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business plan 2003 HERITAGE DAY 2003. Agricultue? 1. NAME OF THE EVENT. #9; Celebrating Heritage Day 2003 in South Africa. The Department of Arts and Culture, in view of its mandate for hosting Heritage Day, will take the lead in arranging the event, on behalf of Government, together with the duras the lover, Government departments, Provinces and other role-players listed below. #9;To display the contributions the Department and Heritage has made over the past 9 years; and. To market new initiatives of the Department. 3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. The aims and objectives of the nationwide and month long celebration will be: a.) To Celebrate the South African Democracy; b.) To educate the public on the National Symbols and Orders and agricultue their importance with regard to nation building; c.) To popularize the National Symbols and Orders in a manner hat all South Africans develop a 'sense of comparison stories, ownership'; d.)To reinstall a spirit of respect and patriotism around the National Symbols and Orders; e.) To build strategic partnerships so as to agricultue essays, develop the necessary momentum for a sustainable long-term plan for promoting the National Symbols and Orders; and. f.) To utilize the Heritage Day 2003 Celebrations to intensify efforts to create a new moral and national consciousness. Essay? a.) Each South African. b.) The International Community; d.) The Department of Arts and Culture as the lead Department; e.) Other Government Departments; g) The arts and culture fraternity; h.) The Heritage fraternity; I) .Associated Institutions of the essays, Department; j.) Statutory Bodies of the Department; k.) The Corporate Community; and. The Lover Movie? I.) The Private Sector. The Department of Arts and agricultue Culture. Other National Government Departments;
The International Community; Associated Institutions of the DAC; Statutory Bodies of the DAC; Corporate communities; and. The Private Sector. Month long activities. Involving the various government departments. Involving other partners#9;The project plan for Heritage Day 2003 is informed by the following: The development and reinforcement of co-operative partnerships between the essay, tiers of government; associated institutions and the private sector; and. Concerted efforts to essays, ensure that the celebrations, in terms of content and/or programme, manage to draw all population groups from South African society. The event should take place at the Union Buildings in introduction for global, Pretoria to symbolize the seat of Government and to demonstrate in agricultue essays, a tangible way the commitment government is making to celebrate the co education system, 10 years of democracy. It is agricultue essays, therefore of utmost importance that the Heritage Day event ties in with the objectives set out for the 10 years of democracy. The formal event will include a keynote address by the President after an homework top ru, introduction by the Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology with various cultural activities linked to it.
The event is planned in such a way that it gives further credence to government's concept of Imbizo. Promotional and educational material such as T-shirts, caps, car stickers, posters, banners, educational booklets and flyers should be strategically distributed at points for the public. A draft budget will be developed once more detailed information is available on essays, the exact format of the event. It is proposed that the following committees be established to spearhead the various arrangements for the Celebrations: That an intradepartmental Task Team headed by marguerite the lover movie, the Chief Directorate-Heritage. Additionally the Team will give leadership to several sub-committees. The sub-committees which have been formed to expedite the work of the Task Team in this manner are:
Logistics, Programme and Protocol committee (to be chaired by Events Management); Communications Committee (to be chaired by the Communications); Heritage Month Calendar Co-ordination Committee chaired by essays, the Living Heritage Directorate in the Department of Arts and Culture. Sequencing of events will be the priority of this Sub-Committee. Other Government Departments and Provincial Governments will be requested to register events they plan with the Department of Arts and Culture. This will also be discussed at a workshop planned by the Inter-Departmental Communication Task Team at the end of July 2003. The Chief Directorate Communications with the assistance of the GCIS will develop a communication strategy for both Heritage Day and Heritage month engage the media on projects that will be highlighted by essay on two short, the Minister and Deputy Minister during September 2003. The Department has committed a budget towards Heritage Day Celebrations annually. It is, however, estimated that the existing budget will not be enough and should be complemented by money allocated to the Department for agricultue essays the Promotion of Arts and Culture. This was suggested by the Minister during MINMEC on 22 July 2003. It is the intention of the Department of Arts and Culture that the Heritage Month and Heritage Day Celebrations would be a truly national celebration taking place over the whole month of September starting on 24 August 2003 culminating with a national event on 24 September 2003 at the Union Buildings in Pretoria.
10. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY. Theme Essay? It is agricultue, envisaged that the process in the near future develops as follows: (Not necessarily in order of sequence) The business plan is submitted to the Chief Director: Heritage for adoption; The Business plan and budget is presented at a Top Management meeting by the Chief Director: Heritage for approval of the researched essay, concept; Feedback on the decision at Top Management filters back to the Conceptualization committee and kick start the agricultue essays, process to organize the events for Heritage Month and Heritage Day; A formal proposal is submitted to the DG of the Department of Arts and Culture for approval; A formal proposal is submitted to the MINMEC meeting for theme in othello essay discussion and endorsement. Agricultue? A Cabinet Memorandum is drafted and submitted for discussion and endorsement by Cabinet; and. Planning and implementation on the event commence. The major and notable contribution that the Heritage Function makes is more in the social than in the economic domain. The manner in which the Heritage programmes are implemented yields economic off-spins. These economic off-spins are devired through the pursuit of the the lover movie, following goals; The establishment of new arts and heritage institutions and recasting of existing monuments and histories. The promotion and establishment of conservation bodies by proclaiming new heritage institutions that redress neglected histories. The promotion of heritage preservation in agricultue, South Africa by providing support and funding to marguerite, organizations that preserve and promote heritage. Essays? The Management and oversight of the rubric, South African Geographic Names Council and development of an authoritative database of geographical names.
1.1.Labour intensive economic activities. Agricultue Essays? The construction and renovation of museums and commemorative structures such as the Nelson Mandela (Qunu, and Mvezo sites) museum, Ncome and Samora Machel museums provided jobs for communities living adjacent to the sites. #9;1.2 Community Participation. Steering committee members who drive legacy projects are made up of provincial, local and other stakeholders such as CBO's, NGOs and other critical persons who have a worthwhile contribution to make in comparison essay, shaping the vision of the new institution. In this way capacity and intellectual capital in the setting up and running of essays, such institutions is shared and driven by DAC who facilitates these partnerships. In the forming of homework top ru, councils for Declared Cultural Institutions person with a business and financial background are critical. Institutions have pro-actively developed societies such as friends of museums to make sure that their initiatives are matched with local economic initiatives. A number of Declared Cultural Institutions such as the agricultue essays, African Window (Northern Flagship) are outsourcing non-core business to maximize economic benefits and make room for emphasis on core business. Commemorative Days such as Heritage Day are times when the nation recognizes the role of Heritage and the business, Heritage, Arts and other governmental sector makes financial contributions to make such events memorable and meaningful#9;1.6.Public Private Partnerships.
Declared Cultural Institutions are pro-actively pursuing public private partnerships and offering their skills as part and part and parcel of institutional consuItancies to services areas where a paucity of skills is evident. i.e. Comparison? Northern Flagship Institution and the cradle of agricultue essays, Humankind. The geographic naming process facilitates the production of maps critical for land and essay short stories sea travel thus promoting communication and tourism with a vital role in urban and rural planning initiatives.
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LAW NATIONAL ADMISSIONS TEST (LNAT) What is the Law National Admissions Test? The Law National Admissions Test, more commonly known as the LNAT, is a test used by universities to filter through potential candidates prior to accepting their admission. The LNAT is essays also often referred to as the National Admissions Test for Law. The LNAT ultimately aids universities (who use this form of theme of love in othello essay assessment as part of their selection process), to generate equitable and fairer choices amongst the many applicants who are highly-qualified, and wish to study within legal education. It is not a test that you can simply sit down and revise for. It is essays a test that requires a mature understanding of social, technological, economical and cultural differences. Specific abilities and aptitudes need to be assessed in relation to the set skills and requirements essential to pursue an academic course in essay, law. Fundamentally, it is a test of aptitude rather than of knowledge.
Foremost, the agricultue essays LNAT was designed so that universities are able to assess candidates prior to theme, giving them acceptance on to the course. Candidates need to be able to show strong levels of a particular set of skills; skills required for agricultue essays, law students which will hopefully go on to become a successful lawyer. Fundamentally, we at how2become, have done our utmost to ensure you with the best preparation and guidance tool that will allow you to not only become familiar with the format of the test, but undergo similar to theme of love in othello, practice to the test itself. As mentioned before, the Law National Admissions Test is essays a form of aptitude testing that is designed to determine whether law is the comparison essay short right career path for you. In order to complete an LNAT test, you will not be able to revise for the test as such. Instead, you will need to be able to demonstrate a particular set of skills and particular mind-set that is required to score highly on the test. Predominantly, the LNAT combines strategic measurements and analytical approaches to assess your ability to understand and interpret information regarding current affairs.
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For each passage, it will contain 3 to 4 questions. For this part of the assessment, you will be given 1 hour and 35 minutes to complete all 42 questions. The second part of the LNAT is in the style of an essay-based question. The Lover? You will be given a choice of 3 questions, of which you must answer one. The essay will need to be typed and submitted in an electronic format.
You will have 40 minutes in agricultue essays, which to complete the essay. You will be required to sit the essay co education LNAT, if the chosen university you have applied for is part of the LNAT Consortium. In other words, anyone who wishes to study an undergraduate law degree will need to agricultue, take the assessment if the university that they are applying for, uses the test as part of their selection process. The LNAT is a requirement for essay on two, the following universities within the UK, EU and overseas: University of Birmingham. University of Bristol. University of Glasgow. King's College London. The University of Nottingham. University of Oxford.
SOAS University of essays London. University College London (UCL) National University of the lover Ireland (NUI), Maynooth. IE University (Spain) In order to take the LNAT, you will be required to register online and fill in your application. Below, is a step-by-step guide illustrating the process of agricultue registering for the LNAT:
Set up your online account: you will need to marguerite duras movie, register an account via the following web address: www.lnat.ac.uk. You will need your UCAS identification number in order to register, however if you are registering before you are given your UCAS number, you will be able to continue with a 'fake' registration number which will need to be changed and essays updated as soon as your UCAS number arrives. Book your test: after you have registered an account, you will need to log on to your profile with the username and password that you provided when registering. Essay? You will then need to agricultue essays, select the booking button, and proceed to make your confirmation. You will need to choose the LNAT venue that you wish to sit the day, and choose the date that you wish to attend the assessment. Making your payment: test fees are required to researched essay rubric, sit the LNAT. The cost for candidates to take the agricultue assessment is ?50 for UK and EU testing centres, and ?70 for a test centre outside of the EU.
Details of the researched rubric test centres can be found on essays the official LNAT website. You may be eligible for an LNAT Bursary if it is deemed that you are financially struggling. Be sure to check this out before submitting your application. Changing your booking: you are able to of love in othello essay, change your booking date, by rescheduling or cancelling your reservation. Tests need to be rescheduled before noon, two working days before the actual assessment if you wish to agricultue, receive your payment back.
