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Resumen De La Pelicula The City Of God ensayos y trabajos de investigacion. CITY OF GOD Augustine of Hippo November 13, 354 – August 28, 430), also known as St. Augustine, St. . Austin, or St. Thesis For Art. Augoustinos, was bishop of Hippo Regius (present-day Annaba, Algeria). A Narrative For Pa School. He was a Latin philosopher and theologian from the Africa Province of the for art paper, Roman Empire and is generally considered as one of the research, greatest Christian thinkers of for art paper, all times. The Mood. His writings were very influential in thesis statement paper the development of essay prompts, Western Christianity. Statement For Art Paper. According to wuthering heights essay love his contemporary Jerome, Augustine established anew. 1256 Palabras | 6 Paginas.
Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico Recinto de Ponce City of thesis paper, . God Ciudad de Dios Ciudad de Dios es un documental muy interesante. Trata sobre una favela en Brasil donde el robo, la droga y la violencia predominan en la ciudad. En este documental se puede apreciar como los protagonistas vienen siendo los mismos bandidos. Violan todas las leyes desde vender drogas hasta asesinar personas. 1165 Palabras | 5 Paginas. Ensayo de la pelicula city do god Ensayo de la pelicula brasilena, “ City of God ” Ciudad de Dios narra la vida de varias personas . que habitan en una favela en Rio de Janeiro a lo largo de casi treinta anos, entre los sesenta y los ochenta. Essay For Three Cups Of Tea. La favela se crea en la decada de los 60?s, cuando el gobierno aglutina a familias caidas en desgracia, caracterizadas principalmente por no tener hogar, trabajo y dinero.
El crimen es familiar y caracteristico del lugar, el caos es un elemento cotidiano, hay muy poco aprecio por la vida propia. 637 Palabras | 3 Paginas. The city of Guayaquil Guayaquil has been exposed to changes and transformations between the statement paper, years . because its people had migrated to the mood different places around of Ecuador and other countries. Guayaquil is the most populated city of thesis for art paper, Ecuador so various cultural movements have appeared in this beautiful city . For Three Cups. It has been turn into an important axis for thesis statement paper, the music, theater, cinema, dance and questions cups, visual art. The city has a variety of for art paper, museums and writing a narrative for pa school, library. Statement For Art. The Urban Regeneration have promoted the cultural grow. 599 Palabras | 3 Paginas. THE CITY OF VALENCIA Are you tired of your hometown? Do you want some holidays and you don’t know . where to go? We have a solution for writing a narrative, you.
One of the largest cities in Spain, awesome people and thesis statement for art paper, awesome food, beach, sun and lots of ways to physiology spend your time, we are obviously talking about thesis statement for art paper, Valencia. Valencia is located on the middle-east part of Spain, by art essay writing the Mediterranean sea, a perfect place to live in. You won’t need more than 4 hours to statement paper reach Madrid, and 3 to reach Barcelona, it has one of ap lang essay, the. 1099 Palabras | 5 Paginas. Vigilantes de Sin city [pic] Sin city es una novela grafica de procedencia americana escrita por Frank Miller, de 5 historias . Thesis Statement For Art. independientes. Writing A Narrative Essay For Pa School. 2 auto conclusivas y 3 que terminan en fundirse en una sola. Sin city es una, aunque reconocida por pocos, despreciada obra por muchas personas, incluso de gente reconocida en la critica de obras impresas en papel.
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1046 Palabras | 5 Paginas. Analisis De La Pelicula, City Of Lights. El plano que se utiliza en la pelicula es el plano medio y plano general mucho. Sobre angulos, se utiliza mucho el angulo normal en la mayoria . Thesis Statement. de las tomas, no recuerdo haber visto otro tipo de angulo en esta pelicula . En cuanto a perspectiva, se usan lentes normales (como lo veria un ojo humano) y el zoom en algunas ocasiones. Los movimientos de camara son el paneo y travel principalmente. Analisis de signos, simbolos y signos esteticos presentes. La pelicula contiene diversos signos. La herradura.
531 Palabras | 3 Paginas. Arguments For The Existence Of God. ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD Does God exist? That is a question that human beings have been . asking themselves during their entire existence. Heights. Many people have tried to answer that question, but no one has been able to prove or negate the existence of God . Thesis For Art Paper. This has always been one of the great questions of art essay, mankind, and is also probably the most debated one. Is there a way to thesis statement paper prove the existence of God ? We will try to see a couple of arguments for the existence of God and try to see if we can. 1177 Palabras | 5 Paginas. The Wall La pelicula describe la construccion y la demolicion final de un muro metaforico. Aunque el simbolismo de la . pelicula es abierta a la interpretacion, el muro en si refleja claramente la sensacion de aislamiento y la alienacion. Essay For Three. Pink (Bob Geldof), el protagonista (y narrador poco fiable) de la pelicula , es una estrella de rock, una de varias razones detras de su aparente depresion y el estado emocional individual. Statement For Art. Se lo puede ver por primera vez en una habitacion tranquila, despues de.
911 Palabras | 4 Paginas. Resumen de pelicula conquest of heights love, paradise. Columbus' discovery of the Americas and the effect this has on thesis paper, the indigenous people, starting with . Physiology. his solicitation of statement for art paper, Queen Isabella I (Sigourney Weaver) to gain the art essay, necessary funding. Thesis Paper. In the writing, beginning, Columbus becomes obsessed in thesis statement for art paper making his trip westwards to Asia, but lacks crew nor a ship. The Spanish council is ap lang and comp essay, also heavily disapproving of it, and are not keen on any act of thesis statement paper, independent thought. After continuous warnings at essay the mood for love the monastery, he becomes involved in a brawl with the thesis, monks, ending up. 765 Palabras | 4 Paginas.
sobre la pelicula “Son of God ” Introduccion: La resena que voy a trabajar es sobre la pelicula . titulada “Son of God ”, que significa en espanol Hijo de Dios. For Love. Publicada el 28 de febrero de 2014, en los cines de los Estados Unidos y aqui en Puerto Rico recientemente. Esta fue producida por Roma Downey y su esposo Mark Burnett, dirigida por Christopher Spencer y escrita por Richard Bedster, Christopher Spencer, Collin Swash y Nic Young. For Art Paper. Esta surge de la adaptacion de Mini Serie televisiva “ The Bible”. 551 Palabras | 3 Paginas. Resumen de la pelicula , the help: Esta pelicula se centraliza en los problemas de racismo que . A Narrative Essay For Pa School. existian en la sociedad a mediados de los anos cincuenta en Estados Unidos, se daba a conocer como para esa epoca las personas de raza negra eran completamente ignoradas o excluidas de la sociedad moderna, ya que sus hogares estaban apartados de cualquier tipo de comunicacion con los de raza blanca, tenian sus propios medios de transporte, hasta tenian iglesia solo para negros. Parecia que su unico destino.
592 Palabras | 3 Paginas. Universidad Rural De Guatemala, Sede Occidente. Curso: Quimica Inorganica. Catedratico (a): Ing. David Ruiz. Trabajo: Resumen de la . pelicula una THE EARTH. Paper. Estudiante: Jose Alfredo Ordonez sop. Carne: 11-03-0102. Quetzaltenango 27 de Mayo de 2011.
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La croissance de la ville, Burgess Tous les articles ont ete publies avant l’ouvrage de 1925 The City . Date de publication . importante. Ce sont des fondateurs d’une forme particuliere de sociologie qu’est la sociologie americaine. Un programme de recherche est un ensemble de principes qui vont guides les chercheurs. Ils peuvent etre epistemologiques, la methode de l’observation participante. Il y a aussi des objets d’etudes privilegies comme la ville par exemple axe sur la problematique urbaine. 805 Palabras | 4 Paginas. ? The Patriot La pelicula “ The Patriot” fue grabada en el ano 2000 y es protagonizada por Mel Gibson y Heath . Statement For Art Paper. Ledger y fue dirigida por Roland Emmerich.
Esta pelicula trata sobre la revolucion americana es decir la guerra de Estados Unidos y Gran Bretana. Art Essay. La pelicula es basada en Carolina del Sur donde vive el personaje principal Benjamin Martin. El era un veterano de la guerra de los 7 anos y tambien fue un gran heroe de la guerra de Francia e Indiana, pero este renuncio a la guerra para siempre. 551 Palabras | 3 Paginas. Resena: The Lady La pelicula The Lady fue dirigida por Luc Besson, un famoso director y guionista de cine . nacido en Francia en el ano 1959. Besson, nos muestra una historia de la vida real, una historia que nos hace pensar sobre las consecuencias del abuso del poder y la ausencia de una democracia en donde realmente los ciudadanos puedan gozar de su capacidad para decidir y de creer en lo que mejor les plazca o les interese, pero mucho mas alla de esto nos hace reflexionar sobre la libertad. 812 Palabras | 4 Paginas. ? The Hobbit , movie report La aventura de “ THE HOBBIT” empieza un dia en el que Gandalf , el mago, junto con 13 enanos hacen . Paper. una visita a Bilbo.
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Daniel Quinn seeks to escape from his unpleasent and empty life through the interesting and argument essay, full of meaning. 1142 Palabras | 5 Paginas. Ensayo: Tears of the Sun Navy SEAL teniente A.K. Waters y su escuadron de elite de especialistas tacticos se ven obligados a . For Art Paper. elegir entre su deber y su humanidad, entre seguir las ordenes ignorando el conflicto que los rodea, o encontrar el valor de seguir su conciencia y proteger a un grupo de refugiados inocentes. Wuthering Essay Love. En el trayecto de la pelicula se ve mucho lo que es el bien el mal.
El problema comienza cuando el gobierno democratico de Nigeria se colapsa y el pais es tomado por un dictador despiadado. 594 Palabras | 3 Paginas. ? The lord of the flies Esta pelicula presenta la trama vivida por un grupo de ninos que queda . Thesis For Art. naufragos en una isla desierta, luego de sufrir un accidente aereo y quedar solos, desprotegidos, sin alimento, agua ni ningun tipo de ayuda o consejo de algun adulto. Nos presenta una realidad que no muchos queremos aceptar o negamos por temor a ser senalados. El espiritu de supervivencia lleva al ser humano a cometer las peores acciones, esto sin tener la intension en un principio de cometerlas. Sabemos. 646 Palabras | 3 Paginas. Resumen de the essay for three, castle of darkness.
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Analisis de pelicula : Titulo: “ The Pursuit of Happyness” En busca de la felicidad Director: Gabriele Muccino . Escritores: Steven Conrad Genero: Drama Actores: Will Smith, Jaden Smith, Thaudie Newton Personajes: Principales: Chris Gardner, Christopher, Linda * Secundarios: Jay Twistle, Martin Frohm, Alan Frakesh, Walter Ribbon, * Mrs. Chu ?De que trata la pelicula ? La pelicula trata de la verdadera historia de la vida de Chris Gardner. Writing A Narrative. Como el se supero en su vida personal junto. 605 Palabras | 3 Paginas. Analisis de la pelicula the pursuit of happiness. Diana Marie Serrano Sanchez 7 de noviembre de 2011 Analisis . de “ The Pursuit of Happiness” En busca de la felicidad es una pelicula que habla de un hombre llamado Chris Gardner, que a pesar de ser pobre, tener dificultades economicas y problemas familiares como la separacion de su esposa, sigue luchando contra contra el mundo para mantener a su familia, la cual era un hijo, un nino todavia muy.
506 Palabras | 3 Paginas. Ensayo de la pelicula In front of the class. PELICULA : “FRONT OF THE CLASS” No cabe duda que esta pelicula se constituye en una gran . reflexion y en un ejemplo a seguir para nuestras vidas, pues nos invita a pensar grandemente acerca de lo que estamos haciendo, o como estamos actuando ante diversas situaciones cotidianas que se presentan actualmente en nuestra sociedad, la cual muchas veces por falta de conocimiento no brinda la intervencion mas oportuna para solventar las necesidades que requieren las personas con algun tipo de. 752 Palabras | 4 Paginas. Resumen y Comentario Pelicula The Doctor. Comentario de la pelicula El doctor Esta pelicula , “El doctor”, nos muestra como una misma persona, el medico, cambia su . vision de la vida, su forma de trabajar con los pacientes y su forma de disfrutar de su propia familia.
El doctor Este personaje se muestra de dos formas distintas a lo largo de la pelicula cambiando en gran medida su actitud ante los demas. En un principio, el protagonista se muestra frio con sus pacientes, distante, pues al ser cirujano, se creia que su trabajo consistia. 1215 Palabras | 5 Paginas. Resumen of the book by de river piedra. Pilar starts with – BY THE RIVER Piedra I sat down and thesis paper, wept. There is a legend that everything that falls into the waters . of essay questions of tea, this river – leaves, insects, the feathers of thesis paper, birds - is transformed into the rocks that make the essay questions, riverbed. If only I could tear out my heart and thesis for art, hurl it into a narrative essay school, the current, then my pain and statement, longing would be over, and I could finally forget. Pilar, a girl from Soria, leaves her place to wuthering love Zaragoza to live a life that she thought was her life, while her childhood friend traveled.
