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A Guide to Spring Framework Annotations. Here's the lowdown on just about every Spring Framework annotation, including Core, Spring Cloud, Spring MVC, Spring REST, and Spring Boot. On Economy? Join the DZone community and get the full member experience. The Java programming language provided support for annotations from columbia summer high school creative Java 5.0 onward. Leading Java frameworks were quick to adopt annotations, and the Spring Framework started using annotations from the 2.5 release. Due to the way they are defined, annotations provide a lot of context in their declaration. Prior to annotations, the on economy, behavior of the Spring Framework was largely controlled through XML configuration. Corps Engineers? Today, the essays on economy in america, use of annotations provide us tremendous capabilities in how we configure the behaviors of the dissertation, Spring Framework. On Economy? In this post, we’ll take a look at the annotations available in the Spring Framework. Essayons Button? Core Spring Framework Annotations. This annotation is applied to bean setter methods.

Consider a scenario where you need to enforce a required property. The @Required annotation indicates that the affected bean must be populated at configuration time with the required property. Otherwise, an essays, exception of type BeanInitializationException is engineers essayons button thrown. This annotation is applied to in america fields, setter methods, and constructors. The @Autowired annotation injects object dependency implicitly. When you use @Autowired on fields and pass the on pet, values for the fields using the on economy, property name, Spring will automatically assign the fields with the passed values. You can even use @Autowired on private properties, as shown below. (This is a very poor practice though!) When you use @Autowired on setter methods, Spring tries to perform it by Type autowiring on high writing, the method. You are instructing Spring that it should initiate this property using a setter method where you can add your custom code, like initializing any other property with this property. Consider a scenario where you need an instance of class A, but you do not store A in the field of the class. You just use A to obtain an essays in america, instance of B, and you are storing B in university school writing this field. On Economy? In this case, setter method autowiring will better suit you.

You will not have class-level unused fields. When you use @Autowired on a constructor, then constructor injection happens at the time of object creation. It tells the university summer high creative writing, constructor to autowire when used as a bean. One thing to note here is that only one constructor of any bean class can carry the essays in america, @Autowired annotation. NOTE: As of Spring 4.3, @Autowired became optional on classes with a single constructor. In the above example, Spring would still inject an instance of the of experience, Person class if you omitted the @Autowired annotation. This annotation is used along with the @Autowired annotation. When you need more control of the essays on economy in america, dependency injection process, @Qualifier can be used. @Qualifier can be specified on individual constructor arguments or method parameters. This annotation is used to avoid the confusion that occurs when you create more than one bean of the same type and want to wire only one of them with a property. Consider an example where an interface BeanInterface is implemented by two beans, BeanB1 and evaluation essay on facebook, BeanB2. Now if BeanA autowires this interface, Spring will not know which one of the two implementations to inject.

One solution to on economy in america this problem is the use of the @Qualifier annotation. With the @Qualifier annotation added, Spring will now know which bean to autowire, where beanB2 is the name of BeanB2. This annotation is word used on classes that define beans. @Configuration is an analog for an XML configuration file – it is configuration using Java classes. A Java class annotated with @Configuration is a configuration by essays, itself and will have methods to instantiate and configure the dependencies. Here is an example: This annotation is used with the @Configuration annotation to allow Spring to know the packages to essay of college scan for annotated components. @ComponentScan is also used to specify base packages using basePackageClasses or basePackage attributes to scan. If specific packages are not defined, scanning will occur from the package of the class that declares this annotation. This annotation is in america used at the method level. The @Bean annotation works with @Configuration to animals create Spring beans. As mentioned earlier, @Configuration will have methods to instantiate and configure dependencies.

Such methods will be annotated with @Bean. The method annotated with this annotation works as the bean ID, and it creates and returns the actual bean. Here is an example: This annotation is used on component classes. By default, all autowired dependencies are created and configured at essays in america startup. But if you want to initialize a bean lazily, you can use the @Lazy annotation over the class. This means that the bean will be created and initialized only when it is 2000 word essay first requested for. You can also use this annotation on @Configuration classes. This indicates that all @Bean methods within that @Configuration should be lazily initialized. This annotation is used at the field, constructor parameter, and method parameter levels. The @Value annotation indicates a default value expression for the field or parameter to essays initialize the property with. As the @Autowired annotation tells Spring to inject an object into another when it loads your application context, you can also use the @Value annotation to inject values from a property file into a bean’s attribute.

It supports both # and $ placeholders. Of College Life? Spring Framework Stereotype Annotations. This annotation is used on classes to indicate a Spring component. The @Component annotation marks the on economy in america, Java class as a bean or component so that the component-scanning mechanism of Spring can add it into hegel planets, the application context. The @Controller annotation is used to indicate the essays on economy in america, class is columbia university summer school a Spring controller. This annotation can be used to identify controllers for Spring MVC or Spring WebFlux. This annotation is used on a class. @Service marks a Java class that performs some service, such as executing business logic, performing calculations, and essays on economy in america, calling external APIs.

This annotation is a specialized form of [email protected] annotation intended to be used in the service layer. This annotation is used on corps engineers, Java classes that directly access the database. The @Repository annotation works as a marker for any class that fulfills the role of repository or Data Access Object. This annotation has an automatic translation feature. For example, when an exception occurs in the @Repository, there is a handler for that exception and there is essays in america no need to add a try-catch block. This annotation is usually placed on the main application class. The @EnableAutoConfiguration annotation implicitly defines a base “search package”. This annotation tells Spring Boot to start adding beans based on classpath settings, other beans, and 2000 essay on speeding, various property settings.

This annotation is used on the application class while setting up a Spring Boot project. The class that is annotated with the on economy, @SpringBootApplication must be kept in the base package. The one thing that [email protected] does is a component scan. But it will scan only its sub-packages. As an example, if you put the class annotated with @SpringBootApplication in com.example, then @SpringBootApplication will scan all its sub-packages, such as com.example.a, com.example.b, and com.example.a.x. The @SpringBootApplication is a convenient annotation that adds all the following: This annotation is used on Java classes that play the role of controller in your application. The @Controller annotation allows autodetection of component classes in of experience life the classpath and auto-registering bean definitions for them. To enable autodetection of such annotated controllers, you can add component scanning to on economy in america your configuration. The Java class annotated with @Controller is capable of handling multiple request mappings.

This annotation can be used with Spring MVC and Spring WebFlux. This annotation is used at both the class and method level. The @RequestMapping annotation is used to map web requests onto specific handler classes and handler methods. When @RequestMapping is used on the class level, it creates a base URI for which the controller will be used. When this annotation is used on methods, it will give you the URI on which the handler methods will be executed. From this, you can infer that the class level request mapping will remain the same whereas each handler method will have their own request mapping. Of Experience Of College Life? Sometimes you may want to perform different operations based on the HTTP method used, even though the essays in america, request URI may remain the same. In such situations, you can use the method attribute of @RequestMapping with an hegel, HTTP method value to narrow down the HTTP methods in order to invoke the methods of your class.

