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On knowing and not knowing about obeah. This essay introduces Obeah: knowledge, power, and writing in the early Atlantic World , a special issue responding to recent scholarly interest in questions obeah and related creole and African-derived medical and religious practices common among enslaved Africans in the pre-emancipation Caribbean. It describes obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in short term paperwork the global Atlantic world, outlining possibilities for questions how scholars might study the texts that represent these practices. We position this special issue at the confluence of several recent interdisciplinary scholarly conversations: the reconfiguration of relations between religion and science, reconsiderations of colonial archives and their representation of subordinated peoples, and new scholarship about obeah, a medical and religious complex employed by enslaved Africans, primarily in the West Indies. In recent years, scholars of the is necessary essay early Atlantic world have demonstrated the inseparability of religion and science for the inhabitants of questions in essays, that world.
Historians of science have reconceived the disciplines as fields that were not stable and separate by the end of the Enlightenment but as stabilizing entities that defined themselves by drawing upon techniques from other fields. 1 1. On the baltimore disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and asking questions in essays, Warner, This is Enlightenment and aetna short paperwork, Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” View all notes Indeed, recent studies of key religious and scientific figures, from Jonathan Edwards and Cotton Mather to Benjamin Franklin and Francis Daniel Pastorius, have shown that these men integrated multiple fields to produce their intellectual work. 2 2. See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . View all notes And, as James H. Sweet’s study of African healer Domingos Alvares shows, lesser known healers likewise combined what we could now call medicine and religion. These fields were mutually constitutive and in essays, interconnected, shaping and partitioning the Atlantic World in aetna short disability paperwork its denominational and epistemological contours. 3 3. See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in American Literature,” a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. View all notes.
Meanwhile, other scholars have begun to explore new methods for reading colonial archives and new strategies for recovering and studying the asking questions knowledge and beliefs of unfree and minority peoples. Scholars such as Ann Laura Stoler, Joseph Epstein, and Betty Joseph – the latter two focusing in particular on Caribbean archives – position archiving as an teacher cover buzzwords ongoing process that produces documents with histories and questions, itineraries of their own rather than stable, complete entities with secure meanings. Thus, these scholars, as Stoler puts it, read “along the deforestation is necessary essay grain,” in order to uncover how “[c]olonial archives were sites of command – but of countermand as well.” 4 4. See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . Asking Questions In Essays? View all notes While maintaining a skeptical awareness of the ways that imperial archives sought to define and discipline its subjects and sources, these scholars also show that archives represent moments in which attempts at discipline failed, when people were caught off guard, anxious, and uncertain. One culmination of these insights about disciplinarity and colonial archives is found in studies of essays, obeah, which have instigated a vibrant, interdisciplinary conversation about forms of power and asking questions, knowledge in the Caribbean. Scholars from bogie thesis, anthropology, history, literary studies, and religious studies have recognized the key role that obeah played in shaping the world that colonists and Africans inhabited and the texts that represented that world. Revising earlier scholarship that, utilizing a transparent reading of asking questions, colonial texts, dismissed obeah as African superstition and black magic, scholars from Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby to Tim Watson and Diana Paton have shown how obeah and its representations allowed colonists and Africans alike to aetna term disability paperwork, claim rhetorical, legal, and epistemological power. 5 5. For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of Slavery. These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about in essays African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against European epistemological categories, from “religion,” to “witchcraft,” to design, “Africa.” They also emphasized the asking essential Africanity of romeo and juliet conflicts essay, obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handler’s and asking, Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. See Handler and Bilby, “On the romeo essay Early Use” and “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for asking questions scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and Bilby’s methodological skepticism of bogie design thesis, colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims.
See, for asking example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and and juliet essay, Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the asking questions essays in Paton and Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” View all notes. Co-edited by university of maryland college essay two literary scholars whose scholarly work focuses on medicine and on religion, respectively, this special issue joins and expands these conversations, by analyzing previously unconsidered archives about obeah, by asking questions in essays accounting for the disciplinary work that colonial accounts of obeah performed by managing African women’s bodies, and by tracing how the power of religion and science manifests itself in the Atlantic World. As all of the articles in aetna paperwork this special issue demonstrate, the archive on obeah contains accounts, reports, and documents that register and circulate epistemological anxieties that sometimes remained outside colonists’ textual and political control. The texts recording such anxieties occupy a space that is part of asking in essays, this archive yet that also extends beyond it. It is this space – one that is experiential, bureaucratic, material, and textual – that the articles in this special issue investigate and that, we argue, manifests colonial attempts to transform obeah into plagiarism a set of asking questions in essays, knowable practices, on the one hand, and the range of of maryland college, practices, beliefs, and knowledge that Africans employed as a form of power in the Atlantic World, on the other. Asking Questions? In this introduction, we describe obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic World before discussing some of the short term paperwork ways in asking in essays which obeah and textual forms are entangled.
As we think this special issue demonstrates, this entanglement offers a particularly productive site at which to analyze obeah’s powers and cover letter, the representation of questions, those powers. How to write the history of obeah. Is Necessary For Development Essay? “Obeah” refers to a set of practices employed by Africans for asking questions ends that enslaved peoples perceived as socially useful, from healing and revenge, to protection and rebellion. These practices were constituted by is necessary for development what we would now designate as separate medical and asking in essays, religious components: the knowledge and application of herbal remedies; singing or chanting prayers or powerful words; a diagnosis of physical ailments; and mediation with non-human powers. For Africans, however (and for many European colonists as well), these practices did not belong in separate categories but were mutually constitutive. This was the case because natural and supernatural, human and nonhuman realms were not perceived as separate but as realms that mutually influenced one another. Neither were the practices associated with obeah simply “good” or “bad”; obeah practitioners accessed neutral supernatural forces and attempted to employ those forces to short, accomplish various goals. As Dianne Stewart points out, obeah is a “protean institutional structure encompassing ethnic and questions in essays, Pan-African religious cultures, which co-author an African-derived understanding of mystical power as the capacity to use energy dynamically.” 6 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. View all notes Indeed, Stewart finds that obeah took a variety of deforestation, forms, even being “reasserted under the mask of Christianity” during the 1831 Baptist Rebellion in Jamaica. 7 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. View all notes.
While obeah had a material existence among African communities, it also possessed separate but related meanings in colonial texts. There, the term “obeah” originated in the early eighteenth century as a word Europeans in the Caribbean applied to African practices that, they acknowledged, acted powerfully on peoples’ bodies and minds. Asking? As Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby have pointed out, “‘Obeah’ became a catch-all term for a range of supernatural-related ideas and behaviors that were not of European origin and which [whites] heavily criticized and condemned.” 8 8. Handler and conflicts, Bilby, “On the Early Use,” 87. Questions? View all notes In the early eighteenth century, colonists variously compared obeah to folk medicine, superstition, and healing practices; after Tacky’s Rebellion in 1760 (in which an obeah man allegedly gave rebels a potion to protect them from planters’ bullets), they increasingly connected obeah to university of maryland baltimore county college, witchcraft and to poison in the British and French West Indies, respectively. As Diana Paton has shown, different European epistemologies and encounters with African practices are responsible for these varying definitions of asking, obeah. 9 9. See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” View all notes. Cover Letter? Colonists primarily experienced obeah through its effects: ill or frightened slaves, people who refused to work, and asking questions in essays, outright rebellions inspired by seemingly mysterious leaders. As they sought to plagiarism, explain these phenomena, they recounted Africans’ reports that an obeah practitioner was behind a particular event and, later, speculated that obeah was to questions, blame for unusual happenings. Romeo Essay? In doing so, colonists also sought to asking questions in essays, incorporate obeah into European epistemologies, with the goal of identifying the natural causes that, they argued, were the primary powers at work in the world. In the British West Indies, they applied natural philosophical methodologies for describing preternatural phenomena, or those with occult – hidden or unknown – causes in order to disability, account for obeah practitioners, their actions, and the resulting effects. The analysis of preternatural phenomena had a long history in England, where such events had possessed a reputation for being aligned with magic and asking in essays, divination since the sixteenth century.
Because preternatural phenomena had invisible causes, they fell somewhere between supernatural, or divine, phenomena (which also lacked visible causes) and natural phenomena (which were also said to essays, be result of asking in essays, actions by aetna term paperwork created beings, from questions, humans to angels and devils). In the bogie thesis course of the seventeenth century, however, preternatural phenomena were “naturalized”; that is, their angelic and demonic causes were excluded, leaving only natural or human causes as possibly responsible for the preternatural, even when those causes were undiscoverable (and they often were). 10 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes At the same time, preternatural phenomena came to play a key role in the Baconian project of collecting unusual natural particulars in order to gain insights into the hidden workings of nature. By the eighteenth century, philosophers began to asking in essays, argue that their work did not extend to plagiarism essays, seeking out supernatural causes; one’s focus was more properly restricted to natural causes, those that could be verified by multiple witnesses and tests. Preternatural phenomena could be part of such projects, for their natural causes could, ideally, be discovered and analyzed.
Notwithstanding this confidence in the possibility of asking questions in essays, discovering hidden natural causes, philosophers found it no easy or straightforward task to locate and decipher them. As Lorraine Daston points out, natural and term disability paperwork, supernatural causes were not mutually exclusive, and natural causes were not mechanistic (but indeed could seem quite unnatural, extending to include the imagination and wondrous events). 11 11. See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes As a result, philosophers worried less about whether they would mistake divine and demonic causes for one another than whether they would be deceived into asking in essays categorizing a phenomenon as supernatural when it was not. For Development Essay? Thus if colonial writers drew on established natural philosophical methods to guide them in analyzing preternatural phenomena and in locating their natural causes, the discovery of the causes for such events was by no means a straightforward process with an assured end. And, unlike their counterparts in Europe, colonists were immersed in worlds with ontologies that did not recognize divisions between natural and asking questions, supernatural worlds but whose explanations for phenomena extended to cover, include non-human as well as human agents.
12 12. See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” View all notes Colonists faced the questions in essays challenge of incorporating obeah into eighteenth-century empirical epistemologies and consequently of discovering and deforestation for development essay, representing its natural causes in a context in asking in essays which those practicing and drawing on obeah did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural causes. University Baltimore College Essay? As Katharine Gerbner explains in her contribution to this issue, Afro-Caribbean people likewise faced the challenge of incorporating colonists into asking questions their epistemologies: enslaved Africans in Jamaica called Moravian missionary George Caries “obea,” a term that he defined as a “Seer,” a seemingly surprising turn given obeah’s connotations with Afro-Caribbean practices, especially witchcraft. Significantly, as Gerbner shows, Caries’ case shows that obeah was not only a practice but also the “frame through which Afro-Caribbeans interpreted European religious and medical practice,” a frame that requires us to understand European natural historical and university baltimore college essay, religious practices as encompassed within the questions category of county college, obeah. Colonists addressed the asking in essays challenges of representing obeah by is necessary arguing that even if enslaved people ascribed obeah’s powers to questions in essays, supernatural forces, a natural cause for its effects existed and could be discovered. They developed several strategies for conflicts discovering and asking questions in essays, describing these causes: they linked obeah’s apparent power to conflicts essay, Africans’ allegedly faulty understandings to suggest that Africans mistook as supernatural what were only hidden natural causes. Colonists also represented themselves as capable of discovering these true, if invisible, natural causes in obeah men’s materials. For example, Edward Long suggested that, while Africans feared obeah men’s ability to wield “magic,” such alleged “supernatural powers” were “only the natural operations of some poisonous juice, or preparation.” 13 13. Long, History of Jamaica , 416.
View all notes Similarly, James Grainger noted that Africans believed in “magic spells,” and in essays, he called on poetry to: “Transpierce the gloom, which ignorance and fraud/Have render’d awful; tell the laughing world/Of what these wonder-working charms are made.” 14 14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. View all notes By exposing the plagiarism natural causes behind “wonder-working charms,” colonists would prove obeah to be a phenomena that could be brought into the light, studied, and explained with recourse to natural causes. Such knowledge of obeah would likewise allow colonists to control its effects – to limit the circulation of and knowledge about “some poisonous juice,” for example. However, colonists also discovered that investigating and describing obeah practitioners’ materials rarely led them to natural causes. For example, after confidently charging the muses with revealing the questions in essays components of obeah practitioners’ “wonder-working charms,” Grainger went on to list those components: Colonial accounts of obeah from the mid-eighteenth to the nineteenth century exhibit this same pattern: an insistence that obeah is decipherable in terms of essay, natural causes and an enumeration of in essays, material objects with ostensibly natural properties, in teacher cover letter buzzwords addition to a description of those objects as obtaining power as a combination or mixture. 16 16.
For an important reading of obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” View all notes These powerful mixtures exist both within colonial texts and in the material practices of enslaved Africans. For example, in one of the earliest British printed accounts of obeah, Griffith Hughes described the “Magical Apparatus” of an “Obeah Doctor”: “two Earthen Basons, a Handful of different Kinds of Leaves, and a Piece of Soap.” 17 17. Hughes, Natural History , 15. Asking? View all notes By the end of the bogie eighteenth century, lists of obeah materials had become a trope in British colonial descriptions of obeah. Questions? Bryan Edwards wrote that obeah included the practice of “hanging up feathers, bottles, eggshells, c. c. in order to intimidate Negroes of a thievish disposition from plundering huts, hog-styes, or provision-grounds.” 18 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. University Of Maryland Baltimore County College? View all notes Meanwhile, in a text that spawned numerous accounts of obeah and that has been central to scholarly analyses, including several in this introduction and in this special issue more broadly, physician Benjamin Moseley explained that “OBI, for the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax.” 19 19. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.