Any cancellations after this time, will not receive their booking payment back. The LNAT requires a great deal of attention in regards to system, reading comprehension and essays critically analysing information. The best preparation for a test like this, is to simply practice sample papers, testing questions and improve the essay key skills and qualities being assessed. Becoming familiar will undoubtedly better your overall performance. Reading quality newspapers will allow you to agricultue, think critically in regards to: Issues being addressed; The assumptions being made; Information that is relied upon in order to reach a conclusion; The position of the author; What the on two stories main argument is; Thinking of counter-arguments to challenge the argument. Listed below are some of the newspapers that are worth reading: You will be given a passage to essays, read.
You need to make sure to read the passage carefully in co education system, order to answer the essays questions that follow. A sample passage below is on the distorted views of the media: 2. The Distorted Views of the Media. The myriad landscape of the media infiltrates every inch of the social world, and can be accessed almost anywhere, by anyone. The media has changed considerably over the years, from information reported through newspapers and television, to a world that is transfixed with the homework top ru realms of online access. It highlights the major growths in how the world communicates, and how these modes of communications have changed considerably over time. How then, can we be sure to trust the channels which we are single-handedly presented, and offer only agricultue essays, a single form of interpretation? What is the quality of the information that we are receiving? Does media focus on quantity more than assuring quality?
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Note, the questions are in the style of interpretative, stylistic and argumentative questions. They are used to determine how well you can interpret information, make conclusions and assumptions, and understand the overall argument in which an author or authors, are trying to make. So, after you read the passage, you will be given a multiple choice question like so: Within the third paragraph, the writer assumes that A Newspapers are the agricultue essays foundation of distorted imagery.
B Publishers of newspapers are the people who decide what gets printed in their paper. C Newspapers continue to adopt a writing style that is based on bias and controversy. D Distorted imagery cannot be avoided. E The media are responsible for marguerite movie, the social issues in essays, which girls face regarding body image. You will then need to determine which of the researched essay answers best describes the agricultue author's assumptions. Please note, that these questions are designed so that the answers are very similar. Homework Top Ru? You need to pay careful attention to the use of words and language in the answers to determine how accurate the answer is. B = 'Publishers of newspapers are the essays people who decide what gets printed in their paper'. EXPLANATION = the writer concludes from the passage that publishers focus on the importance of increasing their newspaper circulation, rather than maintaining efforts in regards to producing truthful and unbiased content. Introduction For Global Warming Essay? In order for the writer to come to this conclusion, the writer needs to assume that the publishers of the newspapers are the people in which decide what gets printed.
4. Essays? The Threats of Social Networking. Social networking has unquestionably become a global phenomenon, which I believe is marguerite the lover having a huge effect on our social world. Social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Twitter have experienced exponential growth during the 21st century, and yet some users remain oblivious to how much their social networking profiles can shape, influence and affect their everyday lives. Information that is agricultue essays posted on these sites is likely to come back and haunt a person in the future. Just think of a social networking site as a type of global database.
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Which of the following best describes the author's tone in regards to his attitude about social networking sites? EXPLANATION = the word that would best describe the tone of the author's writing in agricultue, relation to his attitude concerning social networking is guarded. The author offers very guarded responses in association with the importance of security for researched, social networking sites. Answer options A and E are quite extreme, and the fact that the author is not overly extreme or assertive in agricultue, his responses, suggests that these words cannot depict his overall tone of writing. Answer option D, 'upset', is not a word that best describes his attitudes; the author shows more of a concern then he does an upset, and therefore does not reflect his tone of voice. Answer option B, 'discouraged', does not reflect the for global warming overall tone of the author. Essays? This term is used to illustrate melancholy or somewhat disheartened, but the overall tone of the author does not come across as disheartened. During the essay section of the duras the lover LNAT assessment, you will be given 3 questions in which you must choose one to write your essay on. These questions are usually based on current affairs, common debate topics, which allow you to essays, voice your opinion and argue your reasoning using support, evidence and introduction warming essay justifications. Answer one of the following questions. Your answer should be a reasoned and substantiated argument, which justifies your response to the question that you have chosen.
You have 40 minutes in essays, which to draft and write your answer to one essay question. 1. Euthanasia should be legal. Discuss. 2. Should the death penalty be allowed? 3. Violent games contribute to co education system, youth violence. Argue. You will then to plan and write your answer to one of the above questions.
You should structure your essay like indicated below: INTRODUCTION . The introduction will be the first thing the reader will look at, and so it is agricultue important to make a clear and concise overview of what your essay is going to be about. Your introduction should include the purpose of the essay, what your initial thoughts may be, what you hope to achieve/find, enumerate the researched essay rubric points you wish to make, and define the essays overall importance of your argument and movie why it is relevant/significant. MAIN BODY. During the main body of your essay, you should remember to keep in agricultue, mind the questions mentioned previously in regards to what, why, how and what if. You need to make points and back them up using examples and evidence in order to strengthen your overall argument. There is no point making a statement, if you have nothing to back up the reasoning for it. Your argument needs to be straight to for global warming, the point, persuasive and significant to illustrate what you are trying to say. Usually, 3-4 high quality points is enough to make a good argument.
Do not waffle. Expand on a few points and essays provide analysis and detail, as opposed to briefly mentioning lots of points and not going into enough detail about each of them. Essay Rubric? Your essay needs to read coherently. CONCLUSION. Your conclusion should summarise your whole argument. It is often said that a reader should be able to essays, read an introduction and a conclusion, and still have a basic understanding of what your argument would be about. Your conclusion should not introduce any new points, and should only marguerite duras, sum up the points that you have written about previously.
The conclusion should be short, to the point and significant. Agricultue? If you can summarise your argument using three to four sentences, your reader will be impressed and researched essay know what you were trying to achieve. Make sure that your conclusion refers back to essays, the question you were given. Comparison Stories? Make sure that the question has been answered directly, and demonstrate where you stand on the subject matter. We have provided you with key areas that you could include in this argument: Dignity . Within a civilized society, it is argued that an agricultue, individual should be able to die in a dignified and peaceful way, instead of essay waiting out for agricultue essays, a disease to kill them, or become so inflicted with pain, that it is too much to bare. Bodies are our own. It can also be argued that it is up to us with what we decide to do with our bodies. Our bodies are our own.
We are allowed to make all kinds of decisions based on our body. For example, getting tattoos, piercings, having a baby, getting a transplant, getting plastic surgery etc, thus we too should be able to decide when our body has had enough and therefore can no longer prolong living. Beliefs . Some people believe that suicide is not a crime. People commit suicide and no crime has been committed, and no one was in the wrong. Therefore, euthanasia should also not be a crime. The only difference between the two is that euthanasia usually requires the assistance of someone else.
The assisted help from someone willing to theme of love in othello, let a person die ultimately fulfils a dying person's wishes. Changing attitudes. According to a study conducted in 2007, 80% of the public said that they wanted the law to change regarding assisted suicide and helping those to end their life. Answer one of the following questions. Your answer should be a reasoned and substantiated argument, which justifies your response to agricultue, the question that you have chosen. You have 40 minutes in rubric, which to draft and write your answer to one essay question. 1. Essays? What is co education system equality? Does it really matter?
2. Make the best case for Government funding the arts programmes. 3. Why does 'political correctness' matter? Defining equality. Equality is about ensuring that every individual within every society has an equal opportunity. Equal opportunities include the rights to work, female and male equal rights, reduce discriminations in relation to sex, gender, race, religion, disabilities etc. Equality is a way of maintaining a standardised message within culture that opportunities need to be distributed equally, and not seen to essays, benefit someone of particular interest.
History of introduction warming essay equality. . Within your essay, you could explain the history of agricultue essays equality, and how previous years have demonstrated a lack of equality amongst society, and how this has changed and evolved over time. Within contemporary society, we live in a world that is regulated and imposed with rules that prevent inequalities. However, you could argue that whilst regulations remain in place, inequality does still remain, and probably always will. Give an example of essay rubric how people can challenge the current zeitgeist of society in relation to equality. Significance. This is the essays second part of the on two question that you need to answer in order to gain high marks. Agricultue? You need to discuss the importance of equality and how this is important to culture.
Inclusion, equality and researched essay opportunities are a central principle to build community capacity. Society needs a healthy and stable workforce and create citizens who conform to the rules and regulations of society. What is the importance of equality in agricultue essays, relation to essay system, democratic societies? If you are serious about studying law, it is important to give yourself the best possible chance, and here at how2become, we have done everything to ensure you a guide that will not disappoint! A guide that will provide you with all the agricultue details you need to know regarding the LNAT, including: what it is, why you need to take it, where do you take it, how much it costs, how to homework top ru, apply and other useful information. Essays? Not only that, we have created sample questions that demonstrate the styles of questions that you are likely to face in the assessment. This guide will help you to: Demonstrate the stories ability to differentiate between inferences, abstractions, assumptions and generalisations by applying logical and critical analysis; Demonstrate high levels of critical thinking and logical understanding; Demonstrate high levels of reasoning and interpretation; Evaluate arguments and the position in agricultue essays, which the author upholds; Focus on sufficient evidence to generate adequate support and justification; Analyse information to draw conclusions. Demonstrate writing ability in the style of an essay-based question, which will require critical analysis, persuasive writing and detailed points of view. LAW NATIONAL ADMISSIONS TEST (LNAT)
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Essays on Practical Agriculture: Including His Prize Essays,
microformat resume Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about your background and your qualifications. The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of agricultue, yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of popular media by many people. In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours.
The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by theme in othello making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an agricultue, unlimited number of researched rubric, people and agricultue essays, have opened new doors to homework top ru, audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before. Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for potential employees. If you have your resume on paper but not on essays the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of researched essay, creating an electronic resume is cost. Many colleges provide space on their web server for their students' resumes free of charge. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and printing costs. Rather than performing mass mailings of your resume, you can reduce the number of printed copies you will need and reserve these for companies you are particularly interested in.
Other benefits you will receive by agricultue essays creating an HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the duras ability to make updates immediately available ease of essays, maintainability the introduction for global warming essay ability to show that you can adapt to, and essays, use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to essay, many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests. Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by agricultue essays many universities. Be sure to have someone proofread and review your resume. Many instructors in the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to give it to him/her enough in advance to provide enough time to for global warming essay, review it and so that it will not be an agricultue, inconvenience to him/her. Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. It is essay co education system, much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to correct them than for a potential employer to see them. It is agricultue essays, important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in the correct format. Your resume is homework top ru, often the first impression an employer will receive.
It will be easier to htmlify your resume if you have already created it. Agricultue Essays? By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and format it at essay co education, the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the save as option found under the file utilities of your favorite word processor. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the agricultue available list of formats.
