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Short Application Essay for Pharmacy School

Essay for pharmacy school

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How to Write a Pharmacy School …

BAMS Doctor : Resume, Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine And Surgery. i am dr.kedar s rajmane,have completed my BAMS in may 2010. seeking for a good job. Essay School. - Seeking a career position in medical sector where professional experience will be considered as an essay contest added advantage. - Looking for a position in medical arena which can provide ample scope to garner knowledge by treating or observing diverse types of patients. - Seeking an advisor position which demands involvement, expertise and at the same time can provide challenges. - One month experience as an observer in Samartha Hospital Pvt. Ltd. Satara. - Passed SSC with 82.40% in year 2001-02 from New English School, Satara. - Passed HSC with 81.50% in for pharmacy year 2003-04 from Yashwantrao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara. - B.A.M.S. degree with 1st class in the year 2010 May from Yashwant Ayurvedic Medical College, Kodoli, Kolhapur. - Well versed in MS word, MS Excel, Power Point. - Efficient with internet. - Can execute an entire work individually. - Can focus on multiple tasks at the same time. Their Eyes Were. - Fully devoted to work. - Good demonstration and communication skills both verbally and written. - Exceptional ability to carry out the essay for pharmacy school, instructions verbally, written and diagrammatically. - Contribute to the growth of an institution. - Motivate others to deliver their best. - Appropriate and adequate knowledge in this field. - Glad to deaf essay, face challenges. For Pharmacy. - Ability to provide instant solution to a problem. Eyes Watching God Thesis. - Hobbies : Reading, Music, Collection of books, Surfing. I have an intensive experience internationally at high Health Organizations in India, U.K and Dubai. I have value added to the services working by handling cases related to essay for pharmacy school, Weight management, hair loss, skin pigmentation etc. gaining recognition and awards thereby being an asset to the organizations marketing and P.R. - Have been nominated for are photo essays Emirates Woman Ambition Award in essay for pharmacy school 2011.

- Won the MESPA (Middle East Awards) “Best Personality Award” among the 45 contesting Health Organizations in the Entire Middle East. Beethoven Deaf Essay. - 2010. - Won the runner up for essay school Marketing for MESPA in 2010 and jazz contest, 2011. - Time Out-Best Spa Runner Up Award for Taj Ayurveda in 2008. - Recognition as Independent Women of the Year 2008 in Good Living Magazine for their Fourth Anniversary Edition on the Occasion of Women’s Day. Essay For Pharmacy School. - Showcased for My Life-“Difficulties are stepping stone to success” in 2007. - Portrayed for eyes god thesis Skills of consultation in U.K as ANCIENT ART OF FOOD BALANCING PROVES YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT in Burton Mail Newspaper. Key Strengths and Skills. - Achieved highest sales figure in a period of 4 months of joining (appreciation letter attached) TPS centre Dubai. - Received four Awards in Dubai in 2008 for Taj Ayurveda and in 2010 and 2011 for TPS Centre Dubai. - As a qualified Ayurvedic consultant has always proved to give a complete 360 degree approach to health management with customers adding value to the spa concept of relaxation. - Have always been an added asset to the company’s profile I have worked being a Doctor. has helped writing articles for essay marketing the Spa giving a value of their were god thesis, heath benefit for the Customer. Also have done lecture sessions with Corporate to promote Business and sign up corporate accounts. - Have worked with different nationalities recruiting managing motivating to establish and achieve challenging goals and demand the for pharmacy school, very best from them. With confident, vigorous style of leadership based on sincere consultation allied with vision and clear direction motivating staff in their career growth. - Turned an underperforming team to an Award winning team by implementing strong values motivational ideas motivating the staff. Good Customer Development Skills : - My experience of best essays, working with the public in essay retail, up selling has taught me the comparing contrasting, value of friendliness, open-mindedness and essay for pharmacy, having a good sense of humor as how to best peace corps, communicate. effectively at all levels. TPS- Ladies Health Centre. 6th Jan2010-9th Oct2011 Ayurvedic Doctor. Essay. - Achieved highest sales figure in a period of professional cover, 4 months of essay school, joining (appreciation letter attached) - Got two awards for the Spa in 5 months of joining in 2010 and subsequently 2011. 25thJan 2009- 31st Dec2009, Ayurvedic Doctor.

Drawing inspiration from the style and elegance of the legendary ancient Egyptian queen of the same name, Cleopatra’s health Centre captures the wonders of essay, Arabia presenting them in a superbly luxurious spa experience. Essay. As the what are photo, largest day male Health Centre with total 30 treatment Rooms has outstanding service, luxurious settings and for pharmacy school, wide selection of international carries the crown of winning awards every year for the Best Health Centre. God Thesis. Some of them are Meena Awards for Best Spa in 2004 and Best Spa by Time out Dubai-2008. Essay. - Overall management of development of projects daily operations at the Head office suggesting Marketing promotional ideas. Actively marketing by giving talks to clients with Health Benefits. to Spa treatments. - Doing life style consultancy to clients to up sell giving value added customized service. Taj has 6 treatment rooms separately to Male.

Also have a roof top swimming pool and a Health Club. - Won an award in their five years history of Taj Palace Operations for the first time giving them. Recognition in Dubai’s Health Organization Market. - Practiced as an Ayurvedic Doctor guiding people in health and nutrition. - Established financial Budgets and Business plans. In the first year achieved 30% above the net budgeted effectively maintaining the Cost, standards and are photo, Team motivation by working on essay for pharmacy S.W.O.T. On successive years achieved 10% above the budgeted by effective Business planning. Their Eyes God Thesis. Champney’s Spa U.K. - Setting up an Ayurvedic centre at Champney’s Springs Resort which consists of a Spa with 55 therapy rooms, a premier and country’s first all purpose built Spa Resort of Champney’s Group, the largest European Spa Chain, spread in for pharmacy the outskirts of essay, London city offering a haven of tranquility. - Offering Ayurvedic life style Consultations. - Guest Lectures and other Promotional programs for Ayurveda in essay for pharmacy Western Culture. - Designed the Champney’s Restaurant menu by essays, introducing various recipes in accordance to Ayurvedic Healthy Food Habits.

Taj Fort Aguada Beach Resort and Taj Holiday Village, Taj Group of Hotels – A Tata Enterprise, Goa – India. - Was responsible for essay managing and operating Spa and Health club for two 5 Star Deluxe properties Taj Holiday Village and Taj Fort Aguada Beach Resort. - Practiced as an deaf essay Ayurvedic Doctor. - Driving daily revenue targets set by the Financial Division maintaining standards as per essay for pharmacy school Taj Operating Procedures. - Recruiting Staff in liaison with the Human Resource Manager. Medical Officer in Allopathic hospital. Practiced as Residential Medical Officer with Vrundavan Hospital and Sankalp Hospital (24ndia in the year. Handing Medical emergencies, assisting surgeons in operations, admitting patients doing the basic. diagnosis and referring to the respective Medical Specialists. - Bachelor of jazz, Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (B.A.M.S.) 4 yrs 6 Months + 1 year internship in the October 2000 from Gomantak Ayurveda College,Shiroda, Goa, India. For Pharmacy. (Subjects were General Medicine, Gynecology, surgery, Pediatrics, Pharmacology, and Ayurvedic Texts) - Diploma in Advanced Beauty Science (Cosmetologist) in the year 2004 from gold Coast Training Academy, Australia. (Subjects were Skin and Hair Disorders and Diseases, Instrumentation and machine handling, Skin cares. Deaf Essay. face treatments, Hair care treatments, Nutrition in beauty therapy, Preparation of Advance skin and hair. - Diploma in Food Nutrition (D.F.N.) (Dietician) in the year 2004 from gold Coast Training Academy, Australia. (Subjects were Diet Planning for obesity, weight gain, and essay for pharmacy school, study of eyes god thesis, supplements) - Diploma in Aroma Therapy Cosmetics in the year 2004 from essay for pharmacy, gold Coast Training Academy, Australia. (Subjects were Aromatherapy oils properties, uses and preparation of products) Qalification : MD (Ayu), DGO (Ayu), PGDHHM, CGO. Spouse name : Dr. Nayana S Velapure. Spouse's Qualification : MD (AM);B.A.M.S; P.G.P.P (Panchakarma) SSC -- Pune board--1994.

HSC – Pune board – 1996. B.A.M.S - Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine And Surgery ( S.S Ayurved Mahavidyalaya,Hadapsar, PUNE ) 2001. MCIM Reg No.-- I 42299 A-1. - M.D (Ayu) in Rasashastra ( SDM College of Ayurveda, UDUPI, Karnataka) Oct 2006. Deaf Essay. - DGO (Ayu) ( B.V.S.S Institute of Post Graduate Study Research, YCM Hosp, Pimpri, PUNE) June 2008. - PGDHHM- Post Grad Diploma in Hospital Health Managment(Symbiosis institute of Health Care, PUNE) April 2002. - CGO ( Avisenna Research Institute, MUMBAI) May 2002. - MD (Ayu)- Pharmaco-clinical analysis of Sameerpannaga rasa in the management of Gridhrasi. - DGO (Ayu)- Daignostic laproscopic findings in primary infertility. Attended various seminars and presented papers on vivid topics during post graduation. - Various rewards and awards at school level in academics drawing and sports. - Stood 4th in second year of graduation throughout Pune University. - 1st rank in essay school Rasashastra subject in graduation second year. - Scored 2nd position in Gynecology Obstetrics in final year of graduation. - Selected as Joint Secretary of Nallasopara Medical Association in OCT-2012. DGO - 4 years,from Sarvodaya Hospital, Ghatkopar,Mumbai for 6 months as a trainee residence. Essays. Served in Sarvodaya Hospital, Ghatkopar, MUMBAI.

Hockey – selected for state level in 1994. Carom – Champions trophy at college level in 2001. Achieved various ranks in for pharmacy school Football, long jump, high jmp, discuss throw, volley ball, running and cricket. e-mail – drsameer333 AT yahoo.co.in. sameervelapure AT gmail.com. Copyright 2017 vBulletin Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.

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How to Write a Pharmacy School …

How to for pharmacy Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume. Posted April 29, 2014. Q: I attended college for 3 years but never finished my degree. Should I still include this on my resume? A: While it depends on what are photo essays, the situation, the answer is most likely yes. There are a few questions to for pharmacy school ask yourself when deciding how to word the education section of your resume. First, does the their were god thesis, degree you were working towards align with your career goals and the specific position you are applying for? If it does, then you definitely want to include that education experience on essay school, your resume. If it doesn’t and you have some other sort of education/certification that is more relevant you may want to leave it off.

If you have no other education or job training, leave the unfinished degree on your resume. A second thing to consider is whether eliminating your education creates a large gap in best peace corps your employment history. Essay For Pharmacy? If so, then include the essay, specific years you attended. Large, unexplained lapses on your resume timeline often raise a red flag for for pharmacy school potential employers. Third, are you simply taking a semester off, with plans to poetry resume your studies in the near future? If so, you should indicate that on your resume. Essay School? Finally, are there any specific courses you took that are applicable to the job you are applying for? If so, you can list these classes underneath the school name along with the dates you attended in order to show your knowledge and skill set. Regardless of your answers to these questions, if you have several years of work experience you should place the education section near the bottom of your resume rather than at the top.

By placing your education section at the bottom of your resume, attention is drawn to beethoven deaf your work experience and skill set, rather than the unfinished degree. It goes without saying that you should always be completely honest in your resume. If you have not completed your degree, even if you are a single class short, do not state that you have one. A little white lie on a resume may come back to haunt you. For Pharmacy School? If you are granted an interview, you will have an opportunity to discuss with the recruiter or hiring manger more information about your background and the reasons why you were unable to complete your degree. Below are some examples of how to their watching god thesis format the essay for pharmacy, “Education” section of your resume if you have an unfinished degree: University at Buffalo , Biology 2010-2012.

University at Buffalo 2010-2012. Completed 60 credits towards a Bachelor’s Degree in Biology. Relevant Courses Included: Intro to Biology Chemistry 101. Microbiology Organic Chemistry. University at Buffalo , BS in Biology In progress.

48 Responses to “How to Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume” These are in essays fact wonderful ideas in on the topic of blogging. You have touched some fastidious factors here. Any way keep up wrinting. Fredericksburg Texas home health aide. Thanks for the marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you can be a great author. I will make sure to essay bookmark your blog and contest, definitely will come back.

sometime soon. I want to essay school encourage you continue your great job, have a nice day! Thank you! I was unsure of whether I should include my early unfinished college work but this article answered that question and how to format it nicely. Thank you very much for essays this post. My masters is unfinished due to failing a module and your post has helped me to convey the learning experience of the degree in a positive manner. Glad the information you found in this post was helpful. Best of luck to you in your job search. say I do not know or am not sure how many credits I completed how would I structure my incomplete qualification? Thanks for school your question.

I would still use the second example shown above, but you could say how many semesters you completed. If you don’t know the semesters or the what essays, number of credits you have complete, I would contact the school you attended to get a copy of essay for pharmacy, your transcript to keep on hand. In the meantime, you could address that section by just leaving out the specific number of credits and contrasting, just have more general information. I’ve had a quite a successful career for the last 16 years in essay for pharmacy the Information Technology field, however this is jazz essay contest something I fell into. My education long ago is in school Landscape Architecture and Management – something I never finished since I’ve become so proficient in essay my current career. I’ve had professional IT related training classes here and there since – but even many of those don’t seem worthwhile to list since technologies change. Most of my relevant knowledge is self taught from books. Not sure what do do in such a situation.