View all notes. Writing in the 1750s, Hughes suggested that the obeah man used his “Magical Apparatus” as a cover for his real strategy of hiding “Pieces of broken Glass, Nails, and Splinters of Stones” on the woman’s body and pretending to pull them out with the strength of his concoction. 20 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes For Hughes, obeah entailed using various material objects to asking questions in essays, deceive one’s patients; the true source of obeah’s power was the woman’s mind or imagination, which was convinced first that she was ill and of maryland baltimore county essay, second that the obeah man had successfully cured her. Interestingly, by questions the 1790s when Edwards and Moseley were writing, accounts of the process with which obeah practitioners deceived patients had all but disappeared from colonial reports, leaving only the list of the materials in the obeah man’s magical apparatus.
Colonists’ focus on the objects in obeah practitioners’ apparatuses can be seen as enacting the empiricist principle that nature could be known by a close and careful examination of paperwork, things themselves. Knowledge was produced not through recourse to asking in essays, texts but by aetna term disability experiencing or interacting with things in in essays the world. 21 21. See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” View all notes The lists in conflicts colonial texts attempt to questions in essays, make obeah into plagiarism essays something that readers can sense, observe, and thus convert into asking questions in essays knowledge, and these lists further suggest that obeah’s causes are available through an observation of its materials. However, far from demystifying obeah, the texts attest to the ways in which obeah exceeds empiricism: as the examples above show, the lists do not uncover obeah’s hidden natural causes but instead display something of of maryland college essay, how obeah’s power works, that is, how the objects that constitute obeah have a power that exceeds their individual parts. Considering the “grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax” was unlikely to lead observers to any conclusions about obeah’s natural causes. 22 22. Asking In Essays? Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. View all notes Instead, these textual collections mirrored the process whereby obeah practitioners gathered objects into mixtures whose power exceeded the sum of their parts and that drew on both natural and supernatural worlds for their efficacy. Colonists’ representations of obeah, intended to demystify and discover its causes, remained in thrall to those practices, replicating them and circulating their representations throughout the Atlantic World. Indeed, as J. Alexandra McGhee shows in her article, obeah could “infect” colonial minds, texts, and performances, and these representations of obeah highlighted concerns about the effects of tropical climates on colonial bodies and essays, minds and asking, about the difficulties of maintaining order on plantations.
Writers attempted to allay these fears by aligning obeah with multiple physical diseases, including yaws and yellow fever, even as doing so further transmitted dangerous representations of and juliet, obeah and indicated obeah’s power over colonists. Colonists’ failure to locate obeah’s natural causes is asking, manifested formally, in hybrid texts whose generic mixtures reflect the assemblages out of which obeah was constituted – its collections of natural objects, chants, “jargon,” and ceremonies. 23 23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. View all notes In The Sugar-Cane , for teacher cover letter buzzwords example, Grainger added scientific footnotes to asking questions in essays, his poetic text, in which he stated that obeah men carried a staff marked with “frogs, snakes, c. The blacks imagine that its blow, if not mortal, will at least occasion long and troublesome disorders.” 24 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144.
View all notes Grainger attributed the power of the obeah man’s staff to Africans’ “belief in magic,” thus contradicting his poetic description of obeah as composed of natural and supernatural elements to aetna term, support instead the argument that obeah’s powers could be attributed to Africans’ imaginations. Asking In Essays? But Grainger also admitted that obeah men could “do good” on bogie design, plantations as long as they were supervised by plantation owners. 25 25. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. View all notes By placing prose footnotes that acknowledged obeah’s usefulness and that attributed it to Africans’ imaginations alongside his poetic list of obeah’s materials and description of asking questions in essays, their preternatural powers, Grainger formally represented the is necessary essay debate over obeah’s powers and the ways in which obeah escaped Euro-colonial epistemological categories.
The poetic and scientific forms in The Sugar-Cane register colonists’ attempts to discover obeah’s natural causes and to categorize obeah as irrational knowledge that preyed on unsuspecting or naive Africans even as these forms also represent colonists’ recognition that obeah was a powerful, valuable phenomena constituted out of asking in essays, mixtures of natural and preternatural powers. Design? Similarly, in his 1800 novel Obi: or the History of Three-Fingered Jack, William Earle mixed the form of the epistolary novel with footnotes, in order to asking, represent multiple explanations of obeah’s powers. The novel depicts the capture and execution of an obeah man, and Earle inserted 11 pages of essays, footnotes below the obeah man’s story. Questions? 26 26. See Earle, Obi , 72. The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by is necessary essay Earle and Hemet) or the questions in essays 1804 Worcester edition (published by university baltimore county college essay Isaiah Thomas). View all notes These footnotes include a long description of obeah’s qualities copied from the accounts of historians Bryan Edwards and asking questions, Edward Long. While the footnotes allow the narrative of Euro-colonial triumph over plagiarism essays, obeah to proceed undeterred, they also represent moments when colonists failed to categorize obeah or to asking in essays, explain it in terms of university baltimore, natural causes, thus introducing preternatural powers into the novel.
In Earle’s novel, the obeah man is successfully captured and executed, and asking questions in essays, obeah is thesis, a practice that can be eradicated by killing its practitioners. However, in the footnotes, which recount instances in which colonists failed to control or explain obeah, it remains a power that exceeds and asking questions, escapes colonial epistemologies, one that cannot be controlled by attending to natural causes. As Janelle Rodriques argues in her contribution to this issue, obeah appears in colonial narratives as a strongly disruptive force, one that unravels the categories and forms of social authority it often is invoked to support. Finally, we might see the novels in which obeah plays a key role, such as Maria Edgeworth’s gothic novel Belinda (1801) and romances such as Victor Hugo’s Bug-Jargal (1826) and Cynric Williams’s Hamel, the Obeah Man (1827) as evidence of colonists’ failure to romeo and juliet, account for in essays obeah in essay natural or civil histories or legal reports. Questions? As Tim Watson has pointed out, the “attempt to bogie thesis, narrate the Caribbean from the point of view of asking questions in essays, plausibility, verifiability, and reason – realism, in other words – turns into the very forms it seeks to avoid: romantic narrative and its cognates, the essays gothic, the questions sentimental, and the melodrama.” 27 27. Is Necessary For Development? Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. View all notes As obeah moved from asking in essays, medical treatises and natural histories into short gothic novels and romances, its formal trajectory attested to asking in essays, colonists’ failure to locate natural causes for and juliet the forms of power they encountered in questions the Caribbean.
The formal mixtures that define the literatures of obeah replicate textually the ontological mixture that constituted obeah for both colonists and enslaved peoples. For colonists, combining poetic verses or the novel with footnotes allowed them to represent the confusing set of practices they confronted in obeah: the presence of objects with properties that could be identified in terms of natural causes alongside practices and powers that they categorized as preternatural. Africans’ bodies were central to these contests over power: as Jeffrey Cottrell’s contribution shows, colonial writers responded to the material practices and powers of African women’s bodies by imagining obeah as an increasingly powerful force and by developing ever more complex strategies for maintaining control over enslaved women’s bodies. As each text imagines the plagiarism essays removal of obeah from the in essays Caribbean, it both acknowledges obeah’s immense power and attempts to subordinate it by exercising control over African bodies. Romeo And Juliet Essay? So, too, did writing about obeah offer colonial authors the chance to meditate on asking questions, the vulnerability of white bodies; as Justine Murison demonstrates in this issue, representing obeah forced these writers to short term disability, confront the conflicted relation between the disenchanted minds they imagined themselves to possess and the unsettling openness that marked the bodies of those inhabiting the pre-emancipation Caribbean world. The literatures of obeah represent and recirculate, for their readers in asking questions Europe and for colonists in the Caribbean, some of those powers even as they seek to identify and categorize (and thus reduce) them. The power of obeah in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic World thus resided both in the natural and supernatural worlds that Africans accessed with material and spiritual practices and in the formal mixtures of aetna short, colonial texts. Indeed, for colonists and for European readers, obeah’s power was located precisely in asking questions the assemblage of and juliet conflicts essay, obeah practices and colonial representations of obeah – at a point that Stephan Palmie describes as “a singularly dense mesh of social praxis with its representation.” 28 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. View all notes.
What, then, does it mean to try to account for obeah’s power in the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Atlantic World, located as it is at the intersection of social practice and asking in essays, literary and cultural representation? Like other subaltern formations, obeah’s early history was largely chronicled in print by colonial writers, 29 29. Discussions of obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and served as the basis for fictional and theatrical works about obeah in the colonies. Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for a detailed survey of the many iterations of Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of literary accounts of obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. View all notes many of whom had complex, limited, or frankly hostile relations to the practices they described. 30 30.
While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of aetna term paperwork, nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. View all notes Any attempt to access the social practices that colonial observers called “obeah,” then, has to asking in essays, contend with the limits of these source materials, the ways in university county essay which their “dense mesh” of asking questions in essays, practice and representation entangles historical fact in colonial fantasy. As Palmie puts it, “much of what our evidence actually tells us is is necessary for development, that their masters or social superordinates (including anthropologists) strongly believed that slaves, peasants, and workers might believe in asking questions in essays such things.” 31 31. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. View all notes Seeking evidence of obeah in the historical record, in other words, scholars find instead a prototype of the colonial mind and the fears that animated it.
This enmeshment of practice and representation enjoins those who would seek to trace obeah’s powers to adopt a radical modesty; since those who believed in and practiced obeah did so “in ways that largely escape the documentary record,” 32 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. View all notes Palmie argues, one of the most important things we can learn about obeah is “what we, in fact, do not (and possibly cannot) know about it.” 33 33. Deforestation? Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. View all notes. We find ourselves in full and enthusiastic agreement with Palmie, and with others like him, in his insistence that we not take the source materials that record obeah’s presence in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic as transparent accounts of obeah practices or the beliefs that motivated them. Yet we are also motivated by recent scholarly work that insists, as Simon Gikandi does, that “the figure of the slave could come to complicate what an archive meant.” 34 34. Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in asking questions this special issue.
View all notes As the founders of the Early Caribbean Digital Archive observe in their contribution to for development essay, this issue, we must attend both to the knowledges these sources seek to asking questions in essays, create and buzzwords, the ones they seek to make inaccessible. We think that it might be possible to work modestly with these sources while also recognizing their limits – to turn to this archive for something other than an account of praxis that can stand apart from the representation that harbors it. If these representations do not offer direct transcripts of the social practices they claim to chronicle, their formal failures register the pressure of obeah’s powers, the ways in which genres such as natural history and romantic and gothic fictions were pushed to their epistemological limits as colonial authors tried to render social formations they only dimly understood. 35 35. Here we think of Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology.
See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25. View all notes Likewise, the fact remains that the source materials that remain for contemporary scholars also served as loci at which European, Caribbean, and asking questions, American audiences came into relation with obeah and powers like it. As they read about obeah in medical treatises, newspaper articles, and chapbooks, or saw it travestied in pantomimes or cartoons, audiences throughout the Atlantic found their bodies assembled together with obeah’s unfamiliar powers, through the conduit of the romeo conflicts essay medium that brought obeah to asking, them. Holding a newspaper or a chapbook in their hands, or joining the audience of one of the design pantomimes that told of slave revolutions fueled by obeah rituals, readers and viewers opened themselves, if only for questions a moment, to short term, experiencing obeah as part of the material world in which they read and that they shared with others. 36 36. Here we’re interested in the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 21–22. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” View all notes Obeah may have been something they rejected or accepted, something to which they turned for practical knowledge of West Indies life or simply for gothic amusement, but in each of these cases coming to know it meant enacting the habits and in essays, postures and behaviors that fit newspapers and pantomimes into university county college essay their worlds. Questions In Essays? If these sources can never give us obeah practices in pure, unadulterated form – obeah in its own right, in its intimate connection to the historical actors who used it, revised it, and believed in it – what they may offer us is a portrait of of maryland baltimore essay, how those practices and beliefs registered within the Atlantic World, of the entanglements and questions, affiliations that grew up around them.
We can find in these sources, in other words, the teacher cover letter outlines of the asking in essays assemblages they sought to generate – the felt texture of the bogie thesis common world into which they imagined readers, colonial authorities, and obeah practices and practitioners. 37 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by in essays Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour. This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of thesis, many bodies and forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for instance, Reassembling the Social ). Asking? View all notes. We would suggest, then, that the assemblages that grew up around and plagiarism, through these colonial accounts might themselves offer one way to asking questions, learn more about obeah and deforestation is necessary for development, powers like it. Here we think that literary and literary-historical scholarship of the asking questions kind this special issue presents has something distinctive to offer interdisciplinary-minded scholars who are interested in these questions. 38 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about teacher buzzwords obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of this special issue, among others. View all notes Our turn in this direction is motivated, at least in part, by the by now well-recognized asymmetries between historians’ and literary scholars’ treatment of each other's’ work.
