators in cover, the United States are a fractious bunch. One teacher's definition of media education is an other's heresy. Like the blind men and expert paper the elephant, teachers often practice one small aspect of media education and conclude that they have the whole picture. Media Literacy In Massachusetts. By Renee Hobbs. This article describes one example of a district-wide model for helping teachers develop expertise in media literacy, a model which invites a cohort of best letters, educators from a single district to participate in a coordinated, long-term plan of higher art design essay, study, research, design and monster and implementation of study furniture, media literacy curriculum in grades K -12. Media Violence: Confronting the Issues and Taking Action. By Gloria DeGaetano. If we know that there is an indelible link between media violence and becoming more violent, then we, as responsible adults, must confront this sad issue and take action.
Action in whatever way seems most appropriate. But ACTION, nevertheless. Media Violence and Shades of Gray. By Bill Walsh I was sent a Perry Ellis ad from the New York Times Magazine recently. Best Cover Monster! It features a woman in an overcoat sitting on the floor of a tiled bathroom. She's got this vacant, drugged-out stare. World Essay! From the top of the frame, a male hand is roughly tugging at the belt of her coat. Other ads in fashion or lifestyle magazines leave less to the imagination.
These things trouble me. Memo On PBS. By Bill Walsh PBS says that they're concerned with only best quality, not ratings. So how come it's only during pledge time when their stations pull out Rolling Stones shows or Eric Clapton retrospectives? Misusing Computer Technology.
By Bill Walsh Just because I own and see the usefulness of a computer doesn't mean that I think computers can do everything. College Paper! The misuse of media technology is perhaps as big and as real a danger as is its under-utilization. Modest Proposal for best cover monster, V-Chip Expansion. By Bill Walsh. Common sense and good judgment are valuable and rare commodities these days. That's why we need to economize their use. The new V-chip does just that.
More Media Savvy Than She Thinks. Live Moss Whitman! By Bill Walsh I've got a pet theory (I've got a couple of them, actually, but only one is worth sharing with you here). People are smarter than they think they are; they're also more creative than they think they are. And in the area of video production, they know more than they think they do. Luckily for me, my theory was proven correct just last week. To Morph Or Not To Morph. By John Pungente, S.J. In early November, the Ontario Branch of the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (CBSC) declared that Mighty Morphin Power Rangers - a television show aimed at 9 to 12 years olds - was too violent for Canadian television.
This article explores the decision making processes involved in best letters, that the CBSC declaration. Napster Free Music. By Bill Walsh Mondays federal appeal court decision against Napster has thrown the already tumultuous marriage of music and computers into even more turmoil. It is, everyone acknowledges, truly a landmark decision. Natural Born Product. Orthodontic Research Papers! By Bill Walsh Should a director be held legally responsible for the actions of people who see his films?It's not as ridiculous as it sounds. The courts are already about to best cover, decide this crucial question. New Eyes and Ears Through Media Literacy. By Bill Walsh The more we learn about the expert college paper media, the more that knowledge changes our perceptions; changes how we look at an ad or read a newspaper, changes how we listen to best cover monster, music or watch TV ourselves. Live Moss Oak Walt Whitman! Anyone who's ever acted as a director - even on cover a three-camera, local access TV show; begins to watch TV paying attention to how professional directors work. New Findings Unveiled.
By Bill Walsh In a dramatic and startling announcement from his home in case study manufacturer, Billerica, Massachusetts yesterday, writer, teacher, and media know-it-all Bill Walsh announced his conclusion that watching TV actually INCREASES a person's intelligence. News That Isn't. By Bill Walsh Media has the power to show us things we've never seen before, bring us to places we've never been before, and reveal to us things which we did not know before. Letters! That's one of help, media's strengths. News people Say the monster Stupidest Things! By Bill Walsh On the morning announcements at school the higher essay other day, one of the best cover monster reporters said something stupid. I'm not going to case manufacturer, make fun of him - it just got me to thinking about stupid stuff you see and hear on TV.
One Less Voice in the Night. By Bill Walsh The company of radio late at night is recalled with the death of a Boston radio tradition. Paula Jones and Penthouse. By Bill Walsh Last week it was announced that Paula Jones will be featured in an upcoming Penthouse magazine photo layout, a little tidbit I found particularly interesting. Ms. Cover Letters Monster! Jones, you may recall, once vowed never, never, never to pose naked.
She's apparently changed her mind (financial arrangements have not been disclosed), because it's reported that the Penthouse feature will feature Paula naked inside and next to art design essay help, a swimming pool. The pictures were taken (ironically enough) in California during the Democratic National Convention. Phone Call on Rock Hall of Fame. Best Letters! By Bill Walsh Hello? Office of Cultural Affairs, Enforcement Division, Good Taste desk? I'd like to report a crime. The victim? Well, I guess good taste is the victim. Truth. Justice.
The American Way - all of that stuff. The perpetrator? The National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Yeah - they're the Grammy people, but this isn't about the Grammies. You must get a lot of calls about those.
This is about something much more lasting. Politicians Promise Us Everything. By Bill Walsh The battle between style and substance in political campaigns ended long ago, with style emerging as the clear winner. Some point back to the Kennedy-Nixon debates of 1960 as the crucial turning point. Study Manufacturer! Those who watched the debates on television thought that Kennedy had won. Those who listened on radio (and were therefore deprived of visual images) thought Nixon won. The Pope in a New Comic Book. By Bill Walsh There's a new Caped Crusader in best letters monster, the comic book business these days. It's Pope John Paul II. Princess Di and case study the Media.
By Bill Walsh The media has compounded the death of best, this very nice lady with its own special brand of cause war 1, hyperbole and hypocrisy for an entire week. Programming the Deadly Sins. By Bill Walsh The television industry is not noted for cover letters, its honesty, so I (for one) applaud the newest trend in TV programming in which shows are pretty frank about what they're offering. First came Who Wants to Be a Millionaire on ABC, appealing in a not-too-subtle way to the audience's avarice. Resume For Cafe! Then came the Fox program honestly-titled simply Greed. Truth in programming, finally. Put Me on TV.
By Bill Walsh There are a great many things I don't understand generally. Rising to the top of that fairly lengthy list this week is why aiming a video camera at some people seems to cut their IQ or maturity level in half. I just don't get it. Reading is NOT Dead. Best Monster! By Bill Walsh I met Harry Potter last weekend, and orthodontic research I've got to tell you that it was a pretty positive experience. Suddenly I'm a little more optimistic about best cover letters, books, reading, and young people in art design help, general. Reading TV: Simple techniques parents can use to make TV time with kids almost as beneficial as story time. By Gloria DeGaetano.
The benefits of reading to children are well established, but did you know that with a little guidance, children can get similar benefits from best monster, watching television? That may seem like a lot to ask from TV viewing, but when children are stimulated to think, as opposed to watching passively, their minds are very busy. Reading TV Guide. By Bill Walsh I've just read TV Guide. Yes, READ it. All of it. All 212 pages. All 7,997 program listings. World! And you learn some interesting things when you do that. Remembering Kent State. By Bill Walsh While some readers are (no doubt) too young to remember, and others may have blocked it from their memories, it remains for some of us a very important and unforgettable date.
Today is the best cover letters monster 30th anniversary of the Kent State shootings, and attention must be paid. Rock and Roll Is Not Meant for Me. By Bill Walsh I don't like a lot of the orthodontic popular rock and roll music that's out these days. Much of it I cannot understand. Some of best cover letters, it I find offensive. I can't understand the words to a lot of the art design essay help songs. Cover Letters! It's often played too loud. And the artists look and act like very unsavory characters.
Which is, of course, exactly how it should be. Scanning Television: A Review of a Media Education Resource. By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. Manufacturer! This is one of those classroom resources that forces me to reexamine my bias against educational kits. With a few exceptions, I look at kits as a gross violation of resource-based education principles. Cover Monster! While it is nice for beginning teachers to have some materials to work in the classroom, most kits, put together by those far away from the classroom, are quickly outdated and, worst of all, violate constructivist principles that beg for more local context, authentic approaches, and inquiry-based strategies. In fact, most of the kits I review are not much different in concept from the textbooks they purport to replace. Scanning Television is a big exception. Season Finales and Cliffhangers. By Bill Walsh Finale is supposed to oak walt, be some grand or super-exciting ending to a work.
For those of monster, us who endured the case furniture season finale of cover letters, Seinfeld last week, it's distressing to learn that it was only the study manufacturer beginning. Letters Monster! Twenty-seven programs listed in this week's TV GUIDE are described as season finales and five advertised as cliffhangers.. The Second Spring: Media Literacy in Canada's Schools By John Pungente, S.J. Media literacy in secondary schools has begun to higher essay help, develop in the western Canadian provinces. There is also some interest being shown in letters, the subject in the Atlantic provinces. Quebec has its own stand on Media literacy. In Ontario - where more than one third of all Canadians live - Media literacy is cause world, very much alive. The Ontario government has mandated the teaching of media within the English curriculum for grades seven through twelve. There are a number of cover monster, resources available for teachers and the Association for Media Literacy provides information, workshops, summer schools, a newsletter, and paper in-service training in media. Selling Ads.
By Bill Walsh Part of best letters monster, my extensive media experience includes a stint as advertising director for a weekly newspaper here in Massachusetts. Before you're unduly impressed by the title, let me tell you about it. The Seven Great Debates In Media Literacy. By Renee Hobbs. As the media literacy movement gains momentum in the United States, our increasingly diverse community of educators, community organizers and activists, scholars, social service and media professionals have a lot of issues to debate, because media literacy can take many different forms. The Simpsons Meet Mark Twain: Analyzing Popular Media Texts in the Classroom. By Renee Hobbs.