Here is a basic example of how a controller along with request mappings work: In this example, only GET requests to /welcome is handled by the welcomeAll() method. This annotation also can be used with Spring MVC and essays on economy, Spring WebFlux. The @RequestMapping annotation is very versatile. Please see my in-depth post on Request Mapping here. This annotation is used at hegel method parameter level. @CookieValue is essays in america used as an argument of a request mapping method. The HTTP cookie is bound to small animals the @CookieValue parameter for a given cookie name. This annotation is used in the method annotated with @RequestMapping. Let us consider that the following cookie value is received with an HTTP request: To get the essays on economy, value of the cookie, use @CookieValue like this: This annotation is used both at evaluation on facebook the class and method levels to enable cross-origin requests. In many cases, the host that serves JavaScript will be different from the host that serves the data.

In such a case, Cross Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) enables cross-domain communication. To enable this communication, you just need to essays on economy add the @CrossOrigin annotation. By default, the @CrossOrigin annotation allows all origin, all headers, the word essay on speeding, HTTP methods specified in [email protected] annotation, and a maxAge of 30 min. You can customize the behavior by essays, specifying the corresponding attribute values. An example of using @CrossOrigin at both the controller and animals, handler method levels is in america below: In this example, both the getExample() and getNote() methods will have a maxAge of 3600 seconds. Also, getExample() will only allow cross-origin requests from, while getNote() will allow cross-origin requests from all hosts. Spring framework 4.3 introduced the following method-level variants of @RequestMapping annotation to word better express the semantics of the annotated methods.

Using these annotations has become the standard ays of defining the endpoints. They act as wrappers to @RequestMapping. These annotations can be used with Spring MVC and Spring WebFlux. This annotation is used for mapping HTTP GET requests onto specific handler methods. Essays On Economy In America? @GetMapping is a composed annotation that acts as a shortcut for @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.GET). This annotation is used for mapping HTTP POST requests onto essay of college life, specific handler methods. @PostMapping is a composed annotation that acts as a shortcut for on economy in america, @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.POST). This annotation is used for mapping HTTP PUT requests onto hegel dissertation, specific handler methods. @PutMapping is a composed annotation that acts as a shortcut for @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.PUT). This annotation is used for mapping HTTP PATCH requests onto specific handler methods. @PatchMapping is a composed annotation that acts as a shortcut for @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.PATCH). This annotation is used for on economy, mapping HTTP DELETE requests onto specific handler methods. @DeleteMapping is a composed annotation that acts as a shortcut for @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.DELETE). This annotation is used at method levels to handle exceptions at the controller level. The @ExceptionHandler annotation is used to university summer high school creative define the class of exception it will catch.

You can use this annotation on methods that should be invoked to handle an exception. The @ExceptionHandler values can be set to an array of Exception types. If an exception is thrown that matches one of the types in the list, then the on economy, method annotated with the matching @ExceptionHandler will be invoked. Columbia Writing? This annotation is a method-level annotation that plays the role of identifying the essays on economy, methods that initialize theWebDataBinder — a DataBinder that binds the request parameter to JavaBean objects. To customize request parameter data binding, you can use @InitBinder annotated methods within our controller.

The methods annotated with @InitBinder includes all argument types that handler methods support. The @InitBinder annotated methods will get called for of experience life, each HTTP request if you don’t specify the value element of this annotation. The value element can be a single or multiple form names or request parameters that the init binder method is applied to. This annotation is in america used on fields. The @Mapping annotation is a meta-annotation that indicates a web mapping annotation. When mapping different field names, you need to corps engineers button configure the source field to its target field, and to do that, you have to add the in america, @Mappings annotation. This annotation accepts an array of @Mapping having the source and the target fields. Columbia High School Writing? This annotation is used to annotate request handler method arguments so that Spring can inject the in america, relevant bits of a matrix URI. Matrix variables can appear on any segment each separated by a semicolon. If a URL contains matrix variables, the request mapping pattern must represent them with a URI template.

The @MatrixVariable annotation ensures that the request is matched with the correct matrix variables of the URI. This annotation is used to annotate request handler method arguments. The @RequestMapping annotation can be used to handle dynamic changes in the URI where a certain URI value acts as a parameter. Dissertation? You can specify this parameter using a regular expression. The @PathVariable annotation can be used declare this parameter. This annotation is used to bind the request attribute to a handler method parameter. Essays On Economy? Spring retrieves the named attribute's value to populate the parameter annotated with @RequestAttribute. While the @RequestParamannotation is used bind the parameter values from a query string, @RequestAttribute is used to access the objects that have been populated on the server side.

This annotation is used to essay on pet annotate request handler method arguments. The @RequestBody annotation indicates that a method parameter should be bound to the value of the HTTP request body. The HttpMessageConveter is on economy responsible for converting from the HTTP request message to essay on facebook object. This annotation is essays on economy in america used to annotate request handler method arguments. The @RequestHeader annotation is used to map controller parameter to request header value. Columbia University Writing? When Spring maps the request, @RequestHeader checks the header with the essays in america, name specified within the annotation and binds its value to small essay on pet animals the handler method parameter.

This annotation helps you to get the header details within the controller class. This annotation is used to annotate request handler method arguments. Sometimes you get the essays on economy in america, parameters in the request URL, mostly in GET requests. In that case, along with the @RequestMapping annotation, you can use the @RequestParam annotation to retrieve the URL parameter and map it to the method argument. [email protected] annotation is used to bind request parameters to a method parameter in your controller. Corps Engineers Essayons? This annotation is used to annotate request handler method arguments. The @RequestPart annotation can be used instead of @RequestParam to get the content of a specific multipart and bind it to the method argument annotated with @RequestPart. This annotation takes into consideration the “Content-Type” header in the multipart (request part).

This annotation is used to annotate request handler methods. The @ResponseBody annotation is similar to on economy [email protected] annotation. The @ResponseBody annotation indicates that the result type should be written straight in engineers essayons the response body in whatever format you specify like JSON or XML. Spring converts the returned object into a response body by using the HttpMessageConveter. In America? This annotation is used on methods and exception classes. @ResponseStatus marks a method or exception class with a status code and a reason that must be returned. On Facebook? When the handler method is invoked the status code is set to the HTTP response which overrides the status information provided by any other means.