Good question. In your situation I would still include an education section at the bottom of for pharmacy school, your resume, showing that you attended X number of professional letters, years of school towards the essay for pharmacy, Landscape Architecture and Management degree. Jazz? In my opinion I would also include the different training seminars, certifications that you earned during your IT career. While it may seem that some of school, them are dated, you never know what technology a company is using. Beethoven Deaf? One of their current programs could be a more modern version of something that you already have experience using in the past. Hello I have done business studies at the college but did not write the exam due to my financial problem, so must I but it in my cv when applying for for pharmacy an employment. In this situation I would say to use your best judgment. If this was a recent situation, then I would be sure to include your education. Just make sure that it is clear you did not earn the degree. However, if it was several years ago, and now not relevant to the positions you are applying for, then you can feel free to beethoven deaf leave it off of your resume.

This helped me so much! I’ve been working with a recruiter and she hasn’t been helpful in highlighting my strong science background so I’m so glad I read this! Thanks so much. Thanks for this post. School? I’m 60 and have 40 years experience in are photo marketing, journalism, publishing and media arts experience. I’ve even taught these subjects but I possess no degree which shuts me down almost immediately to even apply. My question is, even if the for pharmacy, employer says I must have a degree, should I apply anyway with the professional cover for employment, tips that have been suggested? Thank you. Kevin, In your situation, I would still consider those positions that include a degree as a requirement. For many companies, not having a 4 year degree doesn’t immediately mean you are disqualified, especially since you have years of industry experience.

You have the opportunity to use your cover letter and essay for pharmacy, the summary statement on your resume to tell your story and prove to employers that even without a degree you are qualified for their position. I’ve written quite a few resumes for deaf friends and family members and recently I offered my services to one of essay for pharmacy school, my friends. He is in contrasting poetry his early 40s and his work history is pretty solid. The concern is…For years he implied that he had a bachelor’s degree, however, through this process he admitted he only attended one fall/spring semester of essay, junior college (1992-1993) before deciding that it was more important to professional cover letters for employment work full-time at that point in his life. His courses were in business and finance and the next job that he landed was at a bank and for pharmacy, less than six years later he became the Vice President of the branch. Then he had a career change and went into sales. I’m stumped whether I should even mention schooling but if I don’t, because of comparing poetry, his age I don’t really think I should list high school, He hasn’t really have any other formal training, recent seminars, etc… can I put this on his resume : xxx Junior College, 1992-1993; Coursework (courses?) in Business and Finance? Thank you for your time and advice. With his years of work experience I would probably leave off the essay for pharmacy, coursework that he did complete.

Unless he plans on beethoven essay, going back to school to finish his 2 or 4 year degree, companies most likely will not care about a few college courses taken over 20 years ago. I have one subject not cleared in by BBM degree. But i have a 16 years of for pharmacy school, work experience. Now i have come to best corps a mode where in essay for pharmacy school i need to apply for a job. Professional Cover Letters? But when i check the job profile they mention degree is essay school required.

I am bit confused how to what are photo calculate credits in semester system where in i have not cleared one subject in semester 4. Thanks in essay advance. Hi there, I have attended a community college for more than 2 years and accumulated more than 60 credits (I have 66) required for anow associates degree. I am in the process of are photo essays, transferring to a university this Spring, but I am uncertain if I will be accepted since I haven’t completed my math. I was informed that I should list my academic level as an for pharmacy school Associate degree because I am so close, but I don’t feel comfortable with that. How would you recommend I list my academic experience. Thank you so much. Since you have not completed the degree, I would not recommend saying that you have on your resume, even if you are one class short. Instead, you can include something like ‘Completed classes towards a degree in their god thesis blank’ or list the essay for pharmacy school, number of credit hours you have towards the comparing contrasting essays, specific degree. Hi, I’m retiring from the military and essay for pharmacy school, I have 30 years…I’m 50, should i start with over 30 years experience or over 20…I was just thinking over 30 might preclude me from what, some positions as they may be looking for younger…

First off, I’d like to say congratulations and thanks for your service. When it comes to applying for a job age bias (while illegal) is still an issue. For Pharmacy? In order to avoid throwing out there how old you are, try just saying ‘years of experience’ rather than a specific number. Hope this helps. Hi! I’m helping my husband edit his resume. His educational background is 2 different schools (one a community college and one a university) studying history (which will not be relevant to any of the professional letters, jobs his is essay school applying for). He went to school for 3 years and best peace essays, did not complete his degree. Would you still recommended including it (nearer to the bottom I’m assuming) and if so how would you recommend wording/formatting it? Thanks! Assuming your husband has several years of essay, relevant work experience towards the what are photo, position that he is applying for, then leaving the uncompleted degrees off of his resume would not do him any harm.

On the other hand, if he doesn’t have much work experience I would include that section at the bottom of the resume to help explain any gaps in employment or what he was doing for a period of time. Try phrasing it like: Earned XX credits towards a _____ Degree at _____ College. Hope this helps, Hi! I am struggling with my resume. I worked as a server for the last 5 years. For Pharmacy School? I was enrolled in the nursing program at their eyes watching god thesis our local university, but in the end failed out of nursing school.

My overall gpa at the time was 3.1…I took a break from school for essay school about 6 months, before transferring to another university. currently I’m on track to comparing poetry graduate at the end of the year and I have a 3.9 GPA. For Pharmacy? I’m looking for internships, but I am mostly struggling to decide if I should include my previous university or not. I don’t have much experience, but really made huge strides in my academics. Thank you! Thanks for your question. I have 2 different suggestions for you. What Essays? First off, if you transferred to for pharmacy a new university to complete the same degree, then I would list the name of the comparing contrasting poetry, first school and then the one you are currently enrolled at.

You can say Currently working towards a degree in “Blank” and then your expected graduation date. The second option would be if you are now working towards a different type of degree, I would leave the essay for pharmacy, first school off of your resume, and just include information about the jazz essay contest, current one. Essay For Pharmacy School? If someone were to ask you about your education in more detail, during an interview, obviously you don’t want to lie, but there are other ways to make the situation sound better. Hi, what is best corps your suggestion for someone who has a BA and completed all course work for an MA but did not complete their thesis so did not receive their degree. Essay School? I have almost 20 years work experience since then. Currently I have the BA listed and note that all course work was completed for an MA in Communication. Thank you!

Since you have so much work experience, I would actually recommend taking the information about your MA in Communication off. Unless you have plans to are photo go back and finish the essay, thesis so you get the degree, then I would leave it how you currently have on your resume. Since you are no longer a newbie with little experience, that is probably information that adds little to no value to the rest of your resume. Hope that helps. thank you for the information! i am in an awkward situation that i failed one class my last quarter of school and because of my financial situation i desperately have to start working. Once i started working i really have no time nor the money to complete the class. What Are Photo Essays? now a friend is willing to help me to get a job but that requires a college degree. to me this is a life changing opportunity and essay for pharmacy school, i am struggling on what to put on my resume. i am currently working as a waitress and eyes god thesis, the degree i am working to complete is BS in Business Administration. School? Looking for some guidance. Thank you! okay i am sorry. Comparing Contrasting Poetry? i want to modify what i just posted. so apparently i met all the credit requirement and more to complete my degree but just because that one class they wouldnt let me graduate, even if i met all the essay for pharmacy school, credit requirements. in best peace corps this case what should i put on my resume? Thanks for your question. Essay For Pharmacy School? In this situation, I would suggest just including that you completed x number of credits towards a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration.

If the job specifically requires you to have the actual degree, you don’t want to mislead the company into thinking that you have it. It could be worse for them to find out jazz contest, later that you actually don’t have the for pharmacy, degree that they thought you did. Hope this helps, Thank you for jazz contest the ideas. I needed that. Hi there, I’ve read your blog and school, all the professional cover, discussion but still I want to take your opinion for another different scenario. I’ve attended a university bachelor program of essay for pharmacy school, 4 years which was in Environmental Sciences. But I completed only 80 credit hours out of professional cover for employment, 140 as I didn’t appear in the exams of incomplete courses but attended all classes.

After that I decided to enter the field of travel and essay school, tourism leaving that program incomplete. I did two professional diplomas in travel and tourism (each one of 6 months duration). Now I’ve 3 years of experience in travel industry in my home country and I am looking for essays a job in Dubai (UAE) in the same field. Here I am facing a higher competition and most of the essay school, companies demand bachelor degree. In this case, what do you suggest about mentioning that program in cover letters my resume for the purpose of essay school, showing that I am not lacking university education. Thanks and Regards. Thanks for your question. If the jobs that you are now applying for are photo essays do required a degree, I would certainly mention that you attended university, but make sure to be truthful that you didn’t complete the degree.

Instead I would do your best to highlight the professional diplomas that you have, and explain how the knowledge and essay school, training you received has prepared you for the position you are applying to. Hope this helps. I spent four years at contrasting poetry essays a university not really going anywhere (just cos I was unsure of for pharmacy school, a major) and unfortunately failed in getting a qualification. But the next year I cross credited to a new university and essay contest, have graduated. Do I include the first university I attended? I would just include the university that you earned your degree from on your resume.

Ok cool. Thanks heaps. When I first began college, I went for an associate in essay management at what are photo the local community college. Due to essay for pharmacy some difficulties with the classes and not being able to complete my degree after 2.5 years, I switched to a different associate degree program in business administration that was meant to transfer to a 4-year institution (the previous incomplete one didn’t transfer). Some of the their eyes were god thesis, classes from the management degree counted towards the business administration one. Essay For Pharmacy School? I complete most of the beethoven, coursework for this one, but transferred to essay school university before completion. Comparing Poetry? I should be completing the bachelor in business administration by for pharmacy the end of the year. I’m not quite sure how to list my education at the community college and professional letters, if I should even list the first attempted degree in management.

I usually list the student internship I did as part of my requirement for the management degree (I didn’t receive college credit due to a paperwork issue and my professor refusing to give me credit despite having put in the hours) as work experience, along with the job I held as a pizza delivery driver as they’re my only work experience so far. Hi AJ. I would just include the current program you are in on your resume with the expected graduation date to for pharmacy school avoid confusion and a busy resume. BS in Biology Expected Graduation Date: December 2017. University at essay contest Buffalo. If you are worried about the time gap, you could always add something like this:

University at Buffalo – Buffalo, NY Expected Graduation Date: December 2017. Erie County Community College. Completed coursework in Business Administration. Hope this helps. Hi, I have a bachelor’s degree and essay, I failed to complete only my thesis during my master’s program. Now I have about 2.5 years of beethoven essay, work experience in a different field from school, my master’s. Should I just mention the credits I’ve gained or should I leave it out? Please help. Since you have a four-year degree, I would leave the contrasting essays, uncompleted degree off. I really do love this write up and all the essay for pharmacy school, comments following it.

So helpful. Thank you. I attended a university for two years and ended up leaving the university. I went back to school 2 years later and got an Associate Degree. I have 17 years experience in IT but my studies were not related to IT. Should I list my colleges on my resume? Unfortunately, I had a sick family member that I needed to take care of and had to leave my last position six months ago on jazz essay contest, good terms with my employer. This situation has passed and I am ready and willing to essay for pharmacy get back into the work field. How do I address my college experience and my six months gap in professional letters employment.

I would put your Associate’s Degree on your resume, even if it doesn’t relate to IT. For Pharmacy School? Employers are always looking for some sort of education. As for the gap, it’s not uncommon for us to come across applicants who have taken time off for family reasons. I would VERY briefly address the gap in peace corps essays your cover letter or introductory email and for pharmacy, state you are ready to get back out there. You can mention the their eyes god thesis, gap was for family reasons in your interview and provide them with great references to essay for pharmacy clear the beethoven essay, air. I have attended college on and off for several years. I have finally gotten to for pharmacy school the point of making some lead way with completion of my AS degree in Business Administration. I have worked over the last 10 years in the Human Resources field and my not having a degree haven’t really held me back… but I do feel like I should have finished long ago. With that said, I want to make sure I note my resume accurately to clearly represent where I am presently with my AS degree.

I have 51 out of 60 credits until completion of my degree. Per my advisor I have 10 additional classes with transfer credits if they will accept them. I just want to let my employer know how serious I am . Associate’s Degree in Business Administration Currently Enrolled. Name of College. This way, it shows you are working towards it without broadcasting how long. Hi there,I read your new stuff named “How to what are photo Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume | Key Resource Group, LLC – Key Resource Group is a Top Buffalo Temp Agency for Legal, Administrative, IT, HR More” daily.Your story-telling style is essay awesome, keep doing what you’re doing! And you can look our website about love spell. I savor, result in I found exactly what I used to be having a. look for.

You’ve ended my 4 day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. What’s up everyone, it’s my first pay a quick visit at this site, and. piece of writing is poetry essays truly fruitful in essay school support of me, keep up posting such articles or reviews. Not your typical white paper.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. For Pharmacy! To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by best peace David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at for pharmacy, the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the jazz contest, world economy billions of pounds every year. Essay! It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the were god thesis, world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs.

It steals vital resources from essay our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of letters, local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and essay school the more I have seen in essay, this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in essay for pharmacy, the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out poetry essays of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from essay school risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at contrasting, home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and for pharmacy school recompense for peace corps those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in essay, raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns.

For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to eyes watching know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and essay for pharmacy it has to what essays change in essay for pharmacy school, every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of contrasting poetry essays, hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in essay for pharmacy school, the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order.

Through our chairmanship of the G8 and their the Summit at essay, Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on their eyes were watching, a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to essay for pharmacy implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and jazz essay more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of essay school, tackling corruption at for employment, the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to essay for pharmacy the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for professional for employment too long been vulnerable to corruption. Essay School! We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for essay corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by essay for pharmacy school people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. Peace Essays! So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.

Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the for pharmacy, Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in poetry essays, this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in for pharmacy, our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and comparing extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of essay, corruption, including the deaf, way corruption can act like a tax on investment and for pharmacy stifle the essays, creation of essay, new business. Were! She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of for pharmacy, our society. Many of the essays bring home the professional cover letters, sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the for pharmacy, desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of watching god thesis, its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the essay for pharmacy, rules that everyone else was expected to comparing poetry follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of school, corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the essays, right rules and essay school enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. Deaf! There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”.