Eric Slauter has argued that the differences between literary scholars and historians – and, in in essays recent years, the willingness of literary scholars to cite historians compared to plagiarism, the general paucity of citations from asking questions in essays, historians to literary scholars, a differential he terms the “trade gap” – depend at least in part on a differing approach to source materials (they historicize different things). Yet Elizabeth Maddock Dillon insists that what’s really at play here is short term paperwork, “a large area of asking in essays, noncoincidence between the aims and desires of literary studies and historical studies,” one that focuses literary scholars’ attention on “an essential aspect of the community generated by bogie the advent of an Atlantic World: namely a set of signifying practices (and erasures) that shaped the asking questions world we inhabit today.” 39 39. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes Dillon’s insistence on the primary concern of literary scholars with aesthetics – in particular, with “the analysis of form and genre” – registers her insistence on two twinned principles: that the political realm in is necessary which we come to live together is strongly shaped by signifying practices, and questions, that literary scholars are particularly well positioned to explain these practices’ power and significance. 40 40. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes For Dillon, as for many other literary scholars, the structures and patterns that guide representation matter because they shape the terms on which people sensed and perceived the world they shared in of maryland essay common, the sites at asking questions in essays, which they could become social beings. As Cindy Weinstein and Chris Looby put it: “ aesthetic [becomes] a usable term precisely because its history involves the is necessary for development discipline of a careful attention to surfaces and appearances, to the sensible textures of things, and its history also preserves the conviction that social and political life always has a sensory and perceptual dimension.” 41 41. Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. View all notes. We are interested, then, in the ways in which these archives record how colonial writers sought to make obeah sensible – to weave it into the Atlantic World readers and practitioners shared. Take again, for instance, one of the most widely circulated late-eighteenth-century accounts of obeah and its powers, Benjamin Moseley’s description of asking, obeah in his 1799 Treatise on Sugar . 42 42.
In addition to its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in romeo and juliet multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of Moseley’s discussion of obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, “Histories of questions in essays, Three-Fingered Jack” and Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. 21. View all notes As we discuss above, Moseley’s account offers a classic representation of obeah-as-assemblage, listing the ostensibly natural objects that an obeah might contain and making visible the ways in which obeah’s powers confound empiricist modes of observation. Moseley’s text also , and paradoxically, opens up the possibility that we can see how colonial authors sought to orient their readerships to the phenomenon they were describing – the way that the tenuous project of making obeah knowable, with all its limits, also sought to university of maryland county college, teach audiences how to in essays, understand how obeah figured into the world in which they lived. Here is the full passage in which Moseley’s list of an obeah’s contents appears: OBI, for the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is cover letter, made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax, the hearts of birds, and some potent roots, weeds, and bushes, of asking questions, which Europeans are at this time ignorant; but which were known, for the same purposes, to the ancients. Certain mixtures of teacher cover, these ingredients are burnt; or buried very deep in questions the ground; or hung up a chimney; or laid under the design thesis threshold of the asking door of the party, to suffer; with incantation songs, or curses, performed at midnight, regarding the aspects of the moon … A negro, who thinks himself bewitched by plagiarism OBI, will apply to an Obi-man, or Obi-woman, for questions in essays cure. […] I saw the OBI of the famous negro robber, Three fingered JACK, the terror of Jamaica in 1780 and 1781. […] His OBI consisted of the end of of maryland, a goat’s horn, filled with a compound of grave dirt, ashes, the blood of a black cat, and questions in essays, human fat; all mixed into a kind of paste. A black cat’s foot, a dried toad, a pig’s tail, a slip of of maryland, parchment of kid’s skin, with characters marked in blood on it, were also in his Obian bag. 43 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173. Asking? View all notes. Design? In moments such as these we see not what obeah was in its own right, but rather the web of relations to which colonial authors thought it belonged. Turning an eye toward these texts’ aesthetic properties shows how they seek to asking questions, invest their audiences in what is, at its heart, an aetna term disability paperwork orienting project: one in which the powers that these texts struggle and questions in essays, sometimes fail to trace back to bogie design, the natural world are still brought into their readers’ everyday lives in some form.
When he lists the raw ingredients that compose an obeah, Moseley asks his readers to see the single objects he has extracted from it – a slip of parchment, an eggshell, a feather – as individual representatives of asking questions, larger categories of familiar objects. As he makes the obeah’s disaggregated components available to sense perception, Moseley renders obeah, in some senses, ordinary – part of the background of objects one encounters in one’s everyday life. Plagiarism? Yet mixed into these moments of recognition are a set of descriptions that cannot be directly verified through the senses: one has no way to know that what Moseley describes as “the blood of a black cat” came from a cat that was not brown or gray, or that it came from a cat at asking, all. These are the moments at which, as we’ve noted above, the text veers toward the romantic and especially gothic modes that Tim Watson discusses. And they are the moments in which obeah’s recognizability as a part of the material world metropolitans and colonials shared relied both on the familiarity of material objects and the legibility of particular genres and tropes: the mythical powers of grave dirt, the magical efficacy of a black cat. Reading obeah, in other words, meant knowing it as a part of other stories, as something that could be recognized in university of maryland college essay the fictions and narratives that circulated in one’s culture.
As they cross-pollinated obeah with the asking questions gothic, in particular, these texts aligned it with a cluster of buzzwords, possibly-real, possibly-imaginary dangers, horrors, and thrills that, when they appear in asking in essays fictive texts, become at once part of how the aetna world might be and something that might be imaginary, unreal. In other words, they teach readers to adopt an attitude of provisionality, to perceive obeah as something of asking questions, interest that may or may not be real. At first glance, this provisionality might appear to be something obvious, something secular moderns can take for granted. Yet here we do well to remember that the forms of recognition and orientation Moseley’s text chronicles had to bogie thesis, be brought into in essays being. Essays? And this, we think, is part of questions in essays, what a distinctively literary take on obeah may offer scholars interested in teacher the legacy of these and other powers – a better understanding of the social formation and embodied orientations that grew up, tenuously and imperfectly, to asking questions in essays, try to integrate them into is necessary for development essay the Atlantic World. If we agree with Palmie that “the ‘other powers’ wielded by the subaltern other do not easily yield to ‘objective knowledge,’ unless the observer herself … agrees to come under its influence,” then one way we might begin to apprehend those powers is within the web of influences, literary and otherwise, that shaped those who would have encountered them in the past.
45 45. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 325. View all notes To do so may be to questions, recognize, as the contributors to this special issue do, that our knowledge of obeah’s past may be a particularly entangled history – one in which praxis and representation can never stand fully apart. We thank the editors of Atlantic Studies for fostering and supporting this special issue, as well as Kelly Bezio, Tim Cassedy, Gabriel Cervantes, Nora Gilbert, Melissa Gniadek, Lucia Hodgson, Giffen Maupin, Dahlia Porter, Debapriya Sarkar, and Daniel Walden for their feedback on this introduction. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author. Toni Wall Jaudon is an plagiarism assistant professor of English at asking questions, Northwestern University. Her essays have appeared in American Literature and American Literary History . Currently, she is at aetna disability, work on a study of the liveliness of religious objects in questions the nineteenth-century Americas. Kelly Wisecup is an assistant professor of English at Northwestern University. She is the author of Medical Encounters: Knowledge and Identity in Early American Literatures (University of Massachusetts Press, 2013) and the editor of “Good News from New England” by Edward Winslow: A Scholarly Edition (University of Massachusetts Press, 2014). 1. On the design thesis disciplines, see the asking questions in essays essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” 2. See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . 3. See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to county college, current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in American Literature,” a recent special issue of asking questions, Literature and Medicine coedited by aetna short term paperwork Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. 4. See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and asking questions in essays, Joseph, Reading the East India Company . Plagiarism Essays? 5. Asking? For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of Slavery.
These scholars, to essays, varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about African belief and questions, knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against bogie design thesis, European epistemological categories, from “religion,” to “witchcraft,” to “Africa.” They also emphasized the asking in essays essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into of maryland county college essay the West Indies. Handler’s and Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the term “obeah” and asking in essays, its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. See Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use” and “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for aetna disability paperwork scholarship of the in essays past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and Bilby’s methodological skepticism of colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims. See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and aetna term paperwork, Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the asking essays in Paton and Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. University College? 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. 8. Questions In Essays? Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use,” 87. 9. See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 11.
See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 12. See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” 13. Long, History of Jamaica , 416. 14. Plagiarism? Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. Questions? 15. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.387–392. 16. For an important reading of obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” 17.
Hughes, Natural History , 15. Deforestation For Development? 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. 19. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. 21. Asking? See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” 22. Deforestation For Development? Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.
23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144. 25. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. 26. Questions In Essays? See Earle, Obi , 72.
The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the baltimore county college 1800 London edition (published by Earle and asking questions in essays, Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. For Development? 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. 29. Discussions of obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and served as the basis for fictional and theatrical works about obeah in the colonies. Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for a detailed survey of the many iterations of Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of asking in essays, Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of aetna short term disability paperwork, literary accounts of obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. Questions In Essays? 30.
While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about deforestation is necessary enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of in essays, herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. 31. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. 33. Romeo And Juliet Conflicts? Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. 34.
Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in this special issue. 35. Here we think of asking questions, Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology. See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25. 36. Here we’re interested in the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. Deforestation Is Necessary For Development Essay? See Bennett, 21–22. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour.
This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for instance, Reassembling the Social ). Asking In Essays? 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and letter, both of the editors of this special issue, among others. 39. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 40. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 41. Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. 42. In addition to its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in asking questions multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of teacher buzzwords, Moseley’s discussion of asking, obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . Baltimore College? See Carey and in essays, Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. 21. 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173.
44. Writing about the minkisi used among the short term BaKongo, Wyatt MacGaffey underscores how ritually empowered African objects garnered their force from deliberate processes of assemblage. See “African Objects,” especially 126, and “Fetishism Revisited,” 173. For an account of the cross-pollination between Kongo minkisi and conjuring practices among Atlantic Africans in the Georgia and South Carolina Lowcountry, see Young, “ Minkisi ”. Note also, however, the concerns Stephan Palmie raises about attempts to divine the questions African origins of the diverse and historically specific practices that evolved among enslaved Africans in the Americas (see, especially, the romeo and juliet introduction to Africas of the Americas ). What is clear from Moseley’s account is how deeply invested he was in questions in essays disassembly as a way of working against the power that the obeah seemed to bear. 45.
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September 25,2014 Subject : English 110 The Uniform Compulsion Rule High - School . is the greatest point in questions in essays our life . It is the time of growth as well as challenges too. Deforestation Is Necessary Essay? Completing my high - school studies from asking in essays Guinness Int’l Higher Secondary School which is teacher cover letter located at asking in essays, Kathmandu, Nepal was one of the memorable experience of my life . As a high - school student there, I get to enjoy and utilize different range of deforestation is necessary facilities like extra curriculum activities, computer. College , Education , Grammar school 911 Words | 4 Pages. Perspective The way I see it, Paul Trout’s essay , “Student Anti-Intellectualism and the Dumbing Down of the University”, is somewhat tedious. . The fact that he simply states an equal idea in every paragraph is bothersome to the everyday reader. Asking? However, I do strongly agree with the whole concept of the essay . Essay? I see it in my everyday life ; whether I’m at asking in essays, my high school or even just at short term, extra-curricular activities. Students nowadays just don’t care. When I was reading this essay , I found part of it to be true about. College , Education , High school 1717 Words | 4 Pages. My High School Years We all have nice memories of when we attended high school . Memories that will . never be forgotten. Asking Questions In Essays? For most of is necessary for development us it has been a while since high school and questions, it is all a blur. We all remember a lot of things, especially things that the school did and thesis, we didn’t approve of.
Something that would annoy us, but we wouldn’t be able to do anything about it. Asking In Essays? The majority of us, I’m sure, don’t like the way the school handled the schedule, the food we had for lunch, or the teachers. Education , High school , Lunch 1198 Words | 3 Pages. elow is a free essay on is necessary for development First Day At College from Anti Essays , your source for free research papers, essays , and . term paper examples. College life is questions in essays a life of freedom. I remember my first day at college. I had looked forward to this day from my school days. Life at college meant for me a new life . Deforestation? I was no more a young boy but a young man When I entered my college for the first day, I looked around with a mixed feeling of questions perplexity and joy. The stately building with massive pillars made a. 2008 in film , Classmates , College 1067 Words | 3 Pages. 10/13/10 Essay II, draft 3 ENGL 1101 1 It was not until my junior year of high school that I started really . caring about my schoolwork.
I was very determined to plagiarism raise my grade point average and start applying myself. I started out thinking that my junior year was going to be like any other year: boring classes, days that dragged on, and dull teachers. That year, however, I came to questions in essays realize that without some of my teachers, I probably would not have worked as hard as I did in cover letter buzzwords school . When I. Education , High school , School 1409 Words | 4 Pages. write my essay , I thought of all the little choices that brought me to even want to write it in the first place. I started out my . Asking Questions? high school years at plagiarism essays, Health Careers high school , not planning on moving from there to my neighborhood high school , both out of fear for asking questions in essays, my safety and my education.
The choice to move across town was my parent’s, and deforestation is necessary, the choice to move here to WCHS was mine. Asking In Essays? That’s why I’m sitting here, late in for development essay the evening after my school and work day is over, writing an essay about my. Choice , Choice architecture , Decision making 913 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay High School vs College Having a good education is the key to becoming successful . in life . It is a proven fact. This achievement requires not only questions in essays, graduating from high school , but also from college. Moving from high school to short term paperwork college may be an exciting transition, but it is also a very difficult one. It is a challenge that the student will struggle with and eventually adjust to over time. Although there are many differences between high school and college, one should. Academic term , College , Difference 1221 Words | 3 Pages. GED vs High school diploma As we have seen today, education has become one of the most important development in every society. Questions? . For this generation, students must at least finish their high school in order to face, live, flight, and survive in teacher cover letter the real world’s competition. Unfortunately, not all students on questions in essays this planet can finish their high school due to family obligations, financial problems, and other life challenges.
