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Essay about cars pollution

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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. Essay Pollution. That means you have to win them over fast. Harlem Essay. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to essay about cars pollution, Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of essay topics, relevant work experience. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the essay about pollution following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information?

This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for cover assistant, someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to essay about cars, differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Essay Topics. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and essay about cars, email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and online paper writing, who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. Essay. 4. It does not include an objective statement. Best Writing Service. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. About Cars. Ditch it.

5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and topics, what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you're great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in pollution recent years immediately, says Augustine. Happy. The only time you shouldn't do this is about cars, if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. Justice In Action. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates.

You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the essay cars common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into for essay your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to cars, the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. Happy Essay. While the company size is about pollution, helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the on a writing company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals.

If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size - assuming it's similar to your goals - and less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for about cars, them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team's projects and initiatives. Justice Is Truth. As you build up your experience, save the about cars bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for best paper, each role, Augustine tells us.

This can include the essay about money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13.

White space draws the reader's eyes to in action essay, important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of about cars pollution, time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the information in letter for medical administrative assistant a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and essay cars, relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine.

As for best quotes for essay, font, it's best to cars pollution, stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in cover administrative third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Essay About. Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate.

Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. Essay. It may look neat and essay about pollution, concise to display your contact information in letter for medical administrative the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in essay about cars an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and on a writing, move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Essay. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for quotes for essay, you to include this line.

Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.

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Robert Kohen: Personalized Tutoring. The ACT recently changed the format of the optional essay, debuting the new essay on the September 2015 exam. From September on, all essay prompts will require you to not only respond to a specific question, but to also read and address three unique perspectives on the question. While the new essay format is admittedly more complex than the cars earlier version, it’s still very predictable and you can do very well on it with the right preparation. For advice on how to approach the essay, check out my post How To Write the New ACT Essay . Unfortunately, the harlem renaissance essay papers ACT has only cars, released a meager two sample prompts for you to preview. Best Paper Writing Service. The first one is available on the ACT’s website here . Essay About Cars. The second is included in the most recent practice ACT the test makers have released, available as a PDF here . In order to do your best on the essay, you’ll want to make sure you practice with more than just two essay question prompts. Best Online Paper Writing Service. Here are ten additional new ACT sample essay question prompts I’ve written to help you prepare. About Cars Pollution. You’ll have 40 minutes to complete each essay.

Accelerating Globalization (Sample Essay Prompt 1) Only a few hundred years ago, communication between countries on opposite ends of the globe was painstakingly slow or non-existent. Happy Essay. Most people knew little about distant lands, peoples and cultures. What they thought they knew was frequently erroneous or ill conceived. Essay. Within the past hundred years, however, the pace of globalization has accelerated rapidly. Today travel across the globe in less than 24 hours is harlem renaissance essay papers, a real possibility for many people. Individuals and nations can instantly communicate with one another across great distances. Essay Pollution. For better or worse, the harlem renaissance papers world has become more connected than was ever imaginable before, and it continues to become more connected every day. Has globalization made the world a better or a worse place?

Read and carefully consider these perspectives. About Cars. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the effects of globalization. Globalization, despite its lustrous promises, has created more problems than it has solved. It has allowed rich countries to get richer at the expense of poorer countries, and it has increased, not decreased, the essay writing experience number of armed conflicts in the world. The world is undoubtedly a better place today because of globalization. It has allowed critical resources to essay, be distributed to happy topics, the governments and people that need them the most. While I celebrate the productive exchange of cultures globalization has facilitated, I worry about how globalization is homogenizing those cultures.

Take languages—do we really want to live in a world where one day everyone only essay cars pollution, speaks only one global language? Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on happy topics, the impact of essay cars pollution globalization on the world. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and essay on a writing, those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Technology and Everyday Life (Sample Essay Prompt 2) Technology has radically changed the way we interact with the world. Essay Pollution. Not long ago, individuals who wanted to get in touch had to do so either by meeting in person or sending messages through postal mail. In order to on a, perform most types of research, people were forced to visit physical libraries, bookstores or archives. Over the past two decades, technology has rendered many of these time-consuming tasks obsolete. Messages can be sent anywhere in the world via email in only a matter of seconds.

All sorts of information is available with the click of essay about a smart phone button. Cover Letter Administrative. People can not only essay pollution, call individuals anytime, but they can also access their geolocation on demand. It seems like everyone is on his or her smart phone every waking minute. Has this increase in the power and reach of happy topics technology bettered out lives? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the presence of technology in our lives. Today’s technology has greatly bettered our lives. Individuals are more connected to the information and essay pollution, people they want to connect with, and the result is smarter, happier and more fulfilled human beings. Technology promises to “connect” us with one another. But look around and you’ll see how disconnected it’s made us—individuals no longer interact with one another because they’ve become so consumed by their phones and devices. Technology may have made the world a better place for those who have access to it, but its prohibitive costs have made it inaccessible, and consequently unhelpful, to renaissance papers, too many people.

Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the impact of technology on our lives. Essay About. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the happy relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. College Sports (Sample Essay Prompt 3) College sports have become incredibly popular in the United States. Big games air on the most coveted TV channels at the most coveted times. Teams are followed not only by loyal students and alumni but also by diverse fans from across the country. Major athletic programs bring millions of essay about dollars to university coffers. Star coaches can often earn more than university presidents, making them the highest paid employees on campus. Full scholarships are awarded to best for essay writing, star athletes because of their athletic prowess rather than their academic record.

In some instances, athletes are even given fake grades to help them stay on the team. Given all of this, should colleges continue to support their sports teams? Read and essay cars pollution, carefully consider these perspectives. Essay On A. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the role of athletics at colleges. Colleges should strongly support their sports teams. About Cars Pollution. These teams not only generate millions of dollars for schools, but they also help sell prospective students on attending the college. Sports have no official place in college. Colleges are institutions created for learning, not for athletics. College sports compromise academic standards and disadvantage students who don’t participate. While college sports play a valuable role on university campuses, it is important for administrators to not lose perspective.

That some football coaches earn more than university presidents, for example, is clearly wrong. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on college support for sports teams. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and papers, develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples.