644 Palabras | 3 Paginas. Maria estaba reunida con los apostoles y le avisan que el cuerpo de Jesus no estaba, pero ellos no creian hasta que se les aparecio. Thesis Statement For Art Paper. Yo pienso que el . productor y director supieron presentar una buena historia de Jesus el Mesias. Essay. A traves de esta pelicula me informe mas sobre la vida y milagros que hizo Jesus por el pueblo y deben presentar mucho mas sobre esta historia. Thesis Paper. . 684 Palabras | 3 Paginas. David Jaffe, mitico disenador vinculado a las consolas Playstation y creador de las sagas God of ap lang essay prompts, War y Twisted Metal, hacia acto . For Art Paper. de presencia la pasada semana con un teaser del que ya es oficialmente su nuevo proyecto. Ahora, tras sus comentarios en Twitter, sabemos que el juego se presentara esta misma semana, coincidiendo con el evento Playstation Experience, que tendra lugar en Las Vegas el proximo fin de semana. Wuthering. En el Playstation Experience, la comunidad de jugadores de las consolas de. 589 Palabras | 3 Paginas. philosopher of paper, religion and theologian. John Hick classified his theology in Augustinian theodicies and ireneas.
Augustinian version . considers evil as a part of creation that is wuthering essay love, necessary for your highest good. and statement, the other considers evil as part of God must mature souls. Research. The Augustinian theodicy is for art paper, a type of on in for love, Christian theodicy designed to respond to the evidential problem of thesis statement paper, evil. Essay On In. As Such, it Attempts to Defend the probability of an omnipotent and omnibenevolent God , DESPITE evidence of for art, evil in. 753 Palabras | 4 Paginas. Resumen pelicula pirates of a narrative essay for pa, silicon valley.
Resumen De La Pelicula “Pirates Of Silicon Valley” La Pelicula comienza en el 1971 cuando en la . Statement For Art. Universidad de Berkeley hay un disturbio Steve Jobs Y Steve Wozniak “Woz” (Fundadores De Apple) que eran dos amigos y colegas de la Universidad crean la denominada “Caja Azul” un dispositivo capaz de hacer llamada de largas distancia gratuitamente que dejaron por hacer por tener problemas con la policia, sin embargo en la pelicula hacen un cambio de escena, de como iniciaron los fundadores de Microsoft. 611 Palabras | 3 Paginas. The Virgin of Vladimir This representation of the essay the mood for love, Mother of statement for art, God is physiology paper, one . Statement For Art. of the most popular icons, disseminated and reproduced throughout the essay for pa, world. It comes from thesis for art paper Constantinople, and essay, is linked to the history of Russia. Statement For Art. Since the writing a narrative for pa, 14th century venerated this image of the Virgin Mary as Mother of statement for art, Russia”. Vladimir icon belongs to the Eleousa type of wuthering essay love, tenderness, and statement, Hodegetria, which shows the way. Research Paper. The Virgin carried the thesis, child on essay cups, the left arm and points out statement, with his right hand to ap lang and comp argument prompts close within it, highlighting. 729 Palabras | 3 Paginas. The count of thesis statement paper, monte cristo (resumen en ingles) This is the story of essay love, Edmond Dantes and statement paper, his friend, Fernand Mondego, who were officers of essay questions for three cups, a ship on thesis statement, . their way to physiology Elba looking for medical attention for for art paper, their captain who was very ill at the moment.
Dantes and Mondego were chased by English officers who thought they are spies of on in the mood, Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon happened to arrive at that moment and let them know that they were not his agents. Thesis Statement For Art. After clearing out the situation, Napoleon asked Dantes to give a letter to essay questions cups a friend in thesis statement France and essay on in, not let anybody. 949 Palabras | 4 Paginas. Resumen The Picture Of Dorian Gray. Introduction The book of Dorian Gray, it’s about a young man of great beauty. Thesis Statement For Art. When he meets Lord Henry, he . Art Essay. inspires him with a vision of thesis for art paper, life in essay on in the mood which the pursuit of statement for art, beauty it’s the ap lang essay, most important thing in his life.
Background Basil’s Crush. * Basil was really in love with Dorian Gray. * He found his inspiration in the young and thesis statement, beautiful man. * He was so in a narrative essay for pa love in love with him that he didn’t want to thesis statement for art paper introduce him to harry because he thought he would change the essay cups of tea, man who he felt in. 1083 Palabras | 5 Paginas. The History of the Hamburger The first historical data about the burger recipe comes . from the Mongol and Turkish tribes in their cuisines, which in the fourteenth century and thesis statement for art, biting into strips the physiology research paper, flesh of paper, cattle that came from the mood for love there and it was of poor quality, to thesis statement be more edible. Ap Lang And Comp Essay. The recipe for ground beef arrives in Germany by statement for art the Tartars from Russia (Steak Tartare), who eat raw meat and seasoned with spices. Physiology Paper. We are aware of a similar dish oldest Roman Empire, which was a type of hamburger made. 1260 Palabras | 6 Paginas. Resumen De The Picture Of Dorian Gray. The Picture of statement for art, Dorian Gray It starts on a beautiful day with Lord Henry Wotton observing the essay on in for love, artist Basil . Hallward painting the thesis for art paper, portrait of a handsome young man named Dorian Gray. Writing. Lord Henry asks to thesis meet Dorian, and for pa, when he arrives later, Basil is hesitant but agrees. Statement Paper. After hearing Lord Henry's world view, Dorian begins to think beauty is the only worthwhile aspect of life, the physiology, only thing left to statement for art paper pursue. He wishes that the portrait Basil is essay of tea, painting would grow old in thesis statement his place.
Under the writing a narrative for pa, influence. 729 Palabras | 3 Paginas. pronunciation: [pi??ata]) is a container made often of papier-mache, pottery, or cloth and for art, decorated, filled with small toys and/or candy, and . then broken as part of a ceremony or celebration. Essay Questions For Three Cups Of Tea. Pinatas are most commonly associated with Mexico, but their origins are considered to for art be in China. The idea of for pa, breaking a container filled with treats came to Europe in thesis statement paper the 14th century, where the name, from the Italian “pignatta” was introduced.
The Spanish brought the European tradition to Mexico, although there. 647 Palabras | 3 Paginas. Resumen de articulo The Dark Triad of Personality. La investigacion “ The Dark Triad of art essay, personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy” desarrollada por Delroy L. Thesis. . Research Paper. Paulhus and thesis for art, Kevin M. Williams trata de la correlacion que hay entre estos tres rasgos de personalidad y de el hecho que si bien son muy similares y han inclusive llegado a ser confundidos con ser un solo rasgo, esta investigacion nos demuestra que son en realidad tres rasgos distintos que se relacionan entre si y con otros aspectos de la psique tales como el coeficiente intelectual. 549 Palabras | 3 Paginas. Resumen the anthropology of space de setha low.
ENSAYO CRITICO : The Anthropology of Space and Place. Art Essay. Locating Culture. Setha Low y Denise Lawrence-Zuniga La . introduccion del libro Anthropology of thesis, Space and Place nos brinda una guia para tratar el tema del espacio y el lugar desde una vision antropologica. A partir del argumento central, donde se reconoce al espacio como un componente esencial de la teoria sociocultural, se realiza una sintesis de la literatura existente, se senalan las ideas centrales y se identifican las tendencias. 745 Palabras | 3 Paginas. LIVING IN THE CITY The human civilization has suffered many changes and developments as time goes by . Firstly, early men lived in essay on in caves and forests. After that, they lived in small villages which became big cities with the Industrial Revolution. Which is the current lifestyle of the cities? Nowadays, there are different opinions about whether living in a city has more advantages or disadvantages than living in the country. Statement For Art. In the first place, the city atmosphere is for three of tea, special. For Art Paper. you can feel. 644 Palabras | 3 Paginas.
educacion secundaria basica que busca formar adolescentes y jovenes capaces de adaptarse a los cambios en los que vivimos a fin de construir una sociedad con . mayores niveles de solidaridad, justicia y desarrollo para todos. Estos objetivos estan resumidos en los siguientes terminos: (Porlan R. Essay. 1999:41-2). Thesis. 1. Dotar a las personas y grupos sociales de una vision de conjunto de la realidad natural, que les permita comprender el mundo en que viven, tomando en consideracion tanto la experiencia mas. 16229 Palabras | 65 Paginas. ? God Save The Queen. Art Essay. The Works fue el undecimo album de la banda de rock britanica Queen, liderada por Freddy . Mercury.
Este album fue como una vuelta a las raices de Queen ya que volvian a su antiguo estilo musical que a comparacion de sus discos anteriores lo habian dejado de lado. La primera cancion del disco se llama “Radio Ga Ga” y se convirtio en una de las canciones mas famosas de la banda, cuenta con un ritmo muy pegadizo y un acompanamiento de sintetizadores que a pesar de su simpleza, se. 540 Palabras | 3 Paginas. God of thesis statement paper, War (literalmente, Dios de la guerra) es un videojuego de accion y aventuras desarrollado por SCE Santa Monica Studio y . distribuido por Sony Computer Entertainment en 2005 para Playstation 2. Essay On In The Mood. El juego narra las aventuras de Kratos, un general espartano al servicio de los Dioses de la Mitologia griega.Por pedir el favor a Ares dios de la guerra de que le permitiera ganar esta a cambio de ser su sirviente, eso le llevo a marcar su destino de una forma mucho mas grande del que el hubiera imaginado. 999 Palabras | 4 Paginas. The Oklahoma City bombing was a terrorist bomb attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma . Thesis Statement For Art Paper. City on April 19, 1995. It would remain the most destructive act of essay on in the mood, terrorism on American soil until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
The Oklahoma blast claimed 168 lives, including 19 children under the age of for art paper, 6, and for three cups, injured more than 680 people. The blast destroyed or damaged 324 buildings within a sixteen-block radius, destroyed or burned 86 cars, and shattered glass in thesis paper 258 nearby. 912 Palabras | 4 Paginas. THE CITY of EMBER 1 Thanks to full-blooded characters every bit as compelling as the and comp essay prompts, plot, . Thesis For Art. Lina and Doon's search parallels the universal adolescent quest for answers. --Publishers Weekly, Starred Well-paced, this contains a satisfying mystery, a breathtaking escape over art essay writing rooftops in darkness, a harrowing journey into thesis statement paper, the unknown, and essay for three of tea, cryptic messages for thesis, readers to decipher. The setting is and comp argument, well realized with the constraints of thesis for art, life in the city intriguingly detailed. The likable protagonists. 61610 Palabras | 247 Paginas. Resumen pelicula gangs of new york. Leonardo DiCaprio Cameron Diaz Jim Broadbent John C. Essay Questions For Three. Reilly Liam Neeson . Brendan Gleeson Henry Thomas Stephen Graham Resumen En el ano 1846 comienza esta pelicula , ubicandonos en la ciudad de New York, tiempos donde la ley y el orden practicamente no existian. Los ricos, los poderosos y las numerosas Pandillas eran los que tenian el poder. Statement Paper. Eran tiempos en ese entonces en que la gente. 980 Palabras | 4 Paginas.
Murillo Gonzales “EXELENCIA ACADEMICA Y RESPETO A LOS VALORES” | | | | God of essay school, Games 5to. Semestre “B” de . Thesis Statement For Art. Bachillerato Ciclo escolar 2010-2011 21 de Septiembre del 2010 GOD OF GAMES GOD OF GAMES™ es una empresa dedicada a llevar el entretenimiento mas actual en videojuegos a nuestros clientes mediante la comercializacion de los mismos en nuestras tiendas especializadas. Ap Lang And Comp Argument Essay. God of thesis for art paper, Games™ nace de una idea de estudiantes de preparatoria con la finalidad de ofrecer a jovenes.
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Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to for art use a resume template. The Mood! You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and thesis statement for art, uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again.
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cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. Essay The Mood For Love! If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt!
If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. Statement! The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. Cups! I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?
It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. Thesis Paper! How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the for three cups of tea, Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is statement, correct. Essay! Start with the thesis statement paper, company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the argument essay prompts, ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely.
Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over thesis statement for art, the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Writing A Narrative School! Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template.
In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an statement for art paper, has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Research! I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the thesis statement, perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and writing a narrative for pa, my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello.
Which is good for for art paper, cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and heights, input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template.
Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the thesis statement for art, USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for heights love, what you’re trying to do. Thesis For Art Paper! Good luck with the a narrative school, summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to thesis statement for art tap into the finance and accounting market. Writing A Narrative! Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template.
Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of thesis for art my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in writing the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the thesis, ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for questions for three of tea, a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..
Try using the thesis, ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on research, your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the thesis paper, download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to wuthering heights essay Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further!
Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to thesis statement for art best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out paper which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of thesis statement for art paper them — it just depends on your preference. Wuthering Heights Love! Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in thesis for art paper your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036,
This way, you can focus on love, your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an paper, aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the physiology research paper, functional resume for sure. Thesis Statement For Art! Good luck on the job hunt!
If you are lacking in essay questions cups major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the for art paper, trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at art essay, the job fair! I recommend you first check out statement our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of writing a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
There are tons of errors throughout. Research! See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to thesis for art paper download one, but be sure to make small modifications to essay questions for three cups unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. Statement Paper! LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders?
Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the wuthering heights love, world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to thesis statement for art introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.
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10 Awesome Business Ideas For Teen Entrepreneurs. Matthew Toren is an Award Winning Author, Serial Entrepreneur and Investor. He also is the thesis statement for art paper Co-Founder and President of YoungEntrepreneur.com which is the physiology research Largest Social Networking Forum for Entrepreneurs in thesis statement for art, the World. Many of the writing most successful people in business today started out as teenage entrepreneurs. For many teens, the realization that building something of your own beats working for Ђњthe manЂќ comes to them naturally, but coming up with the statement for art right idea isnЂ™t always easy.. Physiology Research Paper! So here are 10 ideas to get your creative juices flowing. Most can be started by anyone, and a few will require some specialized knowledge, but might get you on the right path or spark another idea, even if you donЂ™t have that knowledge right now. And if youЂ™re at all worried about statement paper being taken seriously as a teen business person, take a look at love our recent post on statement for art paper, the subject. Click here to see the business ideas †’ Whatever business you decide to start, know this: if youЂ™re a teen reading this post, youЂ™re already far ahead of essay for pa school 90 percent of other people your age, and way ahead of the vast majority of people of any age. To enter the thesis for art world of entrepreneurship can be challenging at times, but those of us who do it know that all the essay on in for love hard work, setbacks, and challenges that come are nothing compared to the rewards of thesis for art starting and growing your own business. So donЂ™t let anything slow you down.
If being in business for questions for three of tea, yourself is thesis for art, your dream, go for it with all youЂ™ve got! Click here to see the business ideas †’ Wherever you live, there are bound to be senior citizens who need help with errands. The errands youЂ™ll run can range from grocery shopping to picking up dry cleaning and going to the post office.. If you donЂ™t yet have wheels, there are plenty of ways to help seniors around the house too, like washing the essay on in car, making minor repairs, or helping out with yard work. As the fasted growing segment of the population, it makes a lot of statement for art paper business sense to ap lang essay serve seniors, and it will feel good to know youЂ™re helping someone who really needs it. Garage Cleaning/Organizing Service.
Have you ever walked past an open garage that was so cluttered with stuff the family couldnЂ™t fit their car inside? Those are your potential clients. Cleaning out the garage is a chore no one enjoys (unless theyЂ™re getting paid like you will), so convincing people to hire you wonЂ™t be that hard Ђ“ especially if youЂ™re polite and professional and your rates are reasonable. Your startup costs will be minimal with this business Ђ“ chances are you have most if not all of your supplies at home already. Statement Paper! All youЂ™ll need are a good push broom, some cleaning supplies and lots of elbow grease.. To get customers, make up some flyers and go door-to-door around your neighborhood. It might be intimidating at first, but before long, youЂ™ll get your pitch down, and it will be well worth the effort. If you have a pickup, or know someone who has one and writing, wants to be a partner, consider starting a haul-away service. Whether itЂ™s in thesis statement for art paper, their back yard, in their garage, or under their stairs, people all over the world have lots of junk. nd many are willing to pay someone else to haul it away..
Figure in the cost of gas, maintenance, and insurance on the vehicle you use when coming up with rates, and make sure to find out wuthering heights essay love, if your local dump charges to drop off there. Another great thing about this business is that what one person calls junk, another might want. YouЂ™d be surprised at what some people get rid of, and there might be an opportunity there to sell some of this ЂњjunkЂќ in the classifieds, eBay, etc.. To market this business, go door to door, or post flyers at thesis statement for art your local grocery store, or laundromatЂ™s community bulletin board. Research Paper! Are you handy with all things mechanical? Can you take apart just about anything and statement for art paper, put it back together? If you have the skills, some tools and a garage you can work in, there is a market for ap lang and comp, a small engine repair service.. From lawn mowers to statement for art snow blowers, your neighbors are bound to have something they need fixed. For the price of a few flyers, you can be in business fast. As you prove yourself, your customers are sure to tell others, and youЂ™ll be busy as a professional tinkerer before you know it! Ok, so mowing lawns for physiology, the summer isnЂ™t a very original idea.
But who says you have to statement for art limit yourself in this category. Wuthering! Why not think big? Start out by mowing lawns in the summer and clearing snow in the winter, but rather than spending your earnings on the latest video game system or car stereo, use your revenue to expand your services to other kinds of thesis for art paper yard work.. Trimming hedges, killing weeds, and planting flowerbeds are just a few of the services you could add, without spending much at all on art essay, additional equipment. As demand for thesis statement for art paper, your business grows, hire friends to help you out. Before you know it, you could be running a full-fledged landscaping business. If youЂ™re in for three, your teens, chances are very good you know your stuff when it comes to using Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare, and other social networks. But did you know this stuff is big business? Well it absolutely is.
There are entire consulting firms dedicated to helping their clients maximize their social media efforts, and some of them probably donЂ™t have as much experience at it as you do.. Step one is to find out all you can about thesis statement using social media for business. There are tons of online resources for ap lang and comp prompts, this, so that partЂ™s a breeze. Next, decide what services youЂ™ll offer and statement for art paper, if youЂ™ll specialize in essay questions for three cups, a particular area Ђ“ Facebook fan pages, for instance. Then get out there on statement for art paper, social media and make it known that youЂ™re available as a consultant.. Also consider visiting local businesses that see the value in social media but might not know how to paper get started. There is a huge market for this right now. Thesis Statement For Art Paper! You just have to plan it out and writing a narrative for pa, go for it! For less than $100 in wax and equipment, anyone can be in business for themselves making candles. If youЂ™re creative and thesis, willing to wuthering love do the thesis for art paper necessary legwork, you can do well as a candle maker, and youЂ™ll have fun too. First, youЂ™ll want to decide which kind of candles you want to questions for three cups make.
There are beeswax candles, colored candles, scented candles, or aromatherapy candles, to name a few. Then youЂ™ve got to for art paper decide where youЂ™ll sell your finished candles. There are lots of essay prompts options, such as eBay, craft fairs or direct sales to local shops Ђ“ or all of the above. If you can come up with a unique design or presentation for your candles, this business can blossom into for art paper a company that will keep you busy well beyond high school! Like candle making, this business is for those with a creative flare. It might take a little more to get started, both in money and know-how, but you donЂ™t need tons of training, and if you use materials like beads and silver rather than gold and diamonds, starting a custom jewelry business doesnЂ™t have to cost a lot. To get started, you can learn most of what you need to essay on in know from books on the subject. Then itЂ™s a matter of statement for art practicing until youЂ™re good. If your stuff is attractive, youЂ™ll find a market eager to snatch up your pieces Ђ“ often for research paper, a premium price.
This is one business where you really should have some training and a lot of practice to get started. Yes, there are many people out there calling themselves web designers who just use templates and have only a basic html background, but you donЂ™t want to be one of those.. The real money in this field is made by for art those who know what theyЂ™re doing. If itЂ™s something that interests you, it wonЂ™t take that long to learn, and you can do very well from referrals and return business. And this is another business that can take you far beyond your high school years. Are you an ap lang prompts, expert in a particular area, like social media or high school algebra? Are you an entertaining writer, or simply have a great sense of humor?. Thesis Statement For Art! If you can get people to essay on in the mood read what you have to statement say, you can make money at it by essay on in the mood starting a blog.
There are thousands of affiliate programs that will pay you when people click through from your blog to their sites and make a purchase. Thesis For Art Paper! YouЂ™ll want to read lots of articles (like these) about art essay how to do this right, but once you figure it out, it can mean making way more than your friends working at the taco place! Follow in the young founders' footsteps of this successful startup. T-Shirt Startup Threadless's Offices: Almost As Cool As Its Profitable, Multi-Million Dollar Business †’ Read the original article on Young Entrepreneur. Copyright 2011. Recommended For You Powered by thesis statement for art paper Sailthru. 10 Awesome Business Ideas For Teen Entrepreneurs.
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Developing a Thesis Statement for a Paper FYS 100…
conjugal roles essay Lifestyle as Resistance: The Case of the Courtesans of Lucknow. by Veena Talwar Oldenburg (1990) [] When, in 1976, I was doing the research for a study on the social consequences of statement paper, colonial urbanization in Lucknow, /1/ a city in essay the mood, northern India situated about a third of the way between Delhi and Calcutta, I came across its famous courtesans for the first time. They appeared, surprisingly, in the civic tax ledgers of 1858-77 and in the related official correspondence preserved in the Municipal Corporation records room. /2/ They were classed under the statement for art paper occupational category of dancing and singing girls, and as if it was not surprise enough to find women in the tax records, it was even more remarkable that they were in the highest tax bracket, with the largest individual incomes of any in the city. The courtesans' names were also on lists of property: (houses, orchards, manufacturing and essay of tea, retail establishments for for art, food and luxury items) confiscated by British officials for their proven involvement in the siege of Lucknow and the rebeilion against essay the mood, British rule in 1857. These women, though patently noncombatants, were penalized for their instigation of and pecuniary assistance to the rebels.
On yet another list, some twenty pages long, are recorded the spoils of statement paper, war seized from one set of female apartments in the palace and garden complex called the Qaisar Bagh, where some of the deposed ex-King Wajid Ali Shah's three hundred or more consorts /3/ resided when it was seized by the British. It is a remarkable list, eloquently evocative of a privileged existence: gold and art essay writing, silver ornaments studded with precious stones, embroidered cashmere wool and brocade shawls, bejeweled caps and shoes, silver-, gold-, jade-, and amber-handled fly whisks, silver cutlery, jade goblets, plates, spitoons, huqqahs , and silver utensils for serving and storing food and thesis, drink, and valuable furnishings. The value of this part of the essay the mood for love booty of thesis statement, war was estimated at nearly four million rupees (there were approximately two rupees to the U.S. dollar in 1857). These courtesans appeared in other British colonial records as well. They were the subject of frequent official memorandums written in connection with a grave medical crisis that engulfed the military establishment in Lucknow, as well as in all the major cantonments in British India. A greater number of European casualties during the mutiny and rebellion of art essay writing, 1857, it was discovered, were caused by thesis statement paper disease than in combat. The shock of this discovery was compounded by the embarrassing fact that one in every four European soldiers was afflicted with a venereal disease. It became clear that the battle to reduce European mortality rates would now be joined on the hygienic front, to physiology, ensure a healthy European army for the strategic needs of the empire. It became imperative that the paper courtesans and prostitutes of Lucknow, along with those in the other 110 cantonments in India (and in argument essay, several towns in Britain) where European soldiers were stationed, be regulated, inspected, and controlled. The provisions of Britain's Contagious Diseases Act of 1864 were incorporated into a comprehensive piece of legislation, Act XXII of 1864 in India; it required the registration and periodic medical examination of prostitutes in thesis paper, all cantonment cities of the Indian empire. /4/
The British usurpation of the essay cups Kingdom of Awadh in 1856, and the forced exile of the king and many of his courtiers, had abruptly put an end to royal patronage for the courtesans. The imposition of the contagious diseases regulations and heavy fines and penalties on the courtesans for their role in the rebellion signaled the gradual debasement of an thesis for art paper, esteemed cultural institution into common prostitution. Women who had once consorted with kings and courtiers, enjoyed a fabulously opulent living, manipulated men and means for their own social and political ends, been the for three custodians of culture and the setters of statement paper, fashion trends, were left in an extremely dubious and vulnerable position under the British. Singing and dancing girls was the classification invented to describe them in essay for three, the civic tax ledgers, and encapsulates one of the many profound cultural misunderstandings of thesis for art paper, exotic Indian women by colonial authorities. These new challenges provoked these women to intensify their struggle to keep out an intrusive civic authority that taxed their incomes and inspected their bodies. Characteristically, they responded by ap lang and comp argument essay keeping two sets of books on statement paper their income, bribing the local da'i , or nurse, to avoid bodily inspections, bribing local policemen to avoid arrests for selling liquor to the soldiers, or publicly refusing to pay taxes even when threatened with imprisonment. The tactics were new but the spirit behind them was veteran. For Three Of Tea? These methods were imaginative extensions of the thesis ancient and subtle ways the courtesans had cultivated to contest male authority in their liaisons with men, and add up to a spirited defense of their own rights against colonial politics. Their loyalty to ap lang and comp argument prompts, the king of Awadh's regime underscores the position and privileges that were the thesis for art paper sine qua non of a narrative for pa school, their existence. /5/ In a departure from the conventional perspective on this profession, I would argue that these women, even today, are independent, and consciously involved in the covert subversion of a male-dominated world; they celebrate womanhood in the privacy of their apartments by resisting and inverting the rules of gender of the larger society of which they are part. Their way of life is not complicitous with male authority; on the contrary, in their own self-perceptions, definitions, and descriptions they are engaged in ceaseless and chiefly nonconfrontational resistance to for art paper, the new regulations and the resultant loss of for love, prestige they have suffered since colonial rule began.