A controller class can also be annotated with @ResponseStatus, which is then inherited by all @RequestMapping methods. This annotation is applied at the class level. As explained earlier, for each controller, you can use @ExceptionHandler on a method that will be called when a given exception occurs. But this handles only those exceptions that occur within the controller in which it is defined. To overcome this problem, you can now use [email protected] annotation. This annotation is used to define @ExceptionHandler, @InitBinder, and @ModelAttribute methods that apply to all @RequestMapping methods. Thus, if you define the essays, @ExceptionHandler annotation on a method in a @ControllerAdvice class, it will be applied to all the controllers. This annotation is used at the class level.

The @RestController annotation marks the class as a controller where every method returns a domain object instead of a view. By annotating a class with this annotation, you no longer need to add @ResponseBody to all the RequestMapping methods. It means that you no long use view-resolvers or send HTML in response. You just send the domain object as an HTTP response in the format that is understood by the consumers, like JSON. @RestController is a convenience annotation that combines @Controller and @ResponseBody. This annotation is applied to Java classes. @RestControllerAdvice is word a convenience annotation that combines @ControllerAdvice and essays on economy, @ResponseBody. Engineers Essayons Button? This annotation is on economy in america used along with the @ExceptionHandler annotation to handle exceptions that occur within the controller.

This annotation is used at method parameter level. Animals? The @SessionAttribute annotation is used to essays on economy bind the method parameter to a session attribute. This annotation provides a convenient access to the existing or permanent session attributes. This annotation is applied at the type level for a specific handler. The @SessionAtrributes annotation is used when you want to add a JavaBean object into a session. This is animals used when you want to keep the object in session for on economy in america, short lived. @SessionAttributes is used in school writing conjunction with @ModelAttribute.

Consider this example: The @ModelAttribute name is assigned to the @SessionAttributes as a value. The @SessionAttributes has two elements. The value element is the essays on economy in america, name of the essay on facebook, session in the model and the types element is the type of session attributes in on economy the model. Small On Pet? This annotation is used at the class level. When developing a project with a number of services, you need to have a centralized and straightforward manner to configure and essays on economy, retrieve the configurations of all the services that you are going to develop. One advantage of essay, using a centralized config server is that you don’t need to carry the burden of on economy, remembering where each configuration is distributed across multiple and distributed components. You can use Spring Cloud’s @EnableConfigServer annotation to start a config server that the other applications can talk to. This annotation is applied to Java classes. One problem that you may encounter while decomposing your application into life, microservices is that it becomes difficult for every service to know the address of every other service it depends on. There comes the discovery service which is responsible for in america, tracking the locations of all other microservices.

Netflix’s Eureka is an implementation of a discovery server and essay on speeding, integration is provided by Spring Boot. Spring Boot has made it easy to design a Eureka Server by just annotating the on economy in america, entry class with @EnableEurekaServer. This annotation is applied to Java classes. In order to tell any application to register itself with Eureka, you just need to add the @EnableDiscoveryClientannotation to the application entry point. The application that’s now registered with Eureka uses the Spring Cloud Discovery Client abstraction to hegel dissertation planets interrogate the essays on economy, registry for its own host and port. This annotation is applied to Java classes that can act as the circuit breaker. Essay? The circuit breaker pattern can allow a microservice continue working when a related service fails, preventing the failure from cascading. Essays? This also gives the failed service a time to recover.

The class annotated with @EnableCircuitBreaker will monitor, open, and close the circuit breaker. This annotation is used at dissertation the method level. Netflix’s Hystrix library provides the implementation of essays in america, a Circuit Breaker pattern. When you apply the circuit breaker to a method, Hystrix watches for the failures of the method. Once failures build up to a threshold, Hystrix opens the evaluation on facebook, circuit so that the subsequent calls also fail. Essays On Economy? Now Hystrix redirects calls to the method, and they are passed to the specified fallback methods.

Hystrix looks for any method annotated with the @HystrixCommand annotation and wraps it into a proxy connected to columbia school creative a circuit breaker so that Hystrix can monitor it. Consider the on economy in america, following example: Here @HystrixCommand is applied to on pet the original method bookList(). The @HystrixCommand annotation has newList as the fallback method. So for some reason, if Hystrix opens the circuit on bookList(), you will have a placeholder book list ready for the users.

Spring Framework DataAccess Annotations. Essays On Economy In America? This annotation is placed before an interface definition, a method on an interface, a class definition, or a public method on on pet animals, a class. The mere presence of @Transactional is not enough to activate the transactional behavior. The @Transactional is simply metadata that can be consumed by some runtime infrastructure. This infrastructure uses the metadata to configure the appropriate beans with transactional behavior. The annotation further supports configuration like: The Propagation type of the transaction The Isolation level of the transaction A timeout for the operation wrapped by the transaction A read-only flag — a hint for the persistence provider that the essays, transaction must be read onlyThe rollback rules for the transaction. This annotation is used on methods. The simplest way of on pet, enabling the cache behavior for a method is to on economy in america annotate it with @Cacheable and essay on pet, parameterize it with the name of the cache where the results would be stored. In the snippet above, the method getAddress is associated with the cache named addresses. Each time the method is called, the cache is checked to see whether the invocation has been already executed and does not have to be repeated.

This annotation is used on essays in america, methods. Whenever you need to update the cache without interfering the method execution, you can use the @CachePut annotation. That is, the method will always be executed and the result cached. Using @CachePut and @Cacheable on the same method is strongly discouraged, as the former forces the execution in order to execute a cache update, the columbia summer school, latter causes the essays on economy, method execution to be skipped by using the cache. This annotation is used on methods.

It is on facebook not that you always want to populate the in america, cache with more and corps engineers, more data. Sometimes, you may want to remove some cache data so that you can populate the cache with some fresh values. In such a case, use the on economy in america, @CacheEvict annotation. Here, an additional element, allEntries, is evaluation on facebook used along with the essays on economy in america, cache name to be emptied. It is set to small on pet true so that it clears all values and prepares to hold new data. On Economy In America? This annotation is a class level annotation. The @CacheConfig annotation helps to streamline some of the essay, cache information at one place. Placing this annotation on a class does not turn on any caching operation. This allows you to store the on economy, cache configuration at small essay on pet animals the class level so that you don’t have to declare things multiple times.

Task Execution and Scheduling Annotations. This annotation is a method-level annotation. The @Scheduled annotation is used on methods along with the trigger metadata. A method with @Scheduled should have a void return type and should not accept any parameters. Essays On Economy? There are different ways of using the @Scheduled annotation: In this case, the duration between the end of the last execution and the start of the word essay, next execution is fixed.

The tasks always wait until the previous one is finished. In this case, the beginning of the task execution does not wait for the completion of the previous execution. The task gets executed initially with a delay and then continues with the specified fixed rate. This annotation is used on methods to execute each method in in america a separate thread. The @Async annotation is provided on a method so that the invocation of that method will occur asynchronously.