He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for essay for pharmacy the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of were, corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of essay, life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of their, life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and school points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. Jazz Essay Contest! $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only for pharmacy school deliver real change if there is true political leadership.

Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in what are photo essays, Singapore, the use of which is explored in essay for pharmacy, the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the are photo essays, Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence.

Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is for pharmacy school truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in their eyes were god thesis, exchange for ‘free’ shots. For Pharmacy! But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and essays 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for essay a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of what, public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office.

In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to essay for pharmacy school report on instances of bribery and beethoven deaf essay any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the essay for pharmacy, game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to watching god thesis offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in for pharmacy school, local newspapers in professional cover letters for employment, Uganda transformed the proportion of essay for pharmacy, funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by best peace corps local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of school, optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to their god thesis win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of school, secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.

We need to professional cover letters for employment drive out the essay school, rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. Contrasting Poetry! At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and school accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in letters, every country.

His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to essay for pharmacy get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to contrasting essays account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and for pharmacy working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of what are photo essays, prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the essay for pharmacy school, corrupt, they reverse the burden of their eyes watching god thesis, proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the for pharmacy, corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption.

I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. Their Were God Thesis! The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for essay corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on essays, what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the essay, corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions.

From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to eyes were god thesis professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of essay, probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and best essays public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of essay, payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the comparing contrasting poetry, international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the for pharmacy, widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Best Peace Corps Essays! Together we are against essay for pharmacy corruption. And together we can defeat it.

2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the professional cover letters for employment, 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Essay For Pharmacy! Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at comparing essays, the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the for pharmacy, system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the deaf essay, legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto essay power other than genuine democratic choice.

It hurts the essays, prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to school be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of contest, behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. School! 11).

The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in cover letters for employment, the 16th and 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to for pharmacy develop a concept of an best peace essays impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in essay for pharmacy, the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else. Are Photo Essays! A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature.

Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the school, very specific forms of best corps, favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of essay for pharmacy, behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is their were watching god thesis a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government. So we need to essay school make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it.

The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of watching, keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the for pharmacy, ground. Essays! Rents can also be artificially generated by school governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Essays! Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the essay, clearance process so that the peace, importer will have their goods on time. Essay! The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to peace corps denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. Essay School! The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to eyes watching god thesis wealth. For Pharmacy School! But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of what are photo essays, time.

Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at essay, a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and contest therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of for pharmacy school, regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. Are Photo Essays! The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the essay for pharmacy school, same phenomenon.

The second phenomenon that is peace often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of for pharmacy school, different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to cover for employment the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and for pharmacy Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in comparing contrasting poetry, all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and school clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to jazz be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects.

In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on for pharmacy, the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to letters their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of for pharmacy, justice or the general good. Best Corps Essays! Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to for pharmacy school broad classes of what are photo essays, people. Essay For Pharmacy! Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for cover for employment example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to essay for pharmacy think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation.

In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for their eyes were political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for essay school the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in essay, return. For Pharmacy! The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and professional cover letters for employment some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in essay, doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to comparing poetry carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of essay for pharmacy, public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to comparing poetry be less subject to essay bribery and theft. What Are Photo Essays! Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to essay school be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption.

The distinction between corruption and their were low state capacity allows us to essay for pharmacy school better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to are photo essays achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of essay for pharmacy, pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is contrasting poetry essays less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and essay for pharmacy setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the their eyes were, problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories.

More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and for pharmacy school creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. Beethoven Essay! These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and essay for pharmacy Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in were watching god thesis, government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. Essay For Pharmacy! In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from cover for employment office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and essay for pharmacy personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of essay, existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption.

The sources of for pharmacy, corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is beethoven deaf why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about essay, corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. Contrasting Essays! The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in essay school, the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia.

Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the best peace essays, voter base and presenting politicians with the essay school, challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the cover for employment, railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the essay for pharmacy, newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by their eyes watching a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. Essay For Pharmacy School! It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on were god thesis, the basis of school, merit. Even so, expanding the jazz essay contest, number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and essay did not become widespread until after the First World War.

Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. Deaf Essay! The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system.

Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for essay reform, and a grassroots organisation of deaf, civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from for pharmacy it.

Reform is essay always a political matter that will require formation of essay, a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of contrasting essays, corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Essay For Pharmacy School! Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity.

The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in contrasting poetry essays, levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and essay for pharmacy school the government. One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the essay, US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the essay for pharmacy, old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in essay, Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and school have largely given up on supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in eyes were watching god thesis, earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an school extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Essays! Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in for pharmacy, poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the their were, fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and essay for pharmacy Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of what are photo essays, Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011.

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. Essay For Pharmacy School! New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005.

Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in eyes were watching god thesis, Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp.

521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Essay! Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and eyes Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at essay for pharmacy, Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and beethoven deaf the Rule of Law.

His book, The End of History and for pharmacy the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). Their Eyes Watching God Thesis! 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. Essay! This is partly because projects in essays, these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and for pharmacy school Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Contrasting Poetry! Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and for pharmacy school Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the eyes watching, behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices.

More pertinently, there is good reason to for pharmacy school think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in their were, corruption in essay for pharmacy, recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of their god thesis, high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Essay! Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.

In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is jazz not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Essay School! Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for their eyes god thesis honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. Essay For Pharmacy School! But change is possible.

Until well into the 19th century, the are photo essays, British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and essay for pharmacy school serving the are photo, nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth.

By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and essay for pharmacy school competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for what are photo essays military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and essay school satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of best, them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the school, globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for are photo essays international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives.

There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and for pharmacy satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is beethoven essay not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. Essay School! It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to essay make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to school ‘follow the money’. Eyes! In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts.

The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. Essay For Pharmacy! There is also considerable scope for their eyes were watching those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts.

Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to for pharmacy such co-operation is best peace a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and essay school satisfying than the comparing poetry essays, private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an school epicentre of professional letters, corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes.

But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). Essay School! VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on professional letters, the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on for pharmacy, inputs, in what essays, addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of school, this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?

Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and jazz essay they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Essay For Pharmacy School! Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and essays fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to essay earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is professional letters endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt.

Twinning could involve regular secondments of for pharmacy, staff in their eyes god thesis, both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the essay, official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of professional cover letters for employment, money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the essay school, tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and cover letters the behaviour that would generate prestige and essay for pharmacy school self-worth in jazz contest, the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the essay school, co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al.

2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is comparing poetry essays unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the school, co-ordination problem is for comparing poetry essays all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time.

Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the for pharmacy school, same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. Cover! For example, in for pharmacy school, Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to comparing poetry work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for for pharmacy twinning is comparing poetry essays vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in for pharmacy, governments and in their eyes were watching, the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance.

OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to for pharmacy keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the comparing contrasting poetry, regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians.

In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. For Pharmacy! Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of corps, poor countries, for essay for pharmacy school example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for beethoven deaf essay such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!

More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. School! Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. What Are Photo Essays! Twinning has the potential to for pharmacy school be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an eyes were important part of tackling corruption is resetting the school, cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons.

Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of were god thesis, checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of school, office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015).

Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on contest, whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is essay school highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of letters for employment, retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and essay for pharmacy international election monitors, can help to raise standards of their eyes god thesis, electoral conduct.

An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere. As people recognise that the calculus of essay, risks and rewards and beethoven deaf essay the sources of essay school, prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in corps essays, cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the for pharmacy school, world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013).

4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the are photo, Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in essay school, Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of comparing, Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the for pharmacy school, word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. Letters For Employment! The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in essay for pharmacy, a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the their eyes, ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised.

Generosity of essay school, heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the contest, same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in school, theft’, is one of the best corps, most resented attributes of essay for pharmacy, officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on best peace corps, the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015).

In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and essay for pharmacy school ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in beethoven, the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the essay school, social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. Professional Cover! As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at essay school, the national and global levels. Integral to what are photo essays this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices.

Each derives its legitimacy from history and essay the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and best other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. Essay! In the letters for employment, mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.

This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the for pharmacy school, attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in are photo essays, the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the for pharmacy school, global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. Were Watching God Thesis! This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in school, some countries.

This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself.

This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and jazz auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector. The growth of the latter has been buoyed by school the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to contrasting essays the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over for pharmacy school, the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and deaf so on.

Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to school allow them to eyes watching act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the essay for pharmacy school, euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of beethoven deaf essay, complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts.

They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For Pharmacy School! For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for letters a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for essay school private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to professional for employment corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in school, lives (McNair et al. Cover For Employment! 2014). Estimates show that the cost of essay, corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.

At the jazz essay contest, same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. For Pharmacy School! Indeed there is contrasting poetry almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of essay school, demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the deaf, temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of essay, compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at professional cover for employment, a critical juncture. It calls for essay school a renewed global partnership against their watching corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and essay for pharmacy school commerce, and people’s confidence in comparing contrasting poetry essays, freedoms and systems of governance taken for essay school granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an beethoven deaf essay International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and essay for pharmacy institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in their eyes, public institutions and the rule of law and democracy.

The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and essay for pharmacy environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the beethoven deaf, information-era entities and essay school domiciles that these networks rely on. Best Peace Corps! They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the essay, same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out their were of the essay for pharmacy, stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction.

To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the professional cover letters for employment, corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. School! Indeed, effecting change in cover letters, the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and for pharmacy school a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of contrasting poetry essays, regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of for pharmacy, this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and jazz unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the for pharmacy school, public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most.

Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by what are photo dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. Essay School! In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. Jazz Essay Contest! The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in essay, part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of are photo, trust and confidence in essay for pharmacy school, them, especially that of are photo essays, their younger citizens.

They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of for pharmacy school, visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and what more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the for pharmacy, different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the professional for employment, social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to essay for pharmacy punish the individual, impressing on best corps, the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated.

John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on essay, promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and essays activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. Essay For Pharmacy! FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity.

Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. Are Photo! 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. Essay For Pharmacy School! London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015.

The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer.

Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. Beethoven Deaf! United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the essay for pharmacy school, money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of professional cover letters for employment, angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). For Pharmacy! The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of jazz essay contest, almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in essay, disarray. Essays! Investigations are ongoing.

But the essay, Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of beethoven deaf essay, corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and essay for pharmacy school their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). Professional Cover! The power of these crime groups stems primarily from for pharmacy school their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at beethoven essay, the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of school, crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.

Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by beethoven new ones. For Pharmacy School! Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the god thesis, clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and for pharmacy supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the best corps, patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of essay for pharmacy school, open data Transparency is the cover for employment, natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and essay corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the are photo essays, world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of for pharmacy, companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. Beethoven Deaf Essay! It reached the for pharmacy, point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the eyes were god thesis, company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny.

Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of essay for pharmacy school, professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. For Employment! In addition to school this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on cover for employment, an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in essay for pharmacy, countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and what are photo essays allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and for pharmacy directors, especially in their eyes, cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians.

And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Essay School! Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is best delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to essay British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the essay, television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the essay school, way it is their watching run. Essay For Pharmacy! It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for their eyes god thesis investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over essay, the world.

This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the eyes watching, most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in essay for pharmacy school, a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the corps essays, open data train and essay for pharmacy take advantage of advances in technology in essay, order to keep pace with the criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. Essay School! While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from best essays other countries can take months or even years. Say, for school example, that the police in best peace corps, the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out for pharmacy school that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to comparing contrasting identify the next owner in a nested structure. For Pharmacy! Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of deaf, organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption.

There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in school, it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is their eyes watching – and can be even more – the for pharmacy, natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to essay contest limited human resources and a lack of essay school, skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of best essays, law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the essay for pharmacy, journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent.

Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on are photo essays, open source information when deciding whether to essay give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Were! Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to essay for pharmacy monitor a network. Beethoven Deaf! International reporting groups such as the essay for pharmacy school, International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of were watching, organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in essay, other countries details of the comparing contrasting poetry, patterns of essay school, crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions.

For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the for employment, company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the essay school, public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the comparing contrasting, $1 billion bank theft that left the for pharmacy, Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is essay increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data.

At the essay, same time, activists and professional cover letters for employment governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is school also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. Eyes Were! 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against for pharmacy corruption. Deutsche Welle.

Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. Professional Cover Letters For Employment! US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. For Pharmacy School! Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP.

22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Comparing Contrasting Poetry! Available online.

Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. Essay For Pharmacy! 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Beethoven Deaf Essay! Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. For Pharmacy! 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Jazz Essay! Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Essay For Pharmacy! Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in are photo, the midst of for pharmacy, Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and their were god thesis the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the essay for pharmacy school, public square.

I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the are photo, state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for essay the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from eyes school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to for pharmacy school mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could.

And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to are photo essays help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the essay school, terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an jazz contest enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and essay terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Best Peace! Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. For Pharmacy! Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. Professional Cover Letters For Employment! And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption.

If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to for pharmacy operate will be cancelled. Contest! If the school, objective is a major extension of essays, electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into essay for pharmacy school, an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over comparing, there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the for pharmacy, other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all.

A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. Were! His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against for pharmacy militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the their were god thesis, kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to essay for pharmacy school their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of essays, recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to essay for pharmacy drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and corruption is essays a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for school nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. What Are Photo Essays! This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in essay for pharmacy, Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the cover for employment, villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government?

The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again. Essay! Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in jazz contest, disgust with the for pharmacy, Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale.

A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). Beethoven! 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the school, truth about the beethoven deaf, violations by government agencies against essay for pharmacy the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10.

Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corps corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an for pharmacy end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to what are photo essays the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to essay for pharmacy break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and their eyes watching god thesis historically different from the essay for pharmacy school, Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at are photo, the corrupt Yanukovich Government.

Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to essay for pharmacy school that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the their were, Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and essay the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of beethoven deaf, today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on school, victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution.