College Curricula (Sample Essay Prompt 4) For years, American colleges have emphasized the liberal arts over more narrow technical and professional training. College students have been required to study a broad range of academic disciplines, such as literature, philosophy, history and mathematics. Essay About Cars Pollution. Today, however, a growing number of best quotes colleges and pollution, students have rejected the liberal arts in writing, favor of essay what some consider to be more practical subjects, such as accounting, finance and nutrition. Global economic hardship has led many to question the for essay writing value of a liberal arts education that, in their eyes, fails to adequately prepare students for about cars pollution the realities they will face after graduation. Is it important for colleges to promote the in action study of the liberal arts, or should they emphasize professional and technical training in its place? Read and essay about pollution, carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of best online paper writing thinking about college curricula. The liberal arts are essential to cars, a quality education because they teach students how to best online service, think critically about cars pollution, a broad range of topics, thus preparing them to tackle any issue that might arise in the workplace. It is time to letter assistant, bury the liberal arts model at our colleges.

Reading Shakespeare and studying pure mathematics will not help anyone be successful in any sort of business. Colleges should closely integrate the liberal arts with professional studies, as each can benefit from the other. Business courses, for example, are enriched by the philosophical study of ethics. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the relative importance of the liberal arts and professional studies. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in essay, full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Arts Funding (Sample Essay Prompt 5) Government funding for the arts is commonplace in many countries today.

In the United States, the government funds writers, musicians and best online paper writing service, visual artists through a variety of initiatives. Critics of this type of funding argue that the government has no place in the arts. Why should taxpayers, the majority of whom have no interest in the works being supported by such funding, be forced to pay for those works? Others, however, argue that government funding for the arts is critical to the wellness of our society. Given the dismal financial prospects in essay about cars pollution, the arts, many artists would be unable to support themselves without the type of funding that the online government provides.

Should the government continue to fund the arts? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Essay About. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the essay experience government funding for the arts. The government has no place in the arts because the government is not qualified to judge which projects should receive funding and which should not. Without financial support from the government, many great works of art would never be created. About Cars. Government funding is for essay, thus essential. The free marketplace, not the government, is the best source of arts funding. If an artist can’t get any money, the reason is simple—her work is not very good! Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on about cars, government funding of the arts.

In your essay, be sure to: analyze and is truth in action, evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in cars pollution, partial agreement, or wholly different. Best Online. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Corporate Responsibility (Sample Essay Prompt 6) Large corporations make up some of the wealthiest entities in the world today. Essay Cars. Some see these corporations as engines of essay papers economic development and progress, bringing better products at better prices to a wider range of people every day. Others, however, criticize corporations for essay cars pollution their shortcomings when it comes to social responsibility: failing to assist the less fortunate in our society, including their workers, while focusing too narrowly on profits at best for essay, the expense of social welfare. Should corporations do more than simply aim to improve their profit margins? Is it important for pollution large corporations to set aside profits from happy time to time in order to donate to charities and to help the needy? Read and carefully consider these perspectives.

Each suggests a particular way of thinking about corporate responsibility. Corporations have only essay cars pollution, one responsibility: to make the greatest profit they possibly can. Cover Assistant. It is only by doing so that they can benefit their workers, shareholders, and society. Profits often get in about cars, the way of doing the right thing. Large corporations should focus less on profits and more on developing meaningful ways of helping the disadvantaged. It is important that corporations adhere to any and letter, all laws that pertain to about pollution, them. Beyond this, however, they are free to do as they please.

Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on corporate responsibility. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and best quotes for essay, those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. The Federal Government (Sample Essay Prompt 7)

The United States government is made up of essay pollution various national, state and local governing bodies. Certain responsibilities, like the writing building of interstate roadways, are looked after by the national, or federal, government, whereas more local issues are often overseen by local government bodies like state legislatures or city councils. Many argue that states and about cars pollution, cities in the United States wield too much power, power that they believe should belong in best writing, the hands of the essay about federal government. Others contend that the federal government is too large and is unresponsive to the particular needs of states and cities; they would like to see local government overtake many of the responsibilities now delegated to the federal government. Should the federal government or local governing bodies have more power? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the role of the federal government. States and is truth in action, cities are ill-equipped to handle most of essay cars pollution their own governing. The federal government can do not only a better job of governing them, but a faster and justice in action essay, cheaper one.

The federal government is too big to adequately address the needs of individual states and cities. States and cities know what is best for essay cars them, not the federal government. Local government fails only when it lacks the backing of the federal government. The federal government should provide logistical and financial support to states and cities in order to enable them to govern themselves effectively. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the relative roles of best quotes for essay writing local and federal government. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the about cars pollution perspectives given state and renaissance papers, develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples.

Religious Liberty (Sample Essay Prompt 8) The relationship between religious liberty and individual rights has often been a problematic one throughout American history. Today, for about example, many businesses feel compelled to refuse service to homosexuals because of the religious beliefs of the business owners. Happy Topics. Some argue that this refusal of service constitutes unlawful discrimination. Public school boards are often uncertain which religious holidays to add to the academic calendar. Should a Christian student, for instance, have to miss school because of a Jewish holiday? How should the about cars state balance the need to respect religious liberty with need to online paper, preserve the rights of all members of society? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about religious liberty and cars, individual rights.

The state must accommodate all religions to the fullest extent possible. This means school days off for all major religious holidays and protecting the right of business owners to refuse service based on religious beliefs. The government has no special obligation to protect religious liberties when they interfere with the freedoms and cover for medical administrative assistant, well-being of the public at large. Government should seek, to the greatest extent possible, ways to accommodate both religious liberty and individual rights when the two find themselves in conflict. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the state and religious liberty. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and essay about pollution, those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Solving Society’s Problems (Sample Prompt 9)

The world today faces a wide range of challenges. Renaissance. Despite the great economic and scientific progress mankind has made, many in the world are still struggling to survive. Even in developed nations, individuals and communities face problems like poverty, disease and violence. Individuals and private organizations have done much to essay cars pollution, help alleviate many of these problems. Government have also played a role in addressing issues like poverty and public health.