Unlike methods annotated with @Scheduled, the methods annotated with @Async can take arguments. They will be invoked in the normal way by callers at runtime rather than by a scheduled task. @Async can be used with both void return type methods and methods that return a value. However, methods with return values must have a Future-typed return value. University Summer High School? Spring Framework Testing Annotations. This annotation is a class-level annotation. The @BootstrapWith annotation is used to configure how the Spring TestContext Framework is bootstrapped. This annotation is on economy used as a metadata to create custom composed annotations and reduce the corps essayons button, configuration duplication in a test suite. On Economy In America? This annotation is a class level annotation that defines a metadata used to determine which configuration files to use to word on speeding the load the ApplicationContext for your test. More specifically @ContextConfiguration declares the annotated classes that will be used to load the context. You can also tell Spring where to locate the file.

This annotation is a class level annotation. The @WebAppConfiguration is used to declare that the ApplicationContext loaded for an integration test should be a WebApplicationContext. This annotation is used to create the web version of the application context. It is important to essays in america note that this annotation must be used with the @ContextConfiguration annotation. The default path to hegel planets the root of the web application is src/main/webapp. You can override it by passing a different path to in america the span class=theme:classic lang:default decode:true [email protected]

This annotation is used on methods. Corps Engineers Essayons Button? The @Timed annotation indicates that the essays, annotated test method must finish its execution at the specified time period (in milliseconds). If the execution exceeds the specified time in the annotation, the test fails. In this example, the test will fail if it exceeds 10 seconds of execution. This annotation is used on test methods. If you want to run a test method several times in a row automatically, you can use the @Repeat annotation. The number of times that test method is to be executed is specified in the annotation. In this example, the test will be executed 10 times. 2000 Word Essay? This annotation can be used as both class-level or method-level annotation.

After execution of a test method, the transaction of the transactional test method can be committed using the essays in america, @Commit annotation. This annotation explicitly conveys the intent of the code. When used at the class level, this annotation defines the commit for all test methods within the class. When declared as a method level annotation, @Commit specifies the commit for essay of college, specific test methods overriding the class level commit. This annotation can be used as both class-level and method-level annotation. The @RollBack annotation indicates whether the transaction of a transactional test method must be rolled back after the test completes its execution.

If this true, @Rollback(true), the transaction is rolled back. Otherwise, the transaction is committed. @Commit is used instead of @RollBack(false). When used at the class level, this annotation defines the rollback for all test methods within the class. When declared as a method level annotation, @RollBack specifies the rollback for specific test methods overriding the class level rollback semantics. This annotation is used as both class-level and method-level annotation. @DirtiesContext indicates that the essays, Spring ApplicationContext has been modified or corrupted in some manner and it should be closed. Of Experience Of College? This will trigger the context reloading before execution of next test. The ApplicationContext is marked as dirty before or after any such annotated method as well as before or after current test class. The @DirtiesContext annotation supports BEFORE_METHOD, BEFORE_CLASS, and BEFORE_EACH_TEST_METHOD modes for closing the ApplicationContext before a test. NOTE : Avoid overusing this annotation.

It is an expensive operation and if abused, it can really slow down your test suite. This annotation is used to essays in america annotate void methods in the test class. @BeforeTransaction annotated methods indicate that they should be executed before any transaction starts executing. Small Essay? That means the method annotated with @BeforeTransaction must be executed before any method annotated with @Transactional. This annotation is used to annotate void methods in the test class. @AfterTransaction annotated methods indicate that they should be executed after a transaction ends for test methods. Essays On Economy In America? That means the on speeding, method annotated with @AfterTransaction must be executed after the method annotated with @Transactional. This annotation can be declared on a test class or test method to run SQL scripts against a database. The @Sql annotation configures the resource path to SQL scripts that should be executed against a given database either before or after an integration test method.

When @Sql is used at the method level it, will override any @Sqldefined in at class level. This annotation is used along with the @Sql annotation. The @SqlConfig annotation defines the metadata that is used to determine how to parse and execute SQL scripts configured via the in america, @Sql annotation. When used at the class level, this annotation serves as global configuration for all SQL scripts within the essay of college life, test class. But when used directly with the config attribute of @Sql, @SqlConfig serves as a local configuration for SQL scripts declared. This annotation is used on on economy, methods. The @SqlGroup annotation is a container annotation that can hold [email protected] annotations. This annotation can declare nested @Sql annotations. In addition, @SqlGroup is used as a meta-annotation to create custom composed annotations. Planets? This annotation can also be used along with repeatable annotations, where @Sql can be declared several times on the same method or class.

This annotation is used to start the Spring context for integration tests. This will bring up the essays in america, full autoconfigruation context. The @DataJpaTest annotation will only provide the autoconfiguration required to test Spring Data JPA using an essay on speeding, in-memory database such as H2. This annotation is used instead of @SpringBootTest. The @DataMongoTest will provide a minimal autoconfiguration and an embedded MongoDB for running integration tests with Spring Data MongoDB.

The @WebMVCTest will bring up a mock servlet context for testing the MVC layer. Services and components are not loaded into on economy, the context. 2000 On Speeding? To provide these dependencies for testing, the @MockBean annotation is typically used. The @AutoConfigureMockMVC annotation works very similarly to the @WebMVCTest annotation, but the full Spring Boot context is started. Creates and injects a Mockito Mock for the given dependency. Will limit the auto-configuration of Spring Boot to components relevant to processing JSON. This annotation will also autoconfigure an instance of JacksonTester or GsonTester.

Class level annotation used to specify property sources for the test class. Build vs Buy a Data Quality Solution: Which is Best for You? Maintaining high quality data is essential for operational efficiency, meaningful analytics and essays, good long-term customer relationships. But, when dealing with multiple sources of data, data quality becomes complex, so you need to know when you should build a custom data quality tools effort over canned solutions. Download our whitepaper for more insights into a hybrid approach.

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Essay, Research Paper: Research Paper On Zoology. advanced in technology, medicine and essays even the fact we are the small on pet, most sophisticated. species on the planet. Are we a gift to planet Earth, or far from it? With cast. amounts of pollution and destruction of the planet, not to mention unthinkable. acts of violence and hate that has been going on since the beginning of time. Are we really as sophisticated and important as we have led ourselves to.

believe? Are we any better than any other creature because we are more. technologically advanced? Is the human race a blessing? Humans have destroyed. and endangered more species on our planet than any other species or group, with. our continuous pollution and lack of respect for out own environment. Essays On Economy? One area. of the world affected by our careless habits is our coastlines and the marine.

habitats that vast amounts of species rely on. These particular areas of the. world are being destroyed because humans don’t seem to care as long as they. make a couple of dollars in high school writing, the process. Essays On Economy In America? Oil spills like the one in the Prince.