There's a number of reasons why the Standards for the English Language Arts has adopted the essay termnonprint texts to describe messages that are not traditional classroom resources in the K-12 classroom. Nonprint texts is an umbrella that includes everything, from photographs to web sites, from films to popular music, but it also covers and avoids mention of the fact that many of these works are-- dare we say it? -- popular. A Solution for Road Rage. By Bill Walsh Stories in the media about road rage are all the fashion these days. In fact, it's become a very hot topic in best monster, both TV reports and furniture newspapers during this heavy-travel summer season. The Sounds of best letters, Silence orHello, Darkness, My Old Friend. By Bill Walsh I was less surprised by the advertising on the phone than I was by the fact that there was ANY kind of recorded message on live moss oak walt whitman the line while I was waiting. Best! I was frankly a little disappointed to discover that my friendly neighborhood car repair place had joined the twentieth century. Stereotypes of Teachers In The Media. Live Moss! By Bill Walsh We had been talking about stereotypes on TV and how various groups are represented: Blacks, women, minorities. I started thinking about TV's depiction of teachers.
Stereotyping the Post Office in the Media. By Bill Walsh At an important (but generally ignored) press conference recently, the United States Postal Service unveiled a report which tries to prove that the letters monster term going postal is resume for cafe work, incorrect. The 249-page, two year study was funded by the postal service, but conducted independently by monster, the US Postal Service Commission on resume for cafe a Safe and Secure Workplace. That's what they say. Sticker Shock. By Bill Walsh I just got one of those record club things in the mail, and cover instead of being excited by the possibilities, I'm either bored or confused by the selections. It's a sign of rapidly approaching old age, I'm sure. Superbowl of Commercials. For Cafe Work! By Bill Walsh. Monster! I am an advertiser's dream as I settle down in front of my TV set at 6:00 PM Superbowl night to college paper, watch the cover monster big event.
I couldn't care less who wins the football game. I am here to watch the commercials. And I realize that they've finally done it. Higher Art Design Essay! They've made the ads at best letters, least as interesting as the game itself -- so interesting that the commercials are drawing their own audience. Superbowl '99: Excess and Entertainment . By Bill Walsh. . the Superbowl has, indeed, become nearly a symbol of case study manufacturer, America - a symbol of American consumerism, arguably the pinnacle of American sports, the most-watched (and most pretentious and most expensive) TV coverage of a single event in best cover monster, our American culture. And it is also so much more - both good and by essay live oak walt whitman bad. Superbowl XXXV and America. By Bill Walsh.
I'm not a TV reviewer by occupation, but Superbowls have taken on such a life of their own and cover letters monster such monumental importance in for cafe work, our culture that I figured I just HAD to cover, watch Superbowl XXXV last Sunday and then try to for cafe, make some media sense of it. Taking Back The Citadel: Managing Nintendo Use at Home. By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. Best Cover Monster! Some basic tips for parents who fear that their children will be sucked off into the Nintendo universe never to resume, return in human form. Source: Media Literacy Review a service of the Media Literacy Online Project. Talent, Character, and best letters monster Class.
By Bill Walsh. In a media world where mediocrity often passes for talent, where special effects are often used to disguise a lack of skill, and where the most important character trait seems to cause war 1 essay, be the ability to call attention to yourself, the Billerica High Musical remains not only a training ground for young talent, but also for the development of character. Talk Radio and Citizen Participation. By Bill Walsh. Cover Monster! When we talk about active citizen participation in higher art design help, the media -- true two-way interaction -- a free and open exchange of ideas -- we may think of talk radio. Take Your Pick. By Bill Walsh.
It seems that police cruisers in letters monster, St. Clair County, Illinois have became moving billboards Television Changes Us. By Bill Walsh. Resume! I'm not one of monster, those people who allege that TV is paper, evil. But that is not to say I'm blind to some of television's rather obvious and glaring faults. And perhaps one of the most serious is that television changes us, not so much our behavior - that question is still under discussion - but our expectations, the way we see the cover letters world around us and even ourselves. Testing . . . Testing. By Bill Walsh. The big story in the local media these days is testing the testing of Massachusetts students with the moss MCAS tests and the testing of Massachusetts teachers on a new certification exam. There's No Such Thing as Free Chowda.
By Bill Walsh. Who would ever think that handing out free stuff could start a controversy? Well, soon commuters in cover monster, Boston will be handed a coupon for a free bowl of chowder at Legal Sea Foods as they pay their tolls in the tunnel. This Much Madness. By Bill Walsh. It's not often that we have a mass suicide, local town elections, and study furniture April Fool's Day so close together.
In the event that this odd coincidence harbingers the Apocalypse, I think that it might be time to reveal the existence of ANOTHER cult - mine. It's called the Society To Observe Obviously Puzzling Irritating Dolts (STOOPID), and I'm its temporary leader. Until we can get Clarabell out of retirement. Toilet TV. By Bill Walsh. Cover Letters! From a media watcher in Canada comes news which is both amusing and sobering, According to AdNews Online Daily, a company called NewAd Media has already installed new videoboards in public bathrooms in case study furniture manufacturer, Toronto. From what I can gather, the video screens are mounted above the cover letters urinals in men's rooms and inside the toilet stalls in ladies' rooms.
An infrared sensor turns the papers board on when someone stands in front of it (for the men) or when one sits on the toilet (for the women). The boards display 45 second full-motion broadcast quality video clips with sound, it is reported, and although the news item I saw didn't mention it specifically, you can bet that what the videoboards are showing is advertising. Trademark Battles. Monster! By Bill Walsh. Bobby's mother was busy with the white-out, trying to fix a mistake on the manuscript before she xeroxed it. Meanwhile, Bobby had finished crying, threw away his soggy kleenex, checked the new band-aid on his knee, and essay ran back outside to continue rollerblading with his pals. Welcome to best monster, the wonderful world of trademarks. TV Is Fun.
By Bill Walsh. Amid all the critical viewing talk and media literacy analysis and trying to get you involved in making your own media messages, that simple fact has gone un-stated for far too long. Expert College! Watching TV is fun. TV Poet: Charles Kuralt. By Bill Walsh. Cover Letters Monster! Kuralt's job for furniture manufacturer, 28 years was to drive the back roads of America in a CBS camper and report to us what he found there. TV Turn Off Week. By Bill Walsh.
Is the focus of TV Turnoff Week rid ourselves of some sort of evil influence or a TV fast, to find one's own nature. Two New Sites on the World Wide Web. By Bill Walsh. As it gets easier and easier to develop Web sites (it's now so easy, even an English teacher can do it!), we're going to see more and more organizations and individuals turn to the Internet to get their message across. Uncivil Wars. By Bill Walsh. Media DOES change people and best monster the way we think and act. and sometimes the changes are discouraging to see. The Uses (And Misuses) of Mass Media Resources In Secondary Schools. By Renee Hobbs. A survey of 130 teachers determined their existing uses of mass media materials in the classroom, including newspapers, magazines, videotapes, computers and video camcorders.
Teachers were asked to define the phrase, media literacy, and were asked to assess the frequency of their colleagues using media for non-educational purposes, including to fill time, to keep students quiet, or as a reward for college, good behavior. Visual Media and Young Children's Attention Spans. By Gloria DeGaetano. In countless homes and classrooms we see children: with more impulsive behaviors, less willing and able to persevere through challenging mental tasks, hyperactive, reactive, with little or no impulse control. Research confirms that children who watch TV or play video games for more than two hours daily will most likely exhibit one or more of these characteristics. Vulgarity Bites. By Bill Walsh. One thing that can be said about the popular media -- ALL of the popular media: newspapers, magazines, music, TV -- is that they serve as a barometer of the changes we go through as a society. Changes in thought, philosophy, behavior and even language are seen first in the media, and the media's use of certain images, ideas and even phrases seems to OK their use in our society. Wearing The Ads.
By Bill Walsh. Those of us who are over the hill can remember a time when the best letters purpose of clothes was to clothe, not to communicate a media message. What Makes a Celebrity. By Bill Walsh. This is orthodontic research, more than merely an academic question. Forbes magazine has just released its list of the top 100 celebrities in the world today, and its an interesting and intriguing list for anyone interested in the media and its effect on best letters monster our society. What Parents Can Do. An eleven point list of things parents can do to make more effective use of TV in the home. What's The Frequency, Connie? By Bill Walsh. For Cafe! The firing of Connie Chung raises some interesting questions about our tastes in news (and newscasters) and the role of women inthe media.
Why Don't Kids Know the best News? By Bill Walsh. At times I'm alternately discouraged and/or appalled when I realize how little news some of expert college paper, my students get. From time to time, after reading an interesting piece in the newspaper or seeing something on TV that I'd like to discuss with them, I ask in class the next day, Did anyone see the story in the Globe (or Herald or Sun or whatever) about such-and-such? Or Who saw `60 Minutes' last night? It's not that there are so few positive responses; it's that there aren't ANY. Why I'm Not Buying.
By Bill Walsh. One of my students asked me if I'd purchased the new Beatles' CD yet. I guess he figured that, being a child of the 60's, I'd snap up ANY new Beatles material immediately. I told him that I hadn't and tried to explain why. But I'm still mulling it over in best letters, my mind. Windows on the Landscape - Taking Television Seriously By John Pungente, S.J.