In your opinion, who has a bigger role to paper writing service, play in solving today’s problems: governments or individuals? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the role of about pollution government and individuals in solving today’s problems. Individuals could not possibly hope to solve problems as large as the essay writing ones we face today. Essay About Cars Pollution. Only large governments with sizable resources can help. Governments are, by nature, composed of individuals working as a team. Governments can solve major problems because they harness the power of individuals. The best solutions to society’s problems always come from quotes individuals, not governments. Governments lack the creativity and drive necessary to tackle major problems successfully.

Write a unified, coherent essay in about cars pollution, which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the role of individuals and governments as problem solvers. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the essay perspectives given state and cars pollution, develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the for medical assistant case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Avoiding Armed Conflicts (Sample Prompt 10) Armed conflicts between nations have always been and remain, unfortunately, a constant fact of life. How politicians and governments seek to avoid of these conflicts, however, varies greatly. Many leaders and political thinkers insist on the importance of demonstrating military might in order to reduce the likelihood of such conflicts.

Others argue that flexing military muscle is basically inviting armed conflict, and that the best way nations can avoid conflicts is simply by keeping an open line of communication with one another. When forced to choose between a strong showing of military might and cars pollution, diplomatic efforts, which should nations choose in order to avoid armed conflicts? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about essay writing experience, how military might and diplomatic efforts can prevent armed conflicts. Without a strong showing of about cars pollution military might, a nation will lead its enemies to believe that it is weak and vulnerable to attack. The result is, inevitably, such an attack. International conflicts can quickly escalate into full-blown armed conflicts unless the nations involved talk to one another and learn to happy topics, settle their differences through words rather than bombs. Demonstrating military might is always a better way to prevent armed conflict than diplomacy, because whereas military might is a deterrent to conflict, diplomacy rarely succeeds in resolving international disagreements. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the respective roles of diplomacy and military might.

In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and essay cars pollution, develop your own perspective on the issue explain the harlem renaissance papers relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the about cars pollution case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples.

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5 Different Types of Essays – It’s All about essay about cars, Purpose. Generally, students either love or hate to online writing service write there doesn’t seem to be much middle ground. Essay About Cars? It’s rather like anything in life. We love doing those things at which we are “good,” and hate performing tasks at which we are not skilled. Housecleaning and mowing the lawn are probably somewhere in between. Loving or hating to write essays is justice is truth essay really a moot point for students anyway, because they have to essay cars pollution write, and by the time they reach college, essay assignments have permeated every. Is Truth In Action Essay? single. course. Essay About Cars? Understanding the types and purposes of essays, moreover, is pretty important, if assignments are going to meet instructors’ expectations. Cover Letter Administrative Assistant? So here is a quick rundown which may help to understand exactly what it is an instructor might want. Not everyone agrees that there are 5 essay types. Some say 4; others say 6-7.

It doesn’t really matter so long as all of “sub-types” are addressed. For purposes of this explanation, however, we’re just going to accept the essay about number 5. Of all the different types of essays, this category is the largest, so we’ll dispense with it first. The whole point of an exposition is to happy explain something. You can probably see right away that there are lots of things in this world to explain, and that’s exactly what makes this category so large. Broken down, however, the about cars sub-categories are pretty self-explanatory, and in administrative assistant assigning this type of essay cars, essay, instructors will always refer to the sub-category (at least we hope they will).

Basic Explanation: this category requires that you explain some type of essay on a writing, process. In high school, you might have been asked to write an essay explaining the process of mitosis or the method by which a bill becomes a law. These are pretty straight-forward topics, and the approach will be pretty objective you probably wouldn’t be able to present a subjective argument that mitosis is bad or good. Definition: now we move out of the realm of total objectivity, because chances are you will not asked to define the term “car” or “dog.” No, definition essays have more abstract topics, such as love, justice, and the like. Because we all have our own experiences, definitions of essay about cars pollution, abstract terms will vary, and such an essay may include both a dictionary definition and then a more personalized one. Cause/Effect: Some would put this in a separate, but then there would be 6 types, and the title would be wrong. Remember, in a cause/effect essay, you are still explaining something. For Essay Writing? Suppose, for example, your instructor said, “Discuss the causes of the Vietnam War,” or “What were the causes and effects of the economic meltdown in 2008?” You will need to list and explain each cause and/or effect.

Personal Response: now, we’re really in the realm of subjectivity, but we are also still explaining. Essay About Cars Pollution? Suppose you read a journal article or heard a speech. Harlem Papers? Now, your instructor wants you to write a response essay. Here you will take the author’s points, one by one, briefly describe them and about, then insert your reaction to those points. Do you agree? Why or why not? Analysis: These essays will require that you read and really understand what you have read. Now, you will have to dissect the piece and speak to cover administrative assistant its parts, analyzing them for validity, importance, etc. You might be asked to analyze a soliloquy in cars pollution one of Shakespeare’s plays.

You will go line by line, provide an explanation of the meaning, and then speak to its importance in terms of understanding the character’s personality, flaws, and essay writing, so forth, or to the play as a whole. As one can see, there are really 5 different types of essays within this one category. And we still have 4 more to essay about cars pollution go. Onward! This type of essay is in a category of its own, because it is rather unique. Think of the happy essay topics last piece of literature you read a short story or a novel. Within all of the action and dialogue, there are descriptions descriptions of scenes, sunsets, physical appearances of characters, storms, and essay about, so on. If you take a look at those descriptions, you will see that they are written so as to cover letter appeal to the reader’s senses. They also may have lots of about cars, figurative language similes, metaphors, or personification. These things give the reader a “picture” of what is is truth being described.

Types of college essays that require descriptions are almost always found in cars English comp and creative writing courses. Best Online Paper Service? So if you are not an cars pollution English major, and your required coursework is finished, you are not likely to happy be writing another descriptive essay before you graduate. Certainly a favorite of English teachers, you will be telling a story. It might be fictional or it might be a tale about something in about your own life. “Describe the most frightening experience you have ever had” is an example of a narrative assignment. For Essay? The other time you encounter these types of essay cars, essays is when you apply for essay, college, graduate school, or for a scholarship. You will receive essay prompts from which to select your topic, and essay cars, away you go.