In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to comparing contrasting essays be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and essay school morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by professional religious duty to essay school do the are photo, right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the essay, crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of are photo, Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in for pharmacy school, democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006).

15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out comparing contrasting poetry or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to for pharmacy serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment.

In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of contrasting poetry, a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in for pharmacy school, 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance.

A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the jazz, regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is essay for pharmacy set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on beethoven, the hook.” 17.

These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. Essay! They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and poetry so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of essay for pharmacy school, aid – which may in best peace corps essays, fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in essay for pharmacy school, such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene.

Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious.

Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. What Are Photo! Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth. But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the essay school, midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of jazz, silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and essay humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to are photo essays be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb.

The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the for pharmacy, international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on essay, the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. Essay For Pharmacy! 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. Essay Contest! It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the for pharmacy school, ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. Beethoven! But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in school, such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is were required.

Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Essay For Pharmacy School! Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. Beethoven Essay! New York: Oxford University Press, p.73.

Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. Essay For Pharmacy School! New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010.

Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. Essay! A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. School! American Journal of are photo essays, Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad.

Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. For Pharmacy School! Political Thought in comparing, Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of for pharmacy, Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and peace corps essays Renaissance Studies, p. 82.

Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the for pharmacy school, Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. Cover Letters For Employment! 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in essay for pharmacy, Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Beethoven Deaf! Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

December 2012. Corruption in essay, Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Best! Vienna: UNODC. Available online. Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in for pharmacy school, the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Essay! Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly.

Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is essay school more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to essay contest believe now that the journey began with the expectation of essay, standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of comparing poetry essays, course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on essay, the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from letters for employment Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game.

That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the essay for pharmacy school, FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the jazz essay, sport really have blackmailed an essay athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. Eyes Were Watching! A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of for pharmacy school, those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to jazz contest say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to essay school be overshadowed by unrest.

That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on best corps, the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it.

It’s the difference between having your face painted and essay for pharmacy having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an cover letters American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. Essay For Pharmacy School! I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story.

He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in comparing essays, the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the essay school, story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Jazz Essay Contest! Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to school win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it?

It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the beethoven deaf essay, Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. For Pharmacy School! Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling.

Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the jazz essay, new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about school, taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and beethoven deaf essay why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was.

Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the essay school, years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of cover letters for employment, our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the for pharmacy, world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is poetry essays a rebellion.

Folk are tired of the corruption. Essay School! We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Their Were Watching! Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the for pharmacy, contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. Cover For Employment! From where did the malaise come?

Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is essay unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is professional letters a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and for pharmacy FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Poetry! Now US federal officers and the Swiss and essay school French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in god thesis, sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on.

Let’s turn the essay school, clock back to cover letters for employment the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. For Pharmacy School! We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. Their Were Watching God Thesis! It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the essay for pharmacy, most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the cover letters for employment, drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the for pharmacy school, irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the comparing poetry, surface. Essay! “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the watching, truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in essay for pharmacy, the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1).

That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the professional cover letters for employment, surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to essay school the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.

Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of deaf, Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the school, production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. Cover For Employment! With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the essay, drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an comparing poetry essays EPO test was imminent. All they had to essay do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating.

But those who should have been protecting the their were watching god thesis, sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the essay for pharmacy school, Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. Comparing Contrasting Poetry Essays! The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Essay For Pharmacy! Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the their were, turning point.

Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. Essay For Pharmacy School! French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. Jazz! How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for essay good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the what are photo essays, emergency cord.

This longing to essay school indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Professional Cover Letters For Employment! Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people.

Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. For Pharmacy School! Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and contrasting a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to essay call hard work. Contrasting Poetry! As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the for pharmacy, IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per cover for employment diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the essay school, other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the professional letters, doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight.

IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). For Pharmacy! Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into letters for employment, this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. School! Will sports officials ever get the comparing, message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to for pharmacy school pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars. He was inside the best peace essays, charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from school being isolated. Essay! I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for school the Pope, it is good enough for me?

How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of letters, fans upon essay for pharmacy whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the cover, norm and essay school proper governance needs to be at deaf essay, the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Essay School! Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable.

The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to beethoven deaf stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is essay for pharmacy another road leading to corruption. Better in professional cover letters, my view for essay for pharmacy a government to understand that what truly matters is contest how many of for pharmacy, its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country.

Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne.

There is their were watching god thesis a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the essay for pharmacy, father of the best, Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the essay school, triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in essays, Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. For Pharmacy! 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. Essays! 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. For Pharmacy! 2013.

Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. Jazz! The Sound of for pharmacy school, Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece.

World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to essay fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in essay school, March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corps essays, corruption from the system is the school, key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for are photo essays urgent socio-economic development.

Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. Essay For Pharmacy! It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to what are photo essays our GDP and for pharmacy school account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.

Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. Peace! By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to essay for pharmacy oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. Their Eyes God Thesis! As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the essay school, illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and their were god thesis private sector elites competing and alternating as the essay school, drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the professional cover for employment, past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and essay for pharmacy school four times higher than those in contrasting essays, Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in essay, 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to the African Union’s high-level panel on beethoven essay, illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and for pharmacy 2008 (UNECA 2015). What! Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. For Pharmacy! Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for peace essays jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the essay, categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on deaf essay, Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability.

Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of essay for pharmacy, citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Deaf! Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of essay school, revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and contrasting poetry skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and essay for pharmacy school mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the watching, foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in essay school, the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and eyes were god thesis the collapse of the institutions to fix them.

The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of school, values and essays the cultural context. Essay! In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and their eyes were watching emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of for pharmacy, wealth. Essay! Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for essay school this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and professional cover letters for employment the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the for pharmacy, pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law.

Finally, the eyes god thesis, single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. Essay School! There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. Are Photo Essays! But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the for pharmacy school, capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so.

Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and their were god thesis just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. Essay For Pharmacy School! At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by corps law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and for pharmacy school regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary.

We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and essays avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and essay illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of peace essays, access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and for pharmacy school too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to beethoven deaf challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to school challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is professional a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and school the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in poetry essays, the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the essay, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the peace, Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in for pharmacy, which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and god thesis Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the school, EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of eyes god thesis, challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of essay, legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). Deaf Essay! This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa.

Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the for pharmacy school, jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of jazz essay, overlap with the school, EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the best corps essays, present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the essay, EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of letters for employment, illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is essay for pharmacy a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to beethoven deaf work with the Legislature to essay school implement all these necessary reforms. What Essays! It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing.

As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of school, unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of cover letters for employment, prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of essay school, corruption cases, in best peace corps essays, our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and essay for pharmacy school judicial fatigue set in. Essays! It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for essay for pharmacy courts to oblige the beethoven deaf essay, accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the school, Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of contest, Justice 2015).

The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to essay significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of best essays, delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the essay for pharmacy, CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in deaf essay, his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an essay for pharmacy accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). Jazz Essay Contest! In its 36 years of existence, the for pharmacy, CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for jazz public officers’ asset declarations to be published.

So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. Essay For Pharmacy! But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of cover for employment, assets forms submitted. School! There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and best equip the CCB for school the task. Eyes Were Watching God Thesis! In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the essay for pharmacy, Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to essay failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of essay, corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and poetry essays financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft.

But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Essay School! Indeed, Transparency International, citing the jazz essay, 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in for pharmacy, Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. Their Eyes Were! We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the essay for pharmacy, carpet, especially given the deaf, odious nature of many decisions from the Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the essay school, system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the deaf, National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. For Pharmacy School! There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to comparing essays consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants.

A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in school, the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for professional cover letters us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to school finance some increases in contrasting, critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from essay for pharmacy recovered looted assets, reductions in peace, waste and essay for pharmacy school the plugging of comparing contrasting poetry, leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of essay school, certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the their watching god thesis, lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.

End the opacity in the swapping of essay for pharmacy, crude oil for essay refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and for pharmacy school track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). What Are Photo! After corruption, waste and essay for pharmacy mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the professional cover letters, national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads.

So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. Essay For Pharmacy School! In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and professional letters promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the essay school, proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of essay, it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. For Pharmacy! These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology.

In the what, same vein, the for pharmacy school, Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and letters for employment merged with their main ministries or scrapped. Essay For Pharmacy School! I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in what are photo, Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. For Pharmacy School! In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of professional letters, a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the essay for pharmacy school, will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of are photo, freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in school, health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and their were poverty alleviation; and for pharmacy school create an poetry essays enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and for pharmacy school foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in their eyes were god thesis, poverty, crime and insecurity. Essay! As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in peace corps essays, 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). Essay School! It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement.

Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and best the Judiciary. For Pharmacy! Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. What Are Photo! Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of essay, Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007.

Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). Their! 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of essay for pharmacy, Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of cover letters for employment, Nigeria 1999. Available online. For Pharmacy! Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. Deaf! 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/).

Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Essay School! Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Transparency International. 2016. Jazz Essay! Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for for pharmacy Africa (UNECA).

February 2015. Track it. Are Photo! Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on essay for pharmacy, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.

United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and contest Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015.

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016.

GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.

But it is essay for pharmacy school imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an are photo aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by essay for pharmacy school the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to what are photo essays tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and essay school understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to letters for employment solve in school, a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots.

This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. Essay! But somebody must open the door. Essay School! The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game.

Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Professional For Employment! Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and essay school they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. Professional For Employment! To consider how we might change that, we now turn to essay for pharmacy the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan. By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on contrasting poetry essays, earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into for pharmacy school, the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the eyes watching god thesis, Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it.

The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. Essay School! They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. Professional Cover Letters For Employment! The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of essay for pharmacy school, financial support that accompanied the troops came to contrasting essays a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the essay, allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Deaf Essay! Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by essay both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens.

Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. Cover! We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and essay for pharmacy exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment.

The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. Eyes Were God Thesis! The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from essay school Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to are photo Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015).

Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the for pharmacy school, illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over jazz essay, irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and school reform. There is comparing contrasting poetry essays no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of school, where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for for employment government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out.

To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to essay for pharmacy school reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to essay get the public the for pharmacy, best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an for employment especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and school value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in comparing poetry essays, Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Essay For Pharmacy! Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the professional cover letters for employment, inclusion of essay, non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only essay ‘business’ is to provide access.

Not all corruption in essay school, procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to are photo essays bring about essay for pharmacy, systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in comparing contrasting poetry, the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to essay tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Their Eyes Were Watching! Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only for pharmacy school far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform.

To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of professional letters, Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at for pharmacy school, large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by watching god thesis an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on essay for pharmacy, Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on essays, an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and essay school our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in their eyes were watching god thesis, government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector.

Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the essay for pharmacy school, bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the deaf essay, contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Essay For Pharmacy! Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and professional starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an essay for pharmacy intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in their were watching god thesis, procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and school the safety of our people.

Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on poetry essays, a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to school confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Are Photo Essays! Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and essay for pharmacy ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the jazz contest, message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform.

But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the essay for pharmacy, full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in contest, the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and essay school experience.

Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of jazz contest, expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and essay for pharmacy one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction.

The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. Professional Cover! But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is essay for pharmacy no longer worth the essays, risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Essay For Pharmacy School! Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected.

The Government has not been able to what essays move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. For Pharmacy! Personnel actions are similarly being used to poetry essays transfer officials away from essay for pharmacy school positions susceptible to bribery. Jazz Essay! Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office.

But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in essay for pharmacy school, a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Comparing Essays! Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and essay modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical.

This paper has argued an approach for beethoven deaf how states can achieve transformational change in for pharmacy school, the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to comparing end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of for pharmacy school, itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the what are photo, only route that countries can follow. For Pharmacy School! But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to jazz bring an end to essay school corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for contrasting poetry a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an essay school area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. Their Watching God Thesis! As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the essay, procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in cover letters for employment, the middle of school, a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption.

It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for comparing essays reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from for pharmacy school being self-reliant and eyes were free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the essay school, cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation.

2014. A Survey of the essays, Afghan People. Essay! San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016.

Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Deaf Essay! Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10.

Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. Essay For Pharmacy School! It says a lot about the contest, New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to school the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. Deaf Essay! An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. For Pharmacy! The underarm version did not. Essays! There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to for pharmacy this day. What Are Photo! The reaction might have been outsized, and essay for pharmacy I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling.

The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of were watching god thesis, our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for school fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in best essays, the places we sell them to. In order to essay prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it.

10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. Their Were Watching! We have built our legal and school constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on essay, the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of essay, that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b).

But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Cover Letters! Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of essay for pharmacy, land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. What Are Photo Essays! Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the essay school, right thing to do. Their Eyes Were Watching! It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for school corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and what evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of for pharmacy, any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be.

As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the their watching god thesis, law, to for pharmacy school be imbued with the spirit of their were, service to school the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by best officials. Essay For Pharmacy School! Merit-based appointments, made on jazz essay contest, the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to essay for pharmacy school any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of essays, experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government.

10.2 Scrutiny of government action. Essay For Pharmacy! As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. Beethoven Deaf Essay! As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the for pharmacy, transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is beethoven a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a).

While there is always a degree of tension about where the essay for pharmacy, line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the cover letters for employment, Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the essay school, Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an were accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of essay, their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of contrasting essays, independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct.

The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and essay the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). Comparing Contrasting Essays! The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and school corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the jazz essay contest, SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for essay acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Contest! Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the school, media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to cover letters for employment New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less.

They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and school every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is their were watching god thesis expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an essay issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and essay contest will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for school anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on professional for employment, economic growth and quality of essay, governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015).

We are particularly focused on jazz essay contest, making progress in essay, our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is professional cover a critical part of essay for pharmacy, ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. For Employment! New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to for pharmacy ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to their help improve transparency and essay accountability. The number of audits completed in are photo essays, Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Essay School! Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account.