William Sound on the coast of Alaska and Hawaiian sea turtles and their many. troubles with humans are just some examples of columbia university school human carelessness and the. consequences that the in america, environment, particularly marine wildlife incur, which. often are fatal. Essay On Facebook? I chose this particular subject because I find the ocean and. it’s unique and essays in america rare inhabitants to university summer, be interesting. Every coastline has its.

one unique species and no two areas are the same. I wanted to learn more about. how humans are destroying the habitats of these unique creatures. I found that. all species are in someway being threatened by human dominance and carelessness. From the common flounder or sea star you can find when you walk across the beach. to a rare fish like the coelacanth (prehistoric fish that was believed to be. extinct until one was caught off the essays in america, coat of Madagascar by a local commercial. fisherman until in the 1950’s). The ocean can be a calm and loving but can. easily turn into a vicious killer within seconds.

All of these things are what I. find so interesting about the ocean. I wanted to find out why people can. continue to destroy it even though they know the effect of their actions. I. guess some people are ignorant and just don’t care if they destroy the things. that make our environment so beautiful.

One example of our careless destruction. of our environment is the hegel, Exxon Valdez oil spill off the coast of Alaska in. 1989. The Prince William Sound still shows signs of the oil spill tem years. later. On Economy In America? Most species have recovered since the spill, but many are still.

suffering. The Harbor Seal and herring are just two who are vital to the. survival of all the species in word, the area. Herring are the on economy in america, main source of food for. many species in small animals, the area, including humans. (Mitchell, p.98) “The ecosystem is. gradually recovering from the spill,” says Molly McCammon, an Executive. director of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, “but it will never be. the same as it was twenty years ago.” The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee. Council was founded to oversee the use of nine hundred million dollars to the. area by the government after settling with the Exxon Company for one billion. dollars in criminal and civil damages.

One serious problem in essays in america, the aftermath of. Exxon Valdez is the decline of essay on facebook herring. (The table shows the essays on economy in america, chave in. populations of high writing Prince William Sound before and after the Exxon Valdez spill.) Even more disturbing than the fact herring aren’t recovering as well as other. species like them is the fact they were on the decline before the accident. This. was a major issue because herring are the essays on economy in america, center of the ecosystem in the Sound. Many biologists now believe that over animals fishing of the herring has contributed to. their decline. The Pacific Herring is just one species of the area, but if you. see how important that one species is to the ecosystem of the Alaskan coast than.

you begin to see how important all species are to their particular habitats. This is just one example, but if you take a species out of essays on economy in america its environment, then. a chain reaction would occur, hurting the species around it. Columbia Creative? Another species. that biologists are beginning to study wit the money received from the Exxon. Valdez settlement is the Alaskan Salmon. The oil spill has left the Alaskan. Salmon on the decline until recently, but still the species is reeling. “The. last two years have been extremely positive for essays on economy, the Alaskan Salmon. population,” stated one Alaskan biologists. But her concerns were more focused.

on the hegel planets, salmon offspring, which had been effected by the spill. Fry, as seen in. the left vial, were damaged by the oil. The fry still come in contact with oil. when oil pockets seep into some intertidal spawning streams. Essays? “These pockets. are like mines,” says Jeffrey Short, a scientist with the National Marine. Fisheries Service.

Scientist discovered the oil caused genetic defects in. salmon. Many species in the Prince William Sound are still recovering from the. spill. This is university school creative writing, just one spill and you can see the essays in america, devastation it has made upon. its ecosystem. This has been called one of the worst oil spills in history. But. you can imagine there has been numerous spills that are almost as areas might.

never fully recover from the spill on columbia university summer writing, their ecosystem. The devastation of an oil. spill is just one of many causes of marine destruction that humans are guilty. of. Many other species suffer from damaged habitats. Another example of humans. destroying their environment and the unique species that live there is Hawaiian. Sea turtles. The turtles are becoming endangered because of loss of habitat. The.

overwhelming presence of humans in the turtle’s habitat is making is harder. for turtles to find areas where they can lay their eggs. The loss of nesting. sites if hurting the reproduction of sea turtles because unpopulated beaches are. becoming harder to essays on economy in america, find. Sea turtles have an affinity for on pet animals, certain beaches and. when they cannot lay their eggs there they have to find new areas which can take. time. Other reasons why the turtles are being threatened are pollution of essays in america the. ocean and dissertation planets netting. Pollution in essays in america, the form of debris is killing turtles.

They can. ingest the plastic debris and it makes it hard to corps, get the nourishment needed. from the essays, food they eat. Netting is small essay on pet, another killer of turtles. Fishing nets set. out by commercial fisherman are a definite killer of sea turtles in the Hawaiian. Islands. ( Erosion of beaches also hurts the sea. turtle population. The lack of beach force turtles to lay their eggs in a. smaller area. When humans try to stop or reduce erosion it disturbs the essays in america, turtles.

even more. Sea walls, canals, jetties, and sandbagging are all things that are. used by humans to school creative writing, stop erosion, but they are hurting the turtles more than they. are helping them. They need dry land in order to lay their eggs and these. structures are deducing land even further. On Economy In America? Fibropapilloma Tumors are a serious. threat and are beginning to show up on turtles in Hawaii and other areas with. large numbers of sea turtles. They were first seen in turtles around 1930, but.

it wasn’t until 1980 that the small, tumors began to show up in epidemic proportions. The green turtles were the only known species to have the tumors, but it has. recently been discovered in other turtle species. The most effected areas of the. world are Hawaii, Florida, and Australia. ( All of these threats to turtle population are hurting their hopes of survival. But people out to help the sea turtles such as Denise Parker who works with a. marine turtle program in Honolulu, Hawaii, have worked hard and the population. of marine sea turtles has actually been on the rise in recent years. Essays In America? The.

turtle’s population is coming up from on pet animals endangered and threatened to a safe. number, but that isn’t far enough for many who care about the turtles. They. continue to help increase the population because they know they would begin to. decline again if they didn’t have any help. Many groups such as the Marine. Turtles Research Program and on economy in america the National Marine Fisheries Service are helping. to restore the turtles in Hawaii. There are also many individuals whose work. with the sea turtles have helped in hegel planets, preserving them and on economy in america their natural.

environment. One of these people is Ken Nichols. Nichols is hegel dissertation, a supporter of. turtles and he is trying to make the people aware of the environment in the. Hawaiian Islands. He feels that the most important thing we can do is conserve. the wilderness and beaches from expansion. We need to educate people about the. turtles especially children. When asked about essays on economy how we can save the environment. and the creative, habitat of turtles as well as other species Nichols said, “This is.

obviously a difficult task as the human population continues to on economy in america, grow, which. means we are constantly expanding into wild areas which support bio-diversity of. all types. I believe the greatest task is education of children and more. efficient use of the on facebook, existing areas we are using.” These two ideas, are good. examples of how the human race destroys the environment around them.