It would be no exaggeration to say that their life-style is resistance to rather than a perpetuation of thesis statement paper, patriarchal values . [] Quite unexpectedly, another set of archival documents led me to a group of courtesans living in Lucknow in 1976, proud descendants of those who had survived first the pressures of a century of systematic harassment by the colonial authorities, and then the ban placed on ap lang and comp argument their activities by the government of independent India. These documents were the intercepted letters written by the Shi'i ruler, Wajid Ali Shah, to some of his wives, whom he had been forced to abandon in the capital city of statement, Lucknow, after the British annexed the prosperous and fertile Awadh Province in art essay, northern India and exiled him in 1856. I engaged a young Persian scholar, Chhote Miyan, /6/ to help me decipher these Persian letters. He not only paper, provided the entree required to visit this group of courtesans but also, quite fortuitously, the key to comprehending their world. He explained why he had only been given a pet name (roughly, Mr. Small) instead of a serious Muslim famiiy name. He was the wuthering son of a courtesan, and she had never revealed to him the thesis statement paper identity of his father. Ironically, his sad life story had all the elements of the socialization and upbringing accorded to a girl in a normal household: While I love and respect my mother and all my aunts (other courtesans) and my grandmother, my misfortune is that I was born a son and not a daughter in their house. When a boy is born in the kotha (salon), the paper day is without moment, even one of quiet sadness.
When my sister was born, there was a joyous celebration that was unforgettable. Everyone received new clothes, there was singing, dancing, and statement, feasting. My aunts went from door to wuthering heights essay love, door distributing sweets. My sister is, today, a beautiful, educated, propertied woman. She will also inherit what my mother and grandmother own. She will have a large income from thesis paper rents; she doesn't even have to work as a courtesan, if she so chooses. I am educated, but I have no money or property.
Jobs are very hard to essay on in the mood, come by, so I live in a room and subsist on a small allowance that my mother gives in exchange for running errands for her and helping her deal with her lawyers. (She was trying to evict a tenant from thesis for art paper a house she owned.) She paid for my education, but a degree is pretty worthless these days. My only hope is that I may marry a good woman who has money and who gives me sons so they can look after me in my old age, or find a way of getting a job in Dubai, as my cousin did. Otherwise my chances in life are pretty dim. For Love? Funny isn't it, how these women have made life so topsy-turvy? In order to appreciate this rather remarkable inversion in a society that blatantly favors males over females, a brief sketch of the historical background of the tawa'if , or the courtesans of Lucknow, is in order. /7/ At all Hindu and thesis, Muslim courts in the many kingdoms that made up the subcontinent before the British began to conquer them and displace their rulers, the courtesans were an influential female elite. The courtesans of Lucknow were especially reputable. Physiology Paper? They had established themselves at thesis statement, the Awadh court in the eighteenth century, under the lavish patronage of the chief noblemen, merchants, and writing, the official elite of the capital city. Abdul Halim Sharar, an early-twentieth-century novelist and journalist who constructed a remarkable history of the Nawabs of Awadh, based mainly on the oral testimony of the survivors of the events of 1857 in Lucknow, tells of their compelling role in court politics. A cultivated man like Hakim Mahdi, who later became Vazir (prime minister of Awadh), owed his initial success to a courtesan named Piyaro, who advanced her own money to enable him to thesis statement paper, make an offering to the ruler on his first appointment as Governor of the Province of Awadh. These absurdities went so far that it is said that until a person had association with courtesans he was not a polished man. At the present time (c.1913) there are still some courtesans with whom it is not reprehensible to associate, and whose houses one can enter openly and unabashed. Essay Questions For Three? /8/ While implying that the coming of the British had left these women as a beleaguered community, Sharar was strongly of the opinion that the morals, manners, and distinctiveness of for art paper, Lucknow culture and society were sustained by the courtesans.
Ensconced as they were in lavish apartments in essay prompts, the city's main Chauk Bazaar, and in the Qaisar Bagh palace, they were not only recognized as preservers and performers of the high culture of the court, but they actively shaped the developments in Hindustani music and Kathak dance styles. /9/ Their style of entertainment was widely imitated in other Indian court cities, and their enduring influence on the Hindi film is all too patent. /10/ They commanded great respect in thesis, the court and in art essay writing, society, and association with them bestowed prestige on those who were invited to their salons for cultural soirées. It was not uncommon for the young sons of the nobility to statement for art, be sent to the best-known salons for instruction in etiquette, the art of conversation and essay, polite manners, and the appreciation of Urdu literature. [] In Lucknow, the world of the thesis for art paper tawa'if was as complex and essay for pa school, hierarchical as the society of which it was part. Courtesans were, and still are, usually a part of a larger establishment run by a chaudharayan , or chief courtesan, an older woman who has retired to the position of manager after a successful career as a tawa'if . Having acquired wealth and fame, such women were able to recruit and train women who came to them, along with the more talented daughters of the household. Typically a wealthy courtier, often the king himself, /11/ began his direct association with a kotha by bidding for statement, a virgin whose patron he became, with the full privileges and obligations of that position. He was obliged to make regular contributions in love, cash and jewelry, and privileged to invite his friends to soirées and enjoy an exclusive sexual relationship with a tawa'if . His guests were expected to impress the management with their civilities and substance, so that they would qualify as patrons of the for art paper women who were still unattached, or at least as regulars of the kotha . The chaudharayan always received a fixed proportion (approximately one-third) of the earnings to maintain the apartments; hire and essay, train other dancing girls; and attract the musicians, chefs, and special servants that such establishments employed. Many of the musicians belonged to famous lineages, and much of late-nineteenth-century Hindustani music was invented and for art paper, transformed in these salons, to accommodate the new urban elite who filled the patronage vacuum in the colonial period. The household had other functionaries beyond the core group of daughters or nieces of the writing senior tawa'if . Thesis Paper? These women, called thakahi and and comp argument essay prompts, randi , were affiliates of a kotha but were ranked lower; their less remarkable appearance and thesis statement, talent restricted them to writing essay for pa, providing chiefly sexual services in rather more austere quarters downstairs. Another interesting group of women secretly associated with the establishment were khangi , or women who were married and observed strict pardah , but who, for financial or other reasons, came to the kotha for clandestine liaisons; the chaudharayan collected a fee from them for her hospitality.
Doormen, watchmen, errand boys, tailors, palanquin carriers, and statement paper, others, who lived in the lower floors of the house, or in detached servants' quarters, and were also often kinsmen, screened suspicious characters at the door, acted as protectors of the house, and essay for love, spied on the activities of the police and medical departments. Pimps or other male agents simply did not exist, then or later. It is popularly believed that the chaudharayan's most common mode of recruitment has always been kidnapping; that the tawa'if were linked to a large underground network of male criminals who abducted very young girls from villages and small towns and sold them to the kothas or nishat-khanas (literally, pleasure houses). This belief was fueled, if not actually generated, by Lucknow's famous poet and littérateur , Mirza Hadi Ruswa, in his Umra'o Jan Ada . The novel first appeared in thesis, 1905 [[actually 1899--fwp]], was an immediate success, and was translated into English in writing, 1961. It has been reprinted several times since it was reincarnated as a Bombay film in 1981. Statement? The influence this novel has exerted on the popular imagination is enormous; it is the single most important source of information on courtesans of Lucknow, and by art essay extension, the entire profession as it was practiced in the nineteenth century, in northern India. Set in the second half of the nineteenth century, it is a melodramatic story of thesis statement for art, a tawa'if , Umrao Jan, who as a beautiful child of on in the mood, five is kidnapped and sold to statement for art, a tawa'if in for love, Lucknow, where she trains and becomes, after a few complicated twists and turns in the plot, a renowned and much-sought-after courtesan. For Art Paper? Ruswa uses the classic ploy of writing an introduction wherein he explains that he is merely recording the true story of Umra'o Jan, told to heights essay, him by the protagonist herself. His use of the first person in the memoir, in thesis for art, which the art essay courtesan frequently addresses him by statement for art paper name, makes it all the more convincing. Ruswa was a regular participant at several salons, and the glimpses he provides of the rigorous training and the world view of the courtesan are quite accurate historically.
What is less known is that Ruswa had a keen interest in crime, and several of physiology research paper, his translations and adaptations were of paper, contemporary Victorian and Urdu potboilers. He published a then-popular series of khuni novels (literally, bloody killer), some of whose titles, such as Khuni Shahzada (The killer prince), Khuni Joru (The killer wife), Khuni 'Ashiq (The killer lover), betray his predilection for the sensational. One of the older courtesans I interviewed, who had known Ruswa personally, gave the essay book a mixed review. Thesis Statement Paper? She commended Ruswa for understanding the mentality of the courtesan, but blamed him for inventing characters such as the evil kidnapper and the exploitative madame who became the stuff of later stereotypes. /12/ [] The greatest harm was done to the reputation of the kotha , however, by art essay British political propaganda. The older courtesans I interviewed, who felt keenly about statement paper, contemporary politics and had connections among the local power elite, were impressively knowledgeable about the art essay writing history of their city. In their view it was official British policy to malign the courtesans and the culture of paper, salons, in order to research, justify the British role as usurpers of the thesis statement for art throne of Awadh in 1856. British high-handedness in this and ap lang argument, other policies unleashed a widespread rebellion in north and central India in 1857, which raged for ten months in Awadh until Lucknow was recaptured by the British. To consolidate their rule in the Province of Awadh, the British turned their fury against the powerful elite of Lucknow, of thesis statement for art paper, which the essay school tawa'f were an integral part. Yet when it came to matters such as using these women as prostitutes for the European garrison, or collecting income tax, the eminently pragmatic British set aside their high moral dudgeon.
It became official policy to select the healthy and statement, beautiful specimens from the mood for love among the kotha women and arbitrarily relocate them in the cantonment for the convenience of the European soldiers. This not only dehumanized the profession, stripping it of its cultural function, but it also made sex cheap and easy for the men, and thesis statement, exposed the women to venereal infection from the soldiers. /13/ Kidnapping may have been (and perhaps still is) one of the methods by which girls fmd their way into the tawa'if households, but it is certainly not the most common. Writing? From my interviews with the thirty women who today live in the Chowk area of Lucknow, and whose ages ranged from thirty-five to seventy-eight, a very different picture emerged. Statement For Art Paper? In recording the wuthering essay love life stories of these women, who spanned three generations, I found that the compelling circumstance that brought the majority of them to the various tawa'if households in Lucknow was the misery they endured in either their natal or their conjugal homes. Thesis Statement Paper? Four of these women were widowed in their early teens, two of essay questions, whom hailed from the paper same district and had lost their husbands in a cholera epidemic; three were sold by their parents when famine conditions made feeding these girls impossible. Writing A Narrative For Pa School? Seven were victims of physical abuse, two of whom were sisters who were regularly beaten by their alcoholic father for thesis, not obliging him by making themselves sexually available to physiology research paper, the toddy seller. Three were known victims of for art, rape and therefore deemed ineligible for for love, marriage; two had left their ill-paid jobs as municipal sweeper women, because they were tired of collecting other people's dirt; two were battered wives; one had left her husband because he had a mistress; and one admitted no particular hardship, only a love for singing and for art, dancing that was not countenanced in her orthodox Brahmin home.
Three said they had left their marriages without much ado; they saw the advantage of earning their own living and being at liberty to use their resources as they wished, and they did not want to have children. Only four of them were daughters of wuthering heights essay love, other tawa'if . Not one claimed that kidnapping had been her experience, although they had heard of such cases. Statement? This assortment of refugees from the sharif , or respectable, world gave a completely ironic slant to the notion of respectability. The problem, according to Saira Jan, a plump woman in her early forties, who recounted her escape from a violent, alcoholic husband at length and with humor, was that there were no obliging kidnappers in her muhallah [neighborhood]. Had there been such farishte [angels] in Hasanganj I would not have had to plot and essay love, plan my own escape at great peril to my life and my friends, who helped me. /14/ This catalog reflects the wide range of for art paper, miserable circumstances from which these women had escaped. Desertion has been traditionally resorted to by those trapped in essay, situations they had no other effective means of fighting or changing. Thesis Statement For Art Paper? To the list of fugitives from questions cups oppression, which includes black slaves in statement, the antebellum United States, bonded laborers on colonial plantations, and drafted soldiers, can be added women fleeing the and comp essay quotidian suffering they encountered as daughters, sisters, or wives. /15/ Gulbadan, who was a chaudharayan from her late thirties (she claims she was born in 1900 and paper, initiated when she was thirteen years old), had been the essay love niece of a tawa'if and was raised in thesis for art, the household she now managed.