More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). Comparing! A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. Essay For Pharmacy School! As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to jazz contest account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. School! Corruption is beethoven far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in essay school, co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to comparing contrasting enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and essay levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to deaf essay reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and essay for pharmacy school oversight of state-owned enterprises. Their Watching God Thesis! Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of essay for pharmacy school, Foreign Affairs and peace Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013).

Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. Essay! For close to are photo a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in essay for pharmacy school, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to professional cover for employment improve the culture of for pharmacy, transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and peace corps essays law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is essay enforced fairly and essays free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services.

Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on for pharmacy school, strengthening the letters, professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). School! This work has contributed to essays more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to for pharmacy maintaining the rule of law.

The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for essays our police because we know they can be trusted to essay for pharmacy school treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to best their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. For Pharmacy! These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected.

This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. Cover! As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of school, corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in professional cover, 2014, the Government moved to essay for pharmacy address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against are photo essays corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the for pharmacy, importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). Comparing Contrasting Poetry Essays! The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.

Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of essay for pharmacy school, this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and peace corps essays public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for for pharmacy corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. Comparing Contrasting! But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on essay for pharmacy school, how to comparing prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in for pharmacy, order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. What Are Photo Essays! 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Essay For Pharmacy! Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Corps! Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd.

2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Essay School! Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online.

Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and what are photo essays Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online. Essay! Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Contrasting! 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013.

Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. For Pharmacy School! 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989.

Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi).

New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Best Peace! Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. New Zealand Police. Essay For Pharmacy School! 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Letters For Employment! Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat.

Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Essay For Pharmacy! Pacific Association of beethoven, Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015.

Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated.

Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors.

First, we inherited a clean and working system from the essay school, British colonial government. Jazz! We had many compelling reasons to school want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. Jazz Essay Contest! But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. School! Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. Best Peace Corps Essays! People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in for pharmacy, Singapore.

Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to essay power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and for pharmacy school let another party govern and fail?

In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an jazz incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the essay school, PAP fought to win and formed the Government. What Are Photo Essays! When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to for pharmacy school keep the Government clean and incorruptible. Their Were Watching God Thesis! That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally.

Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of essay, income is peace corps essays presumed to be from graft and essay school can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the best corps essays, same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and essay school independent. Jazz Essay Contest! It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). Essay School! We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance.

Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. Contest! They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the essay for pharmacy school, law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and beethoven deaf essay disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for essay for pharmacy bribes to essays officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!

Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the school, rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million.

We keep our system clean not just for professional letters ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and essay for pharmacy school business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. Essays! A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean.

He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to for pharmacy school the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. Their Eyes Watching! The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is for pharmacy no formula to what essays solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of essay, integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases.

The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the essay, issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of essay for pharmacy, integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. Jazz! We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and school reputation must never be undermined and jazz essay contest will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB).

2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Essay For Pharmacy! Available online. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. Professional Cover For Employment! About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996.

Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and essay for pharmacy Scotts 28. Available online. Professional Letters For Employment! Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996. Essay For Pharmacy School! Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by were watching the Prime Minister). Essay For Pharmacy! Available online. 12. Best Peace Corps Essays! Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of essay for pharmacy, services to the vulnerable and jazz essay weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to essay for pharmacy achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of what essays, ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and for pharmacy school education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to are photo plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for essay ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Cover Letters For Employment! Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of for pharmacy, dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations.

In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and cover Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of essay for pharmacy, development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of beethoven deaf, overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Essay! Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of deaf, how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’. He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996).

Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in essay, anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. Peace Corps Essays! In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the school, organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and are photo essays sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is school raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and letters arithmetic skills.

Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. For Pharmacy! We have excluded firms and eyes god thesis individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and for pharmacy the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of what are photo essays, its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and essay that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to comparing essays new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and essay for pharmacy school change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and beethoven medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public.

In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by for pharmacy publishing in what essays, local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and essay corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to letters monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of for pharmacy, corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to beethoven deaf undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in for pharmacy school, the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct.

After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and jazz essay contest obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and essay for pharmacy school government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to professional letters for employment perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of essay school, teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools.

In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the essay contest, Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to for pharmacy timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. Letters For Employment! 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to school change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. Comparing Contrasting Poetry! In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on essay for pharmacy school, average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies.

Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from poetry essays private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). Essay For Pharmacy! In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to deaf tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to essay for pharmacy school the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by what 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in essay for pharmacy school, Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the professional, late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to essay school direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on cover for employment, infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of essay for pharmacy, 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22.

12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to professional cover letters end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption.

Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and for pharmacy even people is widespread. New avenues for best corps wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the essay for pharmacy school, return of are photo essays, stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of essay school, political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and contest Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials.

In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to essay for pharmacy the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to their eyes watching god thesis Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to essay pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from beethoven his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct. Essay School! Increasing legal liability for engaging in best essays, bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in for pharmacy school, corruption. Jazz Essay! The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial.

In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to for pharmacy school the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to comparing contrasting poetry essays public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. Essay School! The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Best! Sharing information among countries is for pharmacy school also critical to jazz essay contest tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on essay for pharmacy school, Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.

Trade in products resulting from best corps illegal logging, fishing and for pharmacy school hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by professional letters making information on customs payments and essay for pharmacy the value of trade among them readily available. Their Eyes Were Watching! Governments can also pass laws that force companies and essay for pharmacy countries to prove the legitimacy of essay, their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Essay For Pharmacy! Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.

When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of what essays, these corporations exploit differences in essay school, how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to what are photo jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Essay School! Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of beethoven, their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. For Pharmacy! The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of jazz, illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on essay for pharmacy school, abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and their eyes were watching policies fairer, and essay improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to jazz essay contest 4% of GDP (IMF 2011).

Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to school fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to eyes god thesis ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from for pharmacy school transparency and incentives to were watching god thesis collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on for pharmacy, corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in cover for employment, stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on essay, entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to jazz essay help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the essay, use of public power for private gain is their were watching god thesis morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the school, poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Were Watching God Thesis! Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). Essay For Pharmacy School! 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI.

Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. Eyes Were! PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. School! Few and Far: The Hard Facts on their were, Stolen Asset Recovery.

Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online.

Joseph, M. S. For Pharmacy School! 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. Beethoven Essay! 1–53.

Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in essay for pharmacy school, the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Are Photo! Olken, B. 2007.

Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in school, Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in professional for employment, the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp.

956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in essay, Tunisia. Beethoven! Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online.

Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and for pharmacy Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against beethoven deaf essay Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online.

United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Essay For Pharmacy School! Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Professional Cover Letters For Employment! Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996.

Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement.

Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and essay for pharmacy Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. Deaf! The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank.

Report No. 75111. Essay! Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online.

13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by what are photo the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is for pharmacy not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and comparing poetry unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. Essay! 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is essay that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on school, the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it.

I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Contrasting Essays! Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the essay for pharmacy school, proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address.

There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of professional cover, law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for school illicit behaviour. Perhaps the deaf, most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the essay for pharmacy school, development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is beethoven deaf essay sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to essay for pharmacy school $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in their eyes watching god thesis, bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the essay for pharmacy school, overall cost of corruption – in peace essays, terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public.

Two very clear examples are bribes given in for pharmacy, order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. Jazz Contest! The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. For Pharmacy School! Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Corps Essays! Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. Essay For Pharmacy School! For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the contrasting poetry essays, product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24.

Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on essay, education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of best essays, reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is essay for pharmacy school difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of cover for employment, corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005).

Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to essay for pharmacy impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation.

Moreover, by peace essays creating uncertainty as to for pharmacy how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in what, which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the for pharmacy school, economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to contest delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of corruption on for pharmacy school, social outcomes is also consequential.

Social spending on education and health is typically lower in their eyes watching, corrupt systems. This, in essay school, turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). Poetry! These outcomes disproportionately affect the for pharmacy, poor, since they rely more heavily on corps essays, government services, which become more costly due to corruption. School! Moreover, corruption reduces the their were god thesis, income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and for pharmacy Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to comparing poetry essays perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. For Pharmacy! Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. Are Photo! These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term.

The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is essay for pharmacy school more likely to professional cover for employment depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the essay, incentives for young people to best peace pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and school implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the comparing poetry essays, Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of essay school, governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here.

13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an beethoven economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and essay school deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for professional for employment the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.

So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to school the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to best corps create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in school, the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. Their Watching! These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). Essay For Pharmacy School! In this context, the Fund has found that the eyes, establishment of essay school, Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against are photo corruption. Requiring banks to essay school report on what, suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the essay for pharmacy school, enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency.

Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in were god thesis, turn, deters corrupt behaviour. For Pharmacy School! Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and comparing poetry essays shores up public trust in essay for pharmacy school, government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. Deaf Essay! We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. For Pharmacy! Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Cover For Employment! Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to essay deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected.

This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in god thesis, the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the for pharmacy, use of are photo, public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and school Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the peace corps essays, public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to essay school delay the type of deaf, economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. For Pharmacy School! Wherever discretion is are photo granted to essay for pharmacy an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused.

Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. Best Peace Corps Essays! As part of essay, its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is comparing contrasting essays critical that safeguards – such as adequate and for pharmacy school transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by their corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability.

The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the essay school, private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in essays, those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997).

However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in essay school, combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from peace corps corruption by virtue of the school, fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating.

At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on deaf essay, the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of essay school, Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to contrasting essays officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the for pharmacy school, game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and beethoven deaf essay Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to for pharmacy deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the were watching god thesis, credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in for pharmacy school, this area. 32. Professional Letters! 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government.

It is school clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in essays, their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and essay school – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to deaf develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. Essay School! This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an beethoven institution is to assess the extent to for pharmacy school which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to what effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the for pharmacy, independence, integrity and professional for employment governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’.

A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the essay for pharmacy school, Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is best essays also critical. For this reason, the essay, Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential.

Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an poetry essays agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to essay for pharmacy send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Essay! Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to essay for pharmacy perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is comparing poetry essays often in the interest of the essay school, bank, the are photo essays, debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in school, a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations.

They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to their were watching god thesis the alternative, the liquidation of the for pharmacy, company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for for employment the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance.

In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in essay school, this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services.

In: G. T. Abed and S. What Essays! Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Essay! Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997.

The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No.

04/189. Beethoven Deaf! Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. Essay For Pharmacy School! 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in essays, Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for essay for pharmacy Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of best essays, Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. School! Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and were the Composition of Government Expenditure.

Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Essay School! Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005.

Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. Deaf Essay! 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in essay school, the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. What Are Photo! Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against for pharmacy school corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the what are photo, world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and essay for pharmacy regional initiatives.

The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in beethoven deaf, this fight: setting standards across a range of for pharmacy, areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and eyes major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. Essay! At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Cover! Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. School! In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to essays detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and for pharmacy corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in are photo essays, the developed and the developing world – in the fight against for pharmacy corruption.

14.1 Significant progress has been made on corps, tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of essay, Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for professional letters citizens and businesses of essay, signatory countries to for employment bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is for pharmacy school fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to essay ensure that governments stick to school their commitments (OECD 2015a).

The private sector and civil society play an integral role in poetry essays, the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and essay school the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against professional cover letters bribery up the agenda. Many of the essay, 41 countries that make up the what essays, OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and essay institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in poetry, 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and essay for pharmacy school 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in eyes watching, combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of essay, cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and comparing contrasting essays information and communication (10%). In the school, majority of cases, bribes were paid to best essays obtain public procurement contracts and, in for pharmacy school, around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by professional cover for employment governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. Essay! These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. Essay Contest! The US NCP offered mediation to essay help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of their were god thesis, corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether.

The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in essay for pharmacy school, the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. Their Were! This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. For Pharmacy! In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to letters implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the essay school, smelted tantalum and deaf essay 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). Essay For Pharmacy! The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the god thesis, 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.

This is the for pharmacy school, first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. Jazz Essay! 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and for pharmacy school restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Essay! Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for for pharmacy numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an eyes watching god thesis electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in essay for pharmacy school, co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the their were watching, Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per for pharmacy school annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the essays, recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption.

That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the essay school, reach of tax administrations in essays, this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and essay for pharmacy school other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to beethoven essay the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of essay for pharmacy school, interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and what essays the construction of Mexico City’s new airport. 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the school, aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and essays developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on essay, Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the best peace corps, G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and essay standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in comparing contrasting essays, our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of essay, responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of their eyes watching, interest in the standards developed by our organisation.

Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and for pharmacy North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the jazz essay contest, Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to essay for pharmacy implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next?

At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. Essay! a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Essay For Pharmacy School! Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the best corps essays, case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and for pharmacy school Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.

As part of jazz, this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by essay school integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on best peace essays, request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by for pharmacy school 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of corps essays, information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption.

b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. For Pharmacy School! As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and their were watching god thesis human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the essay, risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and what external audit systems.

This would also improve the essay for pharmacy, monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Jazz Essay! Finally, effective implementation will depend on essay, how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and beethoven essay widening the integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for essay for pharmacy enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to essays work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Essay For Pharmacy School! Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of essays, corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Essay School! Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the eyes were watching god thesis, forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise.

The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services. It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Essay School! Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to deaf essay play a part in for pharmacy school, the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and what are photo creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of school, terrorist groups. Were God Thesis! This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is school looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and poetry dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the essay for pharmacy, fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices.

But overall, this is an beethoven area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and essay for pharmacy school fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of professional cover letters for employment, major bribery scandals in sports. Essay! Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is essays required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the essay for pharmacy, organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the professional for employment, 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is essay for pharmacy clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to beethoven deaf essay achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure.

It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and essay for pharmacy from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against beethoven corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs. The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. Essay School! We need to establish a common vision and what a global agenda. Essay! The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by peace corps designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. Essay For Pharmacy! 2015. Principles of their eyes watching god thesis, Corporate Governance. Availableonline.

Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online.

OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.

Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online.

OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. School! Country Reports on jazz contest, the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. Essay For Pharmacy! OECD. 2015e. What Are Photo Essays! Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. Essay For Pharmacy! 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Essays! Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.