We continue. to hurt our wildlife, but there are people out there to fight against on economy in america, the. pollution and small essay destruction caused by large corporations and businesses. The. Endangered Species Act of 1973 has helped tremendously in the battle for. survival of species like the in america, turtles in Hawaii as well as other threatened and. endangered species of out planet. (

This act. prohibits the further destruction or death of the species. By the Endangered. Species Act, citizens of the United States are prohibited from taking an. endangered or threatened species, declared by 2000 essay on speeding the U.S. Fish and Wilidlife. Service, from its environment whether on United States’ soil or in its waters.

Punishment if caught breaking the lwas instead in essays, this act are as follows; 25,000 dollars if caught violating the rules listed above, 12,000 forknowingly. participating in the importing or exporting of such species. Any person who. otherwise violates any provision of this Act, or any regulation, permit, or. certificate issued hereunder, may be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary. of not more than $500 for each such violation. ( Although this act is a great step towards the dissertation planets, restoration of threatened and. endangered species many feel the essays in america, act isn’t worth the money. A proposed.

amendment to the Endangered Species Act threatened many aspects of the project. The proposed “amendment” was an attempt to undermine the project of funding. and political support. The amendment to section 403 of the Endangered Species. Act would literally wipe out many of the endangered species protected by this. bill. “The sea turtles of Hawaii wouldn’t stand a chance if the amendment. would have passed,” said supporters of the Endangered Species Act and. endangered species around the world, “We can’t just let them take back what. we have worked so hard for.” Shrimp nets alone kill 55,000 turtles a year in. the Hawaiian Islands. (

If the Endangered. Species Act is undermined where will these endangered species turn? Some. senators who support the amendments to undermine the act are back in congress. for a second term and many feel the 2000 on speeding, amendments to the Endangered Species Act. will be brought up again and re-voted. (http://www, Senator. Slade Gorton was one supporter of the bill to essays in america, undermine the Endangered Species.

Act. Are these accusations of inhumanity and lack of care for nature completely. true about Senator Gorton? On Senator Gorton’s web site ( he shows his compassion for nature. A letter thanking him for his help on corps button, saving.

trees and several streams in on economy in america, his home state of Washington from the Sierra club. was one such article bringing up questions of whether he was so bad. Others seem. to think otherwise, but it is hard to tell without actually knowing him or all. his work. Planets? Many other laws and on economy acts have been implemented to stop the decline in. population of many endangered and threatened species.

One it the Marine Mammal. Act, which protects the many species in our oceans. The Clean Water and Clean. Air acts were also adopted to dissertation, help protect these endangered species from human. threats. One example of how humans have hurt many different species of animals. is pesticides, especially the pesticide DDT, which was used in World War II to. keep insects away from soldiers. After the on economy in america, war, the on pet animals, pesticide was brought back.

to the United States and used very carelessly. DDT seeped into the streams and. contaminated almost every species that ate fish or other animals that had been. infected with DDT. On Economy? From the contaminated fish the pesticide went up the food. chain and began killing off the evaluation, bald eagles. Essays On Economy? After the substance DDT was.

nationally banned in 1973 the bald eagle has begun to make a comeback like most. of the evaluation essay on facebook, other species affected by our carelessness. (Discovery, “The Bald. Eagle”). Just because the Bald Eagle is the symbol of our country does that. mean we have more of an obligation to protect it than the sea turtles? Hopefully.

we will be able to stop the amendments one more time, but if they are made what. will happen to the animals that depend on it? We have the obligations to protect. these animals. We have placed them in this situation and it is our fault many of.

these species are endangered today. In America? We cannot continue to let them slip away if. we can do something about it. Many organizations are trying to high creative writing, keep these laws. in place. On Economy In America? Others who feel that our money should go to more worthy causes, even.

though we personally are responsible for the decline in many species. I think we. need to support the laws that are in effect as of right now and essay try to get. better funding for the organizations that are already in on economy in america, place. We don’t need. new laws, we need to support and corps essayons help fund the ones we already have. The U.S.

Fish and Wildlife Service is essays on economy, one of the big organizations that helps protect the. endangered species as well as helping to engineers, educate and fund other small. organizations that can do their part as well. It may not be easy to get funding. for programs like the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, but we can achieve this. goal if we work hard. A good example of how we can help to preserve our. endangered wildlife is we can implement a tax that will provide money to these.

programs. We can add a tax to in america, companies who contribute to the destruction of on facebook our. environment. For example, if a company produces pollution they should be forced. to pay a tax. We can place a standard tax for all companies and corporations who. do this or we can base the amount owed by the amount of pollution or amount of. destruction caused by the corporation on the environment. For companies that we.

are unable to tell how much exactly contribute to the destruction of the. environment, we can require a base sum. A starting base sum could be five. hundred dollars a year for all the companies who contribute to the destroying of. the Earth. We can assemble a committee of on economy U.S.

Fish and Wildlife agents to. assess the amount of pollution a company produces and then a fitting cost for. that pollution. It might take a little while to put this proposal into effect. If we anticipated the hegel, slow advancement of passing the law in congress it would.

take six or seven years to implement this law. In America? It wouldn’t take a lot of. money, but definitely some money would be required. It would take several. thousand to advertise if it wasn’t donated by a company who felt strongly. about the engineers essayons button, issue at hand. I would think an essays, estimate of about $500,00-60,000. dollars would easily cover the expenses of advertising, salaries for workers and. any other expenses.

Donations and fundraisers would be used to accumulate enough. money to get the support of the people. When I discussed my proposal with my. friend, she felt that it was a good idea and that the organizations like the. U.S. Corps Essayons Button? Fish and Wildlife Service need the money to study and set up programs to. save endangered species and these programs need money. She felt it would be hard. to get the bill passed because congressmen have ties with big corporations that. pollute and they wouldn’t have to pay fees. So most likely the proposal would.

be stopped. Although she didn’t see the essays on economy, bill being passed she said that if we. accumulate enough money to hegel dissertation, advertise and get the support of the people, congressmen would be forced to vote for the bill or they might not be reelected. If she has strong feelings about this subject, I’m sure the on economy, majority of this. society is concerned about the environment and about our future. We need to try. and get funds for dissertation, programs and organizations that help endangered and threatened.

species. Many organizations rely on donations and money from on economy in america supporters. We need. to find ways to get more money for these programs and the proposal of taxes on. companies who pollute is just one possibility. Everyone contributes to the. destruction of the essay, environment and on economy in america we all have to do our part to of experience life, help the. species we are killing off.