She spoke of the kotha as a sanctuary for both women and men: women found in it a greater peace and freedom than in the normal world; men escaped the boredom of their domestic lives. She reminded Saira that she was a miserable, under-weight, frightened wretch when she had first appeared at her doorstep. She was thin as a stick, her complexion was blotchy, her eyes sunk in black holes, and she had less than two rupees tied to the end of writing a narrative school, her sari. Even these she had to steal, explained Rahat Jan, Gulbadan's partner (her term). Now look at her, we call her our hathini [female elephant], who eats milk and jalebi [syrup-filled, deep-fried sweets] to keep herself occupied between meals, although she argues it is to keep her voice dulcet. Most women told their stories with enthusiasm.
They had wanted to escape hell (the word jahannum , the Islamic hell, was frequently used to describe their earlier homes) at for art, any cost. Learning professional skills and earning their own money helped them develop self-esteem and paper, value the relative independence they encountered in Rahat Jan's kotha . It may well be that some of the women exaggerated the horrors of the past, but the kernels of their stories were embedded in thesis for art paper, the reality of the essay on in for love gender bias in society. Here they could be women first, and Hindus and Muslims in a more mutually tolerant way, because the culture of the kotha represented elements of both and was acknowledged as a truly synthetic tradition. [] The story of one of the Hindu child widows, Rasulan Ba'i, thirty-five, is especially compelling, because it exposes the ineffectiveness of the social reform legislation passed in the last 150 years, and the lack of options for young widows even today. Thesis For Art Paper? Although it is the writing for pa story of a habitual but covert rebel, it also explains why a courtesan is not willing to engage in questioning her status as a collaborator in perpetuating patriarchal values in thesis statement for art paper, society that keep other women in powerless positions. /16/ I was married when I was ten. My natal family was Rajput, my father and uncles owned fifty acres of irrigated land; my mother did not have to work too hard because we had two servants who did most of the household work. I had attended three years of essay for pa, school, but I barely knew how to recognize the letters that spell my name. My gauna ceremony occurred just three months after menarche. I remember being taken to my husband's house with my dowry and plenty of gifts for my in-laws. My father sent several sacks of wheat, sugar, lentils, and other produce from the farm, because I was married to statement for art, a young Rajput boy whose father had gambled away most of their wealth.
That summer [19601 there was a very big flood, which washed away the mud huts in the village, the livestock, and our food reserves. While my husband was out ap lang and comp prompts with his brothers trying to salvage some of the food stored in earthenware jars, he slipped and paper, fell into the water, and three days later was dead after a severe bout of cholera. I survived, but I often wished I were dead. The local Brahmin said that my ill-starred presence had brought flood and death to the village. Art Essay Writing? My jewels, clothes, and the few silver coins which I had hidden away were all forcibly taken away from me, and I became a widow in white who did all the nasty, heavy chores for the household. I was fed scraps when I cried out in hunger. You talk about the laws that were passed by the British to thesis for art paper, prevent child marriage, you talk of the rights we won when the Hindu Civil Code (1956) was passed, but I sneer at all that. Art Essay? I had no recourse to the laws, or to thesis for art paper, lawyers, only to my wits sharpened by adversity. And Comp Prompts? I first tried to get back at them with sly acts of sabotage.
I did the washing up indifferently, leaving a dull film on the metal platters and the pots. For this my mother-in-law thrashed me. I would sneak into the kitchen when my sister-in-law had finished cooking and add a heuvy dose of thesis, salt to the lentils and vegetables.. I would hide my smile when I heard the yells and abuse heaped on art essay writing her by the menfolk. She caught me one day and thesis statement for art, thrashed me soundly until I howled with pain.
Her husband came home and gave me another hiding. Writing Essay For Pa? Life was unbearable, but I was trapped; there was nowhere that I could go. My parents, who had come for the funeral to our village, were distressed, but they did not offer to for art paper, take me back, because they still had my younger sisters to essay the mood for love, marry. Fights, violence erupted all the time. My sister-in-law kept wishing me dead. When it was discovered that I stole money to buy snacks from the vendor, they threatened to burn me alive. I wanted to run away but didn't know where I would go, except to the river to drown myself. Finally when an itinerant troupe of thesis statement for art, entertainers was encamped in our village, I saw the performance and art essay, thought I would secretly apply to work for them, just do their housework or something.
They agreed to shelter me, after I told them my troubles and showed them the bruises on my body. Thesis? They smuggled me out of that hell, gave me bit parts in their dramas, and finally brought me to the lap of Bibi Khanum (another tawa'if ) in Lucknow, and I have never looked back. I had no option but to physiology research paper, run away. Statement Paper? Tell me, sister, what would you have done in essay questions, my place? There were many stories, each with its own flavor of horror, and statement for art, of courage, and none that did not have a relatively happy ending. Comparable employment opportunities for ap lang essay, women simply did not exist then, and are few and far between even now. Gulbadan explained that not all women in need can make the kotha their refuge; some are not talented enough to statement, become courtesans, and some are too anxious about their moral standing. Women, particularly from the higher strata of Hindu and Muslim society, fear violent reprisals if discovered by their families, or shrink from exposure to strange men. She went on to say that many women flee their homes in the villages and art essay, come to the anonymity of the city to work as domestic servants, as ayahs [nannies] or maids or cooks. Thesis Statement For Art? Some join road gangs run by government or private building contractors, only to essay questions cups, break bricks into small pieces with a hammer all day in the sun, and earn in a month what we make in statement for art, a few hours of passing the art essay writing time in civilized company. /17/ To make ends meet they have to sleep with their employers and the dalal , or middlemen who found them their jobs, and get beaten up by their husbands when they find out: Gulbadan explained that a woman compromises her dignity twenty.four hours of the day when she has no control over her body or her money. /18/ This response was unanimously endorsed by the other courtesans. The women who said that their own parents had sold them when they were unable to feed them, much less pay for a wcdding and a dowry, felt that their parenls were forced by circumstances to make such a hard decision.
Yet they sent money home every month to thesis, take care of their impoverished families, which was gratefully received, and ap lang argument essay prompts, whatever resentment they may have felt for being abandoned as children had dissipated through understanding the limits imposed on women in this world. Gulbadan, who spoke more aphoristically than the others, explained that even fifty years ago there was very little scope for women to change the lives they grumblingly led: What they couldn't change they called their qismat , their fate. Here, in thesis statement, our world, even though things are not as good as they were before the British came, women change their qismat . Even philosophers and physiology research paper, poets will tell you that no one can change their qismat . Ask these women, who have lived and worked together for more than twenty years, whether or not they think that I taught them how to mold their own fate like clay with their own hands. I did, and they agreed, with laughing nods, while they celebrated Janmashtami (birthday of the Hindu god Krishna, the patron of their dance) and thesis for art, the Muslim festival of 'Id, on the third floor of Gulbadan's impressively large building. And this was the very essence of for three cups, their world view.
[] Gulbadan had tossed this off as she sat on the large platform covered with an old Persian rug and velvet and brocade bolsters that propped her up. Watching her deft fingers prepare a paan , or betel leaf, with its half-dozen nut-and-spice fixings, I felt I was in the presence of an alchemist who had transformed base fortunes into gold. She, along with her septuagenarian friends, had inherited a way of thesis paper, life and struggled to preserve it, quite selfishly, in the face of an increasingly hostile future. Their business was neither to exploit women, nor to transform the lot of the generality of womankind, but to liberate and empower those with whom they were associated. The high level of camaraderie, wit, teasing, and affectionate interaction that I observed and participated in on several visits to the apartments of the older women over ten years affirmed this impression repeatedly. The process of changing one's fate ( qismat badalna ) is, under closer scrutiny, a psychosocial process through which the social construction of gender (and sexuality, as we shall see) is stripped bare. The chaudharayan acts in several capacities, the on in for love most challenging being to inspire in statement paper, the women who come to her a confidence in writing a narrative essay for pa school, their own ability and worth, restore shattered nerves, set about undoing the socialization they had received in their natal homes. Thesis Statement Paper? This delicate and difficult task, at one level, is not unlike the task modern psychotherapy purports to perform in Western society. The problem, according to Rasulan, was to forget the expectations inherent in the meaning of the essay questions for three word 'aurat , or woman, as it obtained in the larger society: The notion woman was dinned into my mind and had shaped my behavior from the day I was born.
Fortunately I was still a child (thirteen or fourteen), so forgetting was not as difficult as it might have been even a few years later. I forgot my misery upon arriving in a house where a different meaning of thesis statement paper, that word was already in the mood, place, where Amina Ba'i and Zehra Jan [Gulbadan's granddaughters] were acting out those meanings for us all. They did not fear men because they were admired and praised by men; nor had they ever been nagged by their mother and grandmother about not doing this or that or they would not be able to get married, nor slapped by a father for being immodest. They had never been upset at thesis for art, being a burden to writing, their parents, since the shadow of dahej [dowry] has never darkened their lives. I resented them to begin with, thought them spoilt and selfish, but slowly 1 began to thesis statement for art, realize that they were of a different mold.
I would have to break my own mental mold and recast myself. I got a lot of love from Gulbadan, Rahat Jan, and Amiran. They would listen to me, and I would regurgitate all the sorrow, pain, and poison I had swallowed, again and again. Now when I tell you my story, it is cups of tea, as if I am telling you another's tale. Really, I didn't know that I was capable of doing anything, being anyone, or owning my own building and employing seventeen men in a charpa'i karkhana [wooden cot workshop]. I had the thesis statement paper mentality of a timid and ugly mouse; now I am accused of essay on in for love, being too arrogant and am envied for the property I own. /19/ The process of rehabilitation for these women is rapid, since they generally arrive young and are plunged into thesis paper a welcoming environment. The self-affirming ethos of the kotha makes it possible for them to assimilate their newly revised perceptions and behavior patterns, while living among a host of nurturing and supportive women, and wuthering love, without the fear of men. Freedom from the pressure of the marriage market where grooms were for sale to the woman with the largest dowry, they unanimously agreed, gave them the inner courage to develop their skills and treat men as equals, or even as inferiors. [] There are other therapeutic devices invented over the ages that are still in use in these salons. Novices are introduced to a secret repertoire of satirical and bawdy songs, dances, informal miming, and dramatic representations, aimed at thesis for art, the institution of writing, marriage and heterosexual relations.
These entertainments are privately performed only among women. These matinee shows, as they jokingly call them, are not only crucial for the solidarity and wellbeing of the group, but they also help the newcomers to discard the old and internalize the new meaning of being an 'aurat . I recognized this, when in answer to one of my early (and very naive) questions I was treated to a vignette on the joys of marriage. /20/ VTO: Gulbadan, since you are a handsome woman, so well educated, with all this money and statement, property and jewels, why didn't you marry a sharif [respectable) nawab (there are several descendants of noble families in essay questions cups, Lucknow who use this honorific) and settle down to a life of respectability? Gulbadan: Your use of the word respectable is thoughtless. Is marringe considered the only respectable alternative for women in America? Are married women not abused? Well, let us show you what marriage is before you wish it on an old and respectable woman like myself, or any of us here. Let us dispel the darkness in your mind about the nature of marriage. Of what they then played out for me I can only offer an thesis, inadequate summary, because it is and comp essay prompts, difficult to capture the visual details of the half-hour-long satirical medley of song, dance, dialogue, and thesis paper, mime that followed.
Rasulan immediately took her dupatta [long scarf] and wound it around her head as a turban to play the husband. Elfin Hasina Jan took her cue as the wife, others became children and members of the extended family, while Gulbadan remained on her settee amid the bolsters, taking occasional drags from the huqqah , presiding, as a particularly obnoxious mother-inlaw, over a scene of domestic disharmony. Art Essay? The wife/mother first surveys the multifarious demands on her energy and time: the children squall, ask for food, drink, and want to statement for art paper, be picked up; the mother-in-law orders that her legs, which have wearied from sitting, be massaged; the husband demands food and attention; the father-in-law asks for his huqqah to be refilled; and a sister-in-law announces that she cannot fmish doing the laundry, nor knead the chapati dough, because she is not feeling too well. Hasina is for pa school, defeated, harried. Thesis Statement Paper? Muttering choice obscenities /21/ under her breath, she begins, in a frenzied way, to do the job of a wife. She lights the coal stove, dusts and tidies the room, cooks, presses the legs of the essay the mood for love mother-in-law who emits pleasurable grunts, tries to soothe the baby who is paper, now wailing, and puts plates of food in front of the demanding husband. She finally collapses, her hands striking her own brow as she croaks a hai tobah or never more. Writing? A little later the din subsides and she, choked with sobs, says that her qismat is terrible, that she would do anything not to statement, have to be the bahu , or daughter-in-law, in writing, this or any other household, if she only had a choice. She is trapped. The rest of the for art paper household snores noisily while her husband, belching and hiccupping after his food and cups, drink, makes a lunge at her for some quick sex.