By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily. Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information. Comparison Stories? Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is unreadable by HTML browsers, thus you will need to agricultue essays, delete it before you will be able to proceed. Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and researched essay, underscoring into the file. Agricultue Essays? Many editors are available to use. Some of the most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on UNIX workstations; and edit on of love in othello essay VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file. For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Which editor you should use depends upon the type of system you are using and your preference between the editors on your system. Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with.
By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to learn to agricultue, use the editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the remainder of this document I will base the steps on the DOS editor and a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the appropriate command for homework top ru the editor you intend to use. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu. Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to locate the essays file. Elements of an comparison essay, HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Essays? Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and lt/P), the first is used to identify the beginning of the for global warming element and the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element. Agricultue Essays? Some tags may also contain additional information. This information should be placed inside the angle brackets.
For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by HTML browsers in order to recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in introduction for global warming essay, the appropriate order inside and HTML file. The following HTML is a simple example of the essays minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of movie, your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to agricultue, maintain.
Although indentation is theme of love essay, not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the agricultue extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser. Here is the previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY.
The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to researched, use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the agricultue essays latest HTML reference manual.
This manual can be found on essay short stories the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the essays most common and most useful HTML tags. System? You can use any of agricultue essays, these tags by simply placing the begin tag, the introduction essay text to format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for instructions on how to view your current HTML document. Agricultue? By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the homework top ru .html or .htm extension. To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the agricultue name you wish to essay short stories, call your file (e.g. resume.html).
CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and agricultue, exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to researched, creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. One method of locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart.
Another method of locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and agricultue essays, click on the search button. This type of essay, searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you. Although images can improve the agricultue appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly. Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in homework top ru, the number of images you add.
Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to agricultue, load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page. In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the essay on two short stories image directly relates to your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. Essays? However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and warming essay, creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6).
To insert an image into essays your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to for global essay, specify the location and filename of your image. For example, to display an agricultue essays, image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image. Introduction Warming Essay? Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to agricultue essays, save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM.
Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on homework top ru the Open File option on the File menu. Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the file, then click on agricultue essays the ok button. Theme Of Love Essay? Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to ensure the content of your resume.
REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in agricultue essays, an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the process of researched, creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links.
Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to agricultue, a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the essay rubric resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an essays, email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it.
Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . Comparison Short? March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the essays Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to in othello essay, bring the reader a broader range of information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to the reader how to create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course.
The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr. Essays? Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to essay, develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is devoted to Product Review. Agricultue Essays? In this section the homework top ru authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about individual products. In general, Java Report is essays, a great source of information relating to movie, the use and development of Java applications for any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the agricultue essays scope of the average reader.
Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an HTML resume.
The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of writing your HTML resume in theme of love, the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the dehumanization of agricultue essays, it all. Essay Rubric? In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started. Essays? Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and marguerite duras the lover, should be reviewed by essays anyone who decides to create and HTML resume.
Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an ample amount of information and resources necessary to create an essay co education, HTML resume. Rampe provides both the agricultue essays pros and homework top ru, the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the agricultue essays reader to introduction for global warming, decide the necessity of an HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in agricultue, my opinion, the marguerite duras the lover movie most complete and useful source of HTML information. Essays? Although the manual is introduction for global warming, currently over essays, a year old, the homework top ru information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. Agricultue Essays? The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in marguerite, general, then lists important terms and essays, definitions. Next the authors validate the of love in othello document's content by agricultue essays discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the co education system authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons.
Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in agricultue essays, content of, and variations. In addition the for global document contains an easy to use index which allows the agricultue reader to jump directly to any element of marguerite, interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. Agricultue? In addition it is essay on two stories, well written, well organized and very easy to use. This document is an excellent source of information for both the novice and expert HTML programmers.
Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.
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Essay on Agriculture and It s Significance
An Introduction to Caving for agricultue the Novice Caver. Revision 4.0: March 11, 1999. Homework Top Ru. Leave nothing but footprints. Kill nothing but time. The most commonly asked question is probably What do you find down there? The answers are as varied as the caves themselves: mud; beautiful rock formations and rubble; water and dust; vast rooms and tight crawlways; awesome rivers and puddles; strange and fragile animals; deep pits and waterfalls; ice and warm water; and, of course, strange people. One finds, eventually, whatever one is looking for. There are several different types of caves.
Solution Caves are the most common type. Agricultue. This type of cave is formed very slowly by water in limestone or gypsum. The water actually dissolves the rock. As the passages get bigger and there is a faster water flow, water erosion becomes a factor. These are formed slowly and collapse rarely. The wide variety of rock formations and passages also make this type of cave the most popular. Solution caves are scattered,. in pockets, throughout the country.
Talus Caves are literally piles of boulders. They tend to be very confusing and are easy to homework top ru, get lost in. Also, the predominance of broken rock makes them very hard on your body. They tend to essays, occur in mountainous areas, especially near cliffs made of a very strong rock, such as granite. Marguerite Movie. Ice Caves are generally restricted to glacial areas.
They are so cold that they could be dangerous. However, ice formations of extreme beauty and delicacy are often found. Volcanic or Lava Caves can be found near some volcanoes. They are passages which formed around and finally over flowing lava. Once insulated by the surrounding rock, the lava stayed hot enough to drain out agricultue essays when the eruption ceased, leaving a cave. These caves tend to theme in othello essay, be extremely jagged, and they can cut your clothes to agricultue, ribbons. There are other places where people go caving, but these are generally not advisable for one reason or another. Mines are very dangerous ; they collapse a lot. Exploring large buildings or ships can be lots of fun, but could get you in homework top ru trouble with the law. Subway tunnels can turn into a shocking experience.
Sewers are really nasty places and are best avoided. Stick to essays, real caves. A commonly asked question is, Is caving dangerous? The answer is that caving is as safe as you want it to be and have the knowledge to make it. For this reason, caving is researched, a sport for agricultue essays thinkers . On Two. Clearheaded thinking prevents accidents.
Unavoidable accidents are extremely rare. People often wonder if you can get lost easily in agricultue essays a cave. The answer is essay, generally no. It is possible, but progress is essays, generally slow enough so that experienced cavers can look around and keep their bearings. Cavers do not carry balls of string. Who can go caving? Most people. Men or women.
Age is comparison essay short stories, a barrier only to the very young and very old. Persons with severe claustrophobia, fear of darkness or bats, severe physical handicaps, or other such problems are generally advised to forget it. Brute strength is generally not required. Agricultue. Physical agility is helpful but not required for all caves. Big people will have problems with small caves. Small people will have problems with wet caves. Duras The Lover Movie. In short, people are expected to agricultue, learn their limits and avoid caves which are beyond their abilities. The first few caves you go to should be caves which are generally recognized as easy. Always go on your first trips with experienced cavers. The following pages describe some of the more common hazards of homework top ru caving.
Don't let it scare you off, though. In a certain sense caving can be compared to driving. If you had never driven a car you could get into agricultue a lot of trouble by driving out into homework top ru rush hour traffic. Once you have the knowledge and experience, you can drive safely. The same is true of caving. The General Rules of Caving Safety. ALWAYS have three independent sources of light.
Include extra bulbs, batteries, carbide, waterproof matches, or whatever other equipment or supplies you need to agricultue essays, keep your lights going. Your light sources must be highly water resistant and strong enough to withstand severe abuse. Researched Rubric. Being without a working light is inexcusable, even for a beginner. Should all your lights go out agricultue (I thought you had the batteries.), it is generally not advised that you attempt to get out. Essay Co Education. Wait for help to agricultue, come. This implies that someone on the outside knows you are in there and will send for help if you don't return. Wear the proper clothing. (See the section on hypothermia below.) Your clothing should be warm, tough, and without things which can snag o the rocks. Hardhats are mandatory. Make sure you have all your equipment and that it is in proper working order before you enter the cave. It it your responsibility to homework top ru, know how to agricultue, use the equipment you have before the comparison on two trip starts. Agricultue Essays. One thing many newcomers don't realize at first is in othello, that caving is one of the essays few truly non-competitive sports.
No one ever makes or takes a dare. No one is ever pressured to do things which he/she is homework top ru, afraid to do. Daredevils are unpopular. The reason for all this is that cavers are a very safety minded lot; competition and peer pressure leads to agricultue essays, accidents. Removing an injured person from of love essay, a cave is an awful job. We go to agricultue, have fun, not to fool around. Essay Co Education. Remember this.
Don't go caving if you are sick, even if you have only a mild cold. Caving is an exhausting sport, and illness compounds your problems and might lead to an accident. Don't go caving while drunk, stoned, or otherwise under the influence. A clear head is agricultue, a requirement for safe caving. Leave all jewelry outside the homework top ru cave.
A crushed ring could mean the loss of a finger in agricultue an otherwise minor accident. Make sure your glasses are very secure if you wear them. Leave your sunglasses in researched essay the car. (Don't laugh. Long-time cavers have been known to wear sunglasses into a cave and agricultue essays, then wonder why their lights were so dim!) Start caving with experienced cavers. Learn your capabilities in easy caves. Don't exceed your limits. Get to know the abilities of your caving friends.
One often hears of high school students who get into trouble in homework top ru a cave. Agricultue Essays. This is caused by inexperience and/or a swollen head. Your first line of defense is the clothes you wear. It is far better to wear too much than not enough. Homework Top Ru. Wear several layers. If you overheat (and it does happen) you can take some clothing off. When you cool down you can put it back on. The key point here is: if you haven't got it, you can't put it on when you are cold.
Wool is best because it can still help keep you warm even when it is agricultue, wet. Wool socks are highly desirable because your feet are often wet even if the rest of you is dry. Cotton is for global warming, worthless when wet. Synthetics vary in their ability to insulate when wet, but are generally pretty good. Essays. As a test, wash the clothing in a washing machine. If it comes out essay of the spin cycle mostly dry, it's probably good for caving. A pullover hat underneath your hardhat cuts down on essays heat loss from the head. Your body gives your brain the highest priority for heat. It is always the warmest part of you. Put some insulation there: wear a hat. Essay On Two Stories. Wet suits are required whenever you are going to be immersed in water.
If you don't have a wet suit, don't go to agricultue, caves where you know you will get soaked. An unpleasant but often used method of getting by short wet spots is to rubric, strip, go through keeping your clothes dry, dry off, and agricultue essays, dress again immediately. Keep moving to warm up again. This technique should be used only after you know from experience about your heat control. Essay Co Education. The second defense against hypothermia is to avoid becoming wet and extended contact with cold, wet surfaces. Stay out of the water when possible. Waterfalls are especially dangerous: they will soak you in a hurry and can drown you (no joke).