Species like the Pacific Salmon, who were threatened. by the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989. Essays On Economy In America? As well as other species like the sea. turtles in evaluation essay on facebook, Hawaii who were on the verge of extinction until a recent turn around. because of help from organizations and individuals. Individuals who take the. burden upon their shoulders and essays on economy make it their business to make up for all the. people who could care less what happens to evaluation essay on facebook, their environment. We need to protect. our environment form the people who seek to destroy it for money and success. I. think the beauty of the essays on economy in america, ocean is worth saving.

Every creature and every unique. species is a creature worth saving. Essay Of Experience Of College Life? We don’t have the right to kill those who. aren’t as smart or sophisticated as us. They have just as mush right to the. Earth as we do. We don’t have the right to over fish herring in Alaska or cut.

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chaucer essays The outrageous Pardoner has often seemed among the most real of Chaucer's pilgrims in on economy in america, the Canterbury Tales. Although only a few have thought him an actual portrait from life, the of college majority of modern critics has believed in the essential truth of the characterization. In America. Paul Ruggiers speaks for of college life, many when he asserts that the Pardoner's performance provides the in america ultimate example of Chaucer's subtle handling of human psychology.' 1 Perhaps the most famous reading of the Pardoner as though he were a fully developed character from a realistic novel is by G. L. Kittredge, who at essay of college life the beginning of the century demonstrated so brilliantly how much could be made by critical inventiveness from almost nothing. Kittredge's dramatic interpretation culminates in essays in america, his finding the Pardoner's unremarkable three-line statement that Christ's pardon is best (C 916- 18) an expression of extraordinary emotional crisis in engineers, which the pilgrim suffers a very paroxysm of essays in america agonized sincerity.

2 More recently, in one of the most elaborate contemporary attempts by a critic to make the Pardoner new, Donald Howard puts forth a sinister yet compelling figure who is word essay on speeding said to on economy in america, resemble the French thief and writer Jean Genêt. 3 As these two interpretations suggest, the widespread assumption that the Pardoner is a psychologically whole and consistent personality is not supported by any deep agreement about the nature of that personality, and there is debate even over essay, such basic matters as what it is he really wants -- whether it is money, revenge, fun, approval, or love. 4. The various critical re-creations of the Pardoner tend to be ingenious, and most are interesting, but they are also overly subjective because they rest on little actual evidence in the text. 5 Perhaps even more dangerous is the often unexamined assumption that since the Pardoner is a vivid, truly flamboyant presence in the Canterbury Tales , he can therefore be analyzed as though he were a real person instead of a fictional, even allegorical character. In recent years, most Chaucerians seeking to reveal the real Pardoner have focused on the supposed irregularity of his sex life, and it is the assumption that the Pardoner's sexuality can be exactly. The sexual interpretation of the in america Pardoner is quite new and first begins with Walter Clyde Curry's claim in 1919 to have discovered the Pardoner's secret. Hegel Dissertation. Citing medieval manuals on physiognomy, Curry asserted that the essays description in the General Prologue of the Pardoner's staring eyes, small voice, beardless cheek, and long, soft hair would have been recognized by a contemporary audience as the evaluation essay on facebook marks of a eunuchus ex nativitate . 6 In his survey of Pardoner criticism, John Halverson notes the wide acceptance of Curry's view, which has been further strengthened by its adoption in an allegorical and scriptural sense by exegetical critics.

7 Only a few have seriously questioned the eunuch theory, and some of these, along with others, have then offered alternate sexual explanations -- that the Pardoner is a homosexual or even a hermaphrodite. In America. Indeed, although most critics today seem to agree that the Pardoner's odd sexuality is crucial to his performance, the evaluation essay on facebook exact form of on economy in america that sexuality is as much an open question as other aspects of his character. Engineers Essayons. Some critics are rather cavalier about his condition. Sedgewick notes that Chaucer calls him a gelding or a mare and declares that it does not matter which. 8 Lumiansky calls him a eunuch and then, in a kind of sexual mixed metaphor, compares him to Shakespeare's Edmund. 9 Others are breathtakingly precise. Eric Stockton labels the Pardoner a manic depressive with traces of anal eroticism, and a pervert with a tendency toward alcoholism; and Beryl Rowland, with enviable assurance, asserts that he is in america a testicular pseudohermaphrodite of the feminine type. 10. Like most other attempts to treat the Pardoner as a real person, the sexual approach is based on a very few lines. All of the evidence comes from the first section of the corps brief portrait of the pilgrim in the General Prologue (A 672-91). Yet, even here, the supposed revelation of the on economy in america Pardoner's.

The most serious flaw with the sexual interpretation of the Pardoner, however, is that the on facebook contemporary scientific evidence on which it claims to essays in america, be based is not nearly as strong as its proponents assert. Many still automatically assume that Curry proved his case for planets, the Pardoner's eunuchdom beyond question, and further evidence has seemed unnecessary. Michael Hoy reflects this consensus when he writes of the description in the General Prologue: Those features clearly show that Chaucer's Pardoner is a eunuch, and we owe to Professor W. C. Curry the realization that Chaucer must have been very familiar with medieval physiognomy literature (which contained elaborate character judgments in on economy, accordance with a man's. To begin with, the specific condition Curry identified in 2000 essay on speeding, the Pardoner ( eunuchus ex nativitate ) is difficult to accept. As Muriel Bowden has pointed out, the eunuchus ex nativitate is very much a rara avis and not the type Curry claimed, for even he can offer only essays on economy, a single example. 12 Except for this one case described by Polemon, most of his evidence refers instead to geldyngs, unfortunates who presumably were made and not born. Realizing this problem, some critics have been satisfied to regard the Pardoner as a simple eunuch (ignoring Curry's specific diagnosis of ex nativitate ), but even this interpretation is not justified by contemporary evidence. Many of the quotations Curry provides from ancient physiognomists do not, in fact, identify the Pardoner's characteristics specifically with eunuchism of any kind, but instead with the more general states of drunkenness, impudency, and essay of experience of college shamelessness, qualities that are no secret to any student of the Pardoner but have nothing to do with sexual efficiency.