She succumbs, and thesis statement paper, after a few agitated seconds he appears satisfied. He grudgingly parts with twenty rupees he owes her for household expenses. She complains that the money is writing a narrative essay school, just not enough for the groceries, ducks a blow, cries some more, and finally falls asleep, wretched and hungry. Apart from the cathartic value of for art paper, such a representation, it transmuted grim reality into art essay mordant comment, marked with their own brand of exaggeration and mockery. The women pointed out the several morals embedded in the story to me. Those who dare to hold moral objections to the life of a tawa'if should first examine the thankless toil of an average housewife, including her obligation to satisfy a sometimes faithless or alcoholic or violent husband for the sake of a meager living.
Such an existence is without dignity, and was not the situation of the thesis statement for art paper housewife tantamount to that of questions of tea, a common prostitute, giving her body for thesis statement paper, money? /22/ It is we who are brought up to live in sharafat [genteel respectability], with control over our bodies and our money, and cups of tea, they who suffer the degradation reserved for lowly [ nich ] women. /23/ Such vivid reversals of thesis statement paper, social perception and logic are stock idioms in the courtesans' speech and song. Male affines, particularly fathers and brothers-in-law, are caricatured in countless risqué episodes enacted regularly and essay, privately among women. They mock the repressive relationships and male sexuality in the conjugal home, even as they amuse, educate, and edify the denizens of the kotha . /24/ The routines, studded with subversive and irreverent jokes and obscene gestures, are performed like secret anti-rites /25/ which have been carefully distilled and historically transmitted from generation to generation, to form the core of their private consciousness and oral heritage. [] I had also seriously questioned the courtesans' use of the burqa' , which is a long overcloak that Muslim women in thesis statement for art, pardah wear for extended seclusion outside the home. This cloak, usually black or white, is worn over regular clothes and covers the essay the mood for love wearer from head to foot. It has a small rectangular piece of netting that fits over the eyes that enables the wearers to see, while they cannot be seen at thesis statement, all. It is certainly an artifact of a male-dominated society, where men could dictate that women keep themselves covered so as not to provoke male lust. /26/ It was, at first, inexplicable why tawa'if not only used the burqa' to move around when they went visiting or shopping, but actually insisted that I too should wear one as they led me to other kothas in the vicinity, because injunctions about female modesty did not apply to them. It was precisely because they were not expected to essay for three cups, be in pardah , they reasoned, in thesis for art, another classic reversal of ap lang essay, patriarchal logic, that they chose to block the gaze of men. It was an thesis, extension of the autonomy they enjoyed in their living space and their jism [bodies], unlike normal women whose bodies were the property of art essay writing, their husbands and who were secluded but lacked privacy in their own homes. Thesis Statement For Art Paper? The latter were kept in a narrative for pa, pardah to maintain (and increase) khandani 'izzat , or family honor; for them to show their faces in public would bring disgrace to their families.
Ah, but our case is just the opposite, said Saira, men long to see our faces. Statement For Art Paper? If they could brag among their friends that they had seen Gulbadan or Amiran in the bazaar without a covering, they would go up in the esteem in research paper, which their friends hold them. We are not in the business of giving them cheap thrills. While we walk freely and anonymously in thesis for art, public places, looking at the world through our nets, they are deprived because we have blinkered them. We do not, as you know, bestow anything on physiology paper men without extracting its price. /27/ I would have disputed this had I not experienced the freedom the burqa' gave me to walk along the winding alleys in a very oldfashioned and gossip-filled city, where I formerly never passed without being accosted with vulgar taunts from the idle youths who mill on the streets. These women had appropriated the power of the gaze, while eluding the leer of thesis statement for art, sexually frustrated men. A great deal has been said, and is known, about the essay rigorous training and education courtesans undergo to ultimately please and entertain their patrons. /28/ What has never received discursive treatment, because of its very nature, is their secret skill – the art of nakhrah , or pretense, that courtesans have to master in thesis for art, order to spare no opportunity of coaxing money out of physiology research paper, their patron and his friends. Thesis Statement For Art Paper? Their avowed and unabashed purpose is to amass a tidy fortune as early in their careers as possible, so that they can invest the surplus in income-producing properties or enterprises and retire comfortably at the age of thirty-five or so. To achieve their material ambitions, they use, in addition to their exorbitant charges, an arsenal of devious routines that make up the hidden text of an evening's entertainment. These are subtly deployed to bargain, cajole, and essay, extort extra cash or kind from statement their unsuspecting clients. /29/ Some of these are learned, some invented, some even improvised, but nuances are refigured with care to a narrative for pa, suit the statement paper temperament of a client, or the research mood of the moment, to appear spontaneous.
Repeated rehearsals by for art the trainee are evaluated by the adept tawa'if , until no trace of the pretense is discernible. [] These well-practiced ploys – the feigned headache that interrupts a dance or a song, feigned anger for having been neglected, a sprained ankle, tears, a jealous rage – have beguiled generations of men to lose thousands of extra rupees or gold coins to and comp argument essay prompts, these women. The tawa'if's refusal, at a critical juncture, to complete a sexual interlude with a favorite patron is a particularly profitable device, because feigned coital injuries or painful menstrual cramps involve expensive and patient waiting on the part of the statement paper patron. Gulbadan said she often carried the writing essay game a step further by statement for art paper allying herself with the patron against the offending courtesan, to set the seal of authenticity on the scene. She would scold and even slap her till the patron begged her not to be so harsh. Gulbadan was the privately acclaimed champion of these more serious confidence tricks, and others cheerfully confessed to having blackmailed, stolen, lied, and cheated for material gain as soon as they acquired competence in this art. This may sound more like self-enrichment than resistance, but because society has virtually denied women control over ap lang prompts, wealth or property, it is essential to establishing a countercultural way of life. The formula, Gulbadan confided, is to win the complete trust of the man. This they do by first mastering all the information about the man – his public reputation, his finances, his foibles and vanities, his domestic life, and the skeletons in his closet. Not many come here openly any more, because our salons are regarded as houses of ill-repute in thesis for art, these modern times.
Most come to drink and for sexual titillation. We know how to ap lang essay prompts, get a man drunk and pliant, so that we can extort whatever we want from him: money, even property, apologies, jewels, perfume, or other lavish gifts. Industrialists, government officers, other businessmen come here now; they have a lot of black money [undeclared cash] that they bring with them, sometimes without even counting it. We make sure that they leave with very little, if any. We know those who will pay large sums to insure secrecy, so we threaten them with careless gossip in the bazaar, or with an anonymous note addressed to their fathers or their wives.
We do not act collectively as a rule, but sometimes it may become necessary to do so. We once did a drama against a money lender who came and would not pay us the money he had promised for paper, holding an exclusive soirée for him. So when a police officer who had fallen in love with me came by. we all told him tales of how the wretched man would not return jewels some of us had pawned with him. We filed a police report, he was arrested, and some of the pawned items (which the jeweler had taken from art essay writing some of our recently straitened noble patrons) were made over to us by the lovelorn officer; others of his debtors sent us sweets and thanks for bringing the hated Ram Swarup to justice. But our biggest gambit of all is the thesis for art paper game of a narrative for pa, love that makes these men come back again and thesis statement, again, some until they are financially ruined. They return every evening, like the essay questions for three flocks of statement, homing pigeons, in the vain belief thnt it is we who are in love with them. /30/ In Ruswa's 1905 novel about Lucknow's courtesans, this particular nakhrah is insightfully described by the protagonist, Umra'o Jan : I am but a courtesan in whose profession love is a current coin. Whenever we want to ensnare anyone we pretend to essay questions cups, fall in love with him. No one knows how to love more than we do: to heave deep sighs; to burst into statement tears at the slightest pretext; to go without food for a narrative for pa, days on end; to sit dangling our legs on the parapets of wells ready to jump into thesis paper them; to threaten to paper, take arsenic. Thesis For Art? All these are parts of our game of love.
But I tell you truthfully, no man ever really loved me nor did I love any man. /31/ [] A discussion of the feigning of love for men (a discussion which occurred only after several visits) brought perhaps the most startling hidden text to light. It was difficult to imagine that these women, even though they were economically independent, educated, and in control of their lives, would spurn the opportunity for real intimacy and emotional stability. Everyone agreed that emotional needs do not disappear with success, fame, or independence; on writing a narrative essay for pa school the contrary, they often intensify. Almost every one of the women I interviewed during these many visits claimed that their closest emotional relationships were among themselves, and eight of them admitted, when I pressed them, that their most satisfying physical involvements were with other women. They referred to statement, themselves as chapat baz , or lesbians, and to chapti , or chipti , or chapat bazi , or lesbianism. Wuthering Heights Love? /32/ They seemed to attach little importance to statement, labels, and made no verbal distinctions between homosexual and heterosexual relations. There was no other serious or poetic term for lesbianism, so I settled for the colloquialisms. Their explanation for this was that emotions and acts of love are gender-free. Serious words such as muhabbat (Urdu) or prem (Hindi) or love (English) are versatile and can be used to describe many kinds of love, such as the love of for pa school, man or woman, the love for country, for statement paper, siblings, parents of either sex, so there was no need to have a special term for love between two women. There are words that suggest passionate love, like 'ishq ; these have the same neutral capability and are used by either gender. Although their lesbianism is a strictly private matter for ap lang and comp argument essay prompts, them, the absence of thesis statement for art paper, a specialized vocabulary makes it a simple fact of life, like heterosexual love, or the less denied male homosexual love.
The lack of terminology or the scrambling of pronouns may also be interpreted as the ultimate disguise for it; if something cannot be named, it is wuthering heights essay love, easy to deny its existence. In Urdu poetry, ambiguity about gender is not uncommon, and homosexual love often passes for heterosexual love. /33/ The frank discussions on the subject of their private sexuality left some of my informants uneasy. I had probed enough into their personal affairs, they insisted, and they were not going to satisfy my curiosity any further; they were uncomfortable with my insistence on stripping their strategic camouflage, by which they also preserved their emotional integrity. For Art Paper? Their very diffidence to talk about physiology research paper, their lesbianism underscores the thesis that they believe in a quiet, but profound, subversion of patriarchal values. It became clear that for many of them heterosexuality itself is the thesis for art paper ultimate nakhrah , and writing, feigned passion an occupational hallmark. Thesis Paper? My ardor for precise statistics faded as the wuthering essay love real and theoretical implications of their silences and their disguises began to emerge. /34/ And it is to these that I now turn. [] What do all these stories signify? Does the thesis statement courtesans' presentation of their life-style add up to a subversion of research paper, existing gender relations in heterosexual marriage? Can their beliefs and behavior be seen as feminist by modern standards, or are they just another example of statement for art, that widespread affliction, false consciousness? How do we reconcile the horizontal stratifications of class with the vertical divide of gender, and their anomalous position in either group?
Do they qualify as a subaltern group as women, or as an elite group by on in the mood virtue of their power and connections? Does this life-style not signify that sexuality, including lesbianism, is thesis statement for art, indeed socially constructed? Let me begin to hack at this thicket by citing Romila Thapar's perspective on art essay Hindu ascetics. In taking ascetics (an equally unlikely-seeming group of rebels) both as individuals or in organized groups, as dissenters, she sees in their rejection of the grahasta-ashrama , or the householder stage in statement for art, a prescribed four-stage cycle (student, householder, recluse, and ascetic) of an upper-caste Hindu male's life, the essence of their rebellion. An aging grahasta [householder] taking to samnyasa [the ascetic life] was merely conforming to the ideal vita. Writing Essay? The negation of the family as a basic unit of society is thesis for art, evident from the opposition to the grahasta status and specially the insistence on art essay writing celibacy. [Inherent in] the act of opting out of the existing lifestyle and thesis paper, substituting it with a distinctively different one. [is that] the characteristics of the cups of tea new life-style be seen as a protest against the existing one. Thesis Statement For Art? To this extent such movements may be regarded as movements of dissent. But the element of protest was muted by the wish, not to change society radically, but to stand aside and create an alternative system. /35/ The life-style of female ascetics could not be reckoned as a true counterpart because, as Thapar points out, female ascetics, with few exceptions, were always subordinate to the authority of wuthering essay, males. They were not really autonomous, and their right to moksha (spiritual liberation) as Hindu women is dubious, if not entirely denied. I would argue that the true female counterpart of the rebellious ascetic,and perhaps the statement paper far more daring, is the tawa'if . By listening carefully to the stories the essay for three cups courtesans tell, it becomes undeniable that they too are rebelling, all the more explicitly, against the housewifely stage, since this is the only .stage of life implicitly mandated for all women in both Hindu and Islamic cultural systems. It is in this stage that the woman must achieve total fulfillment, because she does not graduate, as the man does, to a more mature level.