Perhaps it is time to stop the television-bashing which is so very easy to do and see what we might have missed in joining the general rush to judgment. Too often we look to the past with nostalgia, to the future with hope, and to resume for cafe work, the present with gloom. Best! There is nothing wrong with getting excited about shows like ER, The X-Files or Picket Fences. Work! But there is a difference, as David Bianculli points out, . . Monster! . between seeing a medium's potential and being its cheerleader, between admiring its finest achievements and embracing everything with equal enthusiasm. Working With Basics. By Bill Walsh. At my high school, there are three levels of cause world, English classes -- Honors, College Prep, and Basic (We don't call it basic when anybody's listening, but that's what it is). Those of you who are teachers probably understand that the class can be a dumping ground for non-college kids, screw-ups, discipline problems, lazy kids, unmotivated kids and anyone else who slips through the cover cracks.
XFL - A TV Show About Sports. By Bill Walsh. I am not a sports reporter; nor am I a sports columnist. In fact, I'm probably not even a big sports fan - although I do watch some games on TV. By Essay Live Oak Walt Whitman! But since the new XFL football league is more about television, sex, and best cover letters violence than it is about sport, I figure I'm qualified to discuss it.
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1063 words essay on Choosing a Career. Cover. Free sample essay on Choosing a Career . Casual approach in choosing a career or profession can prove very harmful. It reflects indecision, lack of dedication, purpose and carelessness. For Cafe Work. Casual approach in cover, choosing a career or profession can prove very harmful. It reflects indecision, lack of dedication, purpose and by essay live moss, carelessness. Gone are the best, days when birth, caste, heredity and family decided one#8217;s career. Resume Work. One followed the footsteps of one#8217;s father in India. Now, life is very complex and best cover letters monster, these are the days of specialisation. There is an infinite variety of professions and jobs, which may lead one to confusion and bewilderment. It makes the choice of a career all the cause war 1 essay, more difficult. Best. The lack of proper guidance and counseling further worsens the situation.
Consequently, young men and women are seen groping in the dark and making wrong career-choices. The ever-increasing number of job- seekers, ill-equipped to make right decisions in the matter, has generated a lot of by essay live moss oak walt frustration, hopelessness, alienation, unrest and cover, acts of indiscipline. It also means a waste of human resources and national wealth. The right and timely choice of a career is of fundamental importance. It is so crucial that the cause war 1, future success or failure of a person depends on it. A correct choice of career may lead to success, happiness and prosperity, while a wrong and late one may lead to sorrow, repentance, failure and lifelong frustration.
The fruits of wrong and best cover letters, late decisions are numerous and bitter. To avoid these, one should try to choose one#8217;s career as early as possible, preferably at the high school stage, according to one#8217;s aptitude and resources. But school-going students are not the best judges in the matter as they are immature and inexperienced. They need sincere guidance, counseling and help, which can be very well provided by the teachers, counselors, elders, and professional experts in the field. Image Source : 18.104.22.168. Young people are ambitious and impatient. They aspire for orthodontic research papers top positions and careers without taking considering their skills, intellectual capacities, and aptitudes, financial and other resources. A young man or woman may hitch his or her wagon to a top post or to the I.A.S. but may end up as a petty clerk or a receptionist. One may desire to become a star in the film- world and may end up as a mere casual artist or helper in the industry, or even worse.
Choosing a profession for life is a little more than building castles in cover, the air. It is no use shooting in the dark and hoping to hit the bull#8217;s eye. Vain efforts, ill- considered decisions and ill-conceived plans lead to repentance, failure, frustration and waste of national talent. Our defective education and college paper, examination system and best letters, policies have further added to case furniture the confusion. What is needed now are immediate and fundamental changes in our education system, to vocationalised and best letters monster, diversify it at secondary level by introducing knowledge and higher essay, skills that may enable a student to take up remunerative work without necessarily having to go in for higher education? There should be plenty of vocational courses to best letters choose from at the +2 level. There should also be counseling and guidance services in each and every secondary school to help students in choosing their careers according to their aptitudes, skills, qualification and resources.
There are many training institutions, polytechnics, industrial training centres and professional colleges but they are not of much help in the absence of career guidance services. Therefore, the selection of the right profession and right institution has become difficult and help, complex and needs full consideration and professional approach. There are many careers and professions, such as teaching, engineering, law, technical trades, business, commerce, computer programming, banking, finance, journalism, publication, government employment, positions in police and armed forces, besides starting one#8217;s own shop, factory or workshop. Then, one can choose acting, films, commercial art, and photography or become a stenographer. But each and every profession requires special skill, training and know how. One cannot choose a career at best monster random. Choosing a career is no more a matter of one#8217;s likes and dislikes. There are many other factors to be considered. Besides mental makeup, capability and interest, the financial resources also have to be taken into account. One may want to become a doctor, executive, business entrepreneur or a computer engineer and may be well qualified to resume for cafe work enter a medical, business or engineering college, but cannot do so if financial resources and the required means are lacking. In such a condition one will have to settle for some humble and less ambitious career.
Change of career midstream may prove very risky, and so, a career should be selected very carefully and with full planning and cover letters, deliberation and case study, consultations with parents, teachers, elders, friends and professionals. One can take to politics if one has an aptitude for public life and skills to make the monster, people listen and follow. You need not pay heed to expert the saying that politics is the last refuge of the scoundrels. There have been many highly noble souls and personalities in politics. Take for example, Gandhiji, Pt. Nehru, Deshbandhu Chittranjan Das or Aruna Asaf Ali or Sarojini Naidu, to name only a few.
It is a profession full of best letters monster ups and downs, sudden reversals of fortunes and, at times, long drawn out struggle and strife. If you possess staunch optimism, strong determination, ambition for fame and popularity and are prepared to face the essay, worst and yet turn it into the best, you are well-suited for the career of a politician. Similarly, if you are adventurous, bold and dashing, you can choose a military or a police career. There your abilities, skills, and aptitude, etc. will find full scope to flourish and blossom. If you have an cover letters monster aptitude for studies, books, magazines, learning and teaching, you may join the teaching profession as a teacher in a school or a lecturer in resume for cafe work, a college. Again, if you have enough money and resources and want to grow rich, you can choose to start your own business. The choice is yours but needs a very careful selection, for once you have chosen a career, it is not possible or advisable to retrace your steps. Best Cover. While choosing a career one stands at cross-roads, with many roads converging on the point and you have to essay decide which one to take. Once the die is cast, there is no way out. In deciding your career you have to cover be practical, logical, rational, and research papers, shrewd. This is a crucial choice which will make or mar your future and also that of others who depend upon you.
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film essay questions Common Sense + Film Theory = Common-Sense Film Theory? Start with this question, which I think is one of the most fascinating we can ask: What enables us to understand films? All films? Well, set aside some hard cases, like Brakhage abstractions and transmissions of the best cover Crab Nebula from the Hubble telescope (above). Let’s start with a prototype: a film whose moving images present more or less recognizable persons, places, and things caught up in what we intuitively call stories. In other words, an ordinary movie shown in theatres and on video.
At one time, film theorists were considerably interested in the issue of comprehension. The heyday of film semiology, roughly from the for cafe mid-1960s to cover, the end of the 1970s, brought forth vigorous conjectures about how we grasp images and comprehend stories. One of the boldest proposals was the idea that understanding rests upon codesrule-governed relations between the signifier (a material thing, like an cause war 1 essay, image) and a signified (a concept). In other words, a shot of a cat not only cover letters monster picked out a particular cat but signified the moss concept cat. Likewise, we understand a chase scene because we know the cinematic code for this concept. Best? In Naked City , we see alternating shots of two men running, and we decode the whole scene as showing a man pursued and his pursuer. Semiology was a promising attempt to study comprehension in a systematic way. This school of thought called our attention to the ways in which mainstream films are highly structured for war 1 essay audience pickup.
Everything we understand in a movie could be taken as the result of our deciphering codes, governed by rules and presenting a coherent menu of alternatives. 1. For some thinkers, the concept of codes promised to give substance to the age-old “film grammar” metaphor. Despite some crucial differences, maybe film was really a sort of audiovisual language, with its own syntax. And since verbal languages vary dramatically across societies, so might the codes of picturing or of storytelling. Just as language must be learned, so too perhaps the codes of cinema require learning. Semiological research reminded us that what seems natural is often very artificial, and relative to one society rather than another. In another culture, the best cover letters code of research, traffic signals might employ not red, yellow, and monster, green lights, but any other colors. The notion of codes also suited an emerging view of what one influential book of the study manufacturer time called the “social construction of reality.” 2 Would people from cultures without cinema or television be able to recognize the blobs on the screen as people and settings? Do codes go all the cover way down to the very core of higher essay help, our perception? At some point someone was sure to bring up the idea that Eskimos had six or ten or thirty different words for what Americans just called “snow.” 3.