Avoid drips when waiting for long periods. Stand, crouch, or sit on your pack, if possible, while waiting. Agricultue. Contact with rock or mud will cool you much faster than the air. Homework Top Ru. Avoid breezes; chill factors in wet clothes are very bad. A garbage bag with a head hole is an amazingly effective shelter which is easily carried. Put your head through the hole, crouch down, and agricultue, cover yourself up.
The third defense is to rubric, warm yourself up. Usually the only way to do this is to agricultue, shiver on purpose, to run in theme of love place, to continue exploring, or some other heavy physical activity. You should do this whenever you start to feel cold. There can be other alternatives depending on agricultue essays the equipment you have: hot drinks, garbage bag tents, sleeping bags, dry clothes, etc. The final defense against hypothermia is to know what it is, how it affects you, and homework top ru, how vulnerable you are to it. As a rule, small, thin people are the first affected. The first sign of the problem is simply that you feel cold. Agricultue Essays. This is followed by increasingly severe shivering. Beyond this your body starts to lose its ability to make heat, a problem compounded by decreasing strength and mental abilities.
Slurred speech and a lack of essay will power are signs of an advanced, dangerous case of hypothermia. Any time one of your party gets to the stage of violent shivering, it is time to get out of the cave. Everyone should leave as the affected person may need considerable help. If someone is accidentally soaked and there is no way to dry him, it is time to head out before hypothermia sets in. Don't underestimate the agricultue problem of hypothermia. An unfortunately large number of cavers have died from it. Most of those deaths were avoidable. Dress right, stay dry, and keep moving. Only experience will tell you how best to handle it. Don't be afraid to essay rubric, ask for guidance or assistance.
Better you should ask a stupid question than to agricultue essays, have your friends carry you out. Watch how the more experienced cavers handle an obstacle. Stay out from underneath other people. Very often a person will dislodge something which could fall on someone else. If you do so, yell ROCK! no matter what it is that is essay on two stories, falling. ROCK! is the agricultue essays cavers' universal signal to take cover from a falling object. A hardhat will protect you from small falling objects. ALWAYS wear a hardhat. It will also keep you from bumping your head. There are some signs that a passage may flood: debris or mud stuck on the walls or ceiling; an active river, especially at lower levels; the essay absence of mud in a stream passage may indicate rapid and agricultue essays, violent flooding.
Dry, cracked mud is a good indication that a passage floods only under extreme conditions. As you proceed through the cave, look for essay system these things. Remember the low spots you had to go through on the way in. Remember the high spots, too. Caves can flood because of unexpected weather changes or long lag times after storms. In the latter case the water rise tends to be gradual giving you some time to get out. Any time a stream rises noticeably in essays a low, wet cave, it is time to get out or take shelter on higher ground. Use your judgment: if you can get to high ground in the cave but the way out is a long low passage and the stream is rising fast, RETREAT!
Go back to high ground and wait it out. This is an obvious case, but there is so much variety in homework top ru caves that there are no fixed rules in a flood except: THINK, DON'T PANIC. Some people go caving where there are large numbers (millions) of bats. While bats won't bother you directly, when there are so many of them around you risk picking up something indirectly; histoplasmosis is a fungal lung disease found in agricultue bat guano which is unpleasant but generally not fatal; bats have fleas, and large numbers of bats drop large numbers of theme fleas with all their associated diseases; rabies may be caught, but this is unproven and essays, certainly very rare. This type of caving is strictly at your own risk.
Stay within earshot of your buddy. A caving group should never break up into introduction warming essay individuals. Sometimes a person will go down a hole to take a look. Agricultue. In this case, someone else should remain by the hole and an agreed upon theme in othello essay, time limit should be set for the explorer's return. This should never be more than a few minutes. When travelling in a large group, it is important that the leaders go slowly enough so that the people on the end don't become separated. Each person must stay within earshot of the persons ahead and behind. Finally, if you do get lost and backtracking doesn't help, STAY PUT . Agricultue. Try to make yourself comfortable and stay warm and dry.
Wait for someone to find you. It is important that someone outside the cave or at home know where you are and about when you are to return. That person is your final safeguard. When you come out of a cave make sure everyone in essay your group is accounted for. Agricultue Essays. At your earliest convenience, call home and tell them that everyone is out and safe. There are several things to homework top ru, remember when dealing with a pinch: Send a large, experienced caver first. If he can make it, then everyone else can. If he can't, he will know it and have the know-how to get back.
If he gets stuck anyway, then there is still a smaller person available who can get to agricultue essays, him to provide assistance. Homework Top Ru. Be especially wary of vertical pinches. Gravity will push you into them, and it is far more difficult to get back up. Watch out for wet pinches. Getting stuck in a pool or waterfall is essays, a VERY serious problem due to hypothermia.
Be wary of tight places in which there is no noticeable airflow. Finally, if you're a large person, avoid small caves. Anyone seriously into caving should take basic Red Cross First Aid. Homework Top Ru. PROMPT and PROPER action can save a life and/or prevent permanent injury. The Red Cross sponsors first aid courses nationwide for a small fee. Consider taking one and regular refresher courses. You might save a life someday, in or out of a cave. (At the very least, use your travel time to read and reread a good first aid pamphlet.) Also consider taking at least an introductory cave rescue class. Serious caving accidents are generally in the category of hypothermia, falls, or falling objects. Learn especially the signs of head or spinal injuries. Trying to move a person with a broken back could kill him.
Remember also that an immobilized victim MUST be kept warm by any means which do not aggravate the injury. Whenever you are doing some serious caving, it is highly advisable that you know how to get in touch with the local cave rescue group. Agricultue Essays. This information can be obtained from the local NSS grotto (see section about the NSS at the end). Do it. It is highly advised that you leave your car keys outside the cave, hidden near the car. All the people in your car and others in the group should know where they are hidden. Large amounts of organic matter, such as dead animals rotting in the cave will make the air unpleasant but not usually dangerous.
Let your nose be your guide. Caving is an exhausting sport. Be careful on the drive home. If you get tired, swap drivers or pull over and get some sleep. Also, before you go into the cave, hide your valuables in the car (there is usually plenty of caving junk available with which to hide things), and lock the car. Introduction. It is essays, rare, but cavers' cars have been robbed. Cave entrances are often in grazing land. Be wary around large farm animals. Watch out especially for bulls.
Cave entrances are often in the woods, too. Be alert for hunters, especially if you go caving during the Thanksgiving vacation as it overlaps the deer season. The best protection against hunters is to make a lot of of love essay noise while walking through the woods. Hanging ice blocks at cave entrances can cause (and have caused) serious injury and death if they fall. They are especially dangerous in the spring. They can sometimes be covered with leaves and difficult to agricultue essays, see. Essay. Look around for them before approaching the cave.
A Final Note on Caving Dangers and Safety. The following checklist is agricultue, appropriate for a first time caver going to duras, a Beginner's Cave. A helmet mounted headlight of some kind, either carbide or battery powered. Two heavily constructed, water-proof flashlights. Alkaline or lithium batteries and agricultue essays, spares for each flashlight, and your headlight, if electric (otherwise, spare carbide and a ziploc for spent carbide). An extra bulb for each light (a repair kit with tip reamer if using carbide).
Short pieces of nylon cord for flashlight wrist loops. A thick candle and waterproof matches or cyalume light stick. A knitted pull-over type hat. A hardhat. Something to tie up your hair if it's long.
Multiple thin layers of clothing are best. If you have a wool shirt, sweater, and/or longjohns, wear them. Polypropylene longjohns are best. Wool isn't generally good as an outer layer, but you can cover it with something else. Remember, it is better to wear too much than too little. Down clothing and cotton are useless in a cave. As soon as they get wet, they lose their insulating ability. Wool still insulates some even when wet. Two pairs of pants, worn one over the other. Coveralls are great as an outer layer.
Cheap gloves. The heavy duty dishwashing gloves work well. Have a complete change of dry clothes appropriate for the surface weather. Pack them in a large garbage bag or two to keep them dry. The bag is of love in othello essay, also to carry your muddies on agricultue your way home. These dry clothes are essential for coming out of a cave in researched rubric the winter. They can be left in the car, if nearby, or just inside the cave. Agricultue Essays. Sneakers are marginally acceptable. Hiking, climbing, or combat boots are much better.
Heavy socks. Homework Top Ru. Wool is best. Agricultue. A plastic garbage bag neatly rolled up. A lock-blade knife. A liter or more of marguerite duras water in agricultue essays a tough container. Food. Raisins, peanut M M's, or other such easily consumed, physically tough foods are OK. For Global. A tuna salad sandwich on soft bread will come out as tuna salad mush. You have been warned! A small pack to carry your junk.
A strong cloth laundry bag will do. In practice, you can put stuff in your pockets, but you will regret doing so in a pinch. Camera equipment. This is a strictly at your own risk option. Cameras are best carried in steel ammo boxes heavily padded with foam rubber. Good luck.
Disposable cameras with a flash work pretty well. Agricultue. Pack them inside a ziploc. Knee pads are especially nice for crawling caves. Co Education System. Remember that everything you take into a cave you must also take back out. You cannot leave ANY junk in the cave. There are a few general rules which a novice caver should follow, however. Some can be safely bent or broken depending upon circumstance, but there is one rule which you must always follow: THINK. Proceed cautiously when you are in an exposed position . Agricultue Essays. (The term exposed position, or exposure:, is used by homework top ru cavers to mean how great the potential for falling is.) Many caves are known as vertical, i.e. they have lethally deep drops around which must be negotiated with special equipment and technique. However, even beginner's caves can have exposure in them, so watch yourself.
When climbing on rock, move only one limb at agricultue, a time. It is sometimes possible, if both your feet are secure, to move both your arms, and vice versa. Look at essay, your next move and think about agricultue essays it before you do it. Much climbing is essay rubric, done in opposition, i.e. you are in a relatively small spot and you are pushing in opposite directions against the rock. This opposing pressure can keep you from slipping off something which would otherwise be impossible to simply stand on or grip. Essays. Often you can take advantage of friction as a hold. Cavers will wedge portions of their bodies into small spots to provide a hold. For example, if a crevasse is the same width as your shoulders, it is essay stories, easy to expand your shoulders to the point where you simply cannot fall. This is also an agricultue example of opposition. When freely standing on a sloping surface, it is best to stand straight up. This gives maximum friction.
The more parallel you are to the surface, the more pressure there is which would make your feet slip, and researched, the less friction there is. Moral: stand up. It is generally easier to climb up than down, so be more careful when going down. Be ready to agricultue essays, assist your friends at all times. Rubric. This can make things a lot safer and easier. It is often helpful to point your light at handholds and footholds so that the climber can see them better. Agricultue. You can offer advice, but if the climber tells you to shut up, then do so. Be careful not to aim your light at other people's eyes. Of Love. This can cause an afterimage which can last for several minutes in the darkness of a cave. Crawls are always a pain.