Moreover, the number of uneducated people is increasing along with the growth. College , Education , Education in buzzwords the United States 781 Words | 3 Pages. reservation community I passed two Navajo youth leaning against the wall, one leg propped behind them for questions in essays, support. They wore black tee-shirts, one declaring . “Indian Pride on the Rise,” the other showing a heavy metal rock group “Twisted Sister.” Both wore high topped basketball shoes and hair free flowing to their shoulders. One spoke to me. “Hey, are you the lady who is is necessary essay talking to dropouts? You should talk to me. I'm a professional dropout.” I did. And to many others. In Essays? Their stories spoke of racial discrimination.
College , Dropout , Grammar school 943 Words | 3 Pages. Grunkemeyer Mrs. Allen AP English Language and Composition, 2 17 March 2013 The Joys of High School Think about cover letter buzzwords . Questions In Essays? high school and all the students that fill up its student body. When thinking of the students, do stereotypes and cliches come to mind? As teens form close relationships with others, they struggle to understand who they are and where they fit in; they start to and juliet form their own identity in relation to others. High school is a critical time of social development which forms these cliches. Social styles. Abercrombie Fitch , Clothing , High school 1049 Words | 3 Pages.
AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY /PERSONAL NARRATIVE Stephanie Jones ID: 111222 My name is asking questions in essays Stephanie Jones and I was born in romeo and juliet conflicts essay Small Town, MB in August . 1971. I am the eldest and my brother is three years younger. The two towns where I have resided most of my life are Small Town and Middle Town, Manitoba. Different events in my live have directed this path depending on the circumstances I found myself in. Small Town is asking in essays a small town with a little over 3000 residents. However, Middle Town is larger with approximately. Collective bargaining , College , Education 1643 Words | 5 Pages. High - school I never knew going to high - school would be such a big deal . for me.
High - school never seemed so challenging, but my first year of high - school was a challenging year, but also a fun year. Teacher Cover Buzzwords? Going to high - school was like the start of a new life , actually it was the start of a new life because I knew I would learn so much and become a mature young lady. My first year of high - school I went to Arsenal Technical High - school . I was in New Tech High , it was an academy. Graduation , High school , Secondary school 1444 Words | 4 Pages. Why Sports Are an Important Part of in essays High School Life. Sports Are an Important Part of High School Life Hard work spotlights the character of people: some turn up their . sleeves, some turn up their noses, and some don't turn up at all. Bogie? Sam Ewig explains the asking questions in essays way many people react to hard work. These habits begin to appear in university of maryland county college essay many of our lives when we are young and questions, introduced to aetna term sports such as soccer and football which challenge our physical and mental abilities. Every teenager has a sport that fits him and his personality.
For instance, if a teen were. A Great Way to Care , Adolescence , College 1330 Words | 3 Pages. Working While in High School Is Essential. Argumentative Essay : Working while in high school is essential. Travis J. Burleson Excelsior College . Abstract High school students should have the opportunity to work while still in questions in essays school . Working will teach them responsibility, money management skills, and term, give them valuable work experience and tools for questions in essays, use later in life . Plagiarism Essays? While there are a few disadvantages to questions working while still in high school , all can be controlled with parents’ help and short term disability paperwork, supervision. Questions In Essays? Overall, working while still. College , Education , Education in the United States 886 Words | 3 Pages. High School and Minority Students. in education is discussed and examples are given to aetna term prove that the asking in essays segregation is regressing all around our country.
Jonathan Kozolargues that segregation is . still a major issue in our education system, and essays, limits for achievement are being set by school districts, which is only making the achievement gap between black and white students wider. When reading Still Separate, Still Unequal, Kozol’s argument indicates that students of the minority basically are limited in what they can achieve. College , Education , Education in the United States 1591 Words | 4 Pages. How To Survive High School Organization is asking key. Make sure you have all the supplies you need. I suggest 3-ring binders for . Plagiarism? your core classes and folders with prongs for any elective classes.
Make sure to have college ruled paper and dividers if the teacher asks for in essays, you to have them. If your teacher likes to lecture, like most of and juliet conflicts essay mine, have a spiral notebook for notes. The pages are less likely to asking rip out than loose-leaf. Keep papers in chronological order, they'll be easier to find later when. College , Education in the United States , Extracurricular activity 1166 Words | 4 Pages. audience is generally for High school students, but also can be for eighth graders going into high . school that doesn’t know what to expect. I think the purpose of essays my essay was to explain my experiences of my high school career and let the in essays reader know that change is a big part in our lives. The message I think my paper is trying to plagiarism get across is that as we get older not only questions, do we change but also the romeo conflicts things we do and the people we are around.
I think the parts in my essay that helped explain my experiences. High school 2735 Words | 9 Pages. High School and School Valedictorian Competition. In It to Win It In the essay , “The Joy of Graduating” by Kate Stone Lombardi, describes the traditional high . school valedictorian competition with the most prestigious students. The fight for the position of valedictorian has intensified over the years. Danielle Gorman, an elected valedictorian at questions, Moorestown High School in New Jersey, was quoted by Lombardi of the qualifications and and juliet, standards it took to become valedictorian. The traits Gorman describes common to valedictorians were taking on too. Advanced Placement , Extracurricular activity , Grade 1368 Words | 4 Pages. visit to his old junior high school he “came upon something that he never expected to see again.” Why do you think the sight of . the questions all-black lunch table was such a surprise to deforestation for development essay him? A: because he wasn’t expecting such a thing again and that color shouldn’t play a role in what or who you hang with still.
3. Asking Questions In Essays? In Graham’s junior high school , what factors determined where students sat? A: color of the skin 4. Bogie? why didn’t Graham sit at the “Black table” when he was in junior high ? A: the reason why he didn’t. Black people , College , High school 1008 Words | 4 Pages. The Difference Between College and High School. The outline essay Thesis statement :- * The differences in asking questions in essays instructor, test and grades toward life reflect the . differences between high school and college. Instructor : who gives the deforestation for development essay information to the others * High School :- * Teacher check your completed homework * Teacher always remind us to asking in essays study * Teacher always gives exercise to baltimore essay improve our skills * College :- * Lecturer didn’t care if you don’t go to class * Lecturer gives mark for our assignment . College , Education , Grade 695 Words | 3 Pages. Increasing The Open High School Students.
? Department of Education Region VI- Western Visayas Division of IIoilo City La Paz National High School Jereos Ext., La Paz, . Iloilo City An Action Research Proposal Program Title: Home and e-Learning Program: Increasing the Open High School Students’ Promotion through Constant Monitoring Pilot School : La Paz National High School Proponent: Gemma Naciongayo-Sinamban Increasing the Open High School Students’ Promotion through Constant Monitoring I. Introduction The world is asking questions in essays getting smaller. Adolescence , Alternative education , College 786 Words | 5 Pages. Each teacher can recount numerous highs and lows in bogie design thesis their teaching career. Personally, I experienced many great moments while teaching. These . were days when I ended so happy and asking questions in essays, enthusiastic that I knew I had selected the right profession. Design Thesis? On the other hand, I had days where I definitely questioned teaching as a career. Asking In Essays? These were days where the students seemed uninterested, too talkative, or even worse a blow up occurred and nothing got accomplished. Thankfully the average combined with the deforestation for development positive. College , Education , High school 2287 Words | 5 Pages.
?Ada Vargas 9/12/12 ENGL 111-D40 Argumentative essay Sex education in high schools High . schools should provide better sexual education. Prevention is better than cure. The federal government should provide more information in schools and required sex education in the first year of high school . This is important because there are a lot of in essays sexually transmitted diseases, teenage pregnancy, and teen abortions. Boskey (2011) stated that sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are “some of the most. Abortion , Adolescence , High school 876 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance of Completing High School. A high school diploma is the basis for which much of society is based. Education is and juliet essay knowledge gain. Education gives us the . knowledge of the world around us. It develops in us a perspective of looking at life . It helps us build opinions and have points of asking view on letter buzzwords everything in life . People debate over the subject of whether education is the asking in essays only thing in life . Education is aetna disability important as it teaches us the right behavior, the good manners thus making us civilized. It teaches us how to lead our lives.
College , Education , High school 913 Words | 3 Pages. “Graduating from High School ” Graduating from high school and getting your high . school diploma is one of the most wonderful things that can be experienced in life . Questions In Essays? It is really something to essays be proud of questions after going to school for 13 years day in and day out. There are many benefits associated with graduating from high school and receiving your high school diploma. It is a moment that everyone in life should have a chance to experience and university county, it gives you more opportunities in life . When people graduate. Cher , College , Diploma 911 Words | 3 Pages.
Best High School Experience My best high school experience would be graduating. Me graduation was . the highlight of my teenage life . Questions? I was happy to be leaving high school and beginning a new chapter in my life . I was excited to step into adulthood and design thesis, be independent. Of course I mentally prepared myself for asking in essays, what was to come and I was more than prepared for college essay, all the challenges I would face with being on my own and starting college. This would be my first year in in essays college and I can say that everything. Academic dress , College , Educational stages 1372 Words | 3 Pages. High School Dropouts Until the government stops enabling . Romeo And Juliet Essay? high school dropouts with public assistance the rate will continue to increase; the asking government should require stipulations. Students who drop out of high school lose more and regret what they have done. They go through a lot of romeo and juliet challenges and cost the asking questions economy lots of money.
Dropping out of school will never be acceptable or justified. When this occurs, high school dropouts are only plagiarism, stealing valuable information. Cher , College , Dropout 2253 Words | 6 Pages. Study Explores Why many High School Graduates Are not Ready for College by Gary M Stern Content Type Journal Article Abstract . The report underscores the importance of the skills that are most essential and associated with career and college readiness, [Paul Weeks] says. Since many secondary school teachers aren't familiar with the skills that have been identified as the most essential to succeed in college, high school educators cover a breadth of skills. Postsecondary instructors would.
College , Education , Educational stages 720 Words | 3 Pages. English 101 January 16, 2012 Argumentative Essay “Condoms in asking High Schools ” Condoms should be handed out . to high school students. There are situations in which many people have different opinions, however it is my belief that condom distribution in high schools allows children to open up and ask questions regarding sex, it accounts for university county essay, a tremendous decrease in teen pregnancies, abortions and diseases, as well as a decrease in the amount of money spent on supporting unwanted teen pregnancies. Adolescence , Birth control , Human sexual behavior 1760 Words | 5 Pages. Compare and asking questions, Contrast High School Versus College. Lindsey boden Essay #3 Nov.
4th English 1010 Compare and Contrast High School versus College A good . Romeo And Juliet Essay? education is an important part of ones life . To achieve a good education, one should attend both high school and college. Although some people think high school has a lot in common with college when actually they are very different. After graduating high school everyone is encouraged to attend a college. Everyone has their own opinion about doing so, but there are many difference. College , Diploma , Education 767 Words | 5 Pages. High School vs. College. High schools are academic institutions that provide more advance . education than elementary school or middle school , but less advanced education than college.
In high school classes are given to adolescents between 9 grades and 11 grades. On the other hand, college is an asking questions, educational institute; that provide high standards of education to people with short or long term objectives in order to obtain a degree. Teacher Cover? Both organizations provide education that is to prepare individuals. College , Education , Educational stages 1035 Words | 3 Pages. High School vs. College Stepping stones are like the asking in essays baby steps into of maryland baltimore, something greater, like high . school and college. In high school , everyone says to focus yourself more into, because high school is the place to gain the knowledge that is questions in essays nearly identical to the “actual world”. College, on university college essay the other hand, is asking in essays when both the bogie thesis teachers and students can both relate to how the real world would function. So high school is the part of the baby steps that reach into college and as well as the real world. College , Education , Essay 898 Words | 3 Pages. High School vs.
College As we go on in life we face many challenges and new situations that we deal with. A new . situation that most people deal with is questions college and all the changes that come along with it. What many people don't realize is that high school , in many ways, is similar and differrent from college. Not only are people changing but the surroundings and work change as well. There are some things that seem to never change such as some work and people. Short Term? The majority of the work in asking in essays college.
Class , College , Difference 1206 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Gatsby High School Essay. represents a white flower, she wears a white dress, drives a white car, and teacher cover buzzwords, lives in a largely open white mansion. Questions? However, as the novel progresses, she . Cover Letter? later presents herself as the opposite of what Fitzgerald has made her out to asking questions in essays be. Design Thesis? Her only true love in asking questions in essays life is money. She will do whatever is aetna short term paperwork takes to maintain the wealth she has pursued. She appears pure in a world of cheats and liars, but in reality, she shares the in essays deficiency of morals just as every other faulty character in the novel. Regardless of her. Arnold Rothstein , F. Romeo And Juliet? Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 813 Words | 3 Pages. prevalence of asking high school drop outs is increasing alarmingly.
This is the government concern because today statistics show that . Essay? there is high rate of high school drop out all over the United States. Because of this the asking questions in essays US government is university of maryland finding ways to avoid this threatening situation to asking get worse. High school drop outs are not a very good sign for their country’s future. Increase of drop out would mean an increase in is necessary essay rate of questions in essays people who are not fit to plagiarism jobs which require graduation gown cap. High school.
Academic dress , Cher , Dropout 1160 Words | 3 Pages. Senioritis: High School and Marking Period. a senior in high school . Questions? This term stands for aetna short, the typical laziness seniors get accustomed to questions during their last year of . high school , and it is a terrible habit. Plagiarism? Most seniors display some form of this laziness, and it typically still does not affect students too much. However, for some people with severe traits of senioritis, it can be a life changing habit that can change their academic future and even their life . I happen to be one of asking questions in essays those few people who had it brutally affect my life . Senioritis. Academic term , Consciousness , High school 1362 Words | 3 Pages. High School is Not for Everyone Have you ever heard the statement, “College is not for plagiarism essays, everyone”? Well what if we took it a . Asking Questions? little further and aetna term paperwork, said that high school is not for everyone? Is this a reasonable statement to make and is it sensible enough to questions in essays even be considered? Carol Jago believes so; she says that entrance to high school ought not be automatic, and that only those demonstrating “minimum competency in math, reading and writing” be allowed to and juliet essay enroll in high school (191).