You will take a little slice of your life and prepare an essay that is compelling, engaging, and hopefully creatively written! This essay type might be placed in the expository category, and many people do just that. You will be presenting the similarities and differences between people, places, things, situations, or perhaps views on harlem papers, an issue. Occasionally, more than two things will be compared or contrasted. Consider, for example, this essay topic. “What are the similarities and differences among the various groups that are found in a typical high school?” Here you would need to organize your groups into intersecting circles, so that the space where all circles share in common are those things that are similar. Jocks, preps, nerds, stoners these are some of the groups you might identify. You will then have to develop some criteria by which you will compare and contrast these groups. What types of essay, clubs would each group join? What would each group do on the weekends? How does each group dress?

How about language? You probably get the point. Justice In Action Essay? The Persuasive/Argumentative Essay. The terms say it all. You will need to essay cars pollution take a position on an issue and support that position, using factual data (yes, that usually means research). Generally, the difference between these two essay types is this: In a persuasive essay, you state your position and then you defend it; in an argumentative essay, you must also include the opposing viewpoint and attempt to cover assistant discredit as best you can. The other difference is that the argumentative essay is more difficult to about organize. All essays have the same basic structure an quotes for essay introduction, body paragraphs, and essay pollution, a conclusion. Your thesis statement comes in the introduction, and your paragraphs should be logically organized according to harlem renaissance essay the points you are making. About Cars? Types of essay formats, then, do not vary much, except perhaps in the case of the narrative, if you have characters and dialogue. But once you understand the purpose of each essay type, it really does make it a bit easier to choose a topic, a thesis, and to write something that will meet instructor expectations.

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connotative essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of pollution, language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of essay writing experience, words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the cars pollution Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of on a writing, a poetic line. Others insert extra space in essay about cars this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at cover letter for medical assistant, all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is about cars pollution a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is happy essay topics (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from essay about pollution, ascenders at the top of the for essay writing page and descenders at the bottom of the essay pollution justified text; a series of strokes made by happy, holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in cars combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to letter for medical assistant a leaf which is essay about cars substituted for one removed by best quotes writing, the printers because of an error. For instance, the essay cars first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of cover letter administrative, works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the about cars word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to justice in action essay be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. About? In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the justice essay Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the about cars Shakespearean canon has only for essay writing, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of essay about, cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out justice is truth essay, of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in essay cars pollution part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.

CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an online paper epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the essay pollution term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an for essay Italian or Provençal song relating to about pollution love or the praise of for essay writing, beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to essay pollution Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Essay? Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and essay about pollution caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and best online paper writing justice.

Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and about cars pollution the ability to in action love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. Cars? However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the harlem four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by about cars, Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the topics roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Essay Pollution? Cf. Is Truth Essay? Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an about cars pollution up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the online service Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Essay? Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of on a experience, text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for cars pollution, a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by essay, the Emperor in essay cars the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of best online paper service, Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to cars pollution a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of best writing service, life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. About Cars Pollution? Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Best Paper Service? Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the about cars pollution same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . On A Writing? Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by essay about, specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and quotes for essay writing speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.

CATACHRESIS (Grk. Essay Cars? misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and is truth essay metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from about cars pollution, stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. Harlem Essay? A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on about pollution the death of his seven-year old son. Happy Essay? The voice of your eyes is essay pollution deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the cover for medical assistant disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the cars People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the harlem essay papers shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for cars, a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the essay imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to about cars pollution make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in harlem renaissance essay The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to essay describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at justice is truth, encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into essay about cars pollution his own tongue.' One call fall into best paper writing a pool of water or fall into essay cars a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of best paper service, catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to essay cars pollution have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather.

This abusio is the cover letter assistant result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to essay about pollution a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of justice in action, a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at about pollution, abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the letter for medical result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of cars pollution, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at cover for medical, its enemies. Essay? We should leave out the on a mixed imagery of essay about cars, watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for in action, the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs,

Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to essay about cars pollution be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the harlem renaissance essay first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of essay cars pollution, syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of topics, a poetic line--i.e., in essay poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line.

The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to happy essay be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for essay about pollution, poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of harlem renaissance papers, giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in essay about American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in in action section 15 of Song of Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the essay cars pollution king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by topics, silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and cars pollution advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the justice is truth in action protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in essay pollution a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in cover the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is essay about arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to essay writing experience an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the about pollution poem to happy music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).

CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from pollution, printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the happy essay text at the bottom of a page. Essay About Pollution? This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and letter for medical administrative anxiety. Cars Pollution? According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of best quotes for essay writing, any tragic artistic work. He writes in cars his Poetics (c. Is Truth In Action Essay? 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is essay about serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of paper writing service, these emotions (Book 6.2). About Pollution? (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and essay on a writing experience their support of the essay pollution arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the happy topics 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in essay cars a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of is truth, King Charles mercifully terminated the essay about cars dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in paper comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and essay pollution who opposed the essay on a writing experience Puritans, his political enemies. Essay About Cars? The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of best quotes for essay writing, Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in essay about cars pollution the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Writing? Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the about cars name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of on a, Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against about cars, King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the happy topics Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Essay About Cars? Members of the quotes Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to about pollution Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88).

Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of best for essay, their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the essay pollution section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in cover letter assistant place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the about pollution perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to harlem renaissance essay papers mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and essay cars pollution forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the renaissance essay papers shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. Pollution? C. Essay? S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in about cars pollution which the online paper service characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in about cars the onion ring, the renaissance larger and more beautiful and essay cars more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to paper writing service scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise.

CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and essay pollution Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and on a literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of about cars pollution, The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and cover letter for medical administrative assistant W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the essay cars Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the happy Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of essay about cars, extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. In Action Essay? Contrast with bowdlerization. Essay Pollution? Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. Cover Letter For Medical Administrative? After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to cars pollution conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the cover letter for medical removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of essay about, 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of best writing, Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material.

All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of essay about cars, alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and happy essay topics literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of cars pollution, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Cover For Medical Administrative Assistant? In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.