The informal student stage for a girl used to be, and statement for art, still is for the majority, the acquisition of essay cups, practical experience in housework and childcare. Her gurus are the sternly admonishing older generation of similarly trained mothers and aunts. Modesty, obedience, and other subordinate behavior patterns are drilled into her until she comes to hold the single-minded belief that her eligibility for marriage is the statement for art paper only index of her worth. It is the ap lang and comp argument essay prompts normal woman's social and sexual regimen that courtesans-in-themaking must unlearn and supplant by undergoing a radically different socialization process and adopting the life-style that gives them the liberation they desire, without jerking the thesis statement paper reflexive muscle of a repressive system. Although life-styles of the for love male ascetic and the female courtesan are both modes of social dissent, the statement sexual differences, and the social prescriptions on which they are predicated, produce interestingly contrasted strategies and ideologies. The former emerges from a religious interpretation of grahasta with the denial of sexuality, lineage, and property ownership, as its strategic thrust to gain spiritual liberation.
The latter, on the other hand, emerges from the secular and domestic context in which women's lives are enmeshed. The courtesans seek material and essay for pa school, social liberation by reversing the thesis statement for art constraints imposed on women's chastity and argument essay, economic rights, and by thesis for art paper establishing a female lineage of selected and ascriptive members who make up their gharana . The male becomes celibate, renounces property and writing, the privileges of thesis for art paper, his gender in this world of essay questions for three cups of tea, other-worldly rewards; the female becomes sexually active and aggressively acquisitive, prefers autonomy to virtue, and seeks this-worldly women's liberation. Yet some consequences of these divergent paths are strikingly similar. Both life-styles subvert the hierarchies of statement, caste and class, because in both groups lower caste and economically disadvantaged persons find refuge. The tawa'if have created a secular meritocracy based on talent and education, accepting Hindus and Muslims alike. They too, like the ascetics, hold positions of on in for love, respect by thesis the society at large, and both countercultures exist by maintaining vital links to the overarching patriarchal culture, while consciously inverting or rejecting its values.
Although neither group has the pretension of changing the entrenched notions of the householder stage, both serve their own personal ends by essay elaborate strategies of avoidance. By opting for the institutional security of a monastery or a brothel, both groups wielded political power in the past through the powerful heads of thesis for art, sects in ancient Hindu kingdoms in the subcontinent or through the chaudharayan in research, precolonial Lucknow and other court cities, such as Hyderabad, Rampur, Banaras, Bijapur, and statement for art paper, Golkonda. In unfavorable historical circumstances, both groups lost political power, but their patented life-styles still remain viable modes for women and men to elude the shackles of and comp argument essay prompts, patriarchy and seek their own brands of liberation. [] During the reign of the thesis statement for art nawabs of Awadh, these women could manipulate powerful courtiers and the nawabs themselves, and even the most powerful patron did not have any authority over the women's lives. Ap Lang And Comp Argument Essay Prompts? The executive authority and managerial functions were the exclusive preserve of the chaudharayan and her appointees. An angered patron had few options, because of the for art paper material investment he had made in a kotha (there are no refunds or exchanges); and his honor, too, would be on the line (gossip about him would quickly circulate in the bazaar). Art Essay? It is therefore not the patron who is ultimately significant but the matron, who creates the ethos, reputation, and the quality of life and services in her establishment. The courtesan's position is of course much diminished by the events and reconfigurations of power in the colonial and postcolonial periods. Fully aware of this history, these women find hope in other educational and employment opportunities that have recently opened up for women, for their basic goal is to free themselves from direct economic dependence on thesis statement paper men.
They already had daughters or nieces competing for art essay, and obtaining posts in the banking system, or as pleaders in for art paper, the local courts, but these professions were not, as Chhote Miyan, the Persian-speaking son of essay on in the mood, one of the statement for art courtesans and my first informant, pointed out, a way of life. Women might become financially independent, but without the refuge of the kotha they would again be forced to heights essay love, marry and statement, possibly suffer the degradation at questions, the hands of unsympathetic husbands. Thesis Statement? Amiran's daughter, a banker, chose to marry. Writing A Narrative Essay For Pa School? We were wary of this alliance, Amiran recollected, and sure enough her husband took up with another woman, and my daughter and granddaughter are back with us. She looks after our investments and thesis statement, bank work, so that she does really contribute to the household with her labor just as we all do. In other words, they shrewdly recognized that while financial independence was important, it did not solve the central problem of the a narrative essay for pa gender inequality inherent within marriage in statement paper, a patriarchal society. Some of the covert strategies of courtesans that I have described earlier defy analysis, for essay on in, they do not fit the statement for art scholarly definitions of for three of tea, protest and resistance. The defections of thesis statement for art, abused daughters, child widows, or unhappy wives to high-class prostitution are indeed unorganized, sporadic, individual attempts prompted by heights thoughts of thesis statement for art, self-preservation or self-interest rather than by hopes of wider social change. The courtesan's nakhre , which include blackmail, theft, confidence games, and even feigned heterosexuality, smack more of physiology paper, a sleazy underworld than of the acts of determined rebels, particularly because the consequences of statement for art, such acts neither threaten nor change the overall power relations against which they are aimed. Most of my analytical and definitional qualms have been dealt with in James C. Scott's study on everyday forms of peasant resistance, Weapons of the Weak . He refutes theoretical objections and essay on in for love, accusations of statement for art paper, excessive romanticism so compellingly that I find it pertinent to quote him at love, some length: Real resistance, it is argued, is (a) organized, systematic, and cooperative, (b) principled or selfless, (c) has revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) embodies ideas or intentions that negate the basis of domination itself.
Token, incidental, or epiphenomenal activities by contrast, are la) unorganized, unsystematic, and individual, (b) opportunistic and self-indulgent, (c) have no revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) imply, in their intention or meaning, an accommodation with the system of domination. These distinctions are important for any analysis. Thesis Statement Paper? [but my] quarrel is with the contention that the latter forms are ultimately trivial or inconsequential, while only the former could be said to constitute real resistance. This position, in my view, fundamentally misconstrues the very basis of economic and political struggle conducted daily by subordinate classes – not only slaves, but peasants and workers [and, I would add, women] as well – in repressive settings. It is based on an ironic combination of both Leninist and bourgeois assumptions of whot constitutes political action. The problem lies in what is a misleading, sterile, and sociologically naive insistence upon distinguishing self-indulgent,. individual acts, on the one hand, from presumably .principled, selfless, collective actions, on the other, and excluding the former from the category of real resistance. /36/ [] If traditional constructs of class and class struggle are not directly relevant to the clandestine and unorganized struggles of the peasants in Malaysia whom Scott studied, they are even farther removed from the arena of gender relations and the courtesans' style of reversing an oppressive order. One does not use a hammer to prune a rose bush. Women's struggle obviously cannot be a class struggle:, for the gender divisions are vertical, not horizontal, and cut through class lines, so the validity of the courtesans' struggle cannot be refuted on the grounds that it is engaged in at a private, unobtrusive level. The courtesans have uniquely combined the essay love elements of struggle for their material needs with those of an ideological struggle against patriarchal values, by creating and hiding behind their many masks. They live in outward harmony with male power and male sexuality, for the struggle can only be effective if their subterfuges are mistaken for compliance, and their true intentions as collusion with men against other women. Their cooperation with some women outside the kotha , such as the khangi , or the married women to thesis for art, whom they rent space so that they too can earn (undisclosed) extra money, is also little known, and it would be no longer politic or possible if it were uncovered. It is for these reasons that courtesans have had to resort to outward conformity and the partial transcript, as Scott calls the offstage behavior of Sedaka peasants: That the essay on in for love poor should dissemble in the face of power is hardly an occasion for surprise.
No close account of the life of subordinate classes can fail to distinguish between what is said 'backstage' and what may be safely declared openly. /37/ If it can still be argued that no matter what the tawa'ifs' self-perceptions, actions, goals, and ideology are, they were and thesis, are still complicitous in perpetuating patriarchal relations in society, it is to insist on the ideal instead of the possible in a struggle for power. As Gulbadan, the paper oldest courtesan I interviewed, responded to this question: I know we are blamed for enabling men to perpetuate their double moral standards and dominating women. Statement Paper? Must we desert our own interests, give up our own strategy, for the dubious cause of women who suffer such men as husbands, fathers, and brothers? Today we are silent, we are despised, and the law has cracked down on us; has that helped the cause of women, or only made life harder for us? /38/ In fact, their silence is so complete that for all official intents and art essay, purposes (such as taxation), this category of women is no longer acknowledged in postcolonial India. This for them is a mixed result. It is a small triumph, because their professional incomes are no longer taxed, yet among their patrons are a large number of public officials.
It is a larger defeat, because officialdom can piously claim that they have banned female sexual exploitation while converting their once-proud profession into a species of vice. [] And finally I return to the question of sexuality, as reality and as a nakhrah , because there is the larger question, that of the social construction of sexuality, that may well be illuminated by analyzing the world view of courtesans of Lucknow. It is obvious that hegemonic gender relations are effectively perpetuated, and sexuality itself constructed, through the process of differential socialization of women and men. I would (tentatively) argue further that by systematically reversing the socialization process for females, in order to combat the thesis for art paper disabilities inherent in essay for pa school, women's existing social and sexual roles, the courtesans have logically constructed lesbian existence as a legitimate alternative, just as much as Indian society at large constructs and enforces, through the institution of compulsory marriage, heterosexuality as normative behavior. Heterosexual relations for most of the courtesans was work, not pleasure. Right from birth, if we recall the testimony of thesis for art, Chhote Miyan, the female is celebrated, empowered, cherished; those who arrive as adolescents in essay on in the mood, the kotha are methodically reeducated within the context of this parallel and exclusive society of women, and its woman-centered vision of power relations. Their relationships with men in the kotha are congenial but businesslike; except for thesis for art, kin, only very few ever become emotional bondsmen. Essay On In? Men play diverse roles: not only are they servants, cooks, watchmen, and musicians, but they are also wealthy, generous, powerful patrons.
The latter relate on equal terms with the courtesans precisely because power is genuinely shared in that cultural setting. Arguably, it is thesis statement for art paper, therefore in the kotha , rather than in the normal world, that female sexuality has the chance of being more fairly and fearlessly constructed by women. I do not have the art essay writing space to explore the subject cross-culturally to offer, in support of this contention, the growing evidence of lesbianism in brothels, salons, geisha houses, and apartments of call girls in international capitals, which is a universal common denominator across time and space. That sexuality competes with economics for priority in the struggle against gender inequality is thesis, not surprising, That male sexual control and aggression is neutralized in research paper, a setting where the thesis statement heterosexual sex act is mere routine, and passion and questions cups of tea, pleasure are simulated or distanced, is for art, perhaps an essential mechanism that women, both wives and prostitutes, have universally used to preserve their emotional integrity and essay the mood for love, dignity. All the courtesan's nakhre , particularly the sexual pretenses, are brilliantly echoed in thesis paper, the following interview Studs Terkel conducted, in the early 1970s, with a Chicago hooker, Roberta Victor: Of course we faked it. The ethic was. You always fake it. Research Paper? You're pulling something over on him and he is paying for something he really didn't get. That's the only way you keep any sense of self-respect.
The call girl ethic is very strong. You were the lowest of the low if you allowed yourself to feel anything. The way you maintain your integrity is by acting all the way through. Here I was doing absolutely nothing, feeling nothing, and in thesis paper, twenty minutes I was going to ap lang and comp prompts, walk out with fifty dollars in my pocket. For Art? How many people could make fifty dollars for twenty minutes' work? [and] no taxes, nothing.
The overt hustling society is the microcosm of the rest of society. The power relations are the same and the games are the same. Only this one I was in control of. The greater one I wasn't. /39/ Roberta's philosophy of life and her indictment of contemporary American society matches, in startling detail, that of the courtesans of Lucknow, and essay the mood, this coincidence, including a lesbian lover, gives their stories a timeless, transcultural resonance. Thesis Statement? In quest of a room of their own and considerably more than five hundred pounds a year, these women had taken control of their lives by reversing not only the social rules but even the sexual fantasies of physiology research paper, patriarchy.
The research for this paper was conducted in paper, India and in Britain between 1976 and 1986 and was funded by the American Council for Learned Societies, American Institute for Indian Studies, and art essay writing, the Social Science Research Council, for which I am very grateful. I thank Douglas Haynes, Philip Oldenburg, Frances Pritchett, Catherine R, Stimpson, Romila Thapar, Judy Walkowitz, Judy Walsh, and Gauri Vishwanathan for their prompt and insightful comments, The responsibility for the interpretive framework is my own. /1/ Lucknow, situated 300 miles southeast of statement paper, Delhi, was the capital of the Muslim Kingdom of Awadh, 1775-1856. Awadh was annexed by the British in research paper, 1856, the court was disbanded, and statement for art, the king was dethroned and exiled. In the following year, the essay for three cups great rebellion of 1857, which began as a mutiny of Indian sepoys (soldiers) against the British, broke out. It was suppressed in 1858 and sweeping changes were made in the city of Lucknow and the provincial government to avoid such uprisings in the future. Lucknow remained a seat of regional power under the British, 1856-1947, and is today the thesis statement paper capital of Uttar Pradesh, the art essay most populous state in the Republic of India.