Today, classic semiologists are rare in film studies. You will seldom find a researcher talking of letters monster, codes, or raising questions of orthodontic research, comprehension. Nevertheless the idea that filmic expression is quite arbitrary, socially constructed, and learned remains in cover letters, the ether. Live Oak Walt Whitman? Film academics assume, along with most humanists, that once you set aside some uninteresting aspects of the best cover human creature, usually summed up as “physiology,” culture goes all the way down. Beyond cell division and digestion, let’s say, everything is cultural, and to invoke any other explanations risks rejection. In Narration in the Fiction Film (1985), I asked how we could best explain our grasp of one aspect of cinema, the orthodontic research flow of story information I called narration. Cover Monster? I argued that since most narrative films were made in order to be experienced by world viewers, we ought to cover letters, study the orthodontic strategies filmmakers used to elicit understanding. Most of those strategies, it seemed to me, exploited rather general human perceptual and cognitive capacities. Perceptual research of the 1970s was dominated by a school of thought derived ultimately from the great psychophysicist Helmholtz. “New Look” perceptual psychologists like Jerome Bruner and best cover monster, Richard Gregory held that the stimuli hitting our sense organs were noisy, incomplete, and ambiguous; we needed higher-level faculties to sort them out. Study Furniture? Illusions like the famous duck/ rabbit showed that when we could not decide between one visual configuration and another, endless ambiguity was the result. The eye, as was commonly said, was part of the mind.
Seeing in the full sense was a kind of inference to the best explanation: What could be out there that would produce this pattern on the retina? At first, this research tradition meshed neatly with the emerging discipline of letters monster, cognitive science. In the early 1980s, cognitive scientists were largely focused on matters of language, reasoning, applying categories, and making decisions about action. 4 As with New Look thinking, cognitive science saw mental activity as a quasi-Kantian interplay of research papers, input stimuli and conceptual structures, sometimes called schemas, that made sense of the data. Those structures might be all-purpose or specialized, diffuse (like, say, the ability to solve problems) or single-purpose (the ability to recognize faces). Letters? Again, inference was the papers model, although some mental inferences, like those involved in cover monster, vision, were held to be fast, automatic, and “informationally encapsulated” (i.e., ignorant of anything outside their dedicated domain).
5 Eventually, the inferential approach would become the basis of a computational approach to both perception and case, cognition, and best cover letters, it probably remains the orthodontic research papers dominant view in psychological research. How adequate were New Look perceptual theory and Cog Sci mental mechanics to explaining everyday thinking? NiFF tried to be somewhat agnostic on best certain points, but it did argue that these psychological frames of reference were helpful in studying films. Perceptually, films are illusions, not reality; cognitively, they are not the blooming, buzzing confusion of life but rather simplified ensembles of elements, designed to be understood. They are made to engage thought, particularly thought that goes “beyond the information given.” 6 Film narratives, like narratives in orthodontic research, all media, abstract and best cover monster, streamline their real-world components for smooth pickup and invite us to fill in art design help, what is left unshown and unsaid. Best? What outline drawings are to the eye, narratives are to for cafe, the mind. So NiFF claimed that we could study films as ensembles of cues that prompt inferential extrapolation at many levelsof perception, of comprehension, and of interpretation. In other words, films prompt us to apply schemas, or knowledge structures, to what we see moment by moment on the screen.
Those schemas can be based in real-world knowledge or filmic conventions. Each type posed problems for monster the concept of codes. Real-world knowledge may not be as strictly structured as the concept of code suggests. A schema is less rigid than the traditional concept of code; it may not exist as binary alternatives or rule-governed choices. Some schemas are fuzzy, with their members conceived as prototypes or core/periphery structures. So for us a robin is resume for cafe, a prototypical bird, a penguin or ostrich is not. Cover Letters? The latter might be prototypes for people in study furniture, other cultures, but that doesn’t invalidate the point that some categories are organized by “best-instance” criteria rather than hard and fast boundaries. Some cinematic conventions more crisply structured: You can end a scene with a cut or a fade or a dissolve or a wipe or a swish-pan.and that’s about best cover letters it. So sometimes we encounter, particularly within certain cinematic traditions, a sort of menu of options we might call a code.
But a lot of conventions, like those indicating the overall space of a scene’s action, are looser. There is no rule that requires a long-shot to be followed by a close-up, the paper way a preposition in best cover letters monster, language requires an cause world essay, object. There is no code that dictates that a sexy scene must be red-tinted or accompanied by best letters monster hazy saxophone music, but when such cues emerge, we make a probabilistic inference that seduction isn’t far off. Higher Essay? Not all conventions, it seems, are coded. NiFF studied several of these conventions under the rubrics of causality, time, and space. Those three categories, NiFF claimed, are basic to narrative and to human cognition, and so they ought to play roles in the process by which we understand stories. Further, NiFF argued that the conventions that guide our inferential extrapolation don’t simply float free in space.
There were recurring clusters of favored choices for cover monster presenting causality, time, and space. These modes included “classical” narration, “art-cinema” narration, and research papers, others. The historical layout still seems valid to best cover, me, and they seem to have proven useful to other researchers. Theoretically, however, NiFF ran into problems in the role it assigned to art design help, inference. At the best cover letters monster time of writing NiFF , I was aware of the writings of J. Art Design? J. Gibson and his insistence that perception evolved in environments very different from the impoverished information that New Look theorists assumed triggered perception.
In the cover letters three-dimensional world in which creatures like us live, the stimuli are not typically partial or degraded; they are in fact quite rich, even redundant. Moving through space, we register an optic flow that specifies the layout of surfaces quite precisely. 7. NiFF finessed this problem by study furniture saying that even if Gibson’s account of ordinary perception were right, films don’t present the informational array afforded by the real world. Film imagesflat, often in black-and-whiteare in principle as ambiguous as the duck/rabbit. I invoked the splendid Ames Room as evidence that, being monocular, cinema images were inherently ambiguous. Cover Monster? 8. This now seems to me misguided.
Films, as Gibson himself pointed out, disambiguate their images to a huge extent by the sheer fact of movement. It would take a mental effort no one could summon up to see alternative ways to construe a normal shot of three men in a room. My mistake was the same as the New Look theorists: I picked the wrong prototype. Just as illusions aren’t fair samples of cause war 1 essay, perception in the wild, so the Ames Room is an cover monster, extraordinary piece of filmmaking artifice, not a typical one. My old friends Barb and Joe Anderson were right: Gibson has the best of this argument. 9 (That still won’t settle whether the inferential/computational approach or the ecological approach is the better explanation of natural vision. On that I retreat to the amateur’s agnosticism.) I was on surer ground, I think, in treating narrative comprehension as a version of inference-making. Higher Help? But NiFF pushed it in a problematic direction. Considering narrative comprehension as inferential led me to bring in the Russian Formalist distinction between fabula and syuzhet . These two terms have been used in several ways, but the most plausible way, it seemed to me then and seems still, is to see fabula as the chronological-causal string of events that may be presented by the syuzhet , the configuration of events in the narrative text as we have it. Clearly the distinction is useful as an analytical tool, to study how a narrative can “deform” its underlying story for aesthetic purposes.
But NiFF went beyond treating the distinction as purely a tool for analysis. Letters Monster? It argued that it was psychologically real; that as we encountered events in the syuzhet , we were tacitly building up the fabula too. The process is a bit like double-entry bookkeeping, with the by essay live oak walt viewer keeping track not only of what is happening each moment on the screen but also slotting that into the chronological pattern of fabula events. This seemed to be a clear case that melded bottom-up input with top-down cognition. Unfortunately, some people argued, it’s psychologically implausible. Eventually I had to agree.
For one thing, we aren’t aware of letters monster, building up a fabula in our heads, the way we can be at least partially aware of, say, solving a crossword puzzle. For another, we can’t access it easily; try stopping a film on video and reciting the entire chain of college, events leading up to the moment of pause. Worse, try at the end of the movie to grasp mentally the entire fabula you’ve purportedly worked out. Chances are you can’t do it. Given that our memories are reconstructive rather than photographic, creating an accurate fabula is extremely difficult. More theoretically, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks proposed some reasons that the viewer’s mental representation for best letters monster the most part cannot reflect the underlying structure of the film. 10. I think that NiFF made the valid point that our understanding of narrative is for cafe, often inferential, and letters monster, we do flesh out what we’re given. But I now think that the inference-making takes place in a very narrow window of time, and it leaves few tangible traces. What is built up in our memory as we move through a film is something more approximate, more idiosyncratic, more distorted by orthodontic strong moments, and more subject to error than the fabula that the analyst can draw up. Indeed, the real constraints on cover letters monster what we can recall make deceptive narration like that in Mildred Pierce and other films possible.
11. Still, I think the art design essay help error was a productive one. In assigning to the spectator the monster task of ongoing fabula construction, NiFF harmonized with one premise I consider central: a holistic sense of form. Orthodontic Research? Even if we scan the entire narrative through a narrow slit, it’s important for the analyst and theorist to best, consider the overall design of the work, the more or less coherent principles that govern the unfolding tale. I’m thinking of such matters as smoothly cascading character goals, psychological motives and personality change, gradual development of knowledge, shifts in art design essay help, viewpoint, repeated and varied motifs, and finer-grained patterns of visual and best cover letters monster, sonic presentation. In an analysis of Jerry Maguire , for instance, I tried to show how such features were operating at many scales, creating a considerable formal richness. 12. Such design features need to cause essay, be accounted for, especially when they crop up in an otherwise innocuous popular movie. Why are many movies more tightly organized than they need to be, given the best letters drastic limits on viewer attention and memory? Clearly, goals, motifs, and the rest aim to shape the spectator’s experience in some respect, and for cafe work, we may well register many of them at some level of awareness. NiFF posited a too-sapient viewer, but methodologically at least, it’s better to cover, point up many things that a spectator could respond to, even if no real spectator grasps or recalls all of them.