Should this. College , Education , Grammar school 866 Words | 3 Pages. High School Dropouts Entering high school is the questions beginning of a whole new learning experience. . Transitioning from middle school , high school presents more classes, students, and a bigger campus. Romeo And Juliet Conflicts? It brings new expectations and responsibilities to questions in essays each of us. High school also offers fresh chances to make new friends, try new sports and is necessary essay, activities, and asking questions, really explore who we are as individuals. The goal is to maintain good grades, score high on the SAT test, and keep a positive attitude so colleges. Cher , College , Dropout 2444 Words | 6 Pages. No matter how much I inquired about high school and told of the life of high school by cover letter buzzwords . Questions? older friends and some family members, I could never have been completely prepared.
No book of advice or voice of wisdom can prepare another for the situations and feelings encountered in high school . I can hardly narrow down the three most important lessons that I learned in and juliet essay possibly the four most difficult, unbelievable, and thrilling years of asking in essays my life ; but, I'll try. Conflicts? Being the oldest sibling, and having parents. College , High school , Middle school 1520 Words | 4 Pages. student goes through 13 years of schooling, four of those at the high school level. By the time the student reaches . high school they should already know all of the basic skills, reading, writing etc, but do they? The basic goal of secondary schools across America is to educate America's youth and asking, prepare them for conflicts essay, life after high school . Is this really happening though, are students prepared for life after high school ? I feel that high school is the perfect medium between elementary schooling and the real. College , Education , Education in the United States 1345 Words | 4 Pages. My Advice Essay In this essay , I'm going to give advice to asking in essays the high school freshman class to help . them out with their last four high school years and to help them be successful.
The advice that I am going to design thesis give might and probably will help freshmen, whether they are in-coming or already enrolled. The first piece of advice that I believe will be the asking most helpful is to deforestation is necessary for development turn in your paperwork on time, or have it done early if possible. Make sure that you get it turned in on asking in essays time to is necessary get the. 2006 singles , Academic term , English-language films 1879 Words | 5 Pages. forward to questions go back to plagiarism school after the asking summer holidays. Forklaring: Students are looking forward 2. According to Michelle Obama is plagiarism . education important when you want to plan your own career. Forklaring: Education is – forkert ordstilling 3. President Obama, which wife has now joined his efforts to questions improve education, wants the US to have the highest percentage of college graduates by deforestation is necessary for development essay 2020. Forklaring: Whose wife - forkert bojning 4. How much you earn throughout life depends large on.
Barack Obama , Education , Education in the United States 1559 Words | 8 Pages.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Asking Questions? Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in aetna term disability New York, Boston, and Europe. Asking Questions In Essays? Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for bogie, Latin American clients in asking New York and for conflicts essay, the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in asking questions government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Is Necessary Essay? Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in asking in essays French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in thesis an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on asking questions the most common problems I see and conflicts, questions I am asked: 1. Asking In Essays? Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word.
Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and plagiarism, reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. Asking Questions In Essays? You need to make the most important stuff jump off the cover letter buzzwords, page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to in essays the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the baltimore college essay, most important stuff to jump off the in essays, page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the design thesis, best candidate for asking questions, the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job.
Keep in baltimore county essay the forefront of questions in essays your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Deforestation For Development Essay? Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the questions, purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to bogie design thesis talk about the asking, any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. Design Thesis? When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. Asking? And remember from Tip #2, every word counts.
Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on romeo essay a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the questions, proper dates. Change the plagiarism essays, verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the asking questions, descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Buzzwords? Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of in essays yours and not aspirational hobbies).
Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in is necessary these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in asking in essays alumni contributions for teacher cover buzzwords, a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the asking questions in essays, page.
So if you went to university essay a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Asking In Essays? Tape your resume to a wall about essay, 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on asking questions the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle.
Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to of maryland baltimore county essay proofread it. Asking Questions In Essays? And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Bogie Design? Then proofread it again. Questions? Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie.
It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in deforestation the Bahamas in asking questions your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of romeo and juliet essay you in the right-hand sidebar on asking questions my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the for development essay, partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar.
I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in questions in essays the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the of maryland baltimore county, top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at asking the most prestigious law firms in the world. Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys.
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Current Trends Risks Associated with Human Parvovirus B19 Infection. This report* was developed to assist physicians, public health officials, and other health-care professionals respond to public concerns about recently recognized, serious complications of in essays human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection, including transient aplastic crisis (TAC), chronic anemia, and fetal death. It includes background information about the virus, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and diagnostic testing. In addition, interim guidelines are presented for preventing B19 infection, managing persons exposed to persons with B19 infection, and managing patients infected with B19. These guidelines reflect both the current limited information about the extent to which B19 infection leads to severe complications and essay, the limited availability of diagnostic testing. Priorities for future research are identified. GENERAL INFORMATION. B19 was discovered in England in questions in essays 1975 in serum specimens from healthy blood donors (1). Since its discovery, B19 has been shown to be the teacher cover letter buzzwords causative agent of erythema infectiosum (EI) (also known as fifth disease) and is the asking questions in essays primary etiologic agent of TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (2-4). Teacher Cover Letter Buzzwords. B19 has also been associated with fetal death (both spontaneous abortions and stillbirths), acute arthralgias and arthritis, and chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients (5-14).
The virus belongs to the family Parvoviridae, which includes two genera of vertebrate viruses: genus parvovirus (autonomously replicating parvoviruses) and genus dependovirus (parvoviruses that require a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes virus, for replication); and asking questions in essays, one genus of invertebrate viruses, the is necessary genus densovirus (15). Asking Questions. B19 is in the genus parvovirus, which includes a number of animal parvoviruses such as the canine parvovirus and letter buzzwords, feline panleukopenia virus. The parvoviruses tend to be species-specific; only the adeno-associated parvoviruses (members of the asking in essays dependovirus genus) and bogie design thesis, B19 are known to infect humans. The adeno-associated parvoviruses have not been associated with disease in humans. Fecal parvoviruses and the RA1 virus have been reported but not confirmed to be human pathogens (16,17).
B19 is a heat-stable virus and can survive at 60 C (140 F) for up to 12 hours. Asking Questions In Essays. CLINICAL FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease) The most commonly recognized illness associated with B19 infection is EI. EI is a mild childhood illness characterized by bogie thesis, a facial rash (slapped cheek appearance), and a reticulated or lacelike rash on the trunk and extremities (18). Reappearance of the rash may occur for several weeks following nonspecific stimuli such as change in asking questions temperature, sunlight, and emotional stress. Typically, the patient is otherwise well at rash onset but often gives a history of mild systemic symptoms 1-4 days before rash onset. Deforestation Is Necessary Essay. In some EI outbreaks, pruritis has been a common clinical feature.
In addition to typical EI, B19 infection has been associated with a variety of other exanthems, including those that are rubella-like, vesicular, and purpuric (18). Asymptomatic Infection. In outbreak investigations, asymptomatic infection has been reported in approximately 20% of questions children and romeo and juliet conflicts, adults (19,20). Arthropathy. In some outbreaks of EI, arthralgias and arthritis have been commonly reported (7,8,21). Asking Questions In Essays. Infection may produce a symmetrical peripheral polyarthropathy. Joints in the hands are most frequently affected, followed by the knees and wrists. Symptoms are usually self-limited but may persist for deforestation is necessary several months.
Joint symptoms, more common in adults, may occur as the sole manifestation of infection. Asking Questions. Transient Aplastic Crisis and Severe Anemia. B19 is the primary etiologic agent causing TAC in university baltimore patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin SC disease, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha-thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia) (22,23). It can also cause TAC in other conditions in which increased red cell production is necessary to maintain stable red cell indices, as may occur in anemia due to blood loss. Patients with TAC typically present with pallor, weakness, and lethargy and may report a nonspecific prodromal illness in in essays the preceding 1-7 days. Aetna Paperwork. Few patients with TAC report a rash. In the questions in essays acute phase of the illness, #12;patients usually have a moderate to severe anemia with absence f reticulocytes, and deforestation is necessary for development essay, bone marrow examination shows a hypoplastic or an aplastic erythroid series with a normal myeloid series. Asking In Essays. Recovery is indicated by a return of reticulocytes in the peripheral smear approximately 7-10 days after their disappearance. TAC may require transfusion and hospitalization and can be fatal if not treated promptly. B19 Infection in Immunodeficient Patients. A B19-related severe chronic anemia associated with red cell aplasia has been described in is necessary patients on maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients with congenital immunodeficiencies, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency (9-14).
It is not yet known how often B19 causes chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients or which patients are most susceptible to asking questions in essays, this complication of and juliet infection. Chronic B19 infection should, however, be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in the immunodeficient patient. Infection in the Pregnant Woman Intrauterine infection and fetal death. In most of the reported B19 infections occurring during pregnancy, the in essays fetus has not been adversely affected (5,6,24-30). However, in some cases B19 infection has been associated with fetal death. The risk of deforestation is necessary essay fetal death attributable to parvovirus infection following documented maternal infection (B19 IgM-antibody-positive) is asking in essays, not known, but preliminary results of one study from the United Kingdom suggest that it is less than 10% (30; SM Hall, unpublished data). In that study, 174 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 were followed prospectively to delivery. Fetal loss occurred in 30 (17.2%): 21 (19.1%) of 110 women infected during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, seven (15.2%) of 46 women infected during weeks 13-20, one (6.3%) of 16 women infected after 20 weeks, and one of two women with unknown time of infection. Teacher Cover Letter. Fetal death most commonly occurred from the asking in essays 10th through the 20th weeks of pregnancy. Not all fetal deaths directly resulted from B19 infection. And Juliet Conflicts. Since this study did not include a control group, the number of asking in essays deaths attributable to B19 infection cannot be calculated directly.
In other studies, rates of recognized pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortions from for development all causes by 28 weeks' gestation range from 10% to 25% (31). In the British study, the number of fetal deaths linked to B19 infection can be estimated by determining whether fetal tissues contain B19 DNA. Tissues from 14 fetuses were tested for B19 DNA: six were positive, two were equivocal, and six were negative. The cause of asking questions death is likely to have been B19 infection for the DNA-positive fetuses; thus, at least six (3.4%) of bogie 174 infected women were likely to have had a B19-associated fetal loss. When the results of the 14 tested were extrapolated to all 30 fetal deaths, an estimated 17 fetuses would be B19 DNA-positive or equivocal, suggesting that less than or equal to17 (less than or equal to9.8%) of the 174 B19-infected women might have had a B19-associated fetal loss. Antibody studies of liveborn infants and hybridization studies of asking in essays fetal tissues indicate that less than one third of maternal infections are associated with fetal infection in this study.
Results from an ongoing study in the United States also suggest that B19- attributable fetal deaths are infrequent (CDC, unpublished data). In this study, 95 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 are being followed prospectively. Aetna Term Disability Paperwork. Fetal loss has so far occurred in two (4.1%) of 49 women followed to term. It is in essays, not known whether the two fetal deaths were caused by B19 infection. One fetus was hydropic; the university essay other was not described. No tissues from questions in essays either fetus were available for B19 hybridization studies. When the antibody status of the woman is unknown, estimates of the risk of fetal death after exposure must take into account the rate of plagiarism susceptibility in questions in essays the population and the risk of infection after the exposure.
For example, by taking these factors into essays, account, the upper limit estimate of the risk of fetal death would be less than 2.5% after exposure to household members with documented infection (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.5 rate of infection x 100; see sections on Epidemiologic Features of B19 Infection: Prevalence and Transmission) and less than 1.5% after prolonged exposure at schools with widespread EI among students (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.3 rate of infection x 100). The upper limit risk estimate of fetal death after other types of exposure (e.g., schools with limited EI among students) is likely to be substantially less. A study of 96 women who had stillbirths, 96 women who had spontaneous abortions, and questions, controls matched by romeo essay, age, duration of pregnancy, and location suggests that B19 is not responsible for asking a substantial #12;proportion of term fetal deaths in the general population (32). In this study, the rate of serologically confirmed B19 infection was the same (1%) in cases and controls. In a survey of 50 fetuses with nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis, an uncommonly diagnosed cause of fetal death, four (8%) were positive for B19 DNA (25). Congenital anomalies. Since some of the animal parvoviruses are teratogens (33), the asking in essays possibility that infection may also be associated with congenital anomalies in humans is a concern. Aetna Paperwork. However, there is in essays, no evidence that the plagiarism rate of congenital anomalies following B19 infection exceeds background rates. Questions. B19-associated congenital anomalies have not been reported among several hundred liveborn infants of B19-infected mothers. One aborted fetus with eye anomalies and histologic evidence of damage to multiple tissues born to teacher cover buzzwords, a B19-infected woman has been reported (34).
An anencephalic fetus was reported in a B19-infected woman, but the asking questions timing of design thesis infection made it unlikely that B19 contributed to the defect (35). Questions In Essays. ATHOGENESIS. The pathogenesis of the rash in EI is unknown, but the romeo essay rash may be immune- complex-mediated. The other, more serious manifestations of B19 infection are related to the propensity of the asking questions in essays virus to infect and plagiarism essays, lyse erythroid precursor cells and interrupt normal red cell production (36). In a person with normal hematopoiesis, B19 infection produces a self-limited red cell aplasia that is clinically inapparent. Transient leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, and asking questions, thrombocytopenia have also been reported with B19 infection in short the normal host (37,38).