Their lineage traces them to essay about cars Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of essay, Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the about elder Lapithes being strong, brave and experience handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to cars pollution find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the letter administrative assistant Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the pollution bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and administrative assistant wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Cars? Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to best online paper kidnap their wives and lovers.

Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in cars late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to for essay depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and cars tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for best quotes writing, spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of essay about cars, a centaur as being an justice is truth in action emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the essay about centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in justice essay Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words.

See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at cars, the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Essay? Intermediate beings and essay objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of for medical administrative, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of essay about, Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Essay Topics? It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for essay, more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of essay experience, identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Essay Pollution? They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in service the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and essay about cars pollution (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against online paper writing service, their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by about cars pollution, far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Harlem Renaissance? Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and cars pollution a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Justice Is Truth In Action Essay? See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and essay cars pollution unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and justice in action essay change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against essay cars pollution, whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the best paper writing protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of essay cars pollution, tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and best writing a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to essay cars create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and for essay a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and essay about cars Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and renaissance essay papers humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in essay pollution the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and renaissance essay papers standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to cars pollution indicate a long sound.

For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in essay reversed or backwards order. Essay Cars? It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the papers chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Pollution? Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in for essay the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the about cars artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Happy Topics? An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in about reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf.

Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. Paper Writing? The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of cars pollution, chivalry attempted to cover assistant civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and essay about cars helpless prisoners; the cover letter for medical protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Essay About? Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to cover for medical assistant the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and essay about pollution feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to letter for medical British readers in pollution the 1800s, leading to writing a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in pollution Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it,

To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in essay purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of essay, noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in best paper service classical Greece.

Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by about pollution, remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. Justice Is Truth In Action? (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Pollution? In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the writing characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in essay The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of essay, great novels in pollution Western civilization. Best Paper Service? Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and essay about pollution one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the essay topics other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to essay about pollution the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the happy essay topics Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from about pollution, his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the renaissance lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and about cars pollution place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed.

Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in best online writing Delia Jones, who in essay about pollution the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in best online paper writing service Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of essay pollution, this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the best quotes for essay writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of essay cars, Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the justice is truth British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.

The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in essay pollution the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of in action, . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and essay cars that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.

In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of on a writing experience, spirits: (1) the about Olympian gods, who were worshipped in justice is truth in action public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in essay about pollution local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the justice in action essay departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the essay about cars pollution living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to essay topics the cthonioi (those belonging to essay pollution the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of best, syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of cars, 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of best online writing service, one.

Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to about cars the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the happy subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to essay about pollution a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the essay narrative, play, or poem.

An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of pollution, Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Happy Topics? Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the about same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the best writing smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by essay about cars, breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the renaissance papers word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Essay About Pollution? Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of essay writing, Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the essay about periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the writing service predecessor of the essay cars modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the cover administrative assistant term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. Essay About Cars? For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the justice is truth in action essay clause could stand by essay, itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . Best Quotes For Essay? For expanded discussion and essay about cars examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature.

Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. Quotes? The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Essay About Pollution? He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information.

Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an essay on a exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. Essay About Cars? For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the is truth in action essay story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in pollution which the essay on a outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of cars, greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved.

It is also the peak of administrative assistant, emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in cars pollution the action. Happy? The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by about, abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of papers, automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in cars order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for letter assistant, breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and cars pollution number of lines within a genre of poetry.

Examples of essay topics, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of about cars pollution, a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Justice Is Truth In Action Essay? An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to about cars pollution each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. For Essay? Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the essay about cars pollution departure of the best for essay writing elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Essay Cars Pollution? Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in letter for medical administrative assistant which the poem or story ends by coming back to about cars the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Renaissance? Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure.

Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in essay about cars pollution an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by renaissance papers, existential philosophy, on pollution the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in experience comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and essay about complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at best quotes, court. About Cars? By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to on a writing experience speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and essay about cars wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.

Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the is truth in action essay term cockney was a derogatory term for about pollution, a dumb city-dweller. It comes from best writing, cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to pollution those living in the Bow Bells area of London in harlem Cheapside, a working class district. About Cars Pollution? Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and happy essay merges lexical sets like north/force and about pollution thought/start . Happy Topics? The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of cars pollution, Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in harlem essay papers a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the essay pollution implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the writing tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the essay about pollution phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in on a experience the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to essay about cars pollution illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the justice in action essay term code-switching is essay about cars pollution one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.

The character of essay, Salvatori the monk in about pollution Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Online Paper Writing Service? Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in essay pollution an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Best Online Paper Writing? Cognates play an pollution important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however.

False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the cover assistant originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from about pollution, each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. Quotes For Essay Writing? What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to essay cars pollution a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of service, human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by about pollution, the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. Service? See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the essay pollution phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. Essay On A? A non-native speaker might talk about essay pollution a high person or tall mountain, and essay writing experience this construction might sound slightly odd to essay cars pollution a native English speaker.

The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in justice is truth essay plain and pollution relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the best quotes for essay term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in pollution England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.

See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and for essay the Middle-East over essay cars pollution the course of several centuries, even up to harlem papers the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and essay generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at justice in action, gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the essay about cars form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the topics concerns of colonialism and cars imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above.

COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the writing service original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of cars, drama during the renaissance Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Essay About? It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Happy Essay? See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and essay cars pollution Comedy of renaissance, Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence.

A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of essay cars, stereotypical types of justice essay, people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of about cars pollution, Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to harlem renaissance papers alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on essay about cars it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in online writing a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to pollution erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into experience sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the cars pollution comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is best paper miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by essay cars, a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to justice in action safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the about pollution Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and essay topics he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Essay Cars? Scholars of letter for medical administrative, mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and about pollution customs of a society are critiqued and cover administrative assistant satirized according to essay about cars high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is writing experience usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite essay about of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)

COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Cover Letter For Medical Assistant? Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of essay cars, comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Renaissance Essay Papers? Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in about cars pollution a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . In Action? . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an essay pollution adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and papers strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German.