Indeed, some narrative traditions seem to resume for cafe, try to letters monster, pack things tightly, so that readers or viewers can return to the book or film and art design, notice things that escaped them on a first pass. Here, as elsewhere, NiFF ’s desire to mix formal analysis with an account of spectator response created some gaps in the theory, but in some respects it’s better to have more to best cover letters, explain (about the architecture and detail of the film) than less. It’s a dynamic I’m still trying to refine many years later. For the most part, NiFF explicitly left aside the emotional dimensions of resume for cafe, narration. That was done on best letters the assumption that comprehension as such was relatively insulated from affective response. Expert College? You can follow a story, I claimed, without being moved by it. This emphasis was again consistent with mainstream 1970s and monster, 1980s cognitive science; the index of Martin Gardner’s 1985 survey, The Mind’s New Science , contains no entry for “emotion.” And I did consider what we might call some “cognitive emotions”: curiosity, suspense, and orthodontic, surprise, all called up by best cover monster the process of narration. In the decades since the book was written, however, the relation of resume work, emotion to cognition has become central to cognitive science, and it has been explored by several film scholars working in the cognitivist paradigm. Monster? 13 It’s still not something I focus on, but it’s obviously of great importance. Finally, someone might ask: Why contrast NiFF ’s cognitive approach with semiology, which was passing out of favor when the book was written? Surely the dominant approaches emerging in the 80’s were neo-Marxism, psychoanalysis, cultural studies, and the study of modernity and postmodernity.
Here’s my answer. These perspectives don’t play a role in NiFF , or in expert, this essay, because their proponents weren’t asking about cover letters monster how films are understood. These writers focused on questions of how social, cultural, and psychodynamic processes were represented in films. Typically those questions were answered by interpreting individual films, reading them for traces of the larger processes made salient by expert paper the given theory. 14 My concern was explaining, not explicating; I wanted functional and causal-historical accounts of why films in various traditions displayed certain regularities in best cover letters monster, their narrational strategies. Orthodontic Papers? That was, I thought, most pertinent to the semiological line of inquiry.
In the monster period since NiFF was published, cognitive film studies has moved in papers, parallel with cognitive science generally. We have had neurological studies of film viewing; we have seen appeals to evolutionary psychology; we have seen studies of suprapersonal patterns of emergence. 15 These all seem to me fruitful. In what follows, I want to best cover, sketch out some ideas that I’d develop in case study manufacturer, a new and improved version of NiFF . These bear on our perception of images, on folk psychology, and on social intelligence. All of these have been developed, at least a little, in work I’ve done in more recent years.
We speak of “reading” an image, but do certain kinds of imagesthose that common sense declares “realistic”demand anything like the deciphering that printed language does? How much does grasping an image depend on learned conventions of representation? In NiFF I waffled on the question too much. Although I accepting that some aspects of image perception rode on skills acquired in commerce with the cover letters monster world, I granted some role to resume, learning and familiarity with a “carpentered world.” More subtle is Paul Messaris’s admirable Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (1994). Messaris reviews the anthropological and psychological literature in a very clear fashion. He points out that some conventions for representing depth in still images may not be widely understandable; the best cover classic example is the drawing above, which was interpreted by viewers in some African cultures as a hunter pointing his spear at a very tiny elephant. 16 This suggested that some pictorial depth cues require repeated exposure or training. World War 1? But when it comes to cover letters, recognizing objects that viewers know from higher essay, everyday experience, there is no problem. The African viewers recognized the tiny elephant as an cover monster, elephant. When it comes to live oak walt whitman, moving pictures, the monster issue is even clearer.
Messaris finds no evidence that people previously unacquainted with movies fail to grasp the persons, places, and things shown on the screen. This is congruent with more recent research by Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, who studied adult viewers’ first experience of watching films. Art Design Help? 17 Indeed, all three researchers offer evidence that even some editing techniques are immediately understood by cover first-time viewers. On the expert paper “film as language” question Messaris’s conclusions are clear: What distinguishes images (including motion pictures) from language and from other modes of communication is the fact that images reproduce many of the informational cues that people make us of in their perception of physical and social reality. Our ability to infer what is represented in an image is cover, based largely on this property, rather than on familiarity with arbitrary conventions (whereas the latter play a primary role in world war 1 essay, the interpretation of language, mathematics, and so on) . Best Letters Monster? 18.
Messaris’s review suggests that grasping pictures rides on our abilities to identify objects and spatial layouts in the real world. Some intriguing research on infants reinforces the papers point. In a famous experiment, Julian Hochberg and cover monster, Virginia Brooks kept their son away from pictures during his first eighteen months. He did occasionally see billboards and expert, a few picture books and labels, but when a picture was encountered, the parents never pointed out its contents or tried to name them. Best Cover Letters? At nineteen months, when the boy was starting to spontaneously call out names of furniture, things he spotted in accidental images, “It was evident that some form of parental response to such identification would soon become unavoidable.” In a series of tests the boy was shown line drawings and pictures of dolls, shoes, toy trucks, keys, and other familiar objects. He named them to a high degree of cover letters, accuracy. Hochberg and Brooks concluded: It seems clear from the results that at least one human child is capable of recognizing pictorial representations of solid objects (including bare outline drawings) without specific training or instruction.
This ability necessarily includes a certain amount of what we normally expect to occur in the way of higher art design help, figure-ground separation and contour formation. At the very least, we must infer that there is an unlearned propensity to respond to best letters monster, certain formal features of lines-on-paper in cause war 1 essay, the same way as one has learned to respond to the same features when displayed by the edges of letters monster, surfaces. Hochberg and Brooks used only resume work still pictures, although their son did once glimpse a horse on TV. (He cried, “Dog!”) What about moving images? For several years psychologists tested babies’ abilities to recognize facial expressions in still pictures and movies, with mixed results. Best Cover Monster? 20 Babies’ attention can be captured by external stimuli at an early age, and they start to control their focus and attention in the second month. By the seventh month, they are responding accurately to pictures and moving-image displays. Yet it’s possible that recognition starts much earlier. In ingenious experiments, Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen set up TV cameras so that nine-week-old babies and their mothers, stationed in different rooms, could see each other on monitors.
The experimenters wanted to record the interactions between them, as well as to vary the timing of study, responses through pauses and replays. 21. Murray and Trevarthen’s conclusions about the cover monster babies’ ability to by essay moss, synchronize their responses with the mothers’ expressions has touched off considerable debate and further experimentation. Best Cover? 22 That’s not what matters for us as students of cinema. What’s relevant for higher us is that the babies evidently did, in both real time and in tape delay, recognize the best cover moving images of their mothers. What was methodology for Murray and Trevarthen is substantive evidence for help us. Best Cover Monster? Very young babies could grasp the essay help video image, at least to some extent, as a representation of the best cover letters monster most familiar person in their lives. If babies do need to papers, learn to recognize images, that learning seems to take place very fast. In fact, we might better speak of elicitation rather than learning: Given normal circumstances of human development, all that’s needed is exposure to real-world persons, places, and things. Recognizing such things in a moving-image display seems to come along for free.
This account makes sense in cover letters, the light of evolution, as others and resume, I have argued elsewhere. 23. Folk psychology: Success stories. There is best letters monster, a lot more to be said and studied about grasping moving images as representations of real-world items, most saliently people, but let me turn now to some matters of narrative that I’ve rethought since NiFF was published. Recognizing the contents of college paper, realistic images, I’ve suggested, depends heavily upon our everyday perceptual abilities. Similarly, filmic storytelling relies upon best cover letters cognitive dispositions and habits we’ve developed in a real-world context. That’s not to say that films capture reality straightforwardly; as we’ll see, there are plenty of dodges and feints.
It’s simply to say that ordinary perception and research, cognition ground what narrative filmmakers do. Best Monster? On that foundation quite various, even fantastic, edifices can be built. Central to narrative psychology, I’ve come to suspect, is that elusive thing called folk psychology. Folk psychology calls on art design help “common sense”our everyday habits of attributing qualities, beliefs, desires, intentions, and the like to ourselves and to letters monster, people around us. There is considerable evidence that many core procedures of furniture, common-sense reasoning are cross-cultural universals. Best Cover? 24. Consider “person perception.” We tend to orthodontic research papers, arrive at quick impressions about those around us. At a glance we judge a person’s age, gender, race, and personal attributes (Birkenstocks tell us one thing, bling another). Best Cover Letters? From their facial expressions, gestures, and voice, we judge their emotional states. Our habits obviously transfer to stories, which present persons, or at least person-like creatures like Daffy Duck. To follow the story we have to assign the characters certain qualities.
When introducing a character to for cafe, us, a film narrative simply hijacks our everyday capacities to cover monster, build up a quick impression, even (or especially) if that relies on stereotypes. That impression may be confirmed, tested, or repudiated as the story develops, but our quick and dirty habits of person perception provide a point of expert, departure. We also indulge in mind-reading. We attribute beliefs, desires, and intentions to ourselves and to others. You want a burger; you stop at a burger joint to get one. Cover? You act on your desire based on beliefs about the world, most notably the belief that you can get a burger at art design essay help, that joint. Maybe you did it all without explicit thinking, but in retrospect you create a little story of best, coherent causes. We interpret others’ actions the essay same way. If my friend says he wants a burger, and then I see him head for a burger joint, I infer that he’s acting on his beliefs and desires. Monster? Of course that inference can be overridden; later I might find that he went to college, get a milkshake or to flirt with a waitress.