In patients who have increased rates of asking red cell destruction or loss and who depend on compensatory increases in romeo conflicts red cell production to maintain stable red cell indices, B19 infection may lead to TAC. Patients at risk for TAC include those with chronic hemolytic anemias and asking questions, those with anemias associated with acute or chronic blood loss. In immunodeficient persons, B19 infection may persist, causing chronic red cell aplasia, which results in bogie chronic anemia; chronic neutropenia has also been described (10). B19 DNA-positive tissues have been reported in 20 fetal deaths; in all 17 cases in which pathologic findings were described, the fetuses had nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis (6,25-27,30,35,39-44). The precise pathogenesis of in essays fetal death remains unclear. Severe anemia may precipitate congestive heart failure, generalized edema, and ultimately fetal death.
The fetus may be particularly vulnerable to B19 infection because red cell survival is short, and the red cell volume is rapidly expanding. Severe anemia, B19 viremia, and cytologic changes in erythroid precursor cells have been described in fetuses just before death (26,27,39). Chronic infection may occur in the fetus (one fetus was viremic for at teacher letter buzzwords least 4 weeks) (26). In one case report, infection of myocardial cells was noted, suggesting that direct damage to myocardial tissue may also contribute to the disease process in the fetus (29). EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Prevalence. B19 infection occurs worldwide (45,46). Infection with B19 can occur throughout the year, in asking questions all age groups, during outbreaks of teacher cover letter EI, or as sporadic cases. B19 infection is most frequently recognized during outbreaks of asking questions EI in schools. These outbreaks often begin in late winter or early spring and teacher cover, may continue until school recesses for the summer. The level of EI activity in a community varies from year to year; periods of increased activity lasting several years are generally followed by asking questions in essays, several years of decreased activity (47-50). The reported seroprevalence ranges from 2% to 15% in children 1-5 years old, 15% to 60% in children 5-19 years old, and 30% to thesis, 60% in adults (18,40,51,52).
Incubation Period. Studies of secondary illness in households suggest that the incubation period for clinical EI and asking questions in essays, TAC is usually 4-14 days but can be as long as 20 days (18). In volunteer studies, rash illness occurred 17-18 days after inoculation (37,38). Transmission. B19 DNA has been found in respiratory secretions in viremic patients, which suggests that these secretions are involved in cover buzzwords transmission (19,20,37). Asking In Essays. In studies of human volunteers, serum and respiratory secretions became positive for B19 DNA 5-10 days after intranasal inoculation (during the prodromal illness) (37,38). Deforestation Essay. By the time of onset of rash or arthralgia, serum specimens had been negative for 1-5 days.
B19 has not been detected in the respiratory secretions and only rarely in the serum of questions patients after onset of EI (37). In contrast, acute serum specimens are often positive for B19 DNA in patients when they present with TAC; serum specimens are usually negative by 7 days after onset of illness (53). The presence of plagiarism essays B19 DNA in serum or respiratory secretions presumably correlates with infectiousness; thus, patients with EI are probably past the period of greatest infectiousness, while patients with TAC are likely to be #12;infectious during the course of their illness. The presence of IgG antibody correlates with a lower risk of infection. This decreased risk has been suggested in volunteers who were experimentally inoculated with B19: four of five IgG-negative but only one of four IgG-positive volunteers developed serologic evidence of infection (37). The IgG-positive volunteer who became infected had low levels of asking questions IgG antibody before challenge and had a lower titer and shorter duration of and juliet conflicts viremia than had the four infected volunteers who were IgG-negative. The virus is questions, transmitted effectively after close contact exposures. The secondary attack rate for infection among susceptible household contacts of patients with TAC or EI is about 50% (19,20). In school outbreaks, 10%-60% of students may develop EI. In outbreaks in cover letter which student involvement is widespread, preliminary data suggest 20%-30% of susceptible (IgG-antibody-negative) staff may develop serologic evidence of B19 infection during the asking questions course of the outbreak (CDC, unpublished data).
In outbreak settings, it is for development, not known whether the primary mode of transmission involves direct person-to-person contact, fomites, large-particle droplets, or small- particle droplets. The virus can also be transmitted parenterally by transfusion of blood or blood products and vertically from mother to fetus (1,54,55). Asking. Transmission rarely occurs during transfusion with single-donor blood products but is common during treatment with clotting-factor concentrates even after steam- or dry-heat treatment of the and juliet conflicts clotting factor concentrate (1,54,55). Questions. Tattooing was suspected as the source of B19 transmission in two instances (56). DIAGNOSIS B19 Antibody Assays. The most sensitive test to detect recent infection is the IgM-antibody assay. Cover Letter. B19 IgM antibody can be detected by capture-antibody radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay in approximately 90% of questions in essays cases by the third day after symptoms of TAC or EI begin (57,58).
The titer and romeo, the percentage of positives begin to decline 30-60 days after onset. B19 IgG antibody is questions in essays, usually present by the seventh day of illness and persists for design years. B19 antibody may not be detectable in immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection, and additional testing for B19 DNA or viral antigens may be necessary to document infection. B19 has not been grown in standard cell culture systems or animal model systems, but it has been grown in bone marrow explant culture systems (59). The inability to grow the virus in sufficient quantity to produce antigen for diagnostic assays has precluded widespread availability of B19 testing (36,60,61).
Recently parvovirus B19 DNA has been incorporated into the genome of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (62). This cell line expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious virionlike particles that can be used as antigen for antibody assays; this source of antigen should lead to asking questions, increased availability of romeo and juliet conflicts diagnostic tests. Assays for B19 DNA. The most sensitive test for detecting the virus is asking, nucleic acid hybridization (63,64). Short Disability. This test has been used to asking questions in essays, identify B19 DNA in serum, leukocytes, respiratory secretions, urine, and tissue specimens. One group reported that B19 DNA was more likely to be detected in leukocytes than in serum (65). Conflicts Essay. Histologic Features of B19 Infection.
Light and electron microscopy can be helpful in diagnosing B19 infections (1,23,41) By light microscopy, eosinophilic nuclear inclusions with peripheral condensation of chromatin can be seen in erythroid precursor cells of infected patients. The inclusions contain parvovirus-like particles by transmission electron microscopy (28,41,66). Asking. B19-like particles may also be seen by electron microscopy in serum specimens of some infected patients (1,23,41). Histologic findings in essay fetal tissues also may include a severe leukoerythroblastic reaction and excessive iron deposition in tissues, which indicates hemolysis. Assays to Determine Site of Infection. It is not known which tissues, in addition to erythroid precursor cells, support virus replication. Several tests have been developed that distinguish virus infection of tissue or cells from deposition of questions virus by passive transfer in blood. In situ hybridization can demonstrate viral DNA in term disability paperwork specific cells and in essays, has been used to show that B19 sometimes infects fetal myocardial cells (29). Replicative forms of B19 DNA and nonstructural proteins can be demonstrated by Southern and Western blot analysis, respectively, indicating infection in the tissue (67,68).
PREVENTION OF INFECTION Risk Groups. Although B19 infection usually produces a mild, self-limited illness, three groups of persons are at risk for serious complications of infection: 1) persons with chronic hemolytic anemias, 2) persons with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and 3) pregnant women. Since infection in these persons can lead to essays, substantial morbidity #12;and some mortality, consideration should be given to preventing or ameliorating disease. Immunization Active. There is no vaccine to asking, prevent B19, but a recently developed cell line that expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious viruslike particles has been proposed as a source of county essay antigen for development of a candidate vaccine (62). In Essays. Passive. No studies have been conducted to determine whether preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis with commercially available immune globulin (IG) preparations would prevent infection or modify the romeo and juliet course of illness during community outbreaks. Routine prophylaxis with IG cannot be recommended at this time. Health-Care Settings.
Guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals have been published for in essays EI (69), but recent information suggests that these guidelines should be modified. Most patients with EI are past their period of infectiousness and bogie, do not present a risk for further transmission; thus isolation precautions are not indicated. However, there is questions in essays, risk for design nosocomial transmission of B19 from patients with TAC and from immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection. These patients should be considered infectious and placed on asking in essays, isolation precautions for the duration of their illness or until the infection has been cleared. Nosocomial transmission of B19 has been associated with one case of TAC (70). Transmission of B19 infection has also occurred in medical research laboratories (4,71). Patients with TAC or chronic B19 infection should be admitted to private rooms. Persons in close contact with the thesis patients should wear masks. Gloves should be worn by persons likely to touch infective material such as respiratory secretions, and in essays, gowns should be worn when soiling is anticipated (contact isolation) (69). Hands should be washed after the patient or potentially contaminated articles are touched and before care is provided to another patient. B19-infected patients may share a room with another B19-infected patient unless sharing is contraindicated by another infection or condition.
Health-care workers should be advised that they are at aetna short term risk of B19 infection after exposure in the hospital or in the community and that there may be a risk for further transmission to asking in essays, patients. Routine infection-control practices should minimize the essays risk of asking questions in essays transmission. Personnel who may be pregnant or who might become pregnant should know about potential risks to the fetus from B19 infection and about preventive measures that may reduce those risks. Aetna. Homes, Schools, and Workplaces. When outbreaks of B19 infection occur in situations in which prolonged, close contact exposures occur (e.g., at home, in schools, or in day-care centers), options for preventing transmission are limited. The greatest risk of asking questions transmitting the virus occurs before symptoms of EI develop; therefore, transmission cannot be prevented by romeo conflicts essay, identifying and excluding persons with EI. Asking. The efficacy of decontaminating toys and environmental surfaces to is necessary for development, decrease B19 transmission has not been studied. The efficacy of asking in essays handwashing to plagiarism, decrease B19 transmission has not been studied either, but handwashing is recommended as a practical and probably effective measure. When outbreaks occur, parents of school-aged children and employees should be advised about the asking questions risk of transmitting and acquiring infection and about who is at risk for plagiarism essays serious complications.
Persons who wish to obtain additional information about risks and management of B19 exposures should be referred to their health-care provider and state or local health officials. The decision to try to decrease any person's risk of infection by avoiding a workplace or school evironment in which an EI outbreak is in essays, occurring should be made by plagiarism essays, the person after discussions with family members, health-care providers, public health officials, and in essays, employers or school officials. A policy to routinely exclude members of high-risk groups is deforestation essay, not recommended. PATIENT MANAGEMENT Patients with Chronic Hemolytic Anemia. The exposed patient with chronic hemolytic anemia should be managed by alerting the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure, the symptoms and asking, signs associated with TAC (pallor, weakness, and aetna paperwork, lethargy), and the need to consult a physician immediately if symptoms or signs of TAC develop.
Management of the patient with TAC is based on in essays, treating symptoms of the associated anemia and may require blood transfusion. Patients with Congenital and Acquired Immunodeficiencies. The exposed patient with a congenital or acquired immunodeficiency should be managed by advising the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure and is necessary, the possibility that B19 infection may lead to chronic anemia. The physician should consider B19 infection in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in this group of patients, especially if there is an outbreak of EI in the community. #12; In several patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, the administration of IG resulted in disappearance of viremia and improvement in red cell indices (10). In other patients, the infection and associated anemia resolved when immune function returned (12,14). The role of IG in in essays the treatment of these patients needs further study. Plagiarism Essays. Pregnant Women. The knowledge that B19 infection during pregnancy can cause fetal death has created concern among health-care providers, public health officials, and pregnant women and questions, their families.
In managing exposed pregnant women, risks should be considered in the context of other risks to and juliet conflicts essay, the pregnancy and the risks associated with intervention. For women with a documented infection, maternal serum #156;ga-fetoprotein levels and diagnostic ultrasound examinations have been used to identify adversely affected fetuses, but the sensitivity and specificity of these tests, their appropriate timing, and the risks and asking in essays, benefits of their use in managing infected pregnant women have not yet been determined (39,41). Interpretation of the ultrasound is difficult early in pregnancy and should be supervised by essays, a physician experienced in diagnosing fetal abnormalities. Intrauterine blood transfusion (IBT) has been proposed as treatment for the fetus with B19-induced severe anemia. However, IBT is a high-risk, specialized procedure of unproven benefit in this situation and cannot be recommended for asking questions routine treatment of B19-related hydrops fetalis (72). Plagiarism Essays. AVAILABILITY OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTING AT CDC. Diagnostic testing is available at only a few sites, primarily research laboratories; increasing the availability of asking questions in essays diagnostic testing is a public health priority. Essay. The Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, can accept a limited number of specimens for B19 diagnostic testing. At this time, CDC is asking, accepting specimens through state health departments from patients with TAC, immunodeficient patients with chronic anemia, pregnant women exposed to B19 or with symptoms suggestive of B19 infection, and plagiarism essays, cases of nonimmune fetal hydrops possibly related to B19 infection, and asking in essays, not accepting specimens for routine antibody testing. Physicians can arrange testing at CDC by consulting their state health department.
PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. The following areas have been identified as high priorities for future public health-related research on B19 infection: Develop surveillance methods that distinguish outbreaks from university of maryland essay sporadic disease. 2.Refine estimates of infection rates following exposures in the home, the workplace, and school. 3.Refine risk estimates for adverse fetal outcomes associated with B19 infection during pregnancy.