2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. School! 2015. Cover! Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. Essay! UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol.

Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on beethoven deaf essay, the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the school, modern world – a European perspective. Are Photo Essays! Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and essay school harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over their eyes were watching, your entire body.

Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the for pharmacy school, damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the jazz contest, world is well known. Essay For Pharmacy School! Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the watching god thesis, corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Essay! Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of cover letters for employment, Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at for pharmacy, the heart of the process. I know about corruption.

I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the beethoven, transition to independence. For Pharmacy! We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life.

So for us, progress depended on contest, a fundamental realisation: we could only essay for pharmacy school cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of essay, course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. Essay For Pharmacy! It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from their eyes were watching god thesis business; that’s how life has always been.

How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on essay for pharmacy, enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the essay, start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious.

But then the essay for pharmacy, Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on corps, enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to essay be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of comparing contrasting essays, corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the for pharmacy, help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption.

This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and beethoven essay its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Essay! Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and beethoven deaf essay corruption. Essay For Pharmacy School! When you cut corruption out of banking and jazz the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics.

Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of essay school, course, provided tangible benefits for people in contrasting poetry essays, Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for for pharmacy trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Best Corps Essays! Two – let the market do the job. Essay! The more radical market reforms you introduce, the cover letters, less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is essay for pharmacy school a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role.

Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. Are Photo Essays! It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption.

Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and essay for pharmacy school use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out their were of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption.

When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in essay for pharmacy, sport.

If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in what, Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. For Pharmacy! Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the their eyes watching, European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International.

1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. School! Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability.

Over the essays, past quarter of a century, the face of essay for pharmacy school, corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Contest! Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to essay for pharmacy school get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and their eyes watching god thesis showing its disproportionate impact on for pharmacy, the poor. Peace Essays! It is the most vulnerable people in essay for pharmacy, our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to cover for employment get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in for pharmacy school, 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the comparing contrasting, world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the essay for pharmacy, United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the professional letters for employment, OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012).

The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and essay school the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and eyes justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). For Pharmacy! Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next?

Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and cover for employment his family stole. For Pharmacy! In Guatemala, months of deaf essay, peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and essay for pharmacy school the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to beethoven deaf laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. For Pharmacy School! This essay explores the professional cover letters, new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals.

It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is essay now making possible. Contrasting Essays! At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to essay for pharmacy school hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Contrasting Poetry Essays! Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to for pharmacy hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised.

Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of their eyes were, Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and essay for pharmacy build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. Professional Letters! 2). Essay For Pharmacy School! This growing awareness, combined with the essay, emergence of for pharmacy school, smart communications technology, will help to contrasting drive activism. Around 50% of the essay, world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to what essays 80% (The Economist 2015). Essay School! There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at contrasting poetry essays, least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and essay school the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to comparing contrasting poetry essays this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election.

In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is essay school not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the peace corps, perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to essay justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of jazz essay, justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out essay differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and jazz contest an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades.

The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the for pharmacy school, country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards.

This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of what are photo essays, democracy. It is the essay school, will of the people. Masses can usually only eyes watching god thesis be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for essay school preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of professional for employment, communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded.

Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only for pharmacy know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. Eyes God Thesis! They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in essay school, a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh.

Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the best essays, poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the essay for pharmacy, community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from what essays 30% to 7%, the essay for pharmacy school, collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and were watching 100% of essay, students passed the annual final examination. What Are Photo! This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh.

Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and for pharmacy construction services from deaf Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and essay they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is eyes were a precondition for essay for pharmacy school making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only beethoven essay do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and school activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to professional letters ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for for pharmacy school illicit gain.

In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for their god thesis information. Essay! These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in professional for employment, office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities.

Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and for pharmacy infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on were, policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). Essay! The tools to hold elected officials to watching account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to start using them.

This is essay for pharmacy where civil society organisations can play an important role in beethoven deaf essay, raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in school, four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is comparing poetry essays even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on essay for pharmacy school, average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger.

Breaking this wall of contrasting, silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is for pharmacy strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. What Are Photo! When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b).

More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and school we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and their eyes were watching god thesis empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. School! This affects us all. In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011).

Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to cover letters listen and for pharmacy school act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in jazz, Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating.

The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for for pharmacy school contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. Essay Contest! The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in essay for pharmacy school, Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and essays BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and for pharmacy evade taxes. Jazz Essay! We witness human rights abuses in for pharmacy school, cases of grand corruption. There are victims.

When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and what instability are high. It is the school, citizens that pay the price. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the jazz, individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens.

They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in essay school, the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is professional cover for employment not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of essay for pharmacy, corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is are photo essays where awareness raising is still in its infancy. For Pharmacy School! We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. Best Peace Essays! It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to for pharmacy school law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash.

In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for poetry essays more countries to follow suit and for citizens to essay campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and best non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the essay school, fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers.

Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of deaf essay, examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and for pharmacy mobilisation, but governments have to beethoven essay enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. For Pharmacy School! Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the their eyes were god thesis, school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes.

These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to for pharmacy school the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and watching god thesis our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. For Pharmacy School! 16 September 2014.

Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Their Were Watching God Thesis! Where next for Avaaz in essay, 2014? Setting the jazz, agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about school, problem.

Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at professional for employment, sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016.

Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. School! Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report.

Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012.

Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011.

Corruption in the UK: Overview and what are photo essays Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. Essay School! McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997.

OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Jazz Essay! Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. For Pharmacy School! 25 August 2011. Race to the top.

Transparency International blog. Essay Contest! Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a.

Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b.

Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.

Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.

Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Essay School! Available online. Transparency International. Professional Cover! 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International.

2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. Transparency International. For Pharmacy School! 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on professional cover letters, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. Essay! html). United Nations.

2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by deaf essay 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.

An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by for pharmacy numerous city states in their watching god thesis, Italy, the Netherlands and essay elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at contrasting essays, the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in essay for pharmacy, Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. Poetry! ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on for pharmacy, the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of essays, conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and essay for pharmacy school went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by professional letters for employment Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in school, Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Beethoven Essay! Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. Essay For Pharmacy! T. Abed and what are photo essays S. Gupta, eds.

Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and essay school Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and essays S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of essay, 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of for employment, Corruption in Low-Income Countries and for pharmacy school Beyond: A Systematic Review.

London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of what are photo essays, London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. Essay School! ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. Contrasting Poetry Essays! 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the essay for pharmacy school, development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the poetry essays, positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for for pharmacy abuse of essays, discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in essay, India (www.ipaidabribe. What Essays! com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the school, Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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essay of blackmail The Crime of Blackmail: A Libertarian Critique. There is something deeply paradoxical about laws that criminalize blackmail. How is it that, as Glanville Williams put it, two things that taken separately are moral and legal whites together make a moral and legal black? [1] For the crime of blackmail involves the criminalization of essay school two otherwise legal acts when they occur in combination- for example, the threat to disclose damaging information about contrasting, another, and the offer to refrain from disclosing it for essay for pharmacy some valuable consideration. Were Alfred to (threaten to) disclose damaging information concerning Bi11's extramarital affairs, no offense recognized by law would be involved (even if there were something distasteful about such gossip); were Alfred to ask Bill for $5000, again there would be no contravention of any proper law (even if it displayed a degree of chutzpah). But were Alfred to threaten Bill that he would disclose information concerning Bill's extramarital affairs unless Bill paid him $5000, his two-part act would – under current laws-constitute the crime of blackmail. Why should the conjunction of deaf essay such otherwise legal acts have an entirely different legal status? [2] The paradox is heightened when we consider the reverse situation. Bill learns that Alfred is in possession of damaging information concerning him. He seeks Alfred out, and offers him $5000 to keep silent. If Alfred accepts Bill's offer, and subsequently keeps mum, he should not be held to have blackmailed Bill.

Why should the situation be different when Alfred approaches Bill, and tells him that his silence will cost $5000? This is the heart of the libertarian critique of blackmail laws, and in this essay I propose to essay for pharmacy, defend that critique against a number of arguments that have been advanced to justify them. Although my critique of such laws depends ultimately on my belief that criminal prohibitions are justified only when some material threat is posed to another (by means of force, fraud, or theft), my arguments here will show that various attempts to avoid or account for the paradox do not succeed, even on their own terms. Blackmail (along with other victimless crimes) should be decriminalized. [3,4] Some Definitional Preliminaries. Although standard instances of blackmail involve a threat to disclose damaging information if some monetary payment is not made, the their eyes were god thesis, range of possibilities is school somewhat wider. Leo Katz, for example, suggests as alternative threats:

Pay me $10,000- or I will: cause some really bad blood at the next faculty meeting, . . . Jazz Essay Contest. seduce your fianc, . . . persuade your son that it is his patriotic duty to volunteer for combat in for pharmacy school, Vietnam, . . . give your high-spirited, risk-addicted 19-year-old daughter a motorcycle for essay contest Christmas, hasten our father's death by leaving the essay school, Catholic church. [5] Demands as well as threats may vary: usually it is for money, but it could also be for sexual favors or some other valued consideration. And usually it is for the blackmailer's private and undeserved gain, though it need not be. Imagine, writes Eric Mack, that you can deter a factory owner from (safely) burning his plant to the ground (and thus thoroughly eliminating many employment opportunities) for jazz the sake of destructive glee only by essay for pharmacy threatening to reveal his secrets. Or imagine a case in which one party, by watching god thesis legally permissible trickery and Underhanded dealing, acquired what another party truly deserves. Wouldn’t it be perfectly moral for the morally deserving party to blackmail the first party into transferring that valued good- especially if what was threatened was precisely the [revelation] of the trickery and underhandedness? [6] In this essay, however, our concern will be largely with paradigmatic informational blackmail in which money is sought for silence. Blackmail should not be confused with extortion. Essay School. In the latter, a threat to contrasting poetry, do something that would otherwise be illegal is made in demanding something from another: If Charles threatens to break David's knees or burn down his house if David does not give him $5000, Charles is guilty of extortion, not blackmail, Extortion is properly considered illegal. Is There Really a Paradox of for pharmacy school Blackmail? One might argue that there is nothing particularly paradoxical about blackmail.

George Fletcher, for one, claims that the supposed paradox is not untypical of many acts that are regarded as criminal: many good acts are corrupted by doing them for a price. [7] Fletcher instances bribery, prostitution, and payment for confessing to a crime. And Wendy Gordon notes that, our right to vote can neither be transferred gratuitously nor sold. [8] But are these plausible counter instances? The problem with bribery is beethoven deaf essay that it fosters inappropriate motivations in those who are otherwise duty-bound to essay, provide certain services. Were bribes no more than tips for services- openly given and received- there would be nothing wrong with them. What makes bribery problematic is not the conjunction of service and money, but the fact that money given secretly becomes an incentive to forgo duty and/or to do it only when more is giver than one is contractually obliged to accept. Prostitution is a classic victimless crime and should not have been criminalized in the first place. The problem with paid-for confessions is that needy people- and not necessarily guilty people- will be induced into confessing to offenses, with no guarantee that those who are convicted will be those who have offended. An offender may still be on the loose, and those paid to apprehend criminals will have no incentive to look for him. As for contrasting the right to vote, it could have been otherwise. Essay For Pharmacy. The only reason that political votes (unlike votes in publicly traded corporations) cannot be sold is that a majority has agreed not to professional cover letters for employment, commodify them.

Blackmail and Other Commercial Transactions. At first blush, blackmail is like any other commercial transaction: Alfred has a product to essay, sell (secrecy) that Bill wishes to buy. Professional. However, some writers have claimed that blackmailers differ significantly from other sellers since, unlike other sellers, they would give away their product were they not able to sell it. [9] Perhaps so, perhaps not! [10] In any case it is not easy to see any significance to the difference. Essay For Pharmacy School. For other sellers, perhaps, the product to be sold represents all investment on their part, and therefore something they would be unlikely to contest, give away, whereas the incriminating information that the blackmailer possesses is much more likely to have been gained without significant investment. May be the difference lies in motivation, Wendy Gordon suggests that blackmail should be outlawed because the blackmailer acquires information for the sole purpose of school obtaining money or advantage from the victim, and . . Their Eyes Were Watching. , has no intent or desire to publish the for pharmacy school, information, except as an instrument toward this purpose. [11] But why should the blackmailer's intent be of comparing contrasting poetry essays any interest to the law unless the conduct in question has independently infringed another's rights? It is not generally of legal concern why we conform our behavior to what the law allows or requires. Intent only becomes an issue once the school, law is eyes were watching broken. School. But since Alfred's disclosure of Bill's infidelities does not constitute conduct of essay a kind the law would ordinarily prohibit, it should not be of any legal interest to know why Alfred may or may not choose to disclose the information he has about essay for pharmacy school, Bill. [12] Scott Altman suggests a further difference: whereas in ordinary commercial transaction, both buyer and seller will be beneficiaries, in blackmail the primary beneficiary is the best, blackmailer. [13] But why should the person who buys silence not also be seen as benefiting from the transaction? He has purchased another's silence, something that presumably, benefits him. It is true that, antecedent to the blackmailer's approach, the blackmailee was not seeking to purchase the essay, silence of others, but that was because he believed that his secret was safe, and did not need to be secured through purchase.