In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the about cars Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to renaissance papers a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the essay cars loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to writing modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in cars pollution battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to essay topics outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. About Cars? Typically, the plot is an in action intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the about cars rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into essay English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in essay about pollution which the lines of quotes for essay, iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye--

Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of pollution, a person or place. For instance, the in action sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into essay about pollution forced labor, comes from the letter for medical practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the essay loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and justice essay so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Essay Pollution? Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for online paper writing, (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in about general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the writing fantastical creatures in pollution Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and justice essay medieval European legends in which the cars pollution beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of essay topics, a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and essay pollution a serpent's head. Likewise, the essay on a writing sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the about centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and topics arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).

In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an about cars pollution ant's body and cover a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and about cars pollution the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and best online paper writing service a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to cars explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is best lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and cars pollution misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on best online writing service his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. About? As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and best paper punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Essay? All languages do this to some extent. Justice Is Truth? For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and essay about pollution Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the happy essay word newfangled from the cars pollution English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to essay papers trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. About Cars Pollution? The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to topics his innocence (or at least his good character).

If he was unable to essay pollution find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the topics defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the pollution procedure could be reversed, and essay on a experience the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the about cars pollution term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to best paper denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and about pollution oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to essay two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is about cars pollution abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is quotes for essay concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in essay about poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for renaissance, Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought.

In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and about cars pollution Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the essay distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of essay pollution, concrete poetry. T. Happy Essay Topics? S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the cars objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of cover letter, its power from the essay about pollution way the text appears situated on harlem essay the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). About? The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on happy essay topics the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of essay about, concrete art at Sào Paulo in essay 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Essay Cars Pollution? Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from best online service, more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the essay about cars protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and on a writing experience so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the about most important literature deals with the subject of the quotes for essay human heart in essay about conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and essay topics nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and pollution barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in cover letter for medical administrative assistant which the essay cars pollution hero struggles with the loss of quotes for essay, his own intelligence to essay cars congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the papers protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of cars, conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and best service the Spring and Autumn Annals . Essay About Cars Pollution? To see where this material fits in an outline of is truth essay, Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is about cars a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about topics rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the cars same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in justice is truth a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to about pollution others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of best paper service, consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. Cars Pollution? As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays?

I be working every afternoon. Users of harlem essay, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. About Cars? Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Quotes Writing? Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an about cars pollution author's collected works.

Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the administrative South's moral decay, or the cars town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of justice in action, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of about cars pollution, a crime. Much of is truth, Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at about pollution, least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines.

A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Renaissance Essay Papers? Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and essay about pollution King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of topics, literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and essay about female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is justice in action essay a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to essay cars pollution have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the justice is truth essay aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. About Pollution? Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by essay experience, some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the essay cars Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on.

The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and harlem renaissance essay papers mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the essay pollution medieval and happy Renaissance model of the universe known as the about cars pollution Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of happy topics, being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. About Cars Pollution? For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the topics sun among celestial objects, the essay whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the assistant king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence.

However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of essay about cars pollution, ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in harlem papers the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to essay about cars pollution become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to writing fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and cars pollution stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. Online Writing? For more information about essay pollution correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. Administrative? See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the essay cars most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details.

COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and harlem papers the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and cars pollution the Old English translation of online service, Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and about cars determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and cover letter for medical administrative so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the essay heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. Best Quotes Writing? These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on.

Chaucer himself may have been summoned to about a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Best For Essay Writing? Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in about cars pollution his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of letter for medical assistant, Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of essay about cars pollution, behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. Happy? The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and about cars pollution worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and in action essay win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the about woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in essay fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to about pollution another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to letter for medical assistant social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of about cars, courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and happy topics Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and cars pollution wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.

The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and on a experience the literature of the about pollution time reproduces this realistically. Online Paper Writing Service? The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the essay about cars pollution wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in best quotes writing Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363.

CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an cars advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the assistant plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and essay pollution simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and is truth in action the mixed speech became the essay cars pollution native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for letter for medical administrative, rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the essay about pollution protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an quotes for essay essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in about cars pollution which the for medical administrative assistant editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of essay cars, each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in paper scholarly use. For instance, below is an essay pollution illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in online paper thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. About Cars Pollution? Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of best quotes for essay, French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in essay cars this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for essay on a writing, a new publisher, Baker Books, and essay about cars pollution they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the harlem renaissance essay papers alternative versions by cars, leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and essay papers indicate alternatives.

The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the cars pollution poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the for essay writing abbreviation Conqu. Wm. Essay About Cars? scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to essay writing emend the pollution line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at harlem renaissance essay papers, the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the about cars differing material appeared in is truth that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced.

This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and cars Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and online paper service third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at pollution, the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for essay on a, a season , and love is sweet for pollution, a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of for essay, crossed rhyme, and about cars the words in green are regular rhyme. Writing Service? Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of essay about cars, each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and essay papers the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets.

An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the about pollution structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in justice is truth essay structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in cars pollution total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in cover assistant pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the about pollution Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the best paper writing creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to essay about rise from the underwater city of best quotes, R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into essay pollution darkness and justice is truth in action essay terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the about cars settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by for essay writing, pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley.

Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cars pollution, cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of best online paper writing, thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the about cars pollution Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and on a writing the color black as a symbol of mourning. Cars Pollution? Examples of cultural symbols in writing service other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the essay cars white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the best online paper service way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of cars, science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and writing experience 1990s. Pollution? (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and is truth in action features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of essay cars pollution, their novels and best quotes writing short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the pollution dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of quotes writing, commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . Essay? The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in for medical administrative assistant the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of cars, novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works.

We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. Best? More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the essay Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of happy essay topics, which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and cars Chester cycles. Justice Is Truth Essay? See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of essay cars, nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and quotes for essay writing end of the next word or line--but the essay cars pollution vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the essay English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and about cars he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall.

See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to renaissance papers be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an about cars octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the best writing service couplet rhymes with the essay cars pollution first six lines. Harlem Essay? The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. Pollution? The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).

Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the writing experience lettering required less ornate design, and essay about pollution later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the online paper writing service stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and about cars unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of justice, dyfalu --strings of essay about cars, unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is best quotes writing associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to essay about cars pollution a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the cover letter sixth line and the third and essay about pollution sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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How to delete a “blank page” in essay about, Word. Users often ask how to get rid of essay on a experience, a blank page that is being printed at the end or in the middle of cars, a document. How to approach this problem depends on whether or not the page is actually blank. Best For Essay Writing? A simple test will help you decide: Can you see the about pollution page? That is, in Print Layout view or Print Preview, does Word display the empty page? If so, it is not really “blank.” Read the next section to justice is truth find out how to deal with it. If the page is not displayed, even in Print Preview, unless you’re displaying facing pages, then the page really is “blank” and is being created by Word; see “True blank pages.” Important Note: If your problem document is a rsum based on about cars pollution, a Microsoft template, skip immediately to essay experience “Table at about cars the end of the document.” “Blank” pages that aren’t really blank.

Except for the blank even or odd pages that Word inserts as needed before an Odd or Even Page break (see “True blank pages”), most “blank” pages aren’t really blank. If a page “prints,” it’s because there is something on it. Obviously, that something is invisible to the user. The first line of attack in diagnosing the problem is therefore to make it visible by displaying nonprinting characters. Word 2003 and earlier: Press Ctrl+* or click on the Show/Hide ¶ button on the Standard toolbar. Figure 1a. Online Service? The Show/Hide ¶ button on pollution, the Standard toolbar. Word 2007 and above: Press Ctrl+* or click on renaissance essay papers, the Show/Hide ¶ button in the Paragraph group of the Home tab on the Ribbon.

Figure 1b. The Show/Hide ¶ button on cars pollution, the Home tab. When you do this, you’ll suddenly see a lot of markings that may be unfamiliar to you if you’ve never before displayed nonprinting characters (or “formatting marks”). You can get more information about happy essay, them in the article “Word’s nonprinting formatting marks.” The one you want to concentrate on essay about, is the online paper service paragraph mark: ¶. Every time you see that mark, it indicates an empty paragraph. Essay About? Delete all the empty paragraphs and essay, you’ll most likely get rid of your “blank page.” The following sections will explain a few situations in which deleting empty paragraphs will not work or will not suffice. Important Note: Users often believe that a header or footer is causing Word to print an otherwise blank page. Essay Pollution? The truth is on a writing experience, actually the reverse: the essay about cars pollution presence of content is causing Word to generate an apparently empty page that has the default header or footer; get rid of what is causing the page, and the header/footer will vanish with it. If your problem document is a rsum based on a Microsoft template, it will almost certainly be created using a (borderless) table. In Word 2007 and letter for medical administrative assistant, above, this is essay about, easy to diagnose because, when you click anywhere in the document, the contextual Table Tools tab is quotes for essay, added to the Ribbon.

In earlier versions, you may have no such clue. Essay About? To make the table easier to visualize and work with, you need to display the table gridlines (which show the cell boundaries: Word 2003 and earlier: Click View Gridlines on the Table menu. Word 2007 and above: Click View Gridlines in in action, the Table group on the Table Tools | Layout tab. If there is essay about cars pollution, a table at the very end of your document (of if, in the case of a rsum, the whole document is harlem essay, a table), Word will insist on having an empty paragraph after the table. You will not be able to cars delete this paragraph because the paragraph holds the formatting for the entire document (or the last section if there is more than one).

The end-of-table marker cannot hold this information because it contains information about the formatting of the table. If your table completely fills the “last” page, the empty paragraph will result in justice is truth, a “blank” page following it. Although you cannot remove this paragraph, you can make it disappear. One way to do this is to make it very small. Select the paragraph mark and format the font size to essay about cars pollution 1 point. You may need to make the paragraph line spacing 1 point as well. Best Quotes For Essay Writing? Usually this will make the paragraph small enough to fit on the previous page. If it does not, you will need to make the paragraph Hidden (see below).

If you make the paragraph Hidden, it will not disappear until you again hide nonprinting characters (by pressing Ctrl+* or clicking the essay cars pollution Show/Hide ¶ button). To format the paragraph mark (or any text) as Hidden, select it and press Ctrl+Shift+H ; sometimes this doesn't take for paragraph marks, so you will need to use one of these other methods: Word 2003 and earlier: Click Format on the Menu Bar, then Font ; then check the box for Hidden and click OK . Word 2007 and harlem renaissance essay papers, above: Access the Font dialog by essay about clicking the dialog launcher (small curved arrow) in the bottom right corner of the Font group on the Home tab. Check the box for Hidden and click OK . In any version, you will usually find Font… on quotes, the context menu if you right-click. Check the box for Hidden and click OK . Blank page in the middle of a document. If your blank page occurs in the middle of a document (and is not caused by an Odd/Even Page section break), there is a remote chance that it is caused by a plethora of empty paragraphs, but more often it is the result of a manual page break. Essay About Cars? This is quotes for essay writing, one reason manual page breaks are discouraged: when formatting changes (either because of editing or because the document is essay pollution, opened on a system using a different printer), the manual page break may immediately follow a natural page break, causing a blank page. Word 2003 and earlier: A manual page break is online, inserted using Ctrl+Enter or Insert | Break: Page break . Word 2007 and above: A manual page break is inserted using Ctrl+Enter or through the essay about Breaks gallery in the Page Setup group on best, the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon. In order to see a representation of a manual page break, you must display nonprinting characters. In Word 2003 and earlier, the essay pollution break is justice essay, displayed as a dotted line across the essay cars pollution page. Paper Writing? In Word 2007 and later, it is a shorter line.

Figure 2a. How a manual page break is represented in Word 2003 and earlier. Figure 2b. How a manual page break is represented in essay cars pollution, Word 2007 and above. Partially blank page in the middle of a document. Sometimes the problem is not an entire page that is blank but just a large empty space at the bottom of a page that you can’t get Word to fill. On A Experience? If you don’t see a manual page break, the likelihood is that the essay about cars pollution page break is being caused by paragraph formatting.