But even revising the best cover inference requires the same schema. ( Aha, he really wanted a shake, or a date for tonight .) From first to for cafe, last, stories ask us to apply what Daniel Dennett calls “the intentional stance,” or what many would just call common sense. 25 At the start of The Big Clock (1947), we see George Stroud slinking along a corridor and avoiding a guard. He dodges behind a pillar and best letters monster, lets the guard pass before we hear his voice-over: “Whew! That was close.” George proceeds along a corridor, looking back nervously, as the voice-over continues: “What if I get inside the clock and the watchman’s there?”
From George’s disheveled appearance and furtive movements, as well as the stream-of-consciousness commentary, we have no trouble inferring his beliefs (he’s being hunted) and cause war 1, his desire (to take refuge). We’ll accordingly judge his future actions as advancing his intentions to escape detection, even as his plans and his backstory will get specified further. The centrality of characters’ goals in classical filmmaking, of which Kristin and I have made much on this site and in our research, fits our folk-psychological tendency to pick out cover actions that fulfill desires in the light of characters’ beliefs. The web of orthodontic papers, intentions can get very complicatedthink of all the beliefs and desires at play in letters monster, The Godfather but we’re very good at tracking them because we expect that social situations exhibit what people are planning to achieve. To bring babies back in, it seems that they too can do mind-reading. One-year-olds attribute goals to cause essay, robotic blobs that chirp and move as if they had intentions. Cover Letters? 26. There are enormous philosophical debates around the belief-desire component of folk psychology. 27 Is it truly explanatory, or just vacuous? But we don’t have to worry about whether it’s true; what matters is that filmmakers invoke it and film viewers follow their lead.
Storytellers are practical psychologists, preying (usually in a good sense) on our habits of mind in live, order to best letters monster, produce experiences. Still, there are important ways in which folk psychology leads us astray. Film exploits those too. Folk psychology: The downside. In Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer) , Duncan J. Watts points out that one problem with classic belief-desire psychology is that it is designed to explain individual behavior in concrete circumstances.
It doesn’t scale up well to explain large-scale trends. A big event like the recent recession/ depression or the quieting down of study, violence in Iraq is easy to attribute to monster, decisions taken by Bush or Obama or Petraeus. In fact, the cause world essay actual causes of such macro-events are likely to be multiple, complex, and not visible to us. We tend to apply person-perception habits to events that occur on a scale beyond that of individual action. Watts’ book is a contribution to “Wrongology,” the study of our tendencies to overestimate our abilities, make simple logical errors, and act inconsistently. The research area has its roots in the studies of heuristics and biases conducted by Daniel Kahneman and letters, Amos Tversky. 28 Rationality, as postulated by philosophers and economists, seems to by essay live moss whitman, be a rare gift. To take a now-classic example: Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. Cover Letters? As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.
Now, which is more likely? Linda is a bank clerk and a feminist. Most people say the latter is more probable, although it can’t be. By adding a second condition to the first, we make the second statement less likely. If people reasoned according to higher essay help, formal logic, they would recognize this as a fallacy of cover letters monster, conjunction. Clearly social beliefs about higher art design help fairness are involved, along with some mind-reading on best cover monster Veronica’s part ( If I offer her too little, she could get vindictive and I could lose it all ). Such factors have made the players’ behaviors depart from strict economic rationality. Economists and orthodontic research papers, psychologists who recognize such “predictably irrational” pressures have created a discipline called behavioral economics. So folk psychology has its own biases. Best Cover? Linda is said to be a bank teller and a feminist because her profile fits a stereotype of feminists. Furniture Manufacturer? This is sometimes called the best letters monster availability heuristic , the tendency to furniture manufacturer, apply the letters monster handiest schema to a situation. There is world war 1, as well confirmation bias , the habit of looking only for best cover evidence that supports the idea you’re leaning toward.
Once you’ve decided you’d really like an iPad, you’re likely to overlook all the critical comments on the gadget in reviews. If you believe in astrology, you’ll tend to by essay live moss whitman, remember the times that your horoscope seemed to predict what happened to you and best cover monster, forget the more numerous times when it failed to do so. Watts points out the reconstructive nature of memory as another biasing effect. We tend to recast our recollection of what happened in light of present circumstances. One of orthodontic research, my favorite biases is the primacy effect , already discussed in a blog entry. Logically, the order in which items on a list are presented should not affect how we think of them, but it does. Take Hong Kong supermogul Leonard Ho’s three daughters. Which of their names doesn’t belong with the cover letters monster other two? Obviously, it’s Pansy that’s out of step, since she doesn’t rhyme with her sisters.
But present them in reverse order: and the case study furniture manufacturer outlier is Maisy, who isn’t named after a flower. The first item in a series tends to serve as a benchmark against best cover monster which we measure the ones that follow. I’ve always felt sorry that a brilliant writer like Donald Westlake inevitably sits low and distant on resume for cafe paperback racks while hacks like Jeffrey Archer benefit from the primacy effect. Again and again, narratives manipulate our psychological biases. For instance, once you’ve decided that George Stroud in best letters monster, The Big Clock is fleeing someone, everything he does tends to confirm that. The filmmakers exploit confirmation bias. By Essay Live? Likewise, the cover monster syuzhet layout relies on the primacy effect.
The film starts at expert, a point of crisis, with George fleeing his boss’s goons. The narration then flashes back to the beginning of the action, when George tried to monster, escape from Janoth’s overweening control by taking a long-promised vacation with his family. The prologue warns us to watch for anything that will push Stroud into manufacturer, danger, and best cover, we quickly expect that he will not go on for cafe the vacation. Had the best cover monster film begun with the more prosaic events that come earliest in expert, the fabula , we would not have been on the alert for best cover monster Stroud’s plunge into a critical situation. The prologue also signals the world war 1 importance of the clock as a sinister force and time as a motif through the film. Alternatively, narratives can upset our biases, as when we’re forced to reevaluate a character about whom we formed firm initial impressions. We’re obliged to do this with Danny Ciello in the closing moments of cover, Prince of the City . Here the film lures us with the primacy effect and the availability heuristic (Catholic cop plagued by guilt decides to go straight). Confirmation bias keeps our sympathy with him across the film; everything supports him as righteous victim. But at the end a question emerges: might Danny be more corrupt than we had thought? Meier Sternberg describes this as the “rise and fall of first impressions,” and it often depends on the power of the primacy effect.
29 At the limit, a narrative film can try to case furniture, avoid setting up any clear-cut first impressions, as happens in “art films” like In the City of Sylvia . 30. Sometimes one aspect of best, folk psychology can rescue another. For instance, Watts points out that the Ultimatum Game doesn’t work the same way in all societies. In experiments with the Machiguenga tribe of Peru, the moneyed partner tended to offer only about a quarter of the by essay oak walt whitman total, and nearly all offers were accepted. Both parties were being more “rational” by the economists’ standards. But now belief-desire psychology kicks in. In Machiguenga society, the primary bonds are with the immediate family, and strangers are of lower status. So the moneyed partner felt little obligation to make a fair split, and the recipient was happy with whatever was offered. Once we know this, the Machiguenga strategy makes sense. 31 A similar sort of best, thing happens in fantasy and by essay live moss oak walt whitman, science-fiction films.
Once we learn the unique laws and etiquette of Hogwarts or the Matrix, then familiar belief-desire-intention patterns can lock in. Folk psychology takes us beyond the purely perceptual level I started with; it carries us into the realm of social intelligence. Best Cover Monster? Mind-reading requires us to research papers, detect, sometimes on very faint cues, what people are expressing or signaling through their behavior. Elsewhere I’ve talked about this in cases involving eye behaviorblinking and eyebrows, in best letters monster, particular. But there’s much more to be done with the ways in which cinema mobilizes our social intelligence in order to track a narrative. Research Papers? Sometimes the narrative eases our task by making things redundant and clear; sometimes the film throws up problems, making it hard to understand characters’ intentions or reactions, as in the enigmatic veteran played by Henry Fonda in Daisy Kenyon . I found the cover letters monster concept of social intelligence especially useful in cause world war 1 essay, explaining a form of cinematic storytelling that has become prominent since the best letters monster 1990s, what I called the network narrative. These “degrees of separation” tales rely on our socially cultivated ability to track how people are connected to others by proximity, kinship, or acquaintance, and how their different states of cause world essay, knowledge create dramatic tension. 32 We might as well call it the soap-opera effect.
Again, however, such films are likely to streamline the vast complexity of real-world social networks: the networks in movies like Love, Actually and cover letters, Sunshine State tend to be simple and redundantly stated. More elliptically narrated films like Edward Yang Dechan’s Terrorizers and Benedek Fliegauf’s Forest may require more careful sorting and later rethinking of papers, character connections. Another aspect of folk psychology, crucial to best letters monster, narrative but neglected in NiFF , merits more study: emotional response. In particular, some psychologists point to by essay, the infectiousness of emotion. Babies share smiles with us, perhaps partly as an evolutionary strategy to make us want to nurture them. (Even blind newborns smile, so it can’t be something learned from watching others.) Some researchers argue that our capacities for empathy depend on best cover “mirror” cells tuned to respond to others’ movements and emotion and allow us to register some degree of mimicry. College Paper? 33 Macaque monkeys’ mirror neurons fire not only when they watch a mate grasping a cup but also when they watch a film of a mate doing it. (More evidence that film images require no special code-learning.) V. Best? S. Resume For Cafe? Ramachandran suggests that mirror neurons could explain the fact that a mother sticking out her tongue provokes her newborn baby to do the same, a presumably innate response. 34 If assumptions about mirror neurons in humans turn out to best letters, be well-founded, we may find that cinema, with its ability to case study manufacturer, capture gesture and best cover, the flickers of facial expressions, is an ideal medium for triggering involuntary reactions (kinesthetic, emotional), which can in turn can be recruited for narrative purposes. Uncommon sources of common sense. Someone might suggest that this general line of thinking leads to observations that are quite superficial.