4.Evaluate methods to treat and asking, prevent B19-related fetal hydrops. 5.Determine the disease burden associated with B19 infection in immunodeficient patients, including patients with HIV infection. 6.Determine the risk of teacher infection and factors associated with transmission in health-care settings. Questions. 7.Determine the efficacy of IG for prevention and treatment of B19 infection. 8.Determine the potential reduction in morbidity and design thesis, mortality associated with development and use of a B19 vaccine. Asking. Reported by: Div of of maryland baltimore college Reproductive Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and in essays, Health Promotion; Div of aetna short Immunization, Center for Prevention Svcs; Div of Birth Defects and in essays, Developmental Disabilities, Center for Environmental Health and teacher cover letter, Injury Control; Div of Surveillance and Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology Program Office; National Institute for Occupational Safety and asking questions in essays, Health; AIDS Program, Hospital Infections Program, Div of term paperwork Host Factors, Div of Viral Diseases, Center for questions in essays Infectious Diseases, CDC. Cossart YE, Field AM, Cant B, Widdows D. Parvovirus-like particles in human sera.
Lancet 1975;1:72-3. 2.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Fisher-Hoch SP, et al. Is Necessary. Human parvovirus, the cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? (Letter). Lancet 1983;1:1378. 3.Anderson MJ, Lewis E, Kidd IM, Hall SM, Cohen BJ. Asking Questions. An outbreak of deforestation essay erythema infectiosum associated with human parvovirus infection. J Hyg (Lond) 1984;93:85-93. 4.Pattison JR, Jones SE, Hodgson J, et al.
Parvovirus infections and asking, hypoplastic crisis in sickle-cell anaemia (Letter). Lancet 1981;1:664-5. 5.Knott PD, Welply GAC, Anderson MJ. Teacher. Serologically proved intrauterine infection with parvovirus. Br Med J 1984;289:1660. 6.Brown T, Anand A, Ritchie LD, Clewley JP, Reid TMS. Intrauterine parvovirus infection associated with hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1984;2:1033-4.
7.White DG, Woolf AD, Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Blake DR, Bacon PA. Human parvovirus arthropathy. Lancet 1985;1:419-21. #12;8.Reid DM, Reid TMS, Brown T, Rennie JAN, Eastmond CJ. Human parvovirus-associated arthritis: a clinical and laboratory description. Asking Questions In Essays. Lancet 1985;1:422-5. 9.Van Horn DK, Mortimer PP, Young N, Hanson GR. Human parvovirus-associated red cell aplasia in the absence of underlying hemolytic anemia. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1986;8:235-9. 10.Kurtzman GJ, Ozawa K, Cohen B, Hanson G, Oseas R, Young NS. Chronic bone marrow failure due to persistent B19 parvovirus infection.
N Engl J Med 1987;317:287-94. 11.Davidson JE, Gibson B, Gibson A, Evans TJ. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). University Baltimore. Lancet 1989;1:102. 12.Smith MA, Shah NR, Lobel JS, Cera PJ, Gary GW, Anderson LJ. Severe anemia caused by human parvovirus in asking questions in essays a leukemia patient on maintenance chemotherapy. Clin Pediatr 1988:27:383-6.
13.Kurtzman GJ, Cohen B, Meyers P, Amunullah A, Young NS. Persistent B19 parvovirus infection as a cause of severe chronic anaemia in children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Lancet 1988;2:1159-62. Plagiarism Essays. 14.Coulombel L, Morinet F, Mielot F, Tchernia G. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:101-2. 15.Siegl G, Bates RC, Berns KI, et al. Characteristics and taxonomy of Parvoviridae.
Intervirology 1985;23:61-73. Asking In Essays. 16.Paver WK, Clarke SKR. Comparison of human fecal and serum parvo-like viruses. J Clin Microbiol 1976;4:67-70. Romeo And Juliet Conflicts. 17.Simpson RW, McGinty L, Simon L, Smith CA, Godzeski CW, Boyd RJ. Association of parvoviruses with rheumatoid arthritis of humans.
Science 1984;223:1425-8. 18.Anderson LJ. Role of parvovirus B19 in human disease. Asking In Essays. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:711-8. Deforestation For Development Essay. 19.Plummer FA, Hammond GW, Forward K, et al. An erythema infectiosum-like illness caused by human parvovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1985;313:74-9. 20.Chorba T, Coccia P, Holman RC, et al. The role of asking questions parvovirus B19 in aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). J Infect Dis 1986;154:383-93.
21.Ager EA, Chin TDY, Poland JD. Epidemic erythema infectiosum. N Engl J Med 1966; 275:1326-31. 22.Serjeant GR, Goldstein AR. B19 virus infection and the aplastic crisis. In: Pattison JR, ed.
Parvoviruses and human disease. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1988:85-92. 23.Young N. Hematologic and hematopoietic consequences of B19 parvovirus infection. Semin Hematol 1988;25:159-72. 24.Anderson LJ, Hurwitz ES.
Human parvovirus B19 and teacher cover, pregnancy. Asking In Essays. Clin Perinatol 1988; 15:273-86. 25.Porter HJ, Khong TY, Evans MF, Chan VT-W, Fleming KA. Parvovirus as a cause of plagiarism hydrops fetalis: detection by in situ DNA hybridisation. J Clin Pathol 1988;41:381-3. 26.Anderson MJ, Khousam MN, Maxwell DJ, Gould SJ, Happerfield LC, Smith WJ. Human parvovirus B19 and asking in essays, hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1988;1:535. County College. 27.Franciosi RA, Tattersall P. Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19.
Hum Pathol 1988; 19:489-91. 28.Caul EO, Usher MJ, Burton PA. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus B19: a ight and electron microscopy study. J Med Virol 1988;24:55-66. 29.Porter HJ, Quantrill AM, Fleming KA. B19 parvovirus infection of myocardial cells (Letter).
Lancet 1988;1:535-6. 30.Public Health Laboratory Service Working Party on Fifth Disease. Study of human parvovirus (B19) infection in pregnancy. Comm Dis Rep 1987;87/20:3. 31.Edmonds L, Hatch M, Holmes L, et al.
Guidelines for reproductive studies in exposed human population. In: Bloom AD, Paul NW, eds. Guidelines for studies of asking questions human populations exposed to mutagenic and reproductive hazards: proceedings of conference held January 26-27, 1981, in Washington, DC. White Plains, New York: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 1981:71. 32.Kinney JS, Anderson LJ, Farrar J, et al. Risk of adverse outcomes of pregnancy after human parvovirus B19 infection.
J Infect Dis 1988;157:663-7. 33.Siegl G. Biology and pathogenicity of teacher autonomous parvoviruses. Questions. In: Berns KI, ed. The parvoviruses. New York: Plenum Press, 1984:297-362. 34.Weiland HT, Vermey-Keers C, Salimans MMM, Fleuren GJ, Verwey RA, Anderson MJ.
Parvovirus B19 associated with fetal abnormality (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:682-3. Bogie. 35.Rodis JF, Hovick TJ Jr, Quinn DL, Rosengren SS, Tattersall P. Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:733-8. 36.Young N, Harrison M, Moore J, Mortimer P, Humphries RK. Direct demonstration of the human parvovirus in erythroid progenitor cells infected in vitro. J Clin Invest 1984; 74:2024-32. 37.Anderson MJ, Higgins PG, Davis LR, et al. Experimental parvoviral infection in questions humans.
J Infect Dis 1985;152:257-65. 38.Potter CG, Potter AC, Hatton CSR, et al. Romeo And Juliet Essay. Variation of erythroid and myeloid precursors in the marrow and peripheral blood of volunteer subjects infected with human parvovirus (B19). J Clin Invest 1987;79:1486-92. Asking Questions In Essays. #12;39.Carrington D, Gilmore DH, Whittle MJ, et al. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein--a marker of fetal aplastic crisis during intrauterine human parvovirus infection. Lancet 1987;1:433-5.
40.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Deinhardt F. (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:739. 41.Anand A, Gray ES, Brown T, Clewley JP, Cohen BJ. Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy and hydrops fetalis. N Engl J Med 1987;316:183-6. 42.Bond PR, Caul EO, Usher J, Cohen BJ, Clewley JP, Field AM. Teacher Cover Buzzwords. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus (Letter). Lancet 1986;1:448-9. 43.Woernle CH, Anderson LJ, Tattersall P, Davison JM.
Human parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy. J Infect Dis 1987;156:17-20. 44.Maeda H, Shimokawa H, Satoh S, Nakano H, Nunoue T. Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis resulting from intrauterine human parvovirus B-19 infection: report of two cases. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:482-5. 45.Courouce AM, Ferchal F, Morinet F, et al. Asking Questions. Human parvovirus infections in France (Letter). And Juliet Conflicts. Lancet 1984;1:160. 46.Okochi K, Mori R, Miyazaki M, Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP. Nakatani antigen and human parvovirus (B19) (Letter). Lancet 1984;1:160-1.
47.Goldstein AR, Anderson MJ, Serjeant GR. Parvovirus associated aplastic crisis in homozygous sickle cell disease. Asking In Essays. Arch Dis Child 1987;62:585-8. 48.Anderson MJ, Cohen BJ. Human parvovirus B19 infections in United Kingdom 1984-86 (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:738-9.
49.Naides SJ. Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) occurrence in Iowa. For Development. Am J Public Health 1988;78:1230-1. Asking. 50.Anderson MJ, Cherry JD. Parvoviruses. In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD, eds. Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1987:1646-53. 51.Cohen BJ, Buckley MM. The prevalence of antibody to short disability, human parvovirus B19 in England and asking, Wales.
J Med Microbiol 1988;25:151-3. 52.Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Buckley MM, et al. Cover Letter. Human parvovirus and the fetus (Letter). Lancet 1985;2:1012. Asking In Essays. 53.Saarinen UA, Chorba TL, Tattersall P, et al.
Human parvovirus B19-induced epidemic acute red cell aplasia in patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood 1986;67:1411-7. Romeo And Juliet Conflicts. 54.Mortimer PP, Luban NLC, Kelleher JF, Cohen BJ. Transmission of serum parvovirus-like virus by clotting-factor concentrates. Lancet 1983;2:482-4. 55.Bartolomei Corsi O, Assi A, Morfini M, Fanci R, Rossi Ferrini P. Human parvovirus infection in haemophiliacs first infused with treated clotting factor concentrates. J Med Virol 1988;25:165-70. 56.Shneerson JM, Mortimer PP, Vandervelde EM. Febrile illness due to a parvovirus. Br Med J 1980;1:1580. 57.Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP, Pereira MS.
Diagnostic assays with monoclonal antibodies for the human serum parvovirus-like virus (SPLV). J Hyg (Lond) 1983;91:113-30. 58.Anderson LJ, Tsou C, Parker RA, et al. Detection of antibodies and antigens of human parvovirus B19 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 1986;24:522-6. Asking Questions In Essays. 59.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Productive infection by B19 parvovirus of human erythroid bone marrow cells in bogie vitro. Questions In Essays. Blood 1987;70:384-91. 60.Mortimer PP, Humphries RK, Moore JG, Purcell RH, Young NS. Romeo Conflicts. A human parvovirus-like virus inhibits haematopoietic colony formation in vitro.
Nature 1983;302:426-9. 61.Young NS, Mortimer PP, Moore JG, Humphries RK. Characterization of a virus that causes transient aplastic crisis. J Clin Invest 1984;73:224-30. 62.Kajigaya S, Fujita S, Ozawa K, et al. A cell line that expresses B19 parvovirus structural proteins and asking, produces empty capsids (Abstract no. 86). Thesis. Blood 1988;72(suppl 1). 63.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Minson AC. Diagnosis of human parvovirus infection by asking questions in essays, dot-blot hybridization using cloned viral DNA. J Med Virol 1985;15:163-72.
64.Clewley JP. Detection of human parvovirus using a molecularly cloned probe. J Med Virol 1985;15:173-81. 65.Kurtzman GJ, Gascon P, Caras M, Cohen B, Young NS. B19 parvovirus replicates in circulating cells of acutely infected patients. Blood 1988;71:1448-54. 66.Knisely AS, O'Shea PA, McMillan P, Singer DB, Magid MS.
Electron microscopic identification of parvovirus virions in erythroid-line cells in fatal hydrops fetalis. Pediatr Pathol 1988;8:163-70. 67.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Replication of the B19 parvovirus in human bone marrow cell cultures. Science 1986;233:883-6. 68.Cotmore SF, McKie VC, Anderson LJ, Astell CR, Tattersall P. Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments. J Virol 1986; 60:548-57. 69.Garner JS, Simmons BP.
Guideline for is necessary isolation precautions in hospitals. Infect Control 1983;4(suppl):245-325. 70.Evans JPM, Rossiter MA, Kumaran TO, Marsh GW, Mortimer PP. Human parvovirus aplasia: case due to questions in essays, cross infection in romeo essay a ward. Br Med J 1984;288:681. #12;71.Cohen BJ, Courouce AM, Schwarz TF, Okochi K, Kurtzman GJ. Laboratory infection with parvovirus B19 (Letter). J Clin Pathol 1988;41:1027-8.
72.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Hottentrager B, et al. Human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy (Letter). In Essays. Lancet 1988;2:566-7. *The information and buzzwords, recommendations in this document were developed and compiled by CDC in asking consultation with representatives of the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Physicians, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, and the National Institutes of Health. The consultants also included MJ Anderson, PhD, University College and bogie thesis, Middlesex School of Medicine, London; SM Hall, MBBS, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London; and GR Serjeant, MBBS, University of West Indies, Kingston. These recommendations may not reflect the asking questions in essays views of individual consultants or the organizations they represented.
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Free German Essays on Family: Meine Familie. Did your German teacher tell you to write about your family, but you have just no idea how to questions do that? Well, you are lucky because you have me! I am a German native and teacher cover, happy to help you. I have written some example essays about families for you.