/2/ For a detailed history of the city and an account of these sources, taxation policies, and the subtle and overt forms of resistance and evasion adopted by paper the citizens of Lucknow, see my book, The Making of Colonial Lucknow, 1856-1877 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), chap. 5. I have referred freely to my earlier work to construct the history of the courtesans in the colonial period. A full analysis of earlier interviews, especially those conducted in 1980-81, 1983, 1984, and 1985-86, is presented here for the first time. Ap Lang And Comp Argument? Names have been changed to keep their identities private, as they had requested. /3/ The last Shi'i nawab , or King, of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, had acquired a large harem of singers and dancers by for art paper using a Shi'i variant of Islamic marriage called mutah . This allows a man to for love, enter into numberless marital contracts, which expire when the stipulated time elapses. It saves men and women from the accusation of adultery, and in Wajid Ali Shah's case, gave him the opportunity to for art paper, be a true patron of these talented women by bestowing on them some of the best real estate in Lucknow. He married both Hindu and physiology paper, Muslim women, and the courtesans I met in 1976 were also of both faiths. /4/ Oldenburg, passim. For a detailed account of British reaction to the mortality statistics in the colonial army and their control of thesis statement for art paper, prostitutes, see Kenneth A. Ballhatchet, Race, Sex, and Class under the on in Raj (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1980).
/6/ This scholar requested anonymity, so I have referred to him as Chhote Miyan. The interview occurred in January 1976. /7/ This section is summarized from Oldenburg, 131-42. Corroborative evidence from other sources will be noted. The term tawa'if is the statement word most commonly used (both as singular and plural) for courtesan in Lucknow. Art Essay Writing? Other terms used to designate these women are kothewali , nachwali , and the honorific baiji . I will use the first term, and this will also distinguish the courtesans from common prostitutes, whose main service was to provide sexual services to statement paper, their clients. /8/ Abdul Halim Sharar, Lucknow: The Last Phase of an Oriental Culture , trans. and ed. E.S. Harcourt and Fakhir Hussain (London: Paul Elek, 1975), 192.
/9/ Peter Manuel, Courtesans and Hindustani Music, Asian Review 1 (Spring 1987):12-17. In this brief piece, Manuel sketches the role of the courtesans in enriching the writing essay school musical traditions of India and describes the development of thumri and ghazal , semiclassical genres of thesis paper, singing, by wuthering essay love the courtesans of Lucknow in their bid to adapt to for art paper, the taste of their new patrons, the wuthering love taluqdars of Awadh, after Wajid All Shah and his chief courtiers were exiled in 1856. I have discussed the role of the rural taluqdars (large landowners) and their transformation into an urban elite in great detail in my Making of Colonial Lucknow , 215-30. /10/ Most Hindi films, called masala , or formula, films, are popular because of the songs and thesis for art, dances in them. The very notion of the romantic musical owes its inspiration to the style of entertainment at wuthering heights essay love, the kotha . It goes without saying that a film will fail at the box office if it has no songs. /11/ The romantic and generous patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, who fell in love with a large assortment of female palanquin bearers, courtesans, domestic servants, and women who came in and out of the palace, in short with hundreds of. beautiful and dissolute women, is legendary and retold by Sharar.
He goes on to say (p. 631) that soon dancers and singers became the pillars of state and favorites of the realm. /12/ Interview with Gulbadan, aged eighty-three, in August 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow, after the release of the thesis statement film Umra'o Jan Ada . Four other retired courtesans in their late sixties and early seventies were present at argument, this visit. They had not seen the film but had read the novel (Mirza Mohammad Hadi Ruswa, Umrao Jon Ada , trans. Khushwant Singh and M.A. Husaini [Madras, India: Sangam Books, 1982]); two of statement paper, them claimed to have known Ruswa in their youth. All the interviewees that I cite have been given names by me to disguise their real identities. I have translated into English the and comp argument substance of the unstructured interviews I conducted more in the form of conversations in Urdu with these women. The following paragraph is constructed out of the for art conversation we had on this occasion. /13/ See Oldenburg, 138-41, for a detailed account.
The courtesans' version of these events conformed closely to what I reconstructed from the art essay writing archives. /14/ Saira Jan spoke to me for statement for art, two hours on 2 Nov. 1976, at argument prompts, the kotha in Lucknow, and for art, never failed to add her opinion to heights essay, those being voiced on statement for art paper countless other occasions, if she was within earshot. /15/ An extremely interesting article by Raymond A. Bauer and Alice H. Bauer, Day to Day Resistance to Slavery:, The Journal of Negro History 27 (October 1942) presages much of the literature on what they call less spectacular and indirect retaliation for their enslavement. It was very useful in essay, formulating the argument that I present here, and I wish to thank Geraldine Forbes for the reference. /16/ This story is the story of the for art courtesan I call Rasulan Ba'i, The other widows whom I interviewed were from the same clan of Rajput Hindus from western Uttar Pradesh, and the outlines of the stories were similar. No story was ever told without comments or interruptions from the others present. This life story was related to me in November 1980. /17/ In the 1860s In Lucknow a randi . charged a nightly rate of five rupees and often more; tawa'if insisted on a hundred rupees a night and also received lavish gifts of jewelry and property. Ap Lang And Comp Argument Prompts? (A male laborer was only paid two to four annas (one rupee = 16annas) and a female laborer only half that.) See Oldenburg, 138. A century later, with the number of generous patrons on the wane, the disparities in income were only slightly less ridiculous. A contractor pays women laborers between seven and statement for art, ten rupees a day, and a well. known tawa'if charges three thousand rupees for a muscial evening.
Most have regular income besides, from for pa school investments, rents, and sale of thesis for art paper, produce from questions of tea orchards or shops. /18/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /19/ Interview with Rasulan, thirty-five, Amina Ba'i, forty-two, and Zehra Jan, forty-eight, in December 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /20/ I was not allowed to take notes or record this performance, play-cum-mime, nor any of my conversations with these women, because this is part of kotha life that is not shared with male patrons or outsiders. So what I present here is thesis for art, reconstructed from memory and the notes I wrote after the meeting. A Narrative Essay School? This event occurred in for art paper, September 1976 and was repeated in essay questions for three of tea, a slightly modified version (because oral tradition is not bound by paper a text) at physiology research, my request in July 1984. /21/ These are not the run-of-the.mill obscenities heard in the bazaar; they are special gaaliyan , poetic, funny, stylized terms and phrases of thesis statement for art, abuse. An example: Is kohri ka ghar sar bal ja'e (let the house of this leper burn to essay for love, the ground). Male genitalia were also a popular target for verbal abuse. /22/ Similar sentiments are expressed about the bourgeois housewife in Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto . /23/ Rasulan Ba'i, November 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. Elsewhere, prostitutes also express a strong aversion to marriage.
Geraldine Forbes brought to my attention a late-nineteenth-century account of the thesis for art profession in paper, Bombay that reiterates these sentiments: No Bhavin (very degraded catcgory of prostitute) would consent to contract matrimony with a person of her own caste, or remain in his keeping. Thesis? as prostitution in their view, is more honorable; it enriches and makes them sole mistresses of their liberty and property, and their protectors are ever ready to wuthering, be at their command: See.K. Raghunathji Bombay Dancing Girls, Indian Antiquary 13 (June 1884):165-78. A great many of the Bombay prostitutes had left their husbands willingly for a better life. /24/ Ruswa has Umra'o Jan flatly deny the existence of these obscene routines performed privately among the courtesans, but informs her that there are eyewitnesses' reports to the contrary. She finally concedes that such things do go on, but refuses to thesis paper, explicate any further (Ruswa, 321). Less risqué versions of such songs form the repertoire of village women, and they are sung at weddings or as women go about wuthering love, doing their daily chores. /25/ Mary Douglas, in an interesting analysis of joking rites, in her essay entitled Jokes (see her Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology [London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975], 90-114), writes: The message of a standard rite is for art paper, that the ordained patterns of social life are inescapable. Wuthering Heights Essay? The message of the joke is that they are escapable. A joke is by statement for art paper nature an ap lang argument essay prompts, anti-rite. Recall that a joke connects and disorganizes. Statement Paper? It attacks sense and hierarchy.
The joke rite then must express a comparable situation. If it devalues social structure, perhaps it celebrates something else instead. It could be saying something about the value of wuthering heights love, individuals as against the value of thesis for art paper, social relations in which they are organized (103-04). /26/ The most comprehensive treatment of the subject of pardah in India is to be found in a narrative school, Hannah Papanek and Gail Minault, eds., Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in for art, South Asia (Delhi: Chanakya Publications, 1982). /27/ Interview with Saira Ba'i, July 1984, at and comp prompts, Gulbadan's kotha in thesis statement, Lucknow. /28/ The Kamasutra of physiology paper, Vatsyayana (trans. Sir Richard F. Burton [New York: E.P. Dutton, 1962]) describes the sixty-four arts the courtesan was supposed to master as a skilled practitioner of her profession (69ff). Ruswa describes in great detail the musical and formal education of statement, Umrao Jan Ada (119-23), and throughout the book comments on her mastery of Urdu poetry and art essay writing, the styles of the for art leading poets, her ability to write poems and wuthering essay love, converse with wit and thesis for art paper, wisdom. /29/ Only after I was accepted as a friend and confidant among the women were they willing to apprise me of their many stylized nakhre , or feigning games. The acting ability of some of these women is astonishing, and it is no accident that some, like Nargis, moved on to becoming famous film stars of the Bombay screen.
/30/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /32/ I am grateful to Catherine R. Stimpson for informing me that the word lesbian did not come into a narrative for pa school the English language until the late nineteenth century and that history has constructed its meaning. Thesis Statement For Art? I was unable to find another Hindi or Urdu equivalent. Writing School? Platt's Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English Dictionary does not give a root or even an English definition of these terms. It only statement, defines them with customary bashfulness in Latin: capat , s.f. Heights? [feminine] = capti (used in comp.): capat baz , s.f. Femina libidini sapphicae indulgens: – capat bazi , Congressus libidinosus duorum mulierum. Thesis Statement For Art Paper? The Kama-sutra refers to this practice being rampant among courtesans but docs not give it a nnme (198). No term is in common usage, and research, an organization of Indian lesbians in the United States tellingly calls itself Anamika, i.e., nameless. /33/ This is discussed in C. M. Naim, The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry, in Studies in the Urdu Gazal and Prose Fiction , ed. Muhammad Umar Memon, South Asian Studies Series, no. 5, (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979), 120-42.
Shaikh Qalandar Bakhsh Jur'at, an Urdu poel from I.ucknow (1749-18091, wrote a poem, Chapti Namah , in which he describes the sexual intimacies shared by two married women lovers, who elude their husbands every afternoon nnd speak wistfully of the frequent gatherings with other married women who are of the same persuasion. I am grateful to C. M. Naim for the reference. /34/ I have to thesis statement, confess that I wanted a precise head count of the lesbians, because I wanted to bolster these facts with figures, but the women refused to oblige, for on in for love, it militates against their interest to have me as a credible witness who might want to testify in writing one day. Thesis Statement For Art? I roughly estimate that there were at wuthering heights love, least one in four who admitted to sexual relations with other women, some from beyond the kotha . Does this 25 percent estimate reflect the life and values of the kotha only, or can it be extrapolated to the women in statement paper, Indian society at large? This will remain a question until women agree to talk about their sexuality, not as a matter or duty bounded by ap lang and comp argument normative riues, but as a matter of experience and preference. Although the thirty women I have spoken to over the thesis paper past decade is a somewhat self-selected sample from that society, this finding has interesting implications about female sexuality in writing a narrative essay school, general, because that is the truly hidden text, which defies investigation even by women scholars of South Asia. Certainly women in the normal world use their sexuality, by statement paper denying it, by making it available, or by disguising it entirely, to gain varying measures of autonomy in a world dominated by men.
/35/ Romila Thapar, Ancient Indian Social History (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1978), 73-86. And Comp Essay? The essay is entitled Renunciation: The Making of a Counter-culture? (63-104). /36/ James C. Scott, Weapons of the for art paper Weak (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 292-93, 295. The theoretical implications of heights essay, his analysis of thesis for art paper, everyday forms of peasant resistance are contained in ap lang and comp essay prompts, the two final chapters of this exceptionally lucid and compelling work. /38/ Interview with Gulbadan in thesis statement, July 1984, at her kotha in art essay writing, Lucknow. /39/ Studs Terkel, Working (New York: Ballantine Books, 1974), 94-103. This electronic version of the article is presented here through the generous permission of the for art author. The original print version was published in Feminist Studies 16, 2 (Summer 1990). This present version contains minor adjustments of punctuation for clarity, and physiology research, minor improvements in transliteration, made by FWP.
The numbers in double square brackets, for convenience in thesis statement for art, classroom discussion, have been added by FWP. All editorial comments in double square brackets are by FWP, May 2008. Essay On In For Love? -- Umrao Jan index page -- fwp's main page --