How you get through them depends upon their shape, orientation, and essays, size relative to you. There are belly crawls, hands-and-knees crawls, stoopways, and things in marguerite duras the lover between. Duckwalking is often possible. Use it when you can as it is faster than hands-and-knees. Low, wide, and essays, dry crawls can often be done quickly by rolling yourself along much as one would roll a log. Whenever you are in marguerite the lover movie any kind of low place, look at the ceiling to make sure there aren't any bats or fragile rock formations there which you might accidentally crush. Be quiet around bats to minimize disturbing them. Pinches are always a problem.
There are a few things you can do to help, though. Agricultue Essays. Always try to go through by yourself. Should you get stuck, it will still be possible for your friends to get you out. Exhaling before pushing is of love essay, very helpful. Make sure all of your clothing is tucked in agricultue and secure. Don't wear belts with large buckles. Remove things from your pockets.
Shed some layers of comparison on two short stories clothing. Agricultue. Look at essay, the pinch and agricultue, try to go through in a manner that will not force you to bend in impossible directions. Try to remove any pebbles from the floor of introduction warming a pinch; they can be very painful if you don't get rid of agricultue them. Widening a pinch is possible if the for global essay floor is mud. Stay out of the water as much as possible. If you are walking in a stream, step cautiously, as there are potholes in many caves.
Falling into one of them can result in a dunking which may very well put an agricultue end to a caving trip. While techniques and homework top ru, cautions listed above are applicable to any type of caving, they are specifically aimed at essays, horizontal caves . Essay Co Education System. A Beginner's Cave is a horizontal cave which lacks other problems such as a high flooding potential or tricky obstacles. Vertical work takes more strength, endurance, and agility than horizontal work. Nevertheless, it is still within the realm of the average caver. Vertical work requires special equipment and technique. Essays. It is mandatory that each caver have his own equipment and know how to use it before going to a vertical cave. Practice is done on cliffs, trees, and the like, never in a cave. Vertical work on ropes requires special cams and friction devices for going up and marguerite the lover, down the essays rope, respectively. Cavers do not go hand over hand up or down a pit. Essay Co Education System. Climbing a rope hand over hand is agricultue, DEADLY. Every so often one hears of a high school student who is killed or injured because he was foolish enough to try this.
Rope for caving is of a very special, strong, low stretch nylon (static rope). clothes line is sometimes used by on two stories inexperienced people with tragic results . Clothes line is agricultue essays, NOT for any type of climbing, in or out of a cave. Researched Essay Rubric. Note also that caving rope is no good for rock climbing because of its low stretch. If you want to get into vertical caving, it is important that you do so with the help of an experienced vertical caver. Don't try it by yourself. Cave diving is something which can be done safely only by the best and most experienced cavers. If you try it without getting extensive training from a long time cave diver, then you are asking to get yourself killed. Find out who owns a cave, and then get permission before you go in. If you have no idea where to ask, try the neighbors. Most of them think cavers are kind of funny and are happy to talk to us. If the owner refuses entrance, don't badger him.
Be respectful of his rights and just leave. If the owner asks a favor of you, try to satisfy it. Sometimes they ask that you pick up beer cans near the cave, or that you notify them when you get out. Essays. These are simple things. Doing them will make the owner happy to let future cavers visit his cave. Make sure that you close farmland gates after passing through them. There is nothing that makes a farmer madder than having to round up his animals because some jerk caver left a gate open. Be respectful of the owner's land. Don't break anything, and comparison essay stories, don't litter. Be respectful of the owner's sensibilities.
Many owners do not want to see a carload of essays people stripping and changing clothes in their front yard or on the road. Try to do so out of sight. Typically, beginner's caves are well known to the local population. They have generally been heavily vandalized, at introduction warming, least in the areas near the essays entrance. Theme Of Love In Othello Essay. Look around when you go in and see how ugly the agricultue essays scars are that the comparison on two short vandals have left behind. When moving through a cave, stick to the beaten path. Agricultue Essays. Don't get your muddy feet or body all over the formations.
Watch out for delicate formations overhead which you might accidentally smash with your head. Bats are widely misunderstood creatures subject to a lot of irrational fear. Learn about them and warming essay, stick up for them. Caves are sometimes closed part of the year in essays order to protect the essay bats. Agricultue Essays. Don't go in short when they are closed. For reasons of conservation and safety, never give the location of essays a cave to people you don't know. Homework Top Ru. Instead, point them at the local grotto of the NSS. If you should stumble across some rank amateurs already in a cave who obviously don't know what they are doing, attempt to straighten them out.
Don't come on too strong, though, or you will turn them off to essays, safe caving technique. Point them at the NSS so they can get in with a group of established cavers. Never leave any of your junk in of love in othello a cave. Just before you go into a cave, it is advised that you find the nearest bush and relieve yourself. You are expected to essays, hold your water on all short trips of 6 hours or less. Minimize the amount you drink in the cave. Smoking in the cave, tobacco or otherwise, is frowned upon because it stinks up the co education system cave. It is often absolutely necessary to change out of wet clothes when exiting a cave, sometimes in circumstances which are less than private. Do make an essays attempt at respecting the privacy of your fellows, even if there isn't really a good way to do so. Also, try not to put on a nudie show which might upset the locals or cause traffic accidents.
National Speleological Society. 2813 Cave Avenue. Huntsville, AL 35810. Short. The NSS is very safety and conservation oriented. It sponsors all sorts of activities: scientific, exploratory, educational, and even recreational. In addition, it is the primary method of agricultue essays contact between cavers in the United States.
If you plan to do a significant amount of caving, you should strongly consider joining the NSS.
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THREE ESSAYS IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
The Family Check-Up in Early Childhood: A Case Study of agricultue essays Intervention Process and Change. This article describes a case study in the use of the Family Check-Up (FCU), a family-based and ecological preventive intervention for children at risk for problem behavior. The FCU is an assessment-driven intervention that utilizes a health maintenance model; emphasizes motivation for essay system, change; and offers an adaptive, tailored approach to intervention. This case study follows one Caucasian family through their initial assessment and subsequent treatment for their toddler daughter#x02019;s conduct problems over a 2-year period. Clinically meaningful improvements in child and family functioning were found despite the presence of child, parent, and neighborhood risk factors. The case is discussed with respect to the findings from a current multisite randomized control trial of the agricultue FCU and for global warming essay its application to other populations. There is essays, growing interest in identifying young children at risk for early and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior (Shaw #x00026; Gross, 2008), motivated by several studies of early-starting antisocial youth (Moffitt, 1993). Several researchers have documented that compared to late starters (who begin delinquent activity in researched essay mid-to late adolescence), early starters (who typically initiate antisocial activities before age 10) show a more persistent and chronic trajectory of antisocial behavior extending from middle childhood to adulthood (Moffitt #x00026; Caspi, 2001; Patterson #x00026; Yoeger, 1993). Early starters represent approximately 6% to 7% of the general population of youth yet are responsible for almost half of all adolescent crime and three fourths of violent crimes (Offord, Boyle, #x00026; Racine, 1991). During the past 2 decades, prevention scientists have focused on generating interventions for preventing early-starting pathways from developing, including programs for expectant mothers with first-born children (Olds, 2002) and preschool-age children (Webster-Stratton #x00026; Hammond, 1997).
However, despite research suggesting that early-starting pathways of antisocial behavior can be identified as early as age 2 to agricultue 3 (Shaw, Gilliom, Ingoldsby, #x00026; Nagin, 2003), few interventions have focused on the developmental transition of the #x0201c;terrible 2s,#x0201d; a time of great maturational change (Shaw #x00026; Bell, 1993). The Family Check-Up (FCU) is introduction warming essay, a preventive intervention that has been adapted specifically to address the normative challenges parents face during the agricultue essays terrible 2s, particularly in high-risk environments where these normative challenges are more likely to lead to negative outcomes (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw, Dishion, Supplee, Gardner, #x00026; Arnds, 2006). Co Education System? Our article discusses a case study that follows one family through their involvement in agricultue the FCU. The FCU was initially developed and shown to co education be efficacious in reducing problem behavior among adolescents (Connell, Dishion, Yasui, #x00026; Kavanagh, in press; Dishion #x00026; Kavanagh, 2003). However, it has recently been associated with reductions in agricultue young children#x02019;s conduct problems and internalizing problems, as well as improvements in maternal depression, parental involvement, and positive parenting in two independent, randomly controlled trials (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw, Dishion, Connell, Wilson, #x00026; Gardner, 2008). In these studies, changes in maternal positive parenting and depression were found to mediate improvements in introduction for global essay child problem behavior. The FCU model differs from traditional clinical models and essays practice in three important ways: it utilizes a health maintenance model, derives much of its power from a comprehensive assessment, and emphasizes motivating change. In contrast to the standard clinical model, the health maintenance approach of the FCU explicitly promotes periodic contact with families (yearly at a minimum) over the course of key developmental transitions.
Whereas traditional clinical models are activated in response to clinical pathology, the health maintenance model involves regular periodic contact between client and provider to proactively prevent problems. Examples of health maintenance models include the use of semiannual cleanings in of love essay dentistry and well-baby check-ups in pediatrics. Another key difference from traditional clinical practice is the agricultue essays FCU#x02019;s explicit focus on providing a comprehensive assessment of child and family functioning. Data obtained from assessments are shared with families in feedback sessions to enhance motivation for change (Miller #x00026; Rollnick, 2002). Of Love In Othello Essay? Feedback sessions are often followed by family management meetings (Forgatch, Patterson, #x00026; DeGarmo, 2005) to promote change in parenting and child problem behavior. The comprehensive assessment drives the intervention, providing detailed information about domains of child (e.g., negative emotionality, child behavior problems), family (e.g., parental depression, marital quality), and community-level (e.g., neighborhood dangerousness) risk factors that past research has shown to be directly related to the development of essays early-onset conduct problems. In addition, there is a primary focus on evaluating caregiving practices through direct observation of parent-child interaction.
In the case of the homework top ru FCU for essays, toddlers, this task is accomplished by essay, having parent#x02013;child dyads participate in a series of structured (e.g., clean-up and teaching) and semistructured (e.g., preparing a meal and serving it to the child) tasks. The FCU is also #x0201c;ecological#x0201d; in its emphasis on essays, improving children#x02019;s adjustment across settings by motivating positive parenting practices and involvement in those settings. Moreover, the comprehensive assessment allows tailoring and adaptation, in that the intervention is introduction warming essay, #x0201c;fit#x0201d; to the family#x02019;s circumstances and their desires for more or less or different forms of intervention. The FCU utilizes two main components to facilitate change: motivational interviewing and agricultue essays family management practices. The motivational interviewing component is based on Miller and Rollnick#x02019;s (2002) work using the Drinker#x02019;s Check-Up, in which assessment data regarding the negative consequences of alcohol abuse on co education system, individual#x02019;s work and family life are shared in a feedback interview with clients. Agricultue? This approach has been shown to be as effective as 28 days of costly inpatient treatment for reducing problem drinking in essay short adults (Miller #x00026; Rollnick, 2002).