I have seen many children at school struggling to writing in proper German. Here is questions your chance to make it better and to letter impress your teacher. Wether you need to asking questions in essays copy some sentences or use my examples as an inspiration, it is your choice. The examples that I show you below are structured like this: First, you find an bogie design thesis example of a short essay in questions, German. It shows you how you can describe your own family.
Since every family is different, I wrote some more examples for and juliet essay you to chose from. After the German part follows a part in italics where I tell you in questions, English what the short term disability paperwork German text is about. After the asking in essays examples of plagiarism short essays, you will find a list of asking questions German key words and conjugated verbs that I provided for you so that you do not have to look it up a dictionary. My aim is to provide a time effective aid for your German homework. Any questions about the texts? Just ask! And please excuse any mistakes in my English, as I am still learning too. Do you live with your Mum, Dad, and with your brother or sister? Then use this text to bogie design thesis describe your family in your German essay:
Wir sind eine ganz normale Familie. Ich wohne zusammen mit meinen Eltern, meiner kleinen Schwester Lisa und unserer Katze Mick. Asking Questions In Essays? Meine Gro?eltern wohnen im gleichen Dorf wie wir. Oma Francis arbeitet noch. Sie ist Krankenschwester. Die Anderen sind schon in Rente. Disability? Oma Lydia nimmt sich viel Zeit fur mich und geht haufig mit mir Kleider oder Schuhe kaufen. Leider will meine kleine Schwester dann auch immer mit. Mein Vater arbeitet bei einer Bank und fahrt am Wochenende gern mit seinem Motorrad.
Das findet meine Mutter nicht so gut, da sie meint, dass Motorradfahren so gefahrlich ist. Sie sagt, dass ich und meine Schwester auf keinen Fall mitfahren durfen. Asking In Essays? Mein Vater versteht das nicht, aber er will sich auch nicht streiten. Nachstes Jahr wollen wir in ein gro?eres Haus ziehen, weil meine Eltern noch ein Baby bekommen. Ich hoffe, dass wir nicht zu weit weg ziehen, da alle meine Freunde hier in der Nahe wohnen. Meine Tante Clara, die Schwester meiner Mutter, wohnt sogar genau gegenuber.
Meine Cousine Barbara kommt deshalb haufig zu Besuch. Here is university baltimore college essay what the text is asking questions about (this is not a 1-to-1 translation!): We are a very normal family. I live with my parents, my little sister, and our cat Mick. My grandparents live in the same village where we live. Plagiarism Essays? Grandma Francis still works. She is a nurse. The others are already retired.
Grandma Lydia spends a lot of asking questions in essays time with me, and we often go shopping together to look for clothes or shoes. Unfortunately, my little sister wants to come with us as well. My father works in a bank and romeo essay, likes to ride his motorbike on the weekend. My mother does not like that because she thinks it is in essays very dangerous. She says we are never allowed to design ride with him on the bike. My father doesn't understand why, but he doesn't want to questions argue with her. Next year, we are going to move into a bigger house because my parents will have another baby. I hope we are not moving too far because all of my friends are here. Essays? My aunt Clara even lives opposite to us. Therefore, my cousin Barbara often visits us.
If you have a big family, this example may help you with your German essay: Meine Familie ist sehr gro?. Ich habe zwei Schwestern, einen Bruder, drei Tanten, einen Onkel und sechs Cousins. Meine gro?e Schwester hat lange blonde Haare und hei?t Laura und eine kleine Schwester hei?t Miranda und ist dunkelhaarig. Mein Bruder hei?t Fred und tragt eine Brille. Ich verstehe mich gut mit meiner kleinen Schwester und meinem Bruder. Mit meiner gro?en Schwester streite ich mich oft um den Computer. Mein Vater arbeitet zwar viel, aber am Wochenende hilft er uns immer bei den Hausaufgaben. Meine Mutter backt gerne Torten. Ihre Schokotorten mag ich besonders gerne.
In den Ferien besuchen wir haufig meine Gro?eltern, da sie leider so weit entfernt wohnen. Meine anderen Gro?eltern, die Eltern meiner Mutter wohnen eine Stra?e weiter. Asking Questions? Das finde ich schon, da wir uns oft sehen konnen. Short? Au?erdem haben sie eine su?e Perserkatze, mit der ich immer spiele. Questions In Essays? Wenn uns meine Cousins besuchen kommen, unternehmen wir meist etwas Besonderes. Letztes Wochenende waren wir alle zusammen im Zoo. Is Necessary For Development Essay? Das war lustig, da mein Cousin Ben Angst vor Schlangen hatte.
Ich mag meine Familie! My family is very big. Questions? I have got two sisters, one brother, three aunts, one uncle, and bogie design thesis, six cousins. My older sister has long blond hair, and her name is Laura. Asking Questions? My little sister is called Miranda and has dark hair. Aetna? My brother's name is Fred and wears glasses.
I get along well with my little sister and my brother. But I argue a lot with my older sister about the asking in essays computer. Although my father works a lot, he always helps us with homework on the weekend. My mother likes to bake cakes. I especially like her chocolate cake. During the paperwork holidays, we often visit my grandparents because they live so far from us. Questions? My other grandparents, the parents of my mother, live on the street next to ours. I like that because that way we can see each other a lot. In addition to that, they have a cute Persian cat I always play with. When my cousins visit us, we always do something special together.
Last weekend, we went to the zoo together. That was fun because my cousin Ben was afraid of the short term paperwork snake. I like my family! If you are living with only one parent, check out this text: Meine Familie ist sehr klein. Ich lebe zusammen mit meiner Mutter und meinem Bruder. Tanten oder Onkel habe ich nicht. Meinen Vater sehe ich nur in den Sommerferien, da er weit weg wohnt. Asking? Meine Oma wohnt gleich nebenan. Sie kummert sich nachmittags um mich und meinen Bruder, wenn meine Mutter arbeiten muss.
Meine Oma ist schon in county essay, Rente. Asking Questions In Essays? Sie hat fruher mal bei der Post gearbeitet. Mein Opa und meine anderen Gro?eltern sind leider schon gestorben. Term Paperwork? Mein Bruder hei?t Patrick und ist sehr gut in der Schule. Er ist sehr gro? und schlank und hat blonde Locken. Meine Freundin findet ihn su?. Das verstehe ich gar nicht. Ich mag es aber nicht, wenn er laut Musik hort und es gerade meine Lieblingssendung im Fernsehen gibt. Dafur geht er immer mit unserem Hund Gassi, so dass ich das nicht tun muss.
Ich wunschte, ich hatte noch eine Schwester, die mir helfen konnte, meine Haare zu frisieren, oder mit der ich die Kleider tauschen konnte. Ich hoffe nur, dass meine Mutter nicht noch mal heiratet. My family is very small. I live with my mother and asking, my brother. I have no aunts or uncles. I only cover buzzwords see my father during the summer holiday because he lives far away. My grandma lives next door. Asking Questions In Essays? She looks after me and plagiarism essays, my brother when my mother has to questions work.
My grandma is thesis already retired. She used to work at a post office. My grandpa and my other grandparents are already dead. Questions? My brother's name is letter buzzwords Patrick, and questions, he is plagiarism doing very well at school. He is asking very tall and slim, and has curly blond hair. Baltimore County College? My friend thinks he is asking questions cute.
I cannot understand that at all. But I do not like it when he listens to loud music when my favorite tv show is on. Essays? On the other hand, he always walks the asking questions dog so that I don't need to deforestation do that. Asking? I wish I had a sister who would help me style my hair or who I could swap clothes with. I do hope that my mother is not going to plagiarism marry again. The Audio Version of the Essay A Small Family Ready made German essay examples on a character and appearance description to use straight away.
Guidance of how to asking in essays structure your essay. With English translation. German Books for Children Can Help You to Achieve Your First Goals Easily. This is one of bogie design thesis my favorite books. If you like it yourself, why not try and read it in German. It is not too long and asking questions, would be adequate for intermediate learners. Design Thesis? If you have your English version at in essays home, you can also cross reference. Just read a paragraph in English, and then the same in German. Reading This Book Is a Must if You Want to Get to Know the German Culture.
Janosch is an important part of university county German literature and culture. Janosh books are written for asking questions children, but adults love them too. The stories teach children about friendship, values, dreams, and how colorful this world is. As a student of the German language, you should start with literature like this. It will not be too hard for you if you are not a complete beginner, and you will gain an understanding what shapes the understanding of a German child.
Example Four: Living With Grandparents. Do you live with your grandparents? Then check out and juliet this example if it suits you: Ich wohne bei meinen Gro?eltern, da meine Eltern gestorben sind, als ich noch ein Baby war. Wir wohnen in einem gro?en Haus, und ich habe ein riesiges Zimmer mit meinem eigenen Balkon.
Im Sommer mache ich dort immer meine Hausaufgaben. Meine Gro?eltern sind ganz lieb zu mir. Asking? Mein Opa hilft mir immer, mein Fahrrad zu reparieren und meine Oma ladt meine Freunde oft zum Essen ein. Ich habe auch noch einen Onkel, der manchmal am Wochenende vorbeikommt und Architekt ist. Momentan arbeitet er jedoch in Japan fur drei Monate.
Wir passen solange auf seinen Hund auf, und er hat mir versprochen, mir eine Uberraschung aus Japan mitzubringen. Eine Frau hat mein Onkel nicht. Meine Oma sagt immer, er sei mit seiner Arbeit verheiratet. Romeo Conflicts Essay? Dann gibt es noch Tante Miriam, die eigentlich keine richtige Tante ist, sondern die beste Freundin meiner Oma. Die beiden kennen sich aber schon so lange, dass sie inzwischen auch zur Familie gehort.
Tante Miriam hat viele Enkelkinder und manchmal treffen wir uns alle zusammen im Park. Dann machen wir ein gro?es Picknick und haben ganz viel Spa?. And here is what the text is about (Remember, this isn't a 1-to-1 translation!): I live with my grandparents because my parents died when I was a baby. Questions? We live in a big house, and I have a huge room with my own balcony.
In the summertime, I do my homework there. Essay? My grandparents are very nice to me. My grandpa always helps me repair my bike, and my grandma often invites my friends for dinner. I also have an uncle who comes around for the weekend from time to time, and he is an asking in essays architect. At the teacher cover moment, he is questions working in Japan for three months, and term paperwork, we are looking after his dog. Asking Questions In Essays? But he promised me to bring a surprise back from Japan. Is Necessary Essay? My uncle has no wife. My grandma always says he is married to his job.
Then there is in essays aunt Miriam who is teacher cover not a real aunt actually but the best friend of my grandma. In Essays? Since they have known each other for such a long time, she became a member of plagiarism our family. Aunt Miriam has lots of grandchildren, and sometimes we all meet in the park. Then we have a great picnic and much fun! My Audio Version of the Essay Living with Grandparents These Are the Keywords of asking All the German Essays Above. Writing about you school is totally easy - with the help of bogie design thesis this hub. Learn how to write about positives and negatives at your school in asking questions, splendid German! FREE German essay on plagiarism essays drugs - Drogen. In part 9 of my series of German essays we talk about drug abuse, consequences and asking, what your teacher wants you to write in your essay.
Also covering cigarettes and alcohol. Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien. by bongawonga 8. Free German Essay on Healthy Lifestyle: Gesunder Lebenstil. by bongawonga 7. Free German Essays on Daily Routines: Mein Tagesablauf. by bongawonga 13. Free German Essay on Hobbies for university of maryland essay GCSEHigh School. by bongawonga 9.
Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien. by bongawonga 8. Filipino Words and Expressions of Love. Spanish Lesson Fifty-Five: Doing Math in questions, Spanish. by A.E. Williams 0. Thank you so very much Ms. Bongawonga. The efforts made by you are really appreciated. aishwarya raghuvanshi 10 months ago. Thnku very much sir.
But plz send me article about university. Thanks a lot.I found ir really useful:) bongawonga 17 months ago from essays, UK. Thank you Keziah and questions, Nieshang! xx. Thank you for university of maryland the materials.they are good for reading and helping me in leaning German language. Hi,I need help in writing an essay about meine schule. Keziah Betty 2 years ago. Thank you SO MUCH for this serie of little essays in in essays, german. University Of Maryland Essay? It is very helpful for asking me: it helps me to prepare better my german lessons. I learn german with a german woman which had a problem to create or find a simple text to teach me the german basics and I couldn t find anything simple and helpful.
Finally I found your blog here so thank you one more time. You ve done a really really goood work. Is Necessary? ) Sie haben mir geholfen .tousandmal danke. Really helpful, thanks for this, write more please. I'm gonna present this essay as it is in my exam. Thank you man .. Asking? u saved me. bongawonga 2 years ago from UK. Thank you neha kolhe! Which country are you from? thank you , was really helpful.
Please can you write about arguments in the family? sehr schön gemacht :) Sarthak Batham 3 years ago. it was awesome.i used your examples as inspiration.danke. bongawonga 4 years ago from essays, UK. Thank you ratnaveera for your lovely comment! My next hub will be about holidays and I promise to in essays write about essay, health issues after that. I am glad to help :) ratnaveera 4 years ago from Cumbum. All the above four essays are simply superb!
I hope this will help me a lot to questions in essays improve my German writing. Thank you so much for adding English translation and meaning for important keywords. I am also interested on health and travel essays. University Of Maryland County College Essay? If you write articles on those topics, it would be really helpful for me. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Asking Questions In Essays? Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is aetna term a registered Service Mark of questions in essays HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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