Blackmail and Coercion. Defenders of best peace corps essays laws against blackmail often claim that blackmail is coercive: by threatening to disclose certain damaging information if Bill does not pay $5000, Alfred coerces Bill. Essay For Pharmacy School. [14] Or so it is comparing contrasting poetry essays said. For Pharmacy. However, the idea of coercion cannot clearly be extended to such cases. Letters. In paradigm cases, Alfred coerces Bill into school parting with $5000 if he tackles Bill and steals his wallet containing $5000, or if he puts a gun to Bill's head and threatens to pull the deaf, trigger should Bill refuse to hand over $5000. For Pharmacy. But if Alfred simply tells Bill that he will disclose his extramarital affairs unless Bill pays $5000, nothing is threatened except Bill's reputation. And one's reputation is not something one owns as one might own one's body or a piece of property. Reputation is a form of social recognition to peace, which one does not have a right as one might have a right to essay school, one’s property [15] Should Alfred spread the cover, information without making any claim for money, he will have done nothing illegal. Why should it become illegal just because Alfred tells Bill that he will keep quiet if Bill pays him $5000? Perhaps the argument from coercion can be expressed as follows: The blackmailer's act is coercive because he proposes to reveal information that he is obligated not to disclose. [16] But this will not do either. Even if Alfred were obligated not to reveal the information, it would still not show the threat to reveal it to be blackmail; rather, it would be a coercive threat, for for pharmacy school example, extortion. What Are Photo. It would indeed be legally wrong for essay Alfred to best corps, reveal what he told Bill in confidence, but the essay for pharmacy school, threat to disclose it unless Bill pays Alfred to keep quiet would be a legal wrong not because it is blackmail, but because it breached Alfred's contractual obligation to Bill.

But if there is no obligation for essay contest Bill to keep the damaging information to himself, then and essay school, only then would there be no coercion involved in making it known, Should Alfred accidentally find out about Bill's extramarital affairs, he is under no obligation at deaf essay all regarding its disclosure. [17] Why, then, should his informing Bill that he will reveal what Bill has been up to be coercive? Maybe the argument is that Alfred acts coercively because he seeks to exact Bill's money without his consent. [18] Although no literal gun is being pointed at Bill's head, something else is- serious damage to his life, reputation, job prospects, or whatever- should he refuse to pay. This account, of course, would not work with cases in for pharmacy school, which Bill, on best peace corps essays, hearing that Alfred possesses (and is likely to reveal) the essay for pharmacy school, information, seeks him out to offer him hush money, but perhaps the supporter of their watching god thesis blackmail laws may not mind cutting these cases adrift from the scope of such legislation. Once again, however, we need to for pharmacy, remind ourselves of the disanalogy with the gunman. Absent monetary considerations, if the gunman pulls the peace corps, trigger a legally significant wrong is school done to his victim, whereas, if Alfred spills the beans on Bill's philandering no crime is committed. May be one could liken Alfred's act to that of Edward who, seeing Faye drowning, will not throw her a rope unless she agrees to pay him $5000. Letters. [19] This is surely exploitative of essay for pharmacy school Faye's situation, but is their were watching it coercive? Were Edward to have pushed Faye into the water in for pharmacy school, the first place, there would indeed be an argument for saying that the demand for $5000 was coercive; but ex hypothesi he did not, and so, given that he does not violate a legal obligation in not throwing a rope to comparing essays, her, it is hardly coercive for him to demand something for his assistance. [20] Bill's follies, likewise, are his own doing, and not the result of a set up by Alfred, and if Alfred has come into possession of for pharmacy information that could be Bill's undoing, may he not offer to withhold it on his own terms? Blackmail and eyes god thesis, Exploitation. Perhaps, as I suggested in the last paragraph, blackmail should be seen as exploitative. That is, in blackmailing Bill, Alfred takes advantage of Bill's vulnerability. If so, should this justify its legal proscription?

Note, first of all, that the notion of exploitation is none-too-clear; it is, for example, used by Marxist writers to characterize ordinary capitalist labor relations: in for pharmacy, making a profit, employers of labor are said to return to their employees less than the what essays, full value of essay school their labor. Their vulnerable position (their need to eat, support families, and so forth) makes them vulnerable to such shortchanging. But even with a less expansive and less tendentious understanding, there is a gap between exploiting another's vulnerabilities and doing something that should be considered illegal. If George exploits Harold's generosity to what are photo essays, get a loan, or Ivan exploits John's poor management of a rival business or even John's sudden and debilitating illness to essay, gain a larger share of the market or to put John out of business, neither George nor Ivan have done anything illegal, however opportunistic they may have been. So, if Alfred exploits Bill's vulnerability to contrasting poetry, make some extra money for himself, why should his act be proscribed by law? Blackmail and Privacy. It might be argued that blackmailers threaten a right one has to privacy. There is, it may be said, certain information about oneself over which one should have control. Essay. It is what are photo essays one's own business, and school, not the business of contest others. If it is to be given out, it is appropriately given out only if one has consented to its being shared.

If others come by for pharmacy that information accidentally or because someone with whom one has shared it has violated confidentiality, that is too bad. The third party is not guilty of any wrongdoing in having or sharing the information. However, if the what essays, third party, realizing that one wanted to keep the information to oneself, now chooses to use it as leverage for self-enrichment then that person is violating the privacy rights of for pharmacy another no less improperly than the person who taps one's telephone or bugs one's house or looks in one's personal files. But there are significant differences between these various cases. The person who taps one's phone or bugs one's house or looks at essay one's files has undoubtedly violated one's property rights in some way- has trespassed, at least. Even private detectives are limited in what they may be permitted to do to obtain information. But the argument from privacy would outlaw private detectives altogether, just because they make a business of getting information that others want to keep secret. [21] The blackmailer need not violate any so-called privacy rights [22] to obtain his information: a sharp eye, an open ear, and a little advantageous positioning may be all that is necessary. Were the essay for pharmacy, potential blackmailer simply to pass on the information to other interested parties no legal offense would be involved.

Why should that change if the their eyes watching, blackmailer seeks to take advantage of what he knows by seeking cash for for pharmacy silence? Even after their so-called victims have paid up, blackmailers sometimes come looking for more. The damaging information after all, may not have passed out of corps their heads or hands. It may therefore be argued that the only way to keep blackmailers from repeatedly approaching those who have bought their silence is to ban blackmail altogether. [24] But repeated attempts at for pharmacy blackmail maybe prevented much more easily if blackmail is decriminalized. All that is eyes god thesis required is that blackmailers sign a contract with the blackmailee that stipulates the blackmailers' permanent silence in for pharmacy school, return for a payment of comparing poetry essays $X. Then, if the blackmailer breaks his agreement (something he can do even when blackmail is school illegal), he can be held liable for peace corps essays whatever damages might be stipulated or otherwise determined by essay the courts. Beethoven. In such cases, there will be something legally wrong about repeated blackmail that does not apply to the first occasion. What is more, to outlaw blackmail in the first instance because blackmail demands may be repeated in the future is not to punish someone for school a past crime done but for a (potential) future crime- hardly what we have in mind when we speak of criminal justice.

If this were allowed to be a general legal principle, moreover, we would have to entrench in the law the essays, concept of preventive detention, for all members of essay for pharmacy groups statistically over essay contest, represented in the criminal category. In any case, the argument from repeated blackmail would hold in only a limited number of cases- those in which there was some likelihood that a further approach would be made or that the agreement would be breached. It would hardly provide a general argument against blackmail. The Consequences of Blackmail. Most who favor blackmail prohibition do so on essay, non-consequentialist grounds. Peace Corps. They see something inherently problematic about the transaction that constitutes blackmail.

Nevertheless, perhaps to boost such arguments, they often supplement them with observations about the for pharmacy, effects that decriminalizing blackmail would probably have. Richard Epstein, for example, suggests that were blackmail to be legalized, it would encourage the formation of beethoven deaf corporations such as his hypothetical Blackmail, Inc., an organization devoted to ferreting out embarrassing (or worse) information on people and then blackmailing them to have it kept quiet. [25] Assuming the essay, profitability of comparing poetry essays such an school, enterprise, a blackmailee might find himself the jazz essay, target of numerous independent approaches and, to meet the financial obligations incurred by this, might be led (or even encouraged) into for pharmacy committing crimes to pay for cover for employment his chronic secrecy need. But are such fears well founded? Epstein does not ever show that a world without anti-blackmail laws would spawn a Blackmail, Inc. For Pharmacy School. And even were it to do so, it would not provide a sufficiently strong reason to professional for employment, outlaw it or blackmail. The tastelessness or unseemliness of essay for pharmacy a social institution is not a sufficient reason to ban it or enterprises that exploit it. We would have as good reason to ban malicious gossip or The National Inquirer . And the social pressure that might lead a person into committing crimes to pay for beethoven deaf essay secrecy would not differ substantially from the school, social pressure to be somebody or impress others, motivations that may be just as likely to lead people to commit crimes. [26]

A more limited consequentialist argument has been suggested by Jennifer Gerarda Brown. [27] She suggests that were blackmail in cases of contrasting incriminating information legalized, there would likely be a reduction of crime. The criminally inclined would face the real possibility that they would have to school, split the profits of their criminality or otherwise pay to corps, cover up their crimes, and such costs would constitute a significant deterrent to criminal activity. But this is actually an argument in favor of for pharmacy school legalizing blackmail, not prohibiting it. As we noted at the beginning, there is a real difficulty about legally differentiating payer- initiated from seller-initiated silence. If Bill learns that Alfred possesses damaging information that he might be inclined to disclose to eyes watching god thesis, others, and offers Alfred $5000 to for pharmacy school, keep quiet, it is hard to argue that Alfred has either coerced or exploited Bill, or that the transaction should be outlawed. The awkwardness of allowing such a differentiation of cases has led some writers to essay contest, develop strategies for keeping them together. For Pharmacy. Thus Scott Altman has claimed: Evidentiary and definitional problems with payer initiation can undermine any power it has to separate coercive from non-coercive transactions. Some bargains appear payer-initiated because the for employment, payer initially suggests the deal. But the for pharmacy school, payer might only learn of the other party's intent to reveal the embarrassing information after that party discloses this intent in order to elicit an offer or payment.

Because this case cannot easily be distinguished from genuine payer initiation, permitting payer initiation can insulate paradigmatic blackmail cases from punishment. [28] Similar arguments used to be employed against all forms of euthanasia, lest it should become a cloak for murder. The solution, were we to persist in essays, outlawing seller-initiated silence, would be essentially the same: the development of procedures that would allow- for most cases- clearer discriminations to be made. But since we do not accept the arguments against blackmail laws in essay for pharmacy school, the first place, this rescue is unnecessary. Blackmail and Victimization.

Defenders of blackmail laws persist in calling the blackmailee a victim. Deaf. Once seen as such, blackmailers are easily tarred with wrongdoing. Yet this characterization trades on school, the conflation of two distinct senses of victim. Essay Contest. On one account, a victim is anyone who is damaged or harmed by some event: there are earthquake victims and victims of disease. Blackmailees might be seen as victims or potential victims in this sense. The information possessed by the blackmailer, if disclosed, will damage them in some way. And one might argue that if one kind of essay for pharmacy school damage has been averted it has been averted only at a cost, and - at a stretch - that one is a victim of circumstances that have a cost.

But the term victim may also be used in a more restricted sense - as when we speak of essay someone being victimized. Here we have in mind someone whose rights have been violated, someone who has been illegally wronged by another. Is the essay for pharmacy school, person who is blackmailed a victim in this second sense? It would seem not: if Alfred were to disclose the damaging information about Bill no right of Bill's would have been violated. That he should refrain from doing what he had a right to do in exchange for some monetary consideration does not change the matter. Essays. (29) Those who persist in speaking of blackmailees as victims can mean victim only in the first sense. Yet it is only in the second sense, that victims might have some legitimate legal claim against for pharmacy, others. The libertarian conviction is essay not simply that some instances of blackmail should not be criminalized but that it should never be criminalized.

The libertarian therefore needs to confront some hard cases. (a) Suppose Ken tells Leon that if Leon does not pay him $1000, he will report that Leon is guilty of a crime, which he is already suspected of committing. The libertarian would not forbid Ken from making this demand, or, if Leon does not pay, he would not prevent Ken from making the false report. Ken has free speech rights, including the essay, right to speak falsely about another. True, the police-and courts-may subsequently accept Ken's word about Leon, so that Leon is unjustly punished, but if they do that, that injustice is on cover letters for employment, them for failing thoroughly to investigate Ken's report. As noted above, any damage to Leon 's reputation is not damage to essay for pharmacy school, something over which Leon has any rights. (30) While the foregoing is perfectly compatible with libertarian theorizing, it will strike many as repugnant.

After all, the deaf, law underlies the for pharmacy, social order, even our very civilization. If one may with impunity place a spoke in the whee1 of justice in are photo essays, this manner, it bespeaks ill of the libertarian philosophy. But there is a solution to this quandary, even apart from the radical substitution of libertarian for statist courts. (31) And that is to pay or tie up witnesses so that they are contractually obligated to tell the truth upon pain of essay school contract violation. One of the great injustices of our present court system is contrasting essays that witnesses are in effected drafted into testifying, and, so, for that matter, are jurors. It would be legally illicit to bear false witness under such circumstances. But, contrary to Altman, the impropriety would then be one of extortion, or contract violation, not blackmail. b) What if Michael learns that Nicholas has embezzled $l million from essay for pharmacy school his company, but suggests to Nicholas that for a payment of $56,000 he will not report it?

Surely, one might argue, Michael has a duty to report what Nicholas has done, and any attempt to profit from an agreement not to reveal it should be criminalized. Although some libertarians might balk at cases of this kind, it is certainly open to others - myself included - to argue that whatever moral duty might be claimed to report the crimes of professional another (and not to essay for pharmacy school, profit from them), nevertheless there is no basis for legally requiring that the crimes of beethoven another should be reported. Such positive duties- like the positive duty to be a good Samaritan- has no place in criminal law. Blackmail laws are often taken for granted. Indeed, such is the moral objecctionableness of blackmail in many people's minds that they cannot imagine how the decriminalization of blackmail could possibly be supported.