13 The lack of a beard (A 689-90) does seem often to have been associated with geldings in the Middle Ages (though the condition was also thought to result from leprosy), 14 but the other physical details Chaucer gives the Pardoner do not point to a specific sexual condition. The Pardoner's apparently thinning hair, small voice, and glaring eyes say nothing definitive about on economy in america, his sexuality on the evidence Curry provides. The thinning hair (A 675-79), for example, argues strongly against his being a eunuch. Curry quotes Bartholomaeus Anglicus stating that gelded men, like women, do not become bald, and the single eunuchus ex nativitate cited had abundant hair, not the ounces which ay thynne, by colpons oon and columbia summer writing oon of the Pardoner. 15 The Pardoner's voice is said to be as smal as hath a goot (A 688), which both medieval physiognomy and in america modern common opinion associate with a lack of full virility. But even such a voice does not automatically indicate castration, for like the gentil Pardoner,' the presumably functional, though. The animals associated with the Pardoner's physiognomy - and not discussed by Curry - also do not indicate a eunuch. As we have seen, his voice is compared to that of a goat and his eyes to those of a hare. While the hare was often considered an hermaphrodite by medieval writers, it was more generally seen as a simple symbol of lust, as was the goat. 21 The latter, far from of experience life being associated with eunuchs, is an ancient symbol for the male phallus. D. Essays On Economy. W. Roberston, Jr., may suggest why these animals were linked with the small essay on pet Pardoner when he notes that one common medieval device for illustrating lechery is to essays on economy in america, depict a man riding a goat and either carrying or pursuing a rabbit.

22 Rather than identifying him with the specific states of eunuchism or homosexuality, Chaucer seems to hegel dissertation, want to present the Pardoner as a more general example of. The second sexual argument, that Chaucer means us to see the Pardoner as a homosexual, is even more impressionistic than the eunuch theory and is based on much less medieval evidence. The homosexual thesis is quite a recent idea, first suggested tentatively by Bowden and Gerould, 23 but is currently a dominant strain in analyses of the on economy Pardoner, perhaps in response to the prominence of the subject in contemporary society. 24 As with the eunuch theory, the homosexual interpretation also starts from that one line in the General Prologue: I trowe he were a geldyng or a mare (A 691). The word mare certainly suggests that the Pardoner is in some way effeminate, but, as with 'geldyng,' the metaphorical language and subjunctive mood preclude precise definition. Although Jill Mann asserts that the word essay on speeding image of the mare is used by Walter of Châitillon to on economy in america, refer to male homosexuals, the actual phrase she quotes, equa fit equus, is a play on Latin grammatical gender and of experience of college life not really parallel to Chaucer's term. Essays. 25 No one has found other examples of such a use of mare in either Latin or English. Indeed, the 2000 discussion of this question in essays on economy, Mann's excellent book on estate satire shows that attempts to define the sexuality of the Pardoner can confuse even the best scholars. Mann states that Curry has done useful work in documenting the medieval picture of the homosexual, even though Curry's actual claim was that the small essay on pet Pardoner is a eunuch.

Moreover, Mann's own argument for the Pardoner's homosexuality relies less on essays on economy medieval sources than on on pet animals the questionable assertion that the modern stereotype of the homosexual is identical [to him] in every respect. 26 More usefully, Mann also notes that many of the on economy details Chaucer uses to essay of experience of college life, describe the Pardoner in in america, the General Prologue come from the satiric tradition on foppery previously used in connection with the Squire (a dedicated heterosexual), 27 thus suggesting that Chaucer may have had no specific, sexual condition in mind and reminding us that effeminacy in 2000 word, the Middle Ages, of which the in america Pardoner is definitely guilty, does not necessarily mean homosexuality but also the reverse -- too great a concern with women. Some who support the idea of the corps Pardoner as homosexual make much of the essays supposed pun on essay on pet stif burdoun, which the Summoner is said to hold to the Pardoner's rendition of in america Com hider, love, to me (A 672-73). Paull Baum first suggested that in addition to the literal musical. The Pardoner and Summoner are undoubtedly two of the most grotesque and repellent figures in medieval literature, but Chaucer offers no definite evidence that their association is essay of college life mutually amorous. The Summoner is on economy a thoroughgoing lecher (As hoot he was and lecherous as a sparwe [A 626]), and even if we do not accept Morton Bloomfield's suggestion that the yonge girles the pilgrim is 2000 word essay said to on economy in america, associate with refer only to females, 31 there is no hint among the many accusations in his portrait that his lust is columbia school creative homosexual. If anything like this were meant, one would expect to find it among the other crimes attributed to the Summoner in the Friar's Tale. If the Pardoner and on economy Summoner did share an erotic relationship, it is hardly possible that they would sing of their love so publicly.

Their musical offering, Com hider, love, to me, if not meant as parody of the Canticum Canticorum , probably indicates that these two admittedly very strange characters want to of experience of college life, present themselves as two wild and crazy guys ready for on economy in america, a little fun. A more likely, and more important, explanation than homosexuality is that the corps engineers friendship of the essays in america Summoner and Pardoner points to serious ecclesiastical corruption, since the former was supposed to regulate the latter. 32. In the most interesting recent brief for the Pardoner's homosexuality, Monica McAlpine wisely rejects the corps engineers button claimed pun on essays on economy stif burdoun, 33 but her own argument adds little in the way of solid, new evidence (nor. I do not mean to deny there is definitely something odd about the Pardoner as described in the General Prologue, but I would suggest that his sexuality remains too imprecise to serve as a reliable guide to his entire performance and planets Tale. Chaucer throws out several hints, but he does not define. Essays. He may have aroused our suspicions, but he does not indicate any exact condition that can be used as a sure foundation on university summer high school creative writing which to build an interpretation.

The physiognomists quoted by Curry may be. Near the end of his essay, Curry cites without analysis the pseudo-Chaucerian Tale of Beryn as proof of his interpretation of the Pardoner. 37 But Beryn , with its long prologue chronicling the adventures of the pilgrims at in america Canterbury, suggests a very different and 2000 word essay more innocent sexual figure from the one created by modern critics. Arriving at Canterbury, the Pardoner immediately tries to make time with a Bar-maid named Kit. On Economy In America. He arranges to spend the night with her, þat was his hole entencioun (301), but when he arrives that evening as glad as eny goldfynch (476), he finds the door locked and Kit in bed with her paramour.

The Pardoner becomes furious because of his dashed expectations: ffor who hath love longing, is of corage Hote, He hath ful many a myry þou3t to-fore his delyte; And ry3t so had the Pardoner, and was in evaluation on facebook, evil pli3te. (494-96) In this early interpretation of Chaucer's Pardoner, he is seen as neither eunuch nor homosexual, but a randy, if silly, heterosexual whose quest for on economy, a joly wenche in engineers essayons button, every toun causes him to on economy in america, be thoroughly duped. School. He is reminiscent of Absolon in the Miller's Tale (whom we have compared to the Pardoner before), another effeminate cleric who also is essays in america not so much incapable of heterosexual love-making as incompetent at it. The most telling objection to the sexual interpretation of the Pardoner is that, like many other attempts to corps engineers essayons button, describe the real Pardoner, it trivializes Chaucer's accomplishment.

Baum long ago protested that.