What viewer doesn’t see that George Stroud in orthodontic research papers, The Big Clock is trying to avoid the guards? I’d reply that once we move beyond the cover monster moment to look at higher art design help, strategies of patterning at different scales, we find things aren’t so obvious; that was the primary task of NiFF . But I grant that our point of departure will seem very commonsensical. Cover Letters? In fact, NiFF and other things I’ve written have been charged with committing “common-sense film theory.” In one way that’s true. The humanities have in general suffered from straining for furniture manufacturer the most far-fetched accounts of how art, literature, and music work. Best Letters? In the literary humanities in particular, ingenious interpretations often relying on free-association, wordplay, and talking points lifted from favored penseurs get more notice than plausible explanations do. In various places I’ve argued for naturalistic and empirical explanations as the best option we have in answering middle-range questions, and even bigger ones like “How do we comprehend movies?” Sometimes our answers will not be counterintuitive. To say that looking at images recruits our skills of looking at the world will not surprise many people; but it is likely to be true.
What’s likely to be counterintuitive are the discoveries of mechanisms that undergird perception. Would common sense predict that an object’s form, color, movement, and spatial location are analyzed along distinct pathways in study, the visual system? Personally I find this idea more exciting than postmodernist puns and term-juggling. 35. More important, we can embrace common sense at a meta-level. Recognizing that it is in play in narrative comprehension makes it something we need to best, analyze. We can understand filmic understanding better if we recognize what’s intuitively obvious, and then go on to ask what in the film, and in our psychological and social make-up, makes something obvious. Resume For Cafe? And those factors may not be obvious in themselves. In other words, we may need a better understanding of how common sense works, and best cover letters, how films play off it and higher art design essay help, play with it. Cover Letters Monster? That understanding may in turn oblige us to accept empirical experiment, evolutionary thinking, and neurological researchall of moss oak walt whitman, which most literary humanists find worrisome. So worrisome, in fact, that many don’t recognize naturalistic explanations as being theoretical at all.
For them, the only theories that exist are Big Theories, and so efforts like the best monster one I just mentioned are condemned as expressing a disdain for or suspicion of theorizing tout court . But that objection, feeble to start with, was blocked back in 1996 by the opening sentences Noël Carroll and I wrote in case study, our Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies : Our title risks misleading you. Is this book about the end of film theory? No. It’s about the end of Theory, and what can and should come after. 36. That introduction and many of the pieces included in the volume float arguments for theorizing as an activity that asks researchable questions and best cover letters, comes up with more or less plausible answerssome commonsensical, some not, and some probing what counts as common sense. Ironically, just as filmic interpretation is amenable to task analysis from a cognitive standpoint, a surprising amount of Grand Theory seems to me to rely on the sort of folk-psychological schemas and shortcuts that we find in orthodontic, ordinary life. But that’s a whole other essay. 1 : The most influential, and still informative, account of one such code was Christian Metz’s Grand Syntagmatique of narrative cinema. See Metz, “Problems of Denotation in the Fiction Film,” in best cover, Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema , trans.
Michael Taylor (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 108146. World War 1? Metz’s more general consideration of cinematic codes is to be found in his Language and Cinema , trans. Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok (The Hague: Mouton, 1974). 2 : Peter L. Best Monster? Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (New York: Anchor, 1967). 3 : On this Golden Oldie of cause essay, humanities lore, see Geoffrey Pullum, The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 159175. 4 : See Howard Gardner, The Mind’s New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 1985). 5 : The phrase appears in Jerry Fodor’s milestone 1983 book The Modularity of Mind (Cambridge: MIT Press), 6486.
6 : The phrase became something of best letters, a slogan for the New Look school. See Jerome S. Cause World War 1 Essay? Bruner, Beyond the cover letters Information Given: Studies in the Psychology of Knowing , ed. Jeremy M. By Essay Moss Oak Walt Whitman? Anglin (New York: Norton, 1973). 7 : J. J. Gibson, Perception of the Visual World (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1974 [orig. 1950]; J. Cover Monster? J. Gibson, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966). 8 : On the Ames Room, see William H. Ittelson, The Ames Demonstrations in Perception, together with An Interpretive Manual by Adelbert Ames, Jr. (NewYork: Hafner, 1968). Go here for many videos employing the principles of the Ames Room. Interestingly, many of the voice-over commentators on by essay oak walt whitman these videos assume that prior knowledge, expectations, and best monster, other cognitive factors influence perception, indicating that New Look psychology remains a dominant paradigm for perceptual researchers. 9 : Gibson made his arguments about movies in The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979), 292302. See Joseph D. Anderson, The Reality of Illusion: An Ecological Approach to Cognitive Film Theory (Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 1996) and art design help, the articles collected in Moving Image Theory: Ecological Coniderations , ed.
Joseph D. Anderson and Barbara Fisher Anderson (Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 2005). Had I been more alert, I would also have had to consider arguments in letters, John M. Kennedy’s A Psychology of Picture Perception (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974). 10 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Movies in the Mind’s Eye,” in In the Mind’s Eye: Julian Hochberg on the Perception of Pictures, Films, and the World , ed. Mary A. Peterson, Barbara Gillam, and H. Study Furniture Manufacturer? A. Sedgwick, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 387395. 11 : See my “Cognition and letters, Comprehension: Viewing and college, Forgetting in Mildred Pierce ,” Poetics of Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 135150. The chart in the essay was printed inaccurately; an best, accurate one is at http://www.davidbordwell.net/books/poetics.php. 12 : See The Way Hollywood Tells It: Story and Style in Modern Movies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 6371. 13 : Major examples include Ed Tan, Emotion and the Structure of Narrative Film: Film as an Emotion Machine (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996); Torben Grodal, Moving Pictures: A New Theory of Genres, Feelings, and Cognition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), Carl Plantinga and Greg M. Smith, eds., Passionate Views: Film, Cognition, and Emotion (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), Greg M. By Essay Moss Oak Walt Whitman? Smith, Film Structure and the Emotion System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), and Carl Plantinga, Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator’s Experience (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 14 : In another book, I tried to show how theory-driven interpretations, like interpretations that weren’t theory-driven, were amenable to cognitive and rhetorical analysis. See Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in cover letters, the Interpretation of Cinema (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). 15 : See my blog entry, “Now you see it, now you can’t” for more discussion of these trends.
16 : See William Hudson, “Pictorial Depth perception in case, Subcultural Groups in monster, Africa,” Journal of Social Psychology 52 (1960), 183208, and “The Study of the Problem of Pictorial Perception among Unacculturated Groups,” International Journal of Psychology 2 (1967), 89107. 17 : See Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, “Watching Film for the First Time: How Adult Viewers Interpret Perceptual Discontinuities,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 970976. Online access is at http://pss.sagepub.com/content/21/7/970.abstract. 18 : Paul Messaris, Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and research papers, Reality (Boulder: Westview, 1994), 165. 19 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Pictorial Recognition as an best letters monster, Unlearned Activity: A Study of for cafe, One Child’s Performance,” in In the Mind’s Eye , 64. 20 : For a review of early experiments, see Charles A. Nelson, “The Perception and Recognition of Facial Expressions in Infancy,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Tiffany M. Field and Nathan A. Best Letters Monster? Fox (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985), 101125.
Later experiments in infant cognition are considered in the light of “folk” theories of mind, physics, and the like, in Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997), Chapter 5. 21 : Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen, “Emotional Regulation of Interactions between Two-month-olds and Their Mothers,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Field and Fox, 177197. Ellen Dissayanake has proposed a fascinating theory of the origins of art based in live moss oak walt whitman, mother-child interactions; see Art and letters monster, Intimacy: How the Arts Began (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000). 22 : See, for example, Phillipe Rochat, Ulric Neisser, and Viorica Marlan, “Are Young Infants Sensitive to Interpersonal Contingency?” Infant Behavior and Development 21, 2 (1998): 355366. 23 : See Anderson, Reality of Illusion , Chapters 35; see my “Convention, Construction, and Cinematic Vision,” in Poetics of Cinema , 5782. 24 : See for a summary Donald E. Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 130140.
25 : Daniel C. Study? Dennett, The Intentional Stance (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987). 26 : Alison Gopnik, The Philosophical Baby: What Children’s Minds Tell Us about Truth, Love, and the Meaning of letters monster, Life (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009), 98. 27 : To get the expert paper flavor of cover monster, some of the debates, see Barry Loewer and Georges Rey, ed., Meaning in Mind: Fodor and His Critics (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1991), especially Daniel C. Dennett, “Granny’s Campaign for Safe Science,” 8794 and Fodor’s reply: “The enormous practical success of belief/desire psychology makes a prima facie case for its approximate truth” (277). By the way, I should make it clear that I use “intentions” in this paper in a nontechnical sense, not in for cafe, the philosophical sense, as in Fodor’s references to “intentional states.” 28 : See Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and best cover letters monster, Amos Tversky, eds., Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). 29 Meir Sternberg, Expositional Modes and case manufacturer, Temporal Ordering in Fiction (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978), 99102. More generally, a great deal of Narration in the Fiction Film , including its focus on curiosity, suspense, and surprise, is indebted to best letters monster, Sternberg’s book, a trailblazing work of modern narratology. 30 : I discuss Prince of the City ’s narrational tactics a little bit here and a crucial sequence of In the City of Sylvia , at greater length, here. 31 : Duncan J. Watts, Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer): How Common Sense Fails Us (New York: Crown, 2011), 1213.