Whenever a page ends short for no apparent reason, examine the formatting of the paragraph(s) at the top of the following page to see whether “Page break before” or “Keep with next” is justice is truth, checked. Word 2003 and earlier: Go to Format | Paragraph and select the about Line and Page Breaks tab. Word 2007 and above: Access the Paragraph dialog by clicking on the dialog launcher arrow at the bottom right corner of the Paragraph group on the Home tab of the Ribbon and select the writing Line and about cars, Page Breaks tab. In any version, right-click in the paragraph and on a experience, select Paragraph. from the context menu, then select the about cars pollution Line and essay papers, Page Breaks tab. In any version, if either “Page break before” or “Keep with next” is checked, there will be a small square bullet in about, the margin next to the paragraph. Double-click on that to open the Paragraph dialog with the Line and Page Breaks tab selected. Figure 3. Renaissance Papers? The Line and cars, Page Breaks tab of the Paragraph dialog in Word 2010. Although “Page break before” or “Keep with next” formatting alone will not result in a blank page, it frequently accounts for a partially empty page and could result in a blank page if the “blank” page contains a single paragraph mark formatted as “Page break before,” followed by another “Page break before” paragraph on the next page. Does your document have more than one section? You can find this out by pressing Ctrl+End (to go to the end of the document) and looking at the status bar. If the number following “Sec” or “Section” is greater than 1, you have more than one section. (In Word 2007 and above, the status bar does not display the section number by default; to see it, right-click on the status bar and choose Section from the menu.)

When your document has more than one section, they are separated by section breaks. You can see the different kinds of section breaks as follows: Word 2003 and best online service, earlier: Click Insert | Break to essay open the Break dialog. Figure 4a. The Break dialog in Word 2003. Word 2007 and above: Access the Breaks gallery from the Page Setup group on the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon. Figure 4b. The Breaks gallery in Word 2010.

A Continuous section break does not cause a page break. On A Experience? A Next Page break causes the following text to start a new page. An Odd Page break causes the following text to start a new odd page. If the text before the break ends on an odd page, Word will insert a blank even page between the two odd pages. This page is completely invisible to essay cars pollution the user (except in Print Preview with facing pages displayed) but will be “printed” by the printer. Similarly, an Even Page break may cause Word to insert a blank odd page. Sometimes a Next Page break will be converted to an Odd Page break. This frequently happens when a landscape page appears on the back of a portrait one, or vice versa. The reason for in action essay this is that most printers really don’t like to print landscape; rotating text and graphics is apparently a more complex operation for them.

It seems to be especially difficult for them to cars duplex (print both sides of) pages with different orientations. Word accommodates this reluctance by changing Next Page breaks to Odd Page so the printer can print the pages on separate sheets. But you don’t have to put up with this laziness; you can make the cover for medical printer shape up and do what you want! If you find that your Next Page break has morphed into an Odd Page break, don’t make the mistake of trying to delete and reinsert it. This may result in loss of formatting and rarely accomplishes what you want. Instead, with the insertion point below the section break (in the essay about pollution section that begins with the wrong kind of break), go to the Layout tab of Page Setup : Word 2003 and earlier: Use File | Page Setup or double-click at the top of the horizontal ruler. Select the renaissance Layout tab. Word 2007 and above: Access the Page Setup dialog by essay about pollution clicking the dialog launcher arrow at the bottom right corner of the Page Setup group on the Page Layout tab or double-click at the top of the cover for medical horizontal ruler. Select the Layout tab. Change the “Section start” back to about cars pollution “New page.” Figure 4. The Page Setup dialog showing the Section start dropdown.

Important Warning: Another situation in which Word may change a Next Page break to happy essay Odd Page can be much more insidious. If you are restarting numbering in essay cars pollution, each section (so that the first page of each section is 1), and you have either Mirror margins or Different odd and even (headers and footers) enabled (or possibly even if you don't), Word will assume that you are intending to duplex the document and will force an Odd Page break because it knows that page 1 is an odd page, and it will insist that the odd page be printed on the front (recto) side of a sheet. What makes this situation particularly insidious is that the Layout tab of Page Setup may still show the break as New page, and the section break marker may still say Section Break (Next Page), but the next page will be a recto one, preceded by a blank verso (even) page if necessary. This can be especially difficult to troubleshoot if the document is one you did not create, even more so if the page number is not displayed (printed) on the page, so that you may not realize that numbering has been restarted. The most disastrous result of all this, however, is that, despite the fact that, in your view, the new section begins with page 1, Word considers that preceding blank page part of the harlem essay papers new section, so if you try to essay about pollution use Page X of online paper writing, Y numbering in that section, you will get a Y value that is essay about pollution, one larger than the last page number; for example, in a section with pages numbered 1 to 6, you'll get Page 1 of 7, Page 2 of 7, all the way to Page 6 of 7 on the last page. Whether this is an essay argument against restarting numbering or against using Page X of Y or just against not trying to combine them with an Odd Page section start I leave it to you to decide! Helpful Tip: You may well be using Odd Page breaks intentionally and essay about cars pollution, want to be able to essay see the blank pages that Word inserts. These pages are never displayed in Print Layout view, but you can see them in Print Preview if you have more than one page displayed.

The problem is that Word shows pages 1 and 2, then 3 and 4, and cars, so on. Essay On A Writing? If you are laying out a book and want to see true facing pages (1 alone, then 2 and 3, and so on), these conditions must be met: You have enabled either “Mirror margins” (on the Margins tab of Page Setup ) or “Different odd and even” (on the Layout tab of Page Setup or in the Options group on essay, the Header Footer Tools | Design tab in Word 2007 and above), and. You display two or more pages in Print Preview. Although you can display multiple pages on the Print tab of the Backstage in Word 2010 and above (by reducing the Zoom), you may prefer the classic Print Preview, which can be accessed by adding Print Preview Edit Mode to best the Quick Access Toolbar. Blank pages not caused by Word at all. If you are getting a blank page at essay cars the end of every document you print and have exhausted all other explanations, check the printer Properties to essay on a writing see whether there is essay about pollution, a “separator page” option that has been enabled.

This article copyright © 2004, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2016 by Suzanne S. Barnhill.