In working with families of young children, the FCU feedback session is designed to elicit motivation for the parent(s) to essays change problematic behavior in their child, which is often achieved by modifying parenting behavior (Forgatch et al., 2005) or aspects of the comparison essay short caregiving context that compromise parenting quality. Whereas motivational interviewing was originally developed for adult drinkers, it has been incorporated into the FCU model to engage parents in preventive interventions. In one study of the FCU with parents of adolescents, analyses comparing those adolescents showing significant reductions in substance use and antisocial behavior to agricultue those who did not indicated that motivational interviewing was the key strategy for promoting change (Connell et al., in press). After addressing motivation, the FCU provides options for co education system, intervention. The therapist (i.e., Parent Consultant) may provide referrals for help with problems outside of parenting (e.g., language development) or work with families themselves on these issues depending on agricultue, his or her expertise (e.g., parental depression, marital therapy); however, the core of most intervention addresses family management issues. Family management includes a collective set of parenting skills, commonly referred to as Parent Management Training (PMT), based on social learning principles of reinforcement and modeling (Forgatch et al., 2005; Patterson, 1982; Webster-Stratton #x00026; Hammond, 1997). PMT has been consistently associated with improvement in parenting and reductions in child conduct problems (Bullock #x00026; Forgatch, 2005; Patterson, Reid, #x00026; Dishion, 1992) and has been formally deemed an #x0201c;empirically supported treatment#x0201d; (Chambless #x00026; Ollendick, 2001). PMT focuses on essay, four main skill sets for the parents of essays young children: limit setting, proactive parenting, positive reinforcement, and warming relationship building. Using PMT typically involves providing parents with a rationale to stimulate interest, careful explanation of new skills, and agricultue in-session practice using role plays and in vivo practice with the child. In the FCU, PMT is applied to specific behavior problems highlighted in the assessment.
THE FCU IN THE EARLY STEPS MULTISITE STUDY. The current case illustrates how the FCU integrates basic research on the developmental antecedents of early-starting pathways with validated methods for essay, effecting change in agricultue essays young children#x02019;s conduct problems. The case was drawn from the Early Steps Multisite Study (ESMS), which is the second randomized control trial to test the effectiveness of the FCU with young children. The ESMS is an early intervention project aimed at reducing early-onset conduct problems among high-risk families with toddlers and offers the in othello essay opportunity to examine the essays efficacy of the system FCU with a nonclinical yet high-risk sample of agricultue families whose children are at elevated risk for early-starting conduct problems. The ESMS examines the efficacy of the FCU among 731 low-income families with toddlers recruited between 2002 and 2003 from Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement programs in essay short the metropolitan areas of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Eugene, Oregon; and Charlottesville, Virginia. The current case was recruited from the Pittsburgh site.
Families were approached at Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement offices and agricultue essays invited to participate if they had a son or daughter between 2 years 0 months and 2 years 11 months of duras the lover age, following a screen to ensure that they met the study criteria by having socioeconomic, family, and=or child risk factors for child conduct problems. Families who met the screening criteria and essays agreed to participate were contacted by research assistants to schedule the initial home assessment. During the homework top ru initial home assessment, described in detail next, examiners carefully reviewed a comprehensive consent form with each primary caregiver. Agricultue Essays? Families were informed about the reason for conducting the short stories research, the agricultue essays source of for global funding, study procedures (i.e., description of random assignment procedures and intervention), risks and benefits, payment, their right to withdraw at any time, and confidentiality. Regarding confidentiality, participants were informed that they would not be identified by name in any publication of research results unless they signed a separate form giving their permission. The FCU intervention involves at least three sessions. First is the in-home family assessment. The second session involves rapport building via the Parent Consultant#x02019;s (PC#x02019;s) initial interview with the caregiver(s), referred to as the Get-to-Know-You (GTKY) visit.
The third is a feedback session during which the agricultue PC discusses the results of the assessment and initial interview with attention focused on the caregiver#x02019;s readiness to change and the delineation of introduction for global specific change options. The assessment, which is the first component of the FCU, typically takes place in the family#x02019;s home when research assistants visit the essays family to collect questionnaire and observational data. The assessment, which lasts 2.5 hr, is organized by three central theoretical domains: (a) family management, (b) sociocultural contexts and resources, and for global warming essay (c) problem behavior at home and in alternative care settings. Careful attention was given to selecting measures that could provide useful information in each of the aforementioned domains. When possible, constructs within each domain are measured using multiple informants (parents, other care providers, observers) and methods. This assessment provides a wealth of information about child behavior, parenting skills, family dynamics, and life stressors; it also sets the stage for the therapeutic contact between caregivers and parent consultants. The initial contact between the PC and agricultue the family occurs when the PC calls to duras the lover movie set up the GTKY session. At this time, the PC introduces himself or herself, briefly explains the intervention portion of the study, and agricultue invites the parent to participate in an introductory meeting and marguerite duras a feedback session. The caregivers#x02019; first session with their PC, the GTKY visit, is usually held in the family#x02019;s home. The GTKY visit focuses on developing a collaborative framework for subsequent intervention activities by emphasizing rapport building and exploring concerns with respect to parenting and the family context (Dishion #x00026; Stormshak, 2007). Caregivers also provide information about family resources (e.g., help of agricultue essays extended family members, strong marital relationship) and liabilities (e.g., unstable housing, a father who is incarcerated).
By the end of this visit, caregivers have discussed their concerns and perceptions of their motivation for change. The PC works to ensure that caregivers feel understood and clarifies discrepancies between caregivers#x02019; goals and current family functioning. Finally, the PC discusses the purpose of the feedback session and how it will be used to review and address caregivers#x02019; identified concerns. For example, given a concern about noncompliance and temper tantrums, the PC will review the assessment with attention to co education system specific strategies that might help improve the essays cooperation between the caregiver and the child. The third session of the FCU, the family feedback session, takes place at essay stories the family#x02019;s home or at an ESMS office, whichever is preferable to the family.
Case conceptualization is a critical feature of the feedback session and is informed by both the assessment and GTKY visit. Family change is approached in a realistic, stepwise fashion, focusing first on issues of safety and security, then moving to issues of behavior management, parenting skills, and relationship building. The feedback session involves a delicate balance among reporting the facts about strengths and essays problems, building motivation for homework top ru, change, and maintaining rapport with parent(s). Agricultue? The feedback session is a collaborative process, one in comparison essay which the PC delivers the factual information from the assessment and frequently checks in with parents about their perspectives (see Figure 1 ). An emphasis on strengths helps build rapport and therapeutic alliance with the agricultue essays family while encouraging maintenance of positive behaviors. Marguerite Movie? Statements about problem areas are framed in a way that reflect the current research findings and in doing so, ground the agricultue information in a meaningful way for parents. The PC tailors the feedback material so that it takes into consideration the contextual factors of the family, including cultural variation, child development, family structure, socioeconomics, and community and neighborhood factors. At the end of the feedback session, the PC discusses a menu of family-based interventions with the caregivers.
The intervention options stem from co education system previous work using the FCU and focus groups with parents (Dishion #x00026; Stormshak, 2007). These options include (a) monthly to weekly follow-up support, either in-person or by essays, phone; (b) assistance with specific child behavior problems or parent issues; (c) PMT; (d) preschool/day care consultations; and (e) community referrals. The PC encourages the parents to choose the duras the lover level and type of services that best meet the family#x02019;s needs. The family chosen for this case study qualified for inclusion in the ESMS based on the presence of sociodemographic risk (i.e., low income and educational attainment), child risk (i.e., high levels of conduct problems and high levels of parent-child conflict), and family risk (i.e., elevated maternal depressive symptoms and parenting hassles). Agricultue? In addition to using a pseudonym, identifying information about the family has been altered to protect their confidentiality. Homework Top Ru? At the time of the essays age 2 assessment, the Smith family consisted of the mother, a 34-year-old Caucasian female; the father, a 36-year-old Caucasian male; and five children living in the home (ranging from 11 months to 15 years). The Target Child (TC) is their daughter who was 2 years old. The mother was a stay-at-home parent and the father was an unemployed former bus driver. Neither parent held a high school diploma. This marriage was the mother#x02019;s third with multiple children by each husband, including two children with her current husband. The father had children from a previous marriage with whom he has no contact.
The mother and TC participated in a home-based assessment, during which the mother completed questionnaires about marguerite duras movie, TC#x02019;s behavior and her own well-being. Well-established measures were used when possible (see Table 1 ), and agricultue PCs were trained to code the videotaped tasks using an observation manual (Veltman et al., 2003) derived from research with families from similar high-risk environments (e.g., Shaw et al., 2003). Both mother and child participated in essay system observational tasks, including clean-up, teaching, waiting, and meal preparation tasks. The father was not present for the home visit but did complete and return his questionnaires 1 week later. Results from the assessment measures and observational tasks are noted in Table 2 and agricultue were incorporated into the feedback session. Both parents were present for the GTKY at age 2. The mother was very talkative during the 1-hr interview.
The mother provided a detailed history of the family and talked openly about her own struggles with depression. She reported that she refused antidepressant medication because of unpleasant side effects. She also talked about an ongoing source of familial stress: severe harassment by short stories, her second ex-husband despite the agricultue essays procurement of several Protection from Abuse orders. The harassment by the ex-husband was persistent over the course of researched rubric 2 years, and both parents expressed a sense of hopelessness about its resolution. In addition, the family lived in a high-crime neighborhood, as described by both parents and observed by the PC and agricultue essays assessment team. Theme Essay? The parents expressed their intention to move to another part of the essays city within the next year. When asked about the TC, the mother reported concerns about the child#x02019;s developmental progress and the father reported that she had a #x0201c;bad attitude.#x0201d; When asked about the theme TC#x02019;s behavior problems, both parents agreed that it was #x0201c;her anger.#x0201d; Both parents reported that TC had a #x0201c;quick temper and lashes out,#x0201d; hit her siblings, and yelled frequently.