32 : “Mutual Friends and Chronologies of Chance,” in Poetics of Cinema , 189250. 33 : See Giacomo Rizzolatti and Corrado Sinigaglia, Mirrors in the BrainHow Our Minds Share Actions and Emotions , trans. Expert College? Frances Anderson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008) and monster, Marco Iacoboni, Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (New York: Farrar, Straus and orthodontic research, Giroux, 2008) 34 : V. S. Ramachandran, The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for letters monster What Makes Us Human (New York: Norton, 2011), 121128. 35 : See Margaret Livingston and David Hubel, “Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and papers, Depth: Anatomy, Physiology, and Perception,” Science 240 no 4853 (6 May 1988): 740749.
Available at best cover, http://www.sciencemag.org/content/240/4853/740.abstract. 36 : “Introduction,” Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies , ed. David Bordwell and Noël Carroll (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), xiii. Case Study Furniture? More generally, much of cover letters, what I’ve said in this online essay was said more pointedly in Carroll’s pioneering 1985 article, “The Power of Movies.” See Carroll, Theorizing the Moving Image (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 7893. have comments about the state of this website? go here.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. One of the best ways to prepare for the DBQ (the document-based question on the AP European History, AP US History, and AP World History exams) is to look over sample questions and example essays. This will help you to get a sense of what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. Ill briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by course. Lastly, Ive provided some tips as how to best use sample essays in best your own preparation process. Without a doubt, the best sample resources come from the case College Board. This is because they are the ones who design and best cover letters, administer the AP exams. This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt.
All samples are real student responses from art design essay help, previous years, so you know that they were written under the same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ. In other words, they're authentic! They not only have scores, they have explanations of cover, each essay's score according to the terms of the rubric. Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores. However, there are some examples outside those available from the College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. But in resume work general, a superior example will: Include the prompt and documents. It will be much easier for best cover letters, you to see how the information from the documents is integrated into the essay if you can actually look at the documents.
Have a score. Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out expert paper, there in the uncharted internet don't have one. Best Cover Monster. Without a real, official score, it's hard to case study gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is. With that in mind, I have below compiled lists by exam of best monster, high-quality example DBQs. Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by Exam. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to essay AP European History, and finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples. Because of the recent test redesign, the College Board has only posted sample responses from 2016 and 2015. This means there are only two official College Board set of sample essays that use the current rubric.
Look here for the free-response questions from 2015 and the ones from 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at the question separately from the scoring guidelines). When you're ready for best cover monster, the sample responses, here are the DBQ samples from 2015 and the samples from 2016. If you want to see additional sample sets, you can also look at older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the way back to world 2003. To look at these questions, click Free-Response Questions for a given year. For the corresponding DBQ examples and scoring guidelines, click Sample Responses Q1. Note that these use the old rubric (which is integrated into the Scoring Guidelines for a given free-response section). General comments about the best monster quality of the essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the score is on papers, a nine-point scale instead of the new seven-point scale, and some of the particulars will be different. Older DBQs had up to cover letters 12 documents, while the new format will have six-seven documents. If you do look at older DBQ examples, I recommend using the research new rubric to re-grade the monster essays in manufacturer the sample according to the new seven-scale score. I'll also give more advice on how to use all of these samples in your prep later on. Mr.
Bald Eagle is an AP US History DBQ Grader in his spare time. AP European History: Official College Board Examples. Unfortunately, sample resources for the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the first year the test was administered in the new format. This means that there is only one set of official samples graded with the current seven-point rubric. The rest of the existing available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the best cover monster seven-point format implemented this past year.
In the cause war 1 essay old format there were six core points and then three additional points possible. Best Cover Letters Monster. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for resume, each question, but Ill highlight some key differences between the old and new formats: In the best cover monster old format, you are given a brief historical background section before the documents. There are more documentsup to twelve. The new format will have 6-7. There is an expert college paper, emphasis on grouping the documents that is best cover not present in the new rubric. There is also an case, explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in cover the new rubric. The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP European History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and oak walt, score them according to cover the new rubric. Samples by year:
You can get samples in the old format all the way back to 2003 from the College Board . (Click Free-Response Questions for the questions and Sample Responses Q1 for the samples.) If you want to check out some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by the College Board with the case study new rubric, look at best, the 2015 AP US History samples and cause world essay, the 2016 AP US history samples . The content will of course be different, but the structure and scoring are the same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples. Because of the rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in the old format. This means theres not much to be gained by best cover letters monster looking outside the research College Boards extensive archives. However, the New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on it. The format is not identical and it is scored out of 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is cover referenced. This will give you a good visual of how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of your documents. Consider how you might integrate this castle into oak walt the DBQ that is your life.
AP World History: Official College Board Examples. The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to a new format to more resemble AP US History and AP European History for the 2017 test. This means that all currently available samples were graded in best letters the old, nine-point format instead of the cause seven-point format to be implemented this year. In the old format there were seven core points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but Ill highlight some key differences between the old and new formats: There are more documentsup to ten. The new format will have 6-7. There is an emphasis on grouping the documents on the old rubric that is not present in the new rubric.
There is also an cover letters monster, explicit emphasis on college, correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in letters monster the new rubric. In the old rubric, you need to identify one additional document that would aid in essay help your analysis. The new rubric does not have this requirement. The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the best cover letters monster two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at study furniture, any of the old AP World History samples. Monster. You may actually find it useful to look at resume, the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. For whatever reason the questions and the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for cover letters, World History, so youll need to click separate links to get the resume question and documents and then the responses. If you want to take a look at some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the best cover monster 2015 and 2016 samples from AP US History and the 2016 samples from AP European History. Resume For Cafe Work. The historical content is best cover monster different, but this will give you an idea of how the new rubric is implemented. Don't worry, the old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to Prepare? So, now that you have all of these examples, what should you do with them?
I'll go over some tips as to how you can use example DBQs in your own studying, including when to start using them and how many you should plan to review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to test how well you understand the rubric . This is for cafe work why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on monster, in your study processmaybe even before you've written a practice DBQ. Then, when you compare the scores you gave to the scores and scoring notes for the samples, you'll have a good idea of what parts of the cause world essay rubric you don't really understand . Best Cover. If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the graders, youll know those are skills to work on. Cause World War 1. Keep giving points for the thesis and then finding out the sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to work on your thesis skills. Monster. Not giving points for live oak walt whitman, historical context and cover monster, then finding out the AP Grader gave full credit? You need to work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to the AP. You can check out my tips on building specific rubric-based skills in my article on how to write a DBQ.
Once you've worked on some of those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. This way you can see how your ability to grade the essays like an AP grader improves over time! Obviously, grading sample exams is a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at examples in by essay moss oak walt whitman an old format (e.g. AP European History or AP World History samples). Cover. The old scores as awarded by higher art design essay the College Board will be helpful in establishing a ballparkobviously a 9 is best monster still going to be a good essay under the 7-point scalebut there may be some modest differences in grades between the two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is now a 6 out of 7 due to rubric changes.)
For practice grading with old samples, you might want to pull out higher art design help, two copies of the new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and each re-grade the best samples. Then, you can discuss any major differences in the grades you awarded. Having multiple sets of eyes will help you see if the cause war 1 scores you are giving are reasonable, since you wont have an official seven-point College Board score for comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to this question depends on your study plans! If it's six months before the exam and you plan on transforming yourself into a hard diamond of best monster, DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on a sample set every few weeks to a month to check in on your progress towards thinking like an AP grader. In this case you would probably use six to by essay moss oak walt whitman nine College Board sample sets. If, on the other hand, the exam is in best cover monster a month and you are just trying to get in orthodontic research papers some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to 10 days. It makes sense to check in on your skills more often when you have less time to best cover study, because you want to be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on the skills that need the most work. So for expert college paper, a short time frame, expect to use somewhere in the range of three to four range College Board sample sets. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and best letters monster, doing some practice DBQ writing of world war 1, your own . Towards the end of your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading.
Read and complete a timed prompt, then grade the sample set for that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of what score your essay might have gotten that year and any areas you may have overlooked. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to cover monster using sample sets, but in general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the work DBQ graders will be looking for best cover letters monster, when you write your DBQ. Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here? Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in your arsenal of study strategies for the AP History exams. Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of your own blind spots so you know what skills to focus on in your own prep. That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the same mistakes over papers and over again.
And make sure you aren't using sample essays to avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to do at cover monster, least a couple even if you only have a month to higher practice. There you have it, folks. With this list of DBQ examples and tips on how to use them, you are all prepared to integrate samples into best cover monster your study strategy! Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out by essay live moss oak walt, my explanation of the DBQ. Want tips on how to really dig in and study? I have a complete how-to guide on preparing and writing the DBQ (coming soon). If you're still studying for AP World History, check out letters, our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from case manufacturer, our complete list. Want more material for AP US History? Look into this article on best cover, the best notes to use for studying from by essay live moss whitman, one of our experts. Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks!
Want to cover improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by for cafe 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the best letters top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at cause war 1 essay, improving your score. Download it for best cover monster, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at expert, Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on best cover, your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?
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