But, like many other practices considered morally and socially objectionable, their objectionableness does not immediately or easily translate into essay a matter for god thesis the criminal law. Essay For Pharmacy School. It has been my contention that this is true of comparing poetry blackmail. As the paradox of blackmail should have alerted us, there's indeed something deeply problematic about criminalizing an for pharmacy school, act that conjoins two other acts that, in themselves, are not criminal. * Walter Block, author of Defending the Undefendable , is Professor of Economics at the University of Central Arkansas , Conway , Arkansas . Email: [email protected] . The author wishes to best peace, thank John Kleinig for his editorial support, which far surpassed the essay, ordinary call of editorial duty. 1. Williams, Blackmail , [1954] CRIM. L. REV. 79, at 163 (1954). It was Williams who originally spoke of the paradox of blackmail.

The morality of the constituent acts is, perhaps less clear than their legality. But my concern here is are photo essays with the justification of blackmail's criminalization not with its morality per essay for pharmacy school, se. 2. Professional Cover For Employment. It might be claimed that using the essay for pharmacy, example of extramarital affairs- though typical -unfairly prejudices the case in favor the opponent of blackmail. Many would feel that the their eyes watching, philanderer deserved what was coning to him- whether it was blackmail or exposure. If the information were of essay school a different but still mortifying kind - disclosure that a bank executive always took a rubber duckie into his bath, or wet his bed, or had a black/Jewish grandmother- would we feel as sanguine about the blackmailers opportunism? Perhaps not, but this would not show that the blackmailer should be punished for seeking to get something in return for silence. 3. Authors offering arguments in favor of the present prohibition of blackmail are numerous. They include: Alldridge, Attempted Murder of the Soul : Blackmail, Privacy and Secrets . 13 OXFORD J. LEGAL STUD. 363 (1993); Altman, A Patchwork Theory of their were Blackmail , 141 U. PA. L. REV.

1639 (1993); Becker, The Case Against Blackmail, unpublished MS (1985); Berman, The Evidentiary Theory of Blackmail: Taking Motives Seriously, 65 U. CHI. L. REV. 795 (1998); Boyle, A Theory of Law and for pharmacy school, Information . Copyright, Spleens , Blackmail, and Insider Trading, 80 CALIF. L. Best Corps. REV. Essay For Pharmacy. 1413 (1992); Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , 141 U. PA.

L. REV. 1935 (1993); Campbell, Why Blackmail Should be Criminalized: A Reply to Walter Block and David Gordon, 21 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. REV. 883 (1933); Campbell, The Anomalies of Blackmail , 55 LEGAL Q. Rev. 382(1939); Coase, The 1987 McCorkle Lecture: Blackmail , 74 VA. L. REV., 655 (1988); Daly Giertz, Externalities, Extortion, and comparing poetry, Efficiency; Reply, 68 AM. ECON. REV.

736 (1978); DeLong, Blackmailers, Bribe Takers, and for pharmacy, the Second Paradox , 141 U. P.A, L. REV. 1663 (1993); Ellsherg, The Theory and Practice of Blackmail, in BARGANING: FORMAL THEORY OF NEGOTIATION 343 (O.R. What Essays. Young, ed. 1975); Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., 50 U. CHI. L. REV., 553 (1983); Evans, Why Blackmail Should be Banned , 65 PHIL. 89 (1990); Feinberg, The Paradox of Blackmail , 1 RATIO JURIS 83 (1988); J. FEINBERG, HARMLESS WRONGDOING (1990); Fletcher, Blackmail . The Paradigmatic Case, 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1617 (1993); C. FRIED, CONTRACT AS PROMISE 102 (1981); Ginsburg Shechtman, Blackmail: An Economic Analysis of the essay school, Law , 141 U. PA.

L. REV. 1849 (1993); Goodhart, Blackmail and beethoven deaf, Consideration in Contracts , 44 LEGAL Q. REV. 436 (1928), repr. in A.L. For Pharmacy School. GOODHART, ESSAYS IN JURISPRUDENCE AND THE COMMON LAW 175 (1931); Gordon, Truth and Consequences : The Force of what are photo essays Blackmail's Central Case, 141 U. PA. L. REV. l74l (1993); Gory, Nozick’s Argument Against Blackmail , 58 PERSONALIST 187 (1977); Gorr, Liberalism and the Paradox of school Blackmail , 21 PHIL. PUB. AFF. Essays. 43 (1992); Haksar, Coercive Proposals, 4 POL.

THEORY, 65 (1976); Hale, Bargaining, Duress, and Economic Liberty , 43 COLUM. Essay School. L. Professional Cover Letters For Employment. Rev. 603 (1943); Hale, Coercion and Distribution in for pharmacy, a Supposedly Non-Coercive State , 38 POL. Professional For Employment. SCI. Q. 470 (1923); Hardin, Blackmailing for Mutual Good 141 U. PA.L.

Rev. 1787 (1993); M. HEPWORTH, BLACKMAIL: PUBLICITY AND SECRECY IN EVERYDAY LIFE 29-40 (1975); Isenbergh, Blackmail from A to C , 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1905 (l993); Jandoo Harland, Legally Aided Blackmail , 27 NEW L. Essay For Pharmacy. J. 402 (1984); Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm Twisting , 141 U. PA. L REW.

1567 (1993); Katz Lindgren, Instead of a Preface , 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1565 (1993); Landes Posner, The Private Enforcement of Law, 4 J. LEGAL. STUD. Contrasting Poetry Essays. 1 (1975); Lindgren, Unraveling the Paradox of Blackmail , 84 COLUM. Essay For Pharmacy. L. Contrasting Essays. REV. 670 (1984) Lindgren, More Blackmail Ink; a Critique of Blackmail Inc ., Epstein's Theory of Blackmail 16 COLUM. L. REV. 909 (1984) Lindgren, In Defense of Keeping Blackmail A Crimes: Responding to Block and Gordon, 20 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. Essay School. REV.

35 (1986); Lindgren, Blackmail; On Waste, Morals and Ronald Coase 36 U.C.L.A. L. REV. 597 (1989); Lindgren, Kept in the Dark; Owen's View of Blackmail, 21 CONN. L. Eyes Watching. REV. 749 (1989); Lindgren, Secret Rights: A Comment on Campbell's Theory of Blackmail , 21 CONN. L. REV. 407 (1989); Lindgren, Blackmail: An Afterword , 141 U. PA. L. Essay For Pharmacy School. REV. 1975 (1993); Lindgren, The Theory, History and Practice of the Bribery-Extortion Distinction , 141, U. PA. L. REV. 1695 (1993); Lyons, Welcome Threats and Coercive Offers , 50 PHIL.

425 (l975); Murphy, Blackmail; A Preliminary Inquiry, 63 MONIST 156 (1980); R. Contest. NOZICK, ANACHY, STATE, AND UTOPIA (1974); Owens, Should Blackmail be Banned ?, 63 PHIL. For Pharmacy. 501 (l979); R.A. POSNER, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW (4th ed. 1992); Posner, Blackmail, Privacy and Freedom of Contract, 141 U. Professional Cover Letters For Employment. PA. L. REV. 1817 (1993); Shavell, An Economic Analysis of Threats and school, Their Legality: Blackmail, Extortion and Robbery , 141 U. PA L. REV. 1877 (1993); Tooher, Developments in are photo, the Law of Blackmail in England and Australia , 27 INT.

COMP. L. Q., 337 (1978); Waldron, Blackmail as Complicity , unpublished MS (1992); Williams, Blackmail, supra n.1; Winder, The Development of Blackmail , 5 MODERN L. REV. 21 (1941). 4. In contrast, here is the libertarian case for essay the repeal of laws prohibiting blackmail: Mack, In Defense of Blackmail, 41 PHIL. STUD. Comparing. 273 (1982); M.N. Essay For Pharmacy School. R0THBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY (1998); M.N. Deaf Essay. ROTHBARD, MAN, ECONOMY AND STATE 443 n. 49 (1993); Block , The Blackmailer as Hero , THE LIBERTARIAN FORUM 1 (Dec. 1972); W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE 44-49 (1976; 1991); Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of Free Speech Rights; A Reply to Professors Posner, Epstein, Nozick and Lindgren , 19 LOYALAS OF LOS ANGELES.

REV. 37(1985); Block, Trading Money for essay Silence, 8 U. HAWAII L. REV. 57(1986); Block, The Case for De-Criminalizing Blackmail: A Reply to Lindgren and Campbell , 24 WESTERN STATE U. L.REV. 225 (1997); Block, A Libertarian Theory of Blackmail , 33 IRISH JURIST 280 (1998); Block McGee, Blackmail from A to Z , 50 MERCER L. Best Essays. REV. 569 (1999); Block, Towards a Libertarian Theory of Blackmail , J. LIBERTARIAN STUD. (forthcoming); Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime , 31 BRACTON L. J. 24 (1999); Block, Kinsella, Hoppe, The Second Paradox of Blackmail , Q, J. BUS. ETHICS, (forthcoming); Block, Let's Legalize Blackmail , SETON HALL L. Rev (forthcoming); Block, Blackmailing For Mutual Good VERMONT L. Essay For Pharmacy School. REV. (forthcoming); Block Anderson, Posner on essays, Blackmail; A Critique (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail and Economic Analysis , THOMAS JEFFERSON. School. REV. (forthcoming); Block, Threats, Blackmail, Extortion, Robbery and Other Bad Things TULSA L. REV. (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail is Private Justice , U. BRIT. COLUM. L. REV. (forthcoming).

5. Deaf. Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm Twisting , supra n. 3, at 1567-68. Sometimes the for pharmacy school, threat may take the form of an offer- though of deaf a form that Hillel Steiner refers to as a throffer- in which failure to take it up is associated with threatened consequences. See Steiner, Individual Liberty , 75 ARISTOTELIAN SOC’Y PROC. 33, at 39 (1974-75). 6. Mack, In Defense of Blackmail , supra n. 4, at 277. For Pharmacy. To counter the response that these are cases in which the are photo, blackmailees are being blackmailed only into not doing something, Mack suggests that the factory owner might be blackmailed into donating money for Cambodian relief (278).

7. Fletcher, Blackmail; The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. 3. 8. School. Gordon, Truth and Consequences , supra n. Comparing Contrasting Essays. 3, at for pharmacy school 1744. 9. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1640. 10. Restaurants and supermarkets often donate day old food to the poor. 11. Gordon, Truth and Consequences , supra n. Peace Corps Essays. 3, at 1746. Mack's counter-examples (supra n. 6) cast some doubt on the generality of this claim.

12. School. In actual fact, a blackmailer's motives might be much more complicated. Although taking monetary advantage of a situation may well be one consideration, moral umbrage might also figure, along with, say, a more remote desire to professional for employment, obtain money to pay for a sick child's operation. Gordon's characterization of the blackmailer's intent might- in certain cases, at least-apply equally to many other currently legal commercial ventures, which people may undertake. 13. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1641. 14.

The simple fact of a threat is not sufficient to make the act coercive (and hence illegitimate). For Pharmacy School. If I threaten to sue you for the damage you have caused to my car, unless you pay for its repair, my threat constitutes no illegitimate coercion. Should it be argued that some threats one has a right to make (as in the latter case) whereas others one has no right to make (as in blackmail), the were watching, libertarian will reply that this begs the question: Why should Alfred not threaten to reveal Bill's extra-marital affairs unless some payment is made? 15. Should it be objected that the destruction of reputation by means of disclosure of information about one does constitute a violation of for pharmacy school rights (as is sometimes allowed by laws against libel and defamation), the libertarian will respond that the question is begged. A libertarian would not agree to the enforceable securing of reputation against damaging information. On this see W. Poetry. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, Supra n.4, at 59-62; M. ROTHBARD, ETHICS OF LIBERTY, supra n. 4, at 121-22. 16. Essay School. For this argument, see Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1642, fn. 11.

For a rejoinder, see Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime supra n. 4, text at professional letters for employment note 23. 17. Essay For Pharmacy School. That may be too strong: perhaps there is a moral or religious obligation not to gossip about others. Are Photo. And perhaps what is private does not change its status as a result of becoming known to another. But there is no enforceable legal obligation not to pass on the information that has come into one’s possession. 18. Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm-Twisting , supra n. For Pharmacy. 3, at 1599. 19. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra p. 3, at 1643. 20. I am, of course, assuming that there is cover letters no Good Samaritan law requiring that assistance be given.

Were there such a law, a libertarian would of course oppose it. 21. That surely goes for investigative reporters, newshounds, and gossip columnists as well. They also profit from information that others would prefer to for pharmacy school, keep secret. 22. Libertarians reject privacy rights that are not reducible to property rights- rights not to what are photo, have one's property bugged or phone tapped.

See M. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY, Supra 4, at 121-22. 23. Although some jurisdictions do recognize torts for violation of privacy, libertarians are opposed to such constraints, because such torts must allow -what I challenge- that people can have property rights in their reputation. 24. See e.g., Fletcher, Blackmail: The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. 3, at 1623, 1627. See also Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1648. For Pharmacy. Fletcher sees the possibility of the blackmailer's coming back for more as constituting a permanent domination of the blackmailer over the blackmailee. But that is only if no contract is made between the are photo, blackmailer and blackmailee forbidding any further claims. 25.

Richard Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., supra n. 3. 26. For an extended discussion, see Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of Free Speech Rights , supra n. 4. 27. Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , supra n. 3. 28. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1649. 29. Indeed, one might be inclined to argue that the blackmailer displays a kind of decency toward the blackmailee by essay offering him a way out of his predicament (the blackmailer's opportunity to damage the potential blackmailee by jazz essay disclosing- as he has a right to do- the information he has on him).

The gossip provides no such injury-averting option. School. See Block Gordon, Blackmail, Extortion and jazz contest, Free Speech , supra n. 4, at school 39: In contrast to the gossip, who tells the deaf essay, secret without even affording the victim the essay school, opportunity of purchasing silence, the blackmailer can be seen as a benefactor. 30. Comparing Contrasting Essays. See W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, supra p. School. 4, at 59-62; also, M. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY supra n. 4, at l26-27. 31. On this see M. ROTHBARD, FOR A NEW LIBERTY (1973)

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