The parents also agreed that she had an #x0201c;emotional problem,#x0201d; referring to her temper tantrums. The parents did not spontaneously state any positive qualities about the TC; when asked, the mother reported that she felt that she had a good relationship with the TC. Feedback Preparation and Case Conceptualization. Consistent with typical practice, the feedback session at age 2 was held 1 week after the GTKY. The PC used videotaped and questionnaire data from the assessment to prepare a Child and Family Profile (see Figure 1 ) designed to visually represent the child#x02019;s and family#x02019;s strengths and areas of concern. Areas of strength and concern were determined based on published norms, when available, and data from similar high-risk samples (Shaw et al., 2003). At a broader level, components of the agricultue essays data were used to generate a conceptualization of the family#x02019;s strengths and challenges so the review follows a logical storyline for the parents. In the essay FCU process, the PC prepares a comprehensive report about the family#x02019;s and child#x02019;s strengths and agricultue potential problems based on comparison essay on two, the assessment. Scoring the Smith#x02019;s assessment measures revealed a number of strengths, including that the mother and father viewed their marital relationship positively and were willing to participate in the feedback session. In addition, the mother felt confident in her parenting skills (see Table 2 ). When coding the observational tasks, the PC observed that the mother was responsive to her daughter#x02019;s bids for positive attention and demonstrated a warm and affectionate relationship with her. The child demonstrated strengths in her language ability, as indexed by a score at the 70th percentile on the McArthur Communicative Development Index (Fenson et al., 2000).
Several areas of concern were evident, most notably the agricultue essays TC#x02019;s level and breadth of problem behavior and the mother#x02019;s level of depressive symptoms. According to mother#x02019;s report on researched, two different measures of child behavior, the agricultue essays TC was well into the clinical range for both internalizing and externalizing problems (see Table 2 ). Based on 45 min of observational data, she was found to be in the clinical range for noncompliance (i.e., follows directions less than 50% of the time) and in the borderline clinical range for positive play (i.e., exhibits neutral to positive affect) and aggression (two to five instances of aggression toward both objects and people). Compared with other girls her age, the TC appeared to be on essay on two, a worrisome behavioral trajectory. There were some areas of concern regarding the mother, namely, that she reported levels of agricultue essays depressive symptoms consistent with clinical depression, a high level of essay system daily stress, and a high level of conflict with her daughter. Mother also demonstrated few skills for setting limits and being proactive during observational tasks.
The family#x02019;s residence in a high crime neighborhood was also seen as an important factor that impacted their level of stress (see Table 2 ). The combined clinical picture for the TC and agricultue essays mother suggested that there were deficits in parenting skills, perhaps because of the mother#x02019;s depressive symptomatology and daily stress, which contributed to the child#x02019;s behavioral and emotional problems. Homework Top Ru? In addition, the essays child was demonstrating high levels of behavioral and emotional problems, which were posited to contribute to coercive cycles of interaction with her mother (Patterson, 1982). Theme In Othello? A related concern was that if the mother and child did not find more positive ways to agricultue interact, both child and maternal behavior would become exacerbated, moving the child into a more entrenched and less malleable trajectory of problem behavior. Interventions aimed at improving these areas could capitalize on existing family strengths, namely, the of love in othello essay positive marital relationship, parental willingness to participate, and TC#x02019;s language skills. The family#x02019;s high crime neighborhood and harassment from the ex-husband were also noted on the Child and agricultue Family Profile and theme in othello incorporated into the feedback session, reflecting the family#x02019;s particular needs and context.
During the age 2 feedback, the Smith family expressed a willingness to receive information about their daughter and some hope that they might receive help to better manage her problem behavior. After a brief rapport-building introduction, the essays PC began the feedback session and asked the essay self-assessment questions (#x0201c;Over the course of the assessment, what did you learn about essays, TC? What stood out for you?#x0201d;). Both parents responded by stating that their child #x0201c;behaves better when other people are around.#x0201d; The PC clarified that the movie mother believed that the videotaped portions of the essays assessment reflected better-than-usual behavior from the TC. After orienting the parents to the FCU profile and explaining the feedback process, the PC discussed the identified areas of strength and essay short concern (see Figure 1 ). The Child and Family Profile begins with a focus on agricultue essays, child behavior in an effort to align parents with a shared focus about their child#x02019;s well-being. The PC informed the parents that TC was in the clinical range for her aggressive behavior and marguerite duras anxiety-related problems. Agricultue Essays? The mother#x02019;s initial response to this information was to elaborate on the areas where TC was aggressive, in homework top ru particular with her siblings. When the PC asked the mother about her biggest concerns related to TC#x02019;s fights with siblings, she initially minimized the problem by stating that TC would probably outgrow her aggressive behavior. The PC agreed that this was a possibility (rolling with resistance) and then inquired about essays, alternate outcomes.
When invited by the PC to consider what would happen if TC did not #x0201c;outgrow#x0201d; the problem, the mother admitted to her fears that TC and siblings might seriously hurt each other #x0201c;by accident.#x0201d; Mrs. Smith then elaborated on several parenting strategies she and her husband had tried without success. The PC affirmed their efforts and then offered a normalizing statement about the parents#x02019; struggles with TC. Next, the PC discussed the comparison short stories potential usefulness of additional or new parenting strategies to address TC#x02019;s problem behavior.
The PC also provided information about agricultue essays, TC#x02019;s likely behavioral trajectory (i.e., behavior problems would likely get worse) and the benefits of early intervention versus #x0201c;wait and marguerite the lover see.#x0201d; The PC utilized observational data about TC#x02019;s observed defiance and noncompliance to underscore the seriousness of the concerns about her conduct problems. In addition, the PC and parents discussed TC#x02019;s fearfulness and anxiety, as reported by the mother and observed by the PC. Agricultue Essays? The mother and father expressed moderate concern here and were able to identify some ways in which TC#x02019;s fearfulness is a problem for them, including her #x0201c;clinginess#x0201d; and inability to sleep through the introduction warming essay night in her own bed. PC also reported on TC#x02019;s strengths, most notably her language skills and positive affect when spending time with her mother. TC#x02019;s language development was presented as a positive indicator of her ability to learn new behavior and respond to her parent#x02019;s requests.
In addition, the PC worked to enhance the parent#x02019;s understanding that a positive relationship with their daughter could motivate their daughter to change her behavior. When reviewing the profile sections on parent wellbeing, the essays PC informed the essay parents that the mother#x02019;s scores on self-report measures were indicative of clinical depression. Agricultue? The PC expressed concern about the severity of the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms, and when PC inquired about them, the mother began to theme of love essay cry and stated that she #x0201c;didn#x02019;t want to talk about it.#x0201d; The PC acknowledged that it would be difficult to parent when feeling so depressed. The PC also provided her with information about the agricultue impact of co education system maternal depression on child behavior, as well as effective interventions and possible resources. Agricultue? Later in the session, the PC indicated that her level of daily parenting stress was another area of homework top ru concern and essays linked this to her depressed mood. In addition, the PC noted that the harassment by theme in othello essay, her ex-husband was also a significant source of agricultue essays stress likely to be influencing her mood. The mother agreed to look into intervention for her depression and stated her intention to resolve the introduction for global warming situation with her ex-husband.
When the PC reported to the mother about her strengths, including her parenting confidence and relationship with TC, the mother responded with big smiles and verbalized appreciation. Essays? Acknowledgment of her strengths provided the mother with the opportunity to verbally elaborate on her positive skills and to express how much she values the essay relationship she has with her daughter and husband. Furthermore, the PC invited the parents to elaborate on agricultue, the strengths of their marital relationship, stating that the qualities they mentioned (e.g., communicating well, ability to reach agreement about challenging issues) provided a foundation from which they could parent more effectively as a team. The PC highlighted parent strengths with the aim of researched essay supporting parental efficacy and instilling hope for successful behavior change. A key element of the feedback process is the essays goal setting that concludes the session. When the entire profile has been reviewed, the duras PC offers the parents a summary that highlights the agricultue strengths and researched rubric areas of concern. Essays? In this case, the PC revisited the concerns about the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms and linked them to other areas of stress and challenges in parenting. The PC also highlighted the parents#x02019; concerns about TC#x02019;s behavior problems and noted the congruence with the observations of noncompliance and defiance. These concerns were presented with the acknowledgment and researched validation of child and parent strengths. The PC then asked the parents to consider the feedback and invited them to set goals for their child and themselves. They set three goals: (a) for the family to move to a new neighborhood that was safer and removed from the ex-husband, (b) for the mother to meet with a psychiatrist to discuss antidepressant medication and other intervention options, and (c) for the parents to work with their daughter to reduce her temper tantrums and aggressive behavior.
As part of the FCU, families are able to determine the amount and intensity of follow-up intervention, if any, they wish to receive. Agricultue? The intervention plan is derived in a collaborative manner, focusing on the issues identified in the feedback session and any other issues the parents want to address. In this case, the homework top ru PC met with both parents for agricultue, 10 sessions following the feedback session. Sessions were scheduled for every other week. Early sessions focused on the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms and harassment from her ex-husband. With regard to homework top ru nonparenting issues, clinicians using the FCU model typically respond in a manner consistent with standard clinical practice, for agricultue, example, utilizing cognitive behavioral techniques to deal with depression, offering advocacy and creating a safety plan for domestic violence. Nonparenting issues are addressed with the aim to support family functioning and cohesiveness, as appropriate. For example, a common service PC#x02019;s provide is referral and advocacy for accessing community resources. The FCU model works to facilitate connection with services in a family#x02019;s community to increase their network of support and self-sustainability. In this case, while the PC worked with the mother to reduce her depressive symptoms, she also assisted the mother in finding a psychiatrist.
Regarding the harassment from the mother#x02019;s exhusband, the PC explored possible responses with both parents. The family formalized their plans to move to a better neighborhood farther away from the ex-husband and completed this move within 3 months of the feedback session. Once these initial issues were addressed, the mother expressed willingness to the lover work on TC#x02019;s disruptive behavior. Specifically, she was interested in agricultue reducing the essay system number of essays fights her children had during the day and increasing TC#x02019;s compliance. Over the course of the next seven sessions, the PC explored TC#x02019;s problem behaviors and their associated patterns with both parents by comparison, using several tools. Essays? These included the Good Behavior Game (Dishion #x00026; Patterson, 1996); the of love use of incentives, praise, and encouragement; troubleshooting problem areas; and teaching the proper administration of a Time Out. In general, the intervention phase of the FCU prioritizes teaching parents better skills for positive reinforcement, including praise and essays encouragement. When parents choose to essay co education system focus on parenting skills, the PC typically spends about 45 min on the chosen skill area, with the additional 15 min of the session addressing nonparenting concerns and generating a plan of action. Typically, sessions involve the parents and bring the child in on occasion for in vivo practice. For each content area, which in this case included incentives, praise and encouragement, and limit setting, the intervention followed a typical process: (a) providing parents with the rationale for agricultue, the new skill; (b) having the PC demonstrate the new skill to parents; (c) having parents practice the new skill in session with role plays and making corrections; (d) assigning parents homework; and (e) reviewing homework, successes, and challenges during the next visit.
This model is drawn from system PMT (Bullock #x00026; Forgatch, 2005). For example, these parents expressed an essays interest and willingness to homework top ru learn more about the proper use of incentives. The PC first provided the agricultue essays parents a rationale for incentives, explaining that they can be used to help children learn new behavior by rewarding positive behavior. The PC then invited the parents to generate a list of positive behaviors they would like to encourage in their daughter. Once the parents generated this list, they were asked to select one behavior that they would like to focus on for the next week. The PC then invited the TC into warming essay the room and demonstrated to the parents how a sticker could be used to encourage positive behavior. Agricultue Essays? The PC provided parents with stickers and marguerite asked them to practice this, thus clarifying an effective way to explain and introduce the behavior to the TC. Another tool used to encourage good behavior is agricultue essays, The Good Behavior Game.
The Good Behavior Game promotes prosocial behavior among young children by (a) asking the parent to tell their children that they can earn a reward if they can play nicely for 10 min (with use of a timer), (b) establishing and describing reasonable and marguerite the lover movie motivating rewards, (c) carefully explaining what #x0201c;play nicely#x0201d; means, (d) asking children to repeat back the instructions, and (e) using a sticker chart to keep track of children#x02019;s positive play. In sum, the PC provided information about agricultue, motivating children, the benefits of praise and encouragement, the role of parent involvement, and key components of proactive parenting. In addition, the PC introduced the rubric book Preventive Parenting with Love, Encouragement and Limits (Dishion #x00026; Patterson, 1996) and provided ESMS project-based brochures and informational materials. Over the agricultue essays course of the theme essay next two assessment periods (when TC was age 3 and 4, respectively), both TC and the mother demonstrated marked improvement in several domains. At the age 3 assessment, TC#x02019;s behavior had improved to the extent that she was no longer in the clinical range for either the agricultue essays internalizing or externalizing scales on the Child Behavior Checklist, improvement that was maintained at the age 4 assessment.
In addition, the mother#x02019;s Center for homework top ru, Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale score, which was well into the clinical range at the age 2 assessment, dropped to agricultue essays well within the normal range at the age 4 assessment. In addition, observations of parent-child interaction revealed steady and stepwise improvement over the next 2 years, including marked improvements in child noncompliance and aggression, as well as maternal limit setting and homework top ru proactive parenting (see Table 2 ). The FCU represents a cost-effective intervention that can lead to clinically meaningful results, such as improvements in agricultue child behavior and maternal wellbeing. The main components of the FCU are the GTKY and Feedback Sessions, which last 30 min and 90 min, respectively. Upon completion of the feedback session, parents can choose to participate in tailored follow-up sessions, if they wish. Even when more numerous follow-up sessions are involved, the FCU is time and cost effective.
To date, there has been no formal cost effectiveness assessment of the FCU. However, compared with other relatively brief and empirically validated interventions for child problem behavior, such as Forgatch#x02019;s PMT and Webster-Stratton#x02019;s family-based intervention, the FCU appears to essay require a fewer number of sessions to achieve beneficial effects. Conducting a cost assessment of the FCU is clearly an issue that merits attention in the near future. In the case study presented in this article, the PC spent a total of 18 hr of agricultue essays face-to-face time with the Smith family in homework top ru the 1st year. The time spent decreased steadily over the subsequent years of the study, with a total of 8 hr of direct contact in the 2nd year and 2 hr of direct contact in the 3rd year. Essays? In terms of case preparation (scoring assessment measures, coding videotaped interactions), the amount of time the PC spent in these activities also decreased over the years.
Activities not involving direct service delivery, including case preparation and introduction for global warming essay scoring, required 10 hr of agricultue essays PC time in Year 1, 3#x000bd; hr in Year 2, and only 2 hr in Year 3. Thus, once the process is learned and PCs become adept with the process of preparing for feedback sessions, the FCU becomes a potent and brief intervention. In terms of completing the home assessment, research assistants spent an average of 1 hr of travel time in addition to the 2#x000bd; hr home visit, for a total of 3#x000bd; to 4 hr per assessment. Whereas in actual practice the same individual might be responsible for conducting the for global essay assessment and essays the intervention, the researched rubric research project elected to have a different person serve these roles. The FCU was designed to integrate research on risk factors for children#x02019;s early conduct problems into agricultue an ecological, family-based intervention to prevent problem behavior among high-risk families with toddlers. The Smith family is a representative illustration of this innovative method to reach families at key developmental transitions in at-risk environments. The Smith family presented with a complicated family history, a number of duras movie contextual risk factors, and a 2-year-old daughter who was demonstrating both conduct problems and agricultue essays emotional problems. Over the course of the FCU, the family showed improvement in several areas, including parenting and child problem behavior, as well reductions in comparison essay stories maternal depression and contextual risk. This is agricultue essays, consistent with the research showing that improvements in child conduct problems are accompanied by increases in the mother#x02019;s positive parenting and decreases in maternal depression (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw et al., 2008; Shaw et al., 2006). This family was atypical in one respect#x02014;families in the ESMS participate in comparison on two short stories an average number of 3.7 in-person sessions with the PC per year, including the agricultue GTKY and the Feedback sessions , whereas this family engaged in introduction warming 12 sessions their first year, and then 3 to 4 in agricultue essays the following 2 years. After their 1st year of more intensive involvement, which was consistent with the family#x02019;s breadth of risk, the family followed the homework top ru more typical pattern of direct contact with the essays PC.
One of the marguerite the lover movie strengths of this health-maintenance model is the repeated nature of assessment and intervention. The FCU model involves yearly #x0201c;check-ups,#x0201d; which provide clinicians with the agricultue essays unique opportunity to collaboratively track family and child behavior over marguerite duras the lover, time and continue to motivate families to change persistent areas of difficulty. For example, it is not uncommon for a family to minimize problems and decline intervention in the 1st year and then engage in the intervention the agricultue essays next year when they discover that the problem behavior has not changed. With some frequency, during the theme of love in othello essay age 3 GTKY, families are able to acknowledge the reality of a problem situation in their 2nd year that they were #x0201c;waiting to essays see#x0201d; about at of love the age 2 FCU. Agricultue? It is sometimes the repeated review of marguerite the lover movie data, demonstrating that without intervention these problems persist and often worsen over time that can elicit motivation from parents to take action. This phenomenon is an essential strength of the FCU approach: Through repeated regular contact with families using assessment-driven feedback aimed at motivational change, families who would not usually seek intervention on their own are motivated to agricultue essays change . This change in motivation is particularly important for toddlers at risk for early starting conduct problems based on their high probability of comparison on two short persistence (Shaw et al., 2003; Shaw, Lacourse, #x00026; Nagin, 2005). In addition, it is common for interventionists to spend time working with basic issues related to safety and harm reduction early in intervention (e.g., excessive conflict between divorced spouses).
We find that this initial work sets the foundation for establishing trust in the PC, for families to be open to agricultue essays viewing their child#x02019;s behavior more realistically, and for families#x02019; willingness to learn new child management strategies. It is important to note that the FCU can be adapted and tailored for use in a range of service settings such as the public school environment or community-based clinic (Dishion #x00026; Kavanagh, 2003). For example, interventionists may choose to homework top ru focus the assessment primarily on school-related behavior or only on the child#x02019;s behavior in the home. In addition, the assessment portion of the FCU could be shortened to make it easier to deliver in a typical mental health clinic or school setting. The content of the essays FCU can also be tailored to the needs of different developmental stages (toddlerhood, school age, adolescent), client populations and specific issues. For example, the FCU has been adapted to essay system examine the health-related behaviors of agricultue essays children transitioning to adolescence, with a particular focus on children#x02019;s sleep, emotion regulation, and physical activity. In this #x0201c;health promotion#x0201d; version of the FCU, the assessment and follow-up interventions focus on youth#x02019;s sleep quality, level of physical activity, and emotion regulation as a set of comparison short domains that are relevant for navigating the challenges associated with this developmental stage.
In addition to showing intervention effects on child problem behavior, parenting, and maternal depression, the agricultue essays FCU has been found to be effective for promoting change in a wide range of family structures, cultural backgrounds, and contextual risk factors as well as across a broad range of age groups (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw et al., 2008; Shaw et al., 2006). For example, the FCU is currently being used with older children and researched essay rubric adolescents in Oregon and with American Indian families living on a reservation. Agricultue? Perhaps the homework top ru most novel feature of the agricultue FCU is the flexibility it provides clinicians in tailoring interventions to the individual family#x02019;s challenges and strengths, as well as to the family#x02019;s perception of the child#x02019;s problem behavior. Researched Rubric? By integrating the agricultue use of comparison on two short motivational interviewing within an ecological framework and utilizing empirically validated methods for promoting change, the model also fits well with current conceptualizations of essays developmental psychopathology that recognize multiple risk factors and pathways leading to similar problematic outcomes for warming essay, children (Richters #x00026; Cicchetti, 1993). One important issue for the use of the information provided in this case study in clinical practice is that family participation might follow a different pattern or level of agricultue engagement outside of the research setting. ESMS families receive payment for homework top ru, their participation in the assessment and gift cards for agricultue, their participation in the feedback session.
It remains to be seen whether the comparison essay on two short stories FCU will appeal to families in pediatric or other community settings without such incentives. In addition, retention of agricultue essays families over time may be more challenging in a traditional community setting, where staff may not have the time to search for families who have moved or to conduct follow-up phone calls. Presently, the creators of the FCU are considering innovative ways to apply this model more broadly and are working to tailor the assessment and feedback process so that it is more user friendly for both therapists and parents. Ideally, the FCU assessment can be reduced to about 35 to 45 min with the essay rubric feedback session more finely tailored to specific family needs. Despite these limitations, we believe the FCU holds much promise for agricultue essays, preventing the onset of child problem behavior across developmental status of the child, the type of child problem behavior, the family#x02019;s cultural and socioeconomic background, and the setting for contact with families. For Global Essay? Future follow-up studies of the ESMS efficacy trial will test whether intervention effects found for reductions in early child problem behavior and maternal parenting and depression will endure across time and setting as children transition to the school-age period. However, as such effects appear to be evident across adolescence for a similar sample of at-risk youth (Connell et al., in press), we are optimistic about the FCU#x02019;s effectiveness and use in agricultue other settings with other at-risk populations for promoting child and family well-being.
Moreover, as the presented case illustrates, the FCU can be a powerful preventative intervention for families who might not otherwise seek services for their children by addressing motivation and giving families flexible intervention plans that match their unique situation. This research was supported by grant DA16110 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to the third, fourth, and fifth authors. We gratefully acknowledge the Early Steps staff and the families who participated in this project. This article may be used for homework top ru, research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources.
The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. Anne M. Gill, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Luke W. Hyde, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Daniel S. Shaw, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Thomas J. Dishion, Department of Special Education, University of Oregon.
Melvin N. Agricultue? Wilson, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia.