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Lithium Essay, Research Paper

Bertrand Russell#8217;s Theory of lithium papers, Perception. Bertrand Russell’s Theory of Perception, put forth in his book The Problems of Philosophy is focused around the theory of sense-data. This essay will outline Russell’s theory and burden of proof, present some of the arguments that support his view, such as the argument from hallucination. I will outline an attack on Russell’s theory and then move to lithium research papers, present an alternative argument accounting for when quoting in an essay the relevant phenomena: the adverbial theory and show how Russell’s theory does more to convince one of the nature of our perception. Russell’s theory of perception is rooted in his faith in sense-data. This is the notion that whatever we perceive are mind dependent objects whose existence and properties are known directly to us and about which we cannot be mistaken. Sense-data are representations of ‘real’ objects in research, the world outside the mind, of essay, which we can be mistaken. For Russell and the sense-data theorist, what is research papers being perceived depends greatly on the mind for its existence and of proof essay, that what we perceive is not a public physical object but a private, non-physical entity.

He also believes that relying on the experiences of other people is question begging and therefore commits himself to research papers, finding; ‘…in our own purely private experiences, characteristics which show, or tend to show, that there are in the world things other than ourselves and nothing the science of shooting hoops research paper, our private experiences.’1. Need essay sample on Bertrand Russell#8217;s Theory of Perception ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for research only $12.90/page. So, according to Russell, we can only have knowledge of to improve, external objects by lithium research papers, being aware of the representations of objects that our sense-data gives us. However, it is important to note that according to sense-data, objects cannot exist unperceived. Mark Gibbs Resume? This is a form of indirect realism, and lithium, there are some arguments that support Russell’s theory. Burden Of Proof Essay? There are three sub-arguments that fall under the broad term of the Argument from research papers Illusion that support Russell’s assertion that sense-data is distinct from the physical object and quoting a sentence essay, that what we experience is not that of a public object. These arguments concern illusion, hallucination and perceptual relativity. The Argument from Illusion appears to be very persuasive. In this case, we are talking about instances whereby, ‘qualities are immediately experienced that the relevant object clearly does not possess’,2 for example, perceiving a stick appearing to be bent when half immersed in lithium research, water. In this case, no relevant physical mind independent thing is river essay bent.

Thus, one must be perceiving something non-physical. If, in the illusory cases, one is research papers perceiving something non-physical then in the non-illusory ‘good’ cases, one is also perceiving something non-physical, so therefore, in all cases one is perceiving something non-physical and mind dependent. This works as a convincing argument for the sense-data theory and in Sajahan Miah’s book Russell’s Theory of Perception, he is also supportive of this argument, stating, ‘The argument from illusion forces us to admit that in any perceptual situation what we are immediately aware of are sense-data.’3. Another argument concerning the way in which we perceive things is the Argument from Perceptual Relativity. Here, we can consider the river essay questions passage where Russell speaks of regarding the table in his study.

He notes how the appearance of the table seems to change depending on the perspective, or conditions under which it is being perceived.4 Russell finds that the nature of his sensory experience of the table changes not only in regards to colour and shape, but for research papers many of the qualities of the table such as touch and texture. However, Russell maintains that although we are presented with different sense-data that appear to of proof essay, be separate from one another, the object itself does not change. However, since what we see does change, we cannot assume that what we perceive is a table. So what the notion of perceptual relativity claims is that though we experience many different phenomena when regarding one object, we must assume that one of them could be the physical object itself. However we have no means with which to single out one experience that can be identified as the immediate physical object and research papers, so it is safer to assume that our immediate experiences are distinct from the physical object in question5, thus, supporting the sense-data theory. With regard to pope on man, hallucinations, we consider instances whereby we actually consider certain qualities that could be attributed to lithium research, some kind of physical object when there is no physical object present at an essay on man, all, for example, seeing a pink elephant. In both cases, we are presented with sensory experiences of qualities that the object in lithium research papers, question does not posess, and so, these experiences must be distinct of the object, thus, reiterating the sense-data theory. The argument from illusion has been attacked by the likes of John Austin in his Sense and Sensibilia when he suggests that the argument ‘trades in confusion’ between an illusion and a delusion and gives an example of a church being camoflauged to look like a barn. He wonders whether any sort of serious question can be asked about what we see when we look at it. He tries to gibbs resume, put forth that we don’t see anything immaterial and that we can’t say anything about it concerning out sensory experience of it.

However, I think that one must take this example from a personal point of view and think about what you would have an experience of if you were to look at the church/barn. You, having no idea that the building has been camouflaged, would have the lithium sense-datum of a barn because you don’t have any evidence to suggest that it is river something else. It would only be if you were to delve deeper, as it were, and investigate the inside of the building that you would have grounds to change your interpretation of your perception. So this in fact backs up Russell’s theory about sense-data because you have only the knowledge of what your immediate sense-data tells you about the object and cannot derive any further information regarding the lithium research building until further investigation is undergone in which case, even then, your sense-data would adapt and correct itself concerning the object in light of more informed inspection. A second argument in favour of Russell is the Argument from the Scientific Account of Perception. But Net The Science Of Shooting Hoops Research? This argument puts forth the view that perceptual experiences can be altered by natural science, such as ‘…changes in the conditions of perception or the condition of the lithium research relevant sense-organs and the resulting neurophysiological processes…’6. This can happen without any change to the physical object in question and, so, we can only have knowledge of the sense-data that this gives us and not of the object itself. A particularly poignant part of this argument concerns ‘time-lag’. It concerns the fact that often, in the short amount of time it takes for the object to be perceived and the perceiver actually having the mark sense experience, the object can invariably have changed in some way. In fact, if you look at some astronomical examples, by the time we have the research papers experience, the an essay object may even have ceased to lithium papers, exist.

So this most certainly backs the claim that sense-data is entirely independent of the object itself, for it is surely inconceivable that we can have a sensory experience of something and assume that it is one and the same as something that does not even exist. An alternative argument for the nature of our sensory experiences is the Adverbial Argument. This argument removes any need for river questions an object within the material world, my mind, or anywhere else for that matter. It is concerned with the person as a sensor and lithium papers, focuses on the sense-datum itself as an object, thus eradicating the confusion of the object as a physical object or a mental object etc. So the argument concerns itself with the state of sensory awareness of the person. It is the specific manner in which the person senses or the burden of proof of proof essay way in lithium papers, which something is appeared to them that is in paper, question and it is this that can tell us of the lithium research papers specific content of the immediate experience. So, in the jargon for this argument, if I hallucinate a multi-coloured elephant, I sense, or am appeared-to a-multi-coloured-elephant-ly, or if I perceive a blue circle, I am perceiving bluely and circularly.

So the attraction of burden of proof, this argument is that one can say that if they experience a blue circle, then something is modified a certain way, but there isn’t any need to incorporate some abstract or mysterious sense-data.7The adverbialist is concerned only with the experiences themselves and lithium research, not with the objects that they may or may not represent. However, this argument in fact fails by it’s own principles. To Improve Discipline? For example, suppose you experience a brown square and a green triangle simultaneously. The adverbialist would have to say that his state of lithium papers, mind is ‘sensing brownly and squarely and essay, greenly and triangularly,’8 But then, couldn’t that be read as the state of mind is sensing a brown triangle and a. Research? green square? The adverbialist needs something more in his characterisation of the experience in order to escape this confusion.

Bertrand Russell’s Theory of Perception is a theory that makes a good attempt to account for our perceptual experiences and their relations to objects and the arguments from Illusion and The Scientific Account of Perception offer interesting solutions for perceptual phenomena that seem to trick us so often. Resume? However, I find Russell’s strategy of completely disassociating objects and our perceptual experiences from one another quite ambitious as it would seem to me that though our sense-data can give us knowledge about the representation of the object in lithium papers, question, we also have the ability to manipulate the object in ways that force certain sense-data to appear to us. Russell talks of sense-data in a manner suggestive of something that has power over us and our thought processes. However it seems to discipline essay, me that I can alter the sense-data that I experience. for example, I were to perceive a sheet of paper, I could change the sense-data that I receive simply by tearing the paper in half. Research Papers? In this manner, it seems to me that there is ways discipline in school essay some kind of causal relationship between the object, the perceiver and the sense-data, and lithium research papers, that the perceiver can have power over the sense-data. Russell, B. The Problems of Philosophy (OUP 2001) Miah, S. Russell’s Theory of Perception (Dhaka University Press 1998)

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Writing a web application with Ruby on lithium research, Rails. Unless you have lived under a rock for the past 5 years or so, you should have already heard of Ruby on Rails. In this article, we’ll write a very simple web application to alexander pope an essay show its power and research speed of development. We’ll cover the following topics: install Ruby install the rails gem how to start a new rails project directory structure of a rails project how to manage data with a database use already available components to handle common tasks add CRUD resources improve the app flawlessy. The following section offers a very quick overview of the tools you need to get started with Ruby on Rails development. If you already have a working rails environment, excluding the default ruby installation that some operating systems have, then feel free to skip the steps. If you run Linux or MacOSX on alexander on man 3, your computer, you may already have Ruby installed by default, however these kind of installations are out of date (eg: ruby 1.8.x) and lithium research papers gems are difficult to manage. Mark Gibbs? The best way is to install it manually or just use some tool that helps to manage custom Ruby installations, even multiple versions (eg: 1.9.x and lithium papers 2.0.0 releases). Instead of repeating what others have already said, here are some useful guides:

MacOSX: Ruby on alexander pope an essay epistle 3, Rails development with Mac OS X Mountain Lion. Follow the steps until you reach Install SQLite3 section, we’ll see here how to install rails. Linux: Setup Ruby On Rails on Ubuntu 13.04. Same as above, follow the steps until you reach Configuring Git . Windows: SQLite3 Ruby 2.0 on lithium papers, Windows and Getting Started with Git and burden of proof essay GitHub on Windows. I haven’t too much experience on windows, so keep the finger crossed and/or ask on the same forum thread. The Ruby community is lithium research papers, very kind #128578; Now, you should have all the questions requirements to get started.

Bundler is lithium, a Ruby gem that helps you to manage development dependencies in a project. We’ll see how it works later, for now, just install it: We’re going to use the upcoming new version of rails. At the time of writing (mid June 2013), it’s the 2nd Release Candidate but, according to its author, it should be stable enough. A Simple Web Application to Manage and Share Bookmarks. Someone says that doing it is the best way to learn , so here’s a less common tutorial app: a simple platform to manage or share bookmarks. It’s nothing fancy, but it’s enough to quoting in an apply some basic concepts. Moreover, aren’t you bored of todo lists and blog engines over and over? #128578;

When you install rails, it comes with a bunch of other libraries and/or command line tools. The main one is rails . For now, we’ll use it to generate the initial skeleton: I’ve also passed some arguments to lithium research the command: bookmarks : is the name of our project. -T : skip Test::Unit files. It’s not fundamental for our purpose (but they are in the everyday Ruby and Rails development), so I skipped them because testing is an argument apart and I don’t want to overcomplicate this article. Of Proof Of Proof Essay? -d sqlite3 : we want to use SQLite database. Lithium Research? It fits perfectly for burden essay our purposes. Please note that, Rails has support for lithium a wide variety of databases, even NoSQL ones. It’s also common to have different database engines based on the environment (eg: SQLite for development, MySQL or PostgreSQL for production, etc…) without code changes. -B : don’t run bundle install , we’ll do it manually later. Once you run the ways to improve discipline in school command, you should see a long list of lines that explain what is happening:

A new directory called bookmarks (or whatever project name you passed) has been created, along with a set of lithium papers files and directories inside it. Enter this directory, we’ll see the important contents during the article. A first look at Bundler and Gemfile. We mentioned Bundler as a tool to manage development dependencies in a Ruby app. Questions? It works by reading a file called Gemfile that should be present in the root directory of the app. You need this to make sure all the required gems are installed, even rails itself. Here’s a brief look at the Gemfile generated by the rails new command: As you can see, this is the default list of gems you need to start working on a Rails project. Of course, you’ll change it very often to papers add, remove or upgrade gems. Now you can finally run bundle install (the command we skipped by specifying -B ):

If you use git , this is a good moment to the science of shooting initialize the repo and proceed with the initial commit. Even if you haven’t yet wrote any line of code, you can already use the Rails development server. Run the lithium following command: then point your browser to http://localhost:3000 and you’ll get a standard welcome page. The Science Hoops? This time we’ve used rails server , another useful command offered by Rails, moreover, it works only when you run it inside a Rails project folder. We’ll see other useful commands later. A quick introduction to MVC patterns and Rails. Rails is usually defined as an MVC framework . Research Papers? Basically, it means that the app behaviour is defined in ways to improve, this way: Model: manages data between the rest of the application and the database. You can define how a single entity behaves, this includes data validation, before/after save hooks, etc… Controller: this is the glue between the data managed by the Models and the rendered Views. Papers? Http requests that come to your app, are routed to river a controller which usually will interact with one or more models and lithium finally renders the ouput along with an Http response.

View: the final output for a request. It’s usually a piece of HTML, but it might also be JSON or XML. We’ll see this later. This is, of course, an over-simplification, but it should be enough to get a vague idea of how it works. I’ll dive into some details later. The goal of our app is to manage bookmarks, right? So we’ll need to create our Bookmark resource: This time, we’ve used rails generate , one of the but net the science of shooting research most useful commands. In this case, we’ve generated a scaffold that creates all the necessary files and code to automatically get a full MVC stack that manages a Bookmark . Research Papers? In the nothing but net of shooting hoops next few paragraphs, we’ll see in detail what the above command did. We’ve specified that a Bookmark record is papers, made of alexander pope an essay epistle a title and lithium research papers a url fields, both of type string (255 chars by in school default).

So, the rails scaffold generator has automatically created a migration script to research papers update your database schema: db/migrate/db/migrate/20130614142337_create_bookmarks.rb. Even if it’s almost easy to read, this code basically means: create a bookmarks table on database (note the pluralized form) it has the fields title and url of type string also add timestmps by default (this is automatically translated to created_at and updated_at datetime fields) However, your database still doesn’t know about these changes to the schema, you need to run the migration task: Rake is another common and useful tool in essay, the Ruby world. It acts like a Makefile in a Ruby fashion. Rails comes with several rake tasks ready to use (you can also create custom ones, if needed): The model representing a bookmark was created in app/models/bookmark.rb , at the moment it’s almost empty in terms of code, but it already knows how to behave with the database. To demonstrate this, we’ll use another Rails command to open a console : Now, we have a shell to manually issue commands to our rails app. Lithium? Let’s see if it knows something about our Bookmark : It knows about the nothing but net research paper bookmarks table, its fields and how to query the database.

Ok, create one Bookmark : The BookmarksController and research papers its views. We said that the scaffold generator has created all the parts of the MVC stack, now is the ways essay time for research the controller in app/controllers/bookmarks_controller.rb . You’ll see a BookmarksController class and pope an essay on man a bunch of methods (called actions ). Each action corresponds to an HTTP PATH (eg: /bookmarks ) and research papers an HTTP verb (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE). The autogenerated code is quite clear and, for brevity reasons, I can’t dive too much in to it. The interesting parts are: nowhere in the code is specified how to render views. There’s a reason for that: HTML views are based on the controller’s actions names. For example, BookmarksController#show will render a template placed in app/views/bookmarks/show.html.erb . Burden And Standard? Of course, only the actions that respond to HTTP GET have a template, the rest are usually redirects. Check the contents of app/views/bookmarks/ yourself to papers get an idea. it looks like there’s some automagical JSON support. That’s true, rails supports HTML and mark gibbs resume JSON request by default, I’ll show you this later. The final component for research papers the MVC stack is about routing the HTTP requests to the proper controller and action. Quoting A Sentence Essay? To make this, the research Rails generator has updated config/routes.rb file and has added the essay questions line resources :bookmarks that is a shorthand to say: use REST routes for research the the nothing but net the science paper resource bookmark . If you’re wondering what routes are available, you can use the relative rake task : Now, the fun part.

Restart your rails server with rails server and go to http://localhost:3000/bookmarks. If you followed the above example in lithium research, console, you should already see the Bookmark created earlier, otherwise, you can create a new one by essay clicking on New bookmark link. Try http://localhost:3000/bookmarks.json and see what you’ll get. You still haven’t wrote a single line of lithium Ruby, and it already does a lot of things. Awesome, isn’t it? #128578; Once we have the quoting a sentence essay Bookmark resource, we need Users that own bookmarks and a way to lithium research papers authenticate them. River Essay Questions? The Ruby and Rails community is very active: whatever the research papers task is, you’ll probably find at least one gem to do it (if you don’t, it might be a good idea to write one). Luckily, user authentication is a very common task, and there are several options. The most used is Devise, let’s use it.

Open Gemfile and add this line: We also told Bundler to use a version of Devise that should be greater_or_equal than its minor version (eg: 3.0.1 is mark gibbs, ok, 3.1.0 isn’t). Run bundle install to install the gem: and run the lithium Devise generator: As you can see, it has created two files under config/ directory: config/initializers/devise.rb : here you can change several Devise settings. However, we’ll use defaults because they are enough. config/locales/devise.en.yml : this file contains i18n translations for Devise. Please note that config/locales/ is the default path to put all the locales for a Rails app. Devise also told us to to improve check five steps to complete the setup: add config.action_mailer.default_url_options = to config/environments/development.rb define a root_url in config/routes.rb . Fow now, we can achieve this by pointing BookmarksController#index to the root of the site: add the two pieces of html in app/views/layouts/application.html.erb . This file is the main layout your Rails app. skip the fourth step because we’re running a Rails v4.0.x app, not a 3.1.x one) generate the Devise default views with rails generate devise:views . They contain a basic scaffold to lithium research get Devise to work (eg: login/signup forms, etc…). Please note that Devise has several features concerning user authentication and registration, but we’re going to use only a small set of them, so don’t panic if you see a lot of generated views.

Setup for Devise is done, but we still haven’t a User model, we need to create one: If you remember the scaffold generator we used to generate a Bookmark , this one is very similar even if just focused on the model, plus the route that tells Devise to handle /users/* paths. In fact, it created a migration for users and the User class. Edit the migration to look like this (remove or comment the burden of proof essay rest): Also the research model needs to reflect the changes made to the migration: The last step, is to to improve run the lithium papers migration with rake db:migrate. In this way, we have a simple authentication system that lets a user to register, login and logout. Mark Resume? Try to papers run rake routes and you’ll see the new routes for these actions, all referred to users . Discipline Essay? You can also play in the Rails console to create some users. Now that we have User and Bookmark , we need to associate them.

In this case, it’s a one to lithium research many relationship. As a shared convention, foreign keys name are made of the model name suffixed by _id . Of course, we’ll not change the already created migrations, instead, we’re going to mark resume create a new one: Choosing an appropriate, arbitrary name is not mandatory, but it’s a best practice that you should follow. Our generated migration will add a user_id integer column to the bookmarks table. Also, feel free to run the migration now. At the research papers moment, none of essay our two rails models knows about research, each other, we’ve only added a field on the database, but it’s meaningless without some additional instruction: add has_many :bookmarks to river essay questions app/models/user.rb add belongs_to :user to app/models/user.rb. With these changes, a User instance will automatically have a bookmarks method (and many others), referred to all Bookmark records with that specific user id . Require authentication to manage your bookmarks. Looking at the models, it looks like the papers data part is complete and working. However, the BookmarksController created by the scaffold command doesn’t apply any authentication check, it needs some fixing.

First of burden of proof and standard of proof essay all, check user authentication before executing whatever action: This means that, from now on, each request that arrives to the BookmarksController will first check if a user is authenticated ( authenticate_user! is a method provided by Devise), otherwise it will be redirected to the login page. Then, access only bookmarks owned by research the authenticated user. Alexander An Essay Epistle? To do this, replace Bookmark occurrencies with current_user.bookmarks . As you may wonder, current_user is an object provided by Devise that represents the research papers authenticated user, while .bookmarks is the to improve discipline in school method provided by the model association between User and Bookmark models. If you haven’t played with the web interface yet, now is lithium papers, a good time to pope an essay on man do it. Here are some hints: At the moment, we have several areas where a wrong user input might damage you application: providing incomplete or malformed data when creating a new Bookmark requesting a bookmark id that doesn’t exist as a record on the database, for example by visiting http://localhost:3000/bookmarks/111, will cause an error in your app, very ugly to see. Let’s see how to solve these issues. If you tried to use a password shorter than 8 chars or a bad formatted email during user registrations, you’d note that Devise has spotted those errors by lithium not saving the record and rendering the user registration form again. In School? In fact, Devise provided some default validations for users, but our app needs validations on the Bookmark model too.

Change app/models/bookmark.rb to look like this: These validations are self-explanatory, so I’ll not dive into research papers, them. Just keep in mind that there are many others or, in an essay epistle 3, this case, you can create custom ones. The second problem we addressed is about passing a wrong/non-existent identifier for a given resource. You can handle it in many ways, perhaps the simplest (and laziest) one is to papers redirect to river essay questions the index, with a flash message . To do this, we only need to change some line of code in research, BookmarksController : The set_bookmark is a method called in of proof of proof essay, a before_action only for lithium research actions that need a resource id (show, edit, update, destroy). The new lines will safely check for existence in the database, otherwise the user will be redirected to the root path of the site, with a short flash message. Improving the app one step at an essay on man, a time. Our app is almost complete, or at least, it lacks several little details that make a difference. We’ll try to address some of these. The goal, is to research demonstrate how to improve an existing app with small steps.

This is when essay, a simple task. All we need is a new route, controller and view. Lithium Papers? This time, we’ll use a generator dedicated to the controller: I’ve omitted the output because at the moment you should be able to guess what it does. In short, it has created a SiteController with an action called index , plus the related view in app/views/site/index.html.erb and a new route in nothing but net paper, config/routes.rb . Lithium Research Papers? However, the route should be changed to reflect our goal:

If you try to nothing but net the science of shooting hoops load http://localhost:3000 you’ll see the empty template of research papers app/views/site/index.html.erb . To render content, we need to change the controller in app/controllers/site_controller.rb : while the nothing but net the science hoops research view in lithium research papers, app/views/site/index.html.erb , might contain this basic markup as a starting point: Again, note how the controller processes the essay request by retrieving some records from the database through the model Bookmark , then renders its view that contains the proper data to show the bookmarks. Being a programmer, I’m not too skilled in design and lithium layouts, but there are several CSS frameworks that help a lot. Instead of picking the famous Twitter Bootstrap, I chose ZURB Foundation, just to be fancy. There are a lot of ways to integrate existing CSS/Javascript frameworks and libraries inside a Rails app, the simplest one, is to use a gem when possible. Luckily, there’s one for Zurb Foundation, just add it to your Gemfile: run bundle install , plus its install generator: this command, will ask you to nothing but net the science of shooting hoops paper overwrite your default application layout in lithium papers, app/views/layouts/application.html.erb , press Y without worries. For brevity reasons, I’ve put the contents of the file here. Moreover, we can also remove old scaffold’s stylesheets: Forms are still ugly and boring to when in an essay write, so we’ll use another useful gem (from the same authors of Devise ) to mitigate the lithium research papers problem. Gibbs Resume? Add it to your Gemfile: run bundle install and papers the install generator (note that it already supports Foundation’s markup structure):

We’ll also re-generate Devise views, because it supports SimpleForm : The generator will ask you if you want to overwrite existent files, press Y because that’s what we really want. The last step is to fix the Bookmarks form, it wasn’t updated by the other generators, we’ll do it manually by overwriting its (partial) template in when a sentence in an essay, app/views/bookmarks/_form.html.erb with the following content: It would be nice and professional to show a welcome page for non-registered users. To keep things simple, I’ll use the same SiteController#index used for the root page. Modify app/views/site/index.html.erb to look like this. Congratulations! If you carefully followed all the steps, you should have a basic, yet working, Ruby On Rails app. Of course, this is only the tip of the iceberg : for brevity reasons, I’ve oversimplified some concepts, and I’ve skipped several important aspects (eg: using CSS/SASS and Javascript/Coffeescript, testing, deploy, etc…) that you should know if you want to be a proficient Ruby On Rails developer. Research? However, as you can see, this is a huge article already, at least in terms of length #128539;

I’ve uploaded the complete app on github: https://github.com/apeacox/12dos-bookmarks. It’s a bit different from the one we wrote here, but it also adds some more features: pagination with the kaminari gem use profile pages to alexander epistle show single user’s bookmarks. Clone or fork the code and experiment with it. http://guides.rubyonrails.org: official documentation and lithium research papers guides http://railscasts.com: videos (and transcripts) http://www.ruby-lang.org/en/documentation: Ruby’s official documentation https://www.ruby-toolbox.com: a place where to gibbs resume find gems for your tasks. Andrea Pavoni is a passionate Italian programmer. Papers? He's mostly focused on web and mobile development, always looking for the best tools available. Of Proof And Standard? Andrea is also an active member of the Italian Ruby community. He helped in the organization for papers Ruby Days (2011, 2012) and coached at the first Italian Rails Girls event in Rome. Great Article ! A must for starters and newbies ! Great article – one thing I noticed… add has_many :bookmarks to app/models/user.rb. add belongs_to :user to app/models/user.rb.

add has_many :bookmarks to app/models/user.rb. add belongs_to :user to app/models/bookmark.rb. Awesome article. I was searching a good guide for Rails4. Great Article.I tried this and got the discipline essay results but when I restart the system I am getting an error called. NoMethodError in Site#index. Showing /Users/sailakshmi/Plackal/Workspaces/plackalwbapp/app/views/site/index.html.erb where line #15 raised: undefined method `username’ for nil:NilClass.

Thanks for lithium research papers writing this. River Questions? Question about adding the line in the bookmarks_controller `before_action :authenticate_user!`. How is this visible? You say it is part of Devise, but how is papers, Devise making this method visible? Awesome! Shows the power of rails.

Incredible. It Helped me in my independent study . Thanku:) Beginner’s Tutorials for Developing with Ruby on epistle, Rails CSS 3 HTML 5 Links und Infos. […] Ruby on Rails Web Application […] Nice article. Lithium Research? short n sweet,, great article for starters. thanks. Fantastic article.Helped a lot.Thanx. Install Ruby on Rails on gibbs resume, Windows guide | egeek. […] get started developing your first Ruby application, I highly recommend this guide by Andrea […] You make it sound a lot easier than it actually is I am sure.

I hope to use this myself for an app I am working on for finding easy meals to cook online. Thanks for the headsup I will use this myself. Cheers. very useful for students. Under “Adding users and authentication”, … “Devise also told us to check five steps to complete the setup:…” Step 2 is unintelligible to me as a Rails newb: “define a root_url in config/routes.rb. Fow now, we can achieve this by lithium papers pointing BookmarksController#index to river questions the root of the research site: Bookmarks::Application.routes.draw do # […] root ‘bookmarks#index’ Bookmarks::Application.routes.draw do # […] root ‘bookmarks#index’ in config/routes.rb it errors out. Looking at the checkin, what appears to go in here is simply:

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essay contests uk Current UK Writing Competitions. Despite having had hundreds of poems published I’ve never won a poetry competition, but that’s probably because I’ve only entered four. Lithium? However, I did once win a cash prize for a short story, and then I won the Peter Pook Humorous Novel Contest with Stiff Competition , a story that had previously been rejected by paper, a top publisher for being too funny (see Comps Novel ) . I therefore speak from experience when I say that winning literary competitions doesn’t always lead to fame. Lithium Papers? But having a few such wins to boast about does you no harm when approaching editors or agents, so if you have dreams of a writing career, this could be the of shooting research paper, place to begin. Or maybe you just want to win some money. Research? Whatever your motives, the best advice I can offer is that you emulate my old friend Percy Vere, who reads, writes, reads, writes ad infinitum . Below is a list of the pope, most interesting UK writing competitions I’ve seen recently. I’ve done my best to vet them and eliminate the dodgy ones, but I can offer no guarantees. Lithium Research Papers? Bear in mind that contests with smaller prizes attract fewer entries and are therefore easier to win. UK Writing Competitions (currently 73)

Writers’ Forum Short Story Competition . There is a new contest in each issue of river essay this glossy writers’ mag. Lithium Research Papers? All types of stories are accepted, from horror to romance, with a length of between 1,000 and gibbs, 3,000 words. Closing : Monthly. Entries arriving too late for one comp automatically go into the next. Prizes : Ј300, Ј150, Ј100.

Entry Fee : Ј6, or Ј3 for subscribers to lithium research the magazine. Critique - Ј5 (enclose sae if entering by post). Writers’ Forum Poetry Competition . This monthly contest from the glossy magazine Writers’ Forum is for poems of up to 40 lines on any thme. Closing : Monthly. Entries arriving too late for one month automatically go forward to the next. Prize : Ј100 and a Chambers dictionary. Entry Fee : Ј4 each, or Ј6 if you want a short critique (enclose sae for the critique if entering by of proof and standard, post). Cinnamon Press Debut Collection Prize . This annual contest from Welsh publisher Cinnamon Press is for poetry collections comprising 10 poems of up to 40 lines. Closing : Annually - end of November. Prizes : A publishing contract and lithium, 100 copies of the collection. Entry Fee : Ј12 for one collection, Ј22 for two.

Cinnamon Press Poetry Pamphlet Prize . Entries for this one are invited from when quoting a sentence beginners and established poets. Submit 15 to 25 poems of up to 50 lines each. Closing : Annually (end of March). Prizes (4) : A publishing contract plus 30 copies of the pamphlet. Cinnamon Press Short Story Prize . This is for stories of between 2,000 and 4,000 words. Closing : Annually (end of May). Prize : 1st - One year’s mentoring/free place on a Ty’n y coed course. 2nd Pack of short story collections. 3rd - A year’s subscription to the book club. Winners and runners-up will be published in the Cinnamon Review of lithium research papers Short Fiction . Entry Fee : Ј12 (includes a free copy of the winners’ anthology). Cinnamon Press Debut Novel/Novella Prize . To enter this you submit the first 10,000 words of your novel or novella.

Closing : Anually (end of July). Prize : A pulishing contract and 100 copies of the novel. Telegraph ‘Just Back’ Travel writing Competition . A Sentence In An Essay? If you are just back from somewhere a shade more interesting than the local park, the Telegraph Online would like the gripping details in lithium research, up to 500 words. You can read previous winners on the website. A ‘voyage’ across the Mersey is one of gibbs resume them - proving that you don’t have to write about lithium anywhere exotic to scoop the prize. Prize : Ј200 in your choice of currency. Entry Fee : None - free to enter. The Rules, the TCs, the Fine Print. Daggerville Games Writing Competition . This monthly contest from Daggerville Games is for short pieces of writing (up to 250 words) on a different theme each month.

The theme for April - and I apologise if it is no longer April and I’ve not updated this - is ‘The Perfect Murder’. You have to ‘Like’ the firm on Facebook to enter, but other than this requirement to of proof and standard essay be free and easy with your affections, there is no cost. Closing : End of each month. Prize : Ј60 Waterstones voucher. Entry Fee : None - free to enter.

Hour of lithium research papers Writes Competition . Ways Discipline In School Essay? To enter this new weekly peer-reviewed contest from Manchester you submit a piece of writing of any type you choose running to no more than 2,000 words. There is a different theme every week. Closing : 11pm every Friday. Prize : Ј50 (usually the minimum, they say; prize increases if more entries are received). Just to let you know I was a runner up in last year’s Eyelands short story competition. I entered it mainly because entries were accepted by email.

The main prizes were very generous, as I remember they included video cameras and computers and “a notebook” which I took to mean a notebook computer. I didn’t win any of these but I was “awarded with distinction” and sent a certificate to prove it. I also received a copy of the Eyelands anthology which included my story. Only one problem – it’s in Greek. I recognised my story because it had my name at the top in English. I advise anyone entering this year's comp to look for the automatic translation feature in google - unless of course they understand Greek! Many thanks for lithium research papers, your website.

Always interesting even if I don't enter one of the comps. Flash 500 Competition . This quarterly flash fiction contest, which offers higher prize money than many similar competitions, is for stories of up to 500 words on any theme. Prizes : 1st - Ј300 and publication in mark gibbs, Words With Jam. Papers? 2nd - Ј200. 3rd - Ј100. Highly Commended - A copy of of proof of proof The Writer’s ABC Checklist . Entry Fee : Ј5 each, Ј8 for two. NAWG 100 Words Competition . This ongoing contest from the National Association of Wig Growers - or possibly Writers’ Groups - is for tales of research papers exactly 100 words. Now, it will almost certainly turn out that some of the science research you don’t understand the meaning of the word ‘exactly’, so let me explain that it is not 99 words or fewer, nor is it 101 words or more. It’s bang on 100 . Closing : Ongoing. Papers? Each round ends when 100 entries have been accepted.

Surplus entries automatically go into the next round. Prizes (in each round): Ј75, Ј25. Entry Fee : Ј3 each, Ј5.50 for two, Ј8 for three. Scribble Quarterly Short Story Competition . This quarterly contest from of proof Scribble magazine is for stories in any genre and on lithium research papers any subject, running to no more than 3,000 words. Mark Gibbs Resume? Winners are chosen by the magazine’s readers. Dark Tales Short Story Competition . Research? As you may gather from the name of the mark, competition, this is lithium papers, not for the sort of jolly happy-ending story that leaves you with a warm glow inside. But Net Of Shooting Paper? It is for horror and research papers, speculative fiction, the sort that leaves you afraid to turn out the lights in hoops, case something other than a tiny moth is hiding in the wardrobe. Your entry must be limited to 5,000 words. Prize : Ј100 and papers, publication.

Thanks for all you've done. Burden Of Proof Of Proof Essay? I've had another two wins recently - Concrete Cow and research papers, UPLI - and when quoting a sentence in an essay, I've actually had my book How to Win Writing Competitions accepted by lithium papers, a publisher! Your website gets a mention in nothing of shooting research paper, it, of course. Best wishes, Cathy Bryant. NUHA Blogging Prize . Back for the seventh year running is papers, this international blogging competition from the nothing but net the science, NUHA foundation, a registered charity based in England. The contest was established ‘as a platform to debate issues of education and development, and to papers provide an opportunity for authors to be published and to develop their self-confidence’. It doesn’t matter if English is your first, second or third language . you will be judged on the quality of your argument and a sentence essay, the originality of your ideas. There are three age categories: Adult, Youth and lithium, Young Writer.

Each category has a different writing task. Entries will be posted on the website, and you can get your family and friends to vote for your entry and comment on burden of proof and standard it. Well, you can try. Closing : 15.10.17 (midnight PST). Prizes : The prizes depend on sufficient entries being received. Adult - (up to) $2,500, $1,200, $500. Youth Prize - (up to) $1,000, $400, $150. Young Writers - (up to) $250, $100, $50. There is a possibility of matched prizes for teachers and schools ($1,000 and $250 - click text link on comp page for details). Entry Fee : None - free to enter. Greywood Arts Writing Residency Award . This contest from County Cork in Ireland is for short stories, plays and poetry.

No word or line limits are mentioned, nor is there a theme. In fact the only stipulation is that entries must be unpublished. Prize (in each of the three categories): A one-week self-catering residency and private workspace overlooking the Dissour River at lithium research papers, Greywood Arts in Killeagh, Co.Cork, plus a fireside reading in the Greywood Arts Library. Transport can be arranged between Killeagh and Cork City, but the rest is up to you. Entry Fee : 10 euros. Burden Of Proof Essay? Only one entry per author, but an entry in the poetry category can include up to three poems. Troubadour International Poetry Prize . Time to roll out the old 'grounds for celebration’ pun again. Yes, it’s the research papers, annual contest from Coffee-House Poetry, with its usual generous prizes. And as usual, it’s for poems of up to 45 lines on any subject. These lines, take note, must fit on an A4 or US letter size page, so you can forget about having lines that are 200 words long (and if you want to and standard essay know why, here’s a clue - the judges will be reading all of the lithium papers, submitted poems). The judges are Imitiaz Dharker and Michael Symmons Roberts.

Prizes : Ј2,000, Ј1,000, Ј500. There are also numerous runners-up prizes. Winners wll be invited to read at Coffee-House Poetry on pope on man 3 prize night in November. Entry Fee : Ј6 for lithium research, the first, Ј4 thereafter. I spent a year or so reading all those comments on ways to improve in school essay your website from people who, since consulting your list, seem have won just about every competition going. I read it and thought it must be too good to lithium research papers be true – but worth a try. Then, on my third submission, I have actually gone and won the nothing of shooting hoops paper, Yeovil Literary Prize for research papers, Poetry. I am absolutely over the moon, unable to believe it, etc. Thank you so much. London Short Story Prize . To be eligible for this one from writer development agency Spread the Word you need a London postcode.

Having overcome that hurdle you need to have written a story of up to burden of proof 5,000 words on any theme. Simple. Prize : Ј1,000 and publication in print and online. Lithium? The six top entries will be published in the London Short Story Prize Anthology. All but the first prize winner will be paid for publication. Irish Writers Centre Novel Fair 2018 . This international contest from southern Ireland has been described by an Irish newspaper as Dragon’s Den for an essay 3, writers. The aim is to introduce up-and-coming novelists to research papers publishers and literary agents.

Many top publishers and agents from burden of proof Ireland and the UK have attended the lithium research, Fair in the past, so this could be the opportunity you have been waiting for when a sentence, - or not. To be eligible, you must not have had a novel published under an ISBN, and of course you must be able to papers attend the fair in person for the whole day on mark gibbs resume February 17, 2018. If this sounds attractive and you are prepared to gamble a pretty thick wad of currency on your novel (entry fee plus travel and accommodation/tent), submit up to 5 chapters (around 10,000 words), plus a synopsis of up to 300 words. Lithium Papers? Any genre is acceptable. Prizes : Twelve shortlisted entrants will be invited to take part in the fair and will each have a stand where they can meet publishers and agents.

They will be invited to a How-to-Pitch-Your Novel seminar two weeks before the burden of proof, fair. If you make it on lithium papers to the longlist but not the shortlist, you will receive a critique on your novel from the judging panel (a critique? For 50 euros I’d expect them to come and see me in person to apologise). NAWG Open Writing Competition . This annual contest from the National Association of Writers’ Groups has two categories: short story and poetry. Stories should be between 500 and 2,000 words, while the nothing but net the science hoops, poems should have no more than 40 lines. Prizes (in each category): Ј200, Ј100, Ј50.

Winning entries may be published in lithium research, the anthology. Entry Fee : Ј5 for a single poem or short story. You can enter three poems for Ј10. Flambard Poetry Prize . This annual contest from the Newcastle Centre for the Literary Arts is for of proof and standard, the best group of five poems. None of the five poems should exceed 40 lines. There is no restriction as to style or subject. To be eligible you must not yet have published a single-authored pamphlet or collection. Entry Fee : Ј5 per group of five poems.

Flash 500 Novel Opening Competition . This annual contest, now in its fifth year, is for lithium research, the opening chapter of a novel in any genre. With this you are required to include a one-page synopsis of the of shooting research paper, rest of the story. Indigo Dreams Pamphlet Prize 2017 . To enter this poetry pamphlet contest from Indigo Dreams Publishing in Devon you submit up to 30 pages of poetry (36 lines max, including breaks). Prizes : Two winners will each receive a royalty publishing contract with Indigo Dreams and will receive 20 free copies of their poetry pamphlet. Entry Fee : Ј15 per block of poems. Dear Mr Michael. I discovered your website back in papers, November, then, in January, finally had the guts to ways to improve discipline enter the lithium papers, Whidbey Writers’ Competition, with the 'lazy' way of judging entries: stopping reading once they found 'the one'. Nothing Research? The January theme was Villains, and, guess what, I won. Thank goody-goody gumdrops for Prizemagic. - Hannie Duncombe ( The youngest ever Student Choice winner, at 13, thanks to you. ) Bare Fiction Prize 2017 . This contest from Bare Fiction magazine of Shrewsbury is for poems of up to lithium research 40 lines, short stories running to no more than 3,000 words, and flash fiction that reaches its conclusion in 500 words or fewer.

To avoid any misunderstandings I should perhaps mention that the magazine is not aimed at nudists and you do not therefore need to strip off to write your story . although if it gets your creative juices flowing, don’t let me discourage you (unless you write while commuting). Prizes (in each category): Ј500, Ј200, Ј100, 2 x Ј25. Entry Fee s: Short story - Ј8, flash fiction - Ј6, poetry - Ј5. Dinesh Allirajah Prize . This freebie from Comma Press in Manchester and the University of Central Lancashire is for stories of between 2,000 and 6,000 words on the theme of Caf Stories. You have to submit your story and essay, a covering letter by email and then additionally send the story by post. The reason for this is research papers, simple enough but I don’t know what it is. Prizes : Ј500.

Shortlisted entries will be featured in an ebook anthology. Entry Fee : None - free to enter. NAWG Novella Competition . This open contest from of proof NAWG is, as the name indicates, for novellas. Lithium Research? You are invited to send 5,000 words plus a synopsis. Prizes : Ј300, Ј200, Ј100. The prize money must be spent on alexander pope an essay on man epistle 3 book printing, although not necessarily on printing the work entered. Poetry Society National Poetry Competition . In 1983 Carol Ann Duffy won this contest and 26 years later she became the lithium research, Poet Laureate. Questions? So if you’re hoping to become an overnight sensation, this is probably not the ideal starting point.

But there are compensations. The top cash award is one of the best in the business, and research, the second prize isn’t bad either. The thing that makes me uneasy about this one is nothing but net of shooting hoops research paper, that the entry form always asks for your ethnic background. They say this is for statistical purposes only, but I still don’t think it belongs on papers a competition entry form. Mark Gibbs Resume? However, I have no complaints about the line limit which is 40. Prizes : Ј5,000, Ј2,000, Ј1,000. Runners-up (7) - Ј200. The top three winners will be published in Poetry Review . Entry Fee : Ј6.50 for the first, Ј3.50 thereafter.

TLM Short Story Competition 2017 . This international contest from the lithium papers, UK’s oldest literary journal, The London Magazine , is for but net research paper, stories of research up to 4,000 words on burden of proof and standard of proof essay any theme. The magazine was first published in lithium papers, 1732, they say, and a sentence in an, has hosted poetry from the likes of Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. On the strength of this they claim it is the country’s most prestigeous literary journal, but it hasn’t been graced by any of my immortal lines so I should take that claim with a pinch of salt (I’ve never sent them anything, but that’s no excuse). Prizes : Ј500, Ј300, Ј200. Lithium Research Papers? Winners will be published in the mag. Benjamin Franklin House Literary Prize . This contest, which is for mark gibbs resume, fiction or non-fiction of between 1,000 and 1,500 words, is for young writers aged between 18 and 25 living in research, the UK. When Quoting Essay? Entries should interpret the following Benjamin Franklin quote for its relevance today: ‘If you would not be forgotten, As soon as you are dead and rotten, either write things worth reading, or do things worth the writing.’ Poor Richard, 1738.’ Prizes : Ј750, Ј500. Winners will be published on The Telegraph website. Entry Fee : None - free to enter.

McKitterick Prize . Research Papers? This contest from the Society of Authors is for ways to improve discipline, a first novel aimed at adults. Research? It can be published or unpublished but must be by a writer over the age of forty on December 31 this year. To enter, you submit five copies of your published novel or one copy of when quoting up to 30 pages of your unpublished one. Published novels must have been published this year. Prizes : 1st - Ј4,000. Runner-up - Ј1,000.

Entry Fee : None - free entry. Before I discovered your website I’d never even thought of trying my luck in a writing competition. My stories were a very private part of my life, I was (and for lithium, the most of the time still am) very convinced that they are not good enough for the ‘outside world’. I don’t know what made me try - call it a crazy moment of to improve in school essay self-confidence - but here I am the October winner of the Cazart short story competition. I haven’t felt so good about myself in lithium research, months. It might not seem like a big deal to the world but for me it means everything.

And it would not have happened if it wasn’t for your wonderful website. Thank You very much. - Dorota Nocun. TXTLit Micro Story Competition . Mark? For this contest you need a mobile phone. Papers? Well, everyone’s got one, haven’t they? No. There’s still one person in the UK who hasn’t.

Me. I don’t like phones of any sort. Of Proof Essay? I have one that plugs into the wall but I never answer it when it rings. Lithium Research Papers? I think: ‘They’ll ring again if it’s important.’ They seldom do, and if they do I never answer it and they never ring again - which proves they were just time-wasters. Mark Gibbs? Now, I may seem to be rambling a bit here, but hey, what do you know, this turns out to be relevant because you mustn’t ramble in this competition. Lithium? Limit your stories to but net of shooting hoops research 154 characters (letters and spaces, not people), and while you’re about it, refrain from using abbreviated TXT gibberish, as this is lithium research, not welcome. At last - someone is a sentence essay, fighting back on behalf of the lithium papers, English language!

There is river, a different theme each month. Entry Fee : Ј1 plus the normal cost of research papers sending a text message (no use asking me what that is). Commonwealth Short Story Prize . This contest from resume Commonweath Writers is for unpublished short fiction of between 2,500 and 5,000 words aimed at research, adults. To be eligible, you have to but net hoops research be a citizen of a Commonwealth country. You can write your story in English, Bengali, Chinese, Portuguese, Samoan, Tamil, Kiswahili or Malay. However, don’t try writing it in all eight - nobody likes a show-off. Prizes : 1st - Ј5,000. Regional winners (4) - Ј2,500. Entry Fee : None - free entry. The Caledonia Novel Award . This international contest from lithium research Edinburgh is open to unpublished and self-published debut novelists.

It is for stories of at least 50,000 words in any adult or young adult genre. To enter you email the first 20 pages of mark gibbs resume your novel followed by a 200 word synopsis. Lithium? If longlisted you will be expected to a sentence essay submit the full manuscript by lithium research papers, 6.12.17. The judge is literary agent Madeleine Milburn. Prizes : 1st - Ј1,000. There is in addition a special prize for ways discipline in school essay, the best entry from the British Isles and Ireland of a place on a writing course at lithium research papers, Moniack Mhor Creative Writing Centre. This is in the Scottish Highlands 14 miles from the nearest pub. There will be no trains and possibly no road.

You will therefore complete your journey on a donkey, accompanied by native guides and sherpas. Scribble Annual Short Story Competition . This contest from Scribble magazine if for stories of up to 3,000 words with the opening line: ‘The bicycle was in its usual place.’ Prizes : Ј100, Ј50, Ј25. Oriel Davies Open Writing Competition . This one from Oriel Davies Gallery (contemporary art) in of proof of proof, Newtown, Wales, is for poems of up to 50 lines or prose of papers up to 1,000 words, in gibbs, English or Welsh. The theme is Water. Prize (in each category): A Ј50 voucher to spend in Oriel Davies shop. In case you can’t make it to the gallery in person to spend your voucher, the website shows numerous items available in the shop and it’s possible to buy over the phone. Winning entries will be featured on the website and read to an audience in February 2018. Research Papers? All shortlisted writers will be invited to participate in the readings.

Stringybark Malicious Mysteries Short Story Award . Here we go with another contest from the land of the of proof and standard, wombat. Yes, Wales. No, hang on, it’s Australia. The requirement is for stories of research papers up to 1.500 words with a mystery element and perhaps a sting in gibbs, the tail. The wombat, incidentally, is not a bat at all. Now there’s mystery for you. Prizes : 1st - A$450, 2nd - A$250, 3rd - A$100. Winners will be published in an anthology and will received, in addition to the cash, various Stringybark publications. Entry Fee : A$12 for one, A$22 for two, A$30 for three. I have been a follower of your excellent site for a few years, finally with some success.

I usually submit poetry but I have won 2nd Prize in the Eyelands Short Story competition - a piece of Greek pottery and lithium papers, copy of the Anthology containing my story. I hope the alexander on man, Anthology copy which I receive is not all GREEK TO ME like Mary Hodges copy last Year! - Regards Fred McIlmoyle. Writeabridge Poetry Competition . This international charitable contest, which aims to research papers raise funds for the Coventry Refugee and Migrant Centre, and burden of proof, Clever Fox Press, is for poems of up to 40 lines on any theme. Prizes : Ј300, Ј50. Lithium? Winning poems will be published on the website. Entry Fee : Ј5 each, Ј10 for three. Words and Women Prose Competition . This contest for women who are prepared to admit they are over 40 is for prose running to no more than 2,200 words on any theme. Entries can be fictional stories in the science of shooting hoops research paper, any genre, memoir, life writing, essays and lithium, creative non-fiction.

Prizes : National Prize - Ј1,000 and mark gibbs, up to a month’s writing retreat at Church Cottage near Stratford-upon-Avon. Regional Prize (East of England only) - Ј600 and a mentoring session. Bath Children's Novel Award . This international contest, which is open to unpublished and self-published debut novelists, is for novels of any length in lithium papers, any middle grade or young adult genre. To enter you email the first 5,000 words of to improve essay your story followed by a one page synopsis. If longlisted you will be expected to submit the research, full manuscript in December 2017.

The longlist is chosen by a panel of children and young adults. The shortlist judge is Sallyanne Sweeney from Mulcahy Associates Literary Agency. Prizes : 1st - Ј2,000. There is in addition a special prize for one shortlistee of Ј500 vouchers from an essay epistle Cornerstones Literary Consultancy. New Media Writing Prize 2017 . This international contest from Bournemouth University is, as the name suggests, for new media. The contest has been running annually for five years now. In 2011 they explained new media thus: ‘It is the amalgamation of traditional media such as films, images, music and the written word, but with interactive features.’ As well as poetry, they want short stories, novels, documentaries. All entries should be written specifically for delivery/viewing on a PC or Mac, the web, or a hand-held device such as an lithium research, iPad, mobile phone or one of the latest electric nose-hair clippers with Internet connectivity. To get an idea of what the judges are looking for, you can access previous winners on but net the science paper the website. There are four categories: New Media Writing Prize, Unicorn Student Prize, Dot Award and Corkana Journalism Award.

Closing : 24.11.17 (Noon). Students have a later deadline (noon on 15.12.17) as they seldom get up before noon and are bound to miss the lithium research papers, first one. Prizes : The if:book New Media Writing Prize - Ј1,000. Unicorn Student Prize - A three-month paid work placement at a leading e-learning company (Unicorn Trading) or Ј500 cash. Gibbs? Dot Award - Ј500.

Corkana Journalism Award (2) - Ј500. Entry Fee : None - free to enter. The Yesterday Scholarship . To apply for this award/prize, which is funded by Curtis Brown author Felicia Yap, you submit 3,000 words of a novel in progress. Research? Curtis Brown, in case you are for some odd reason not aware, is burden of proof of proof, a mainstream London literary agency. Lithium? To be eligible you must be unmarried, not co-habitating, and have a gross income of less than Ј23,000 and nothing but net hoops paper, savings of less than Ј5,000. Prize : A place on a Curtis Brown Creative three- or six-month novel writing course, either in London or online. Entry Fee : None - free entry. Cafe Writers Open Poetry Competition . This annual contest from Cafe Writers of Norwich (where the lithium research papers, Man in the Moon was keen to discipline in school essay go, according to a report I read as a child) is for lithium research papers, poems of to improve discipline in school up to 40 lines.

Prizes : Ј1,000, Ј300, Ј200. Research? Runners-up (6) - Ј50. Funniest Poem not winning another prize - Ј100. Norfolk Prize (for a permanent Norfolk resident) - Ј100. Entry Fee : Ј4 each, Ј10 for essay, three.

Love, love, love your site! But it should come with a word of warning to other would-be comp winners. Go straight to research terms and quoting, condition page first. Just spent the last hour and a half crafting (skillfully obviously) a poem about bingo for one of the contests on your site, only to lithium research find that (unlucky for some, or rather - me) when I went to email it, it was for UK residents only! I went to dramatically raise my hand to my forehead saying `oh s**t!` when I knocked over my glass of wine on the desk. As I went to nothing the science hoops research quickly mop up everything, I knocked my phone off the table where it now lies wet and immobilised. So, to re-evaluate: 1. Check terms and conditions. 2. Don`t make any sudden, dramatic hand movements. 3. Don`t place wine on same surface as computer. 4. Don`t place mobile phone on same surface as wine glass.

And finally, 5. Make sure there`s a spare bottle of wine in research papers, fridge when you go to drown your sorrows on your time-wasted, expensive, quiet sunday evening in. - Susan from Dublin. Vanda ‘N’ Linda’s Write Space Short Story Competition . Here is the essay questions, latest competition from writers Vanda Inman and lithium, Linda Lewis. When Quoting In An? The theme this time is Secrets and Lies, but it’s no secret or lie that entries are limited to 1,000 words. Prizes : 1st - Ј250. 2nd - Ј100. There are also prizes for runners-up. Entry Fee : Ј6. Optional critique - Ј4.

Fish Short Story Competition . Lithium? If you are angling for a big prize, it’s worth trying your luck here in this international contest from Fish Publishing in southern Ireland. The required bait is a short story on any subject. To avoid a battering from the judges you must confine your tale to no more than 5,000 words. Prizes : 1st - 3,000 euros (1,000 of which is for travel expenses to the anthology launch), plus a 5-day fiction writering workshop with Claire Keegan during the West Cork Literary Festival. 2nd - A week at alexander on man 3, the Anam Cara Writers’ Artists’ Retreat in lithium papers, West Cork with 300 euros travel expenses.

3rd - 300 euros. Ten stories will be published in essay, an anthology and the authors will receive five free copies plus an lithium papers, invitation to read at the launch during the West Cork Literary Festival in July. Entry Fee : For online entries it’s 20 euros for the first, 10 thereafter. Add 2 euros for postal entries. Observer /Anthony Burgess Prize for of proof essay, Arts Journalism . This annual contest is for a piece of lithium research writing about new work in the arts. You are limited to 1,000 words.

Prizes : 1st - Ј3,000 plus publication in the Observer . Runners-up (2) - Ј500. River Essay Questions? The winners will be commissioned to research produce new writing about the arts for the Free Word Centre, who will award a European travel grant for research purposes. I love your website and its pertinent personal comments re the comps. I entered the Alexander Cordell one some months ago, the mini saga, and was short-listed to win. It was a 600 mile round trip with two toddlers but we had a really wonderful weekend. My husband is self employed and works really long hours so it was great to drag him away and out into the countryside. The people were lovely, the whole event was fascinating, and I was thrilled to get two books and a book token.

My little girl age 3 gets excited every time Wales is mentioned on the news now! The greatest thrill was hearing the Director of an essay 3 Visit Wales read out my story so reverently, and with evident enjoyment. The organisers were delighted with the world-wide entries. Lithium Papers? I don’t write for money - just as well - but for the love of the medium and the message. Keep up the good work! - Julie Noble. Writers Bureau Flash Fiction Competition . This contest from the Writers Bureau website is for when a sentence essay, stories of fewer than 500 words on research any theme. Prizes : Ј500, Ј200, Ј100. In addition, the river essay, three winners receive a Writers Bureau course of their choice. Entry Fee : Ј5 each, Ј10 for three.

Foreign Voices Poetry Competition . This freebie from Holland Park Press is for poems of up to 50 lines on lithium any aspect of to improve in school essay migration. The publishers don’t have to agree with your point of view, they say, but they want to be ‘touched in some way by your poem, inspired by its imagery.’ Prize : Ј200 and publication in the Holland Park Press online magazine. Entry Fee : None - free entry. One in Four Writing Competition . This contest from the single parents’ charity Gingerbread in conjunction with women’s lifestyle website The Pool, and lithium papers, Trapeze Books (an imprint of mainstream publisher Orion Books), is for aspiring writers with some experience of single parent family life. One in four families in the UK, it seems, has a single parent. Mark Gibbs Resume? That’s a sobering thought, but I’m already sober, so let’s move on. To enter, you submit the first 5,000 words of your story plus a 500-word synopsis and research papers, a few lines about your experience of burden of proof single-parent family life. Prizes : 1st - A Ј10,000 publishing contract with Trapeze Books, plus three hours of mentoring with one of the judges, bestselling author Tilly Bagshawe who was herself a single parent. Six shortlisted authors will be invited to the Trapeze offices for a group mentoring session. Entry Fee : None - free to enter.

H.E. Bates Short Story Competition . Lithium Papers? This annual contest in memory of the Nothamptonshire author of such works as The Darling Buds of May and alexander pope an essay epistle, Love for Lydia is for stories of research papers up to 2,000 words on any theme. Prizes : Ј500, Ј200, Ј100. Entry Fee : Ј6 for gibbs resume, one, Ј10 for two, Ј5 each thereafter. The Times /Chicken House Children’s Fiction Competition . If you have an original idea, a fresh voice and a story children will love, you could be in luck because that’s just what the lithium papers, organisers of this annual contest are looking for. They’re also looking for fifteen quid from your pocket, but grit your teeth and think of the prize. A Sentence In An Essay? Your story should be suitable for a worldwide audience of children/young adults somewhere between the ages of 7 and 18 years.

Your manuscript can run to a maximum of 80,000 words, and there is a suggested minimum of 30,000. You have to include a brief synopsis (as described on the website) and papers, a letter explaining the book’s appeal to children (e.g. Pope An Essay On Man? ‘It’s about fluffy bunnies and research papers, adorable kittens - the the science research paper, hero likes to eat them.’). Prize : A publishing contract with an advance of research papers Ј10,000, plus representation by a top children’s literary agent. Entry Fee : Ј15. Luckily you no longer have to send your manuscript by post at colossal expense. You can now enter online. However, if you do happen to be the sort of ways discipline in school essay writer who likes to papers hear the sound of a printer gulping down gallons of overpriced ink, by all means print out your 350-page manuscript and when quoting in an essay, heave it onto the scales at your local post office. Amnesty International York - Short Story Competition . The theme for this one is Borders, and lithium research papers, you are required to explore it in a fictional story of no more than 1,700 words. Prize : Ј50 and publication online. I Am Me Competition . This fund-raiser from the People Not Borders charity is for poems of up to 100 words, short stories of up to 1,000 words, and artwork - all of which should ‘explore imaginatively what it is like to be a refugee’. Mark Gibbs? The contest is open to lithium research papers adults and secondary school pupils.

Prizes : As this is for charity, the prizes are small (books written by the judges and, in the art category, a voucher from essay questions Birkhamstead Arts Crafts). Lord Dubs will be a special guess at lithium, the prizegiving. Templar Poetry Pamphlet Awards . Burden Of Proof Of Proof? For this quarterly contest from Templar Poetry you submit a selection of lithium research your work as a manuscript of between ten and twelve A4 single-sided pages. Prize : The winner will have his or her entry published in pamphlet form and an essay on man epistle 3, will receive 20 free copies with the research, option to buy more at a discount. Thank you for maintaining your informative and witty list of writing competitions. I entered loads of them last year and got precisely nowhere, but I ploughed on regardless and have just won second prize (Ј100) in the Flash 500 Humour Verse contest, which would suggest that your friend Percy Vere might be onto quoting a sentence in an, something. Writers’ Award . Lithium Research? This one from the Deborah Rogers Foundation, set up in memory of literary agent Deborah Rogers, is for to improve discipline in school, first-time authors (fiction or non-fiction) who display literary talent but need financial support to complete a first book. Research Papers? To be eligible, writers must reside in the British Commonwealth or Ireland. If this still sounds like you, submit 20,000 to 30,000 words of when quoting a sentence a work in research papers, progress, together with a brief synopsis and a biographical note (of you, not your main protagonist). Entry Fee : None - free entry.

Ruth Rendell Short Story Competition . This regular contest from the charity InterAct Stroke Support is for stories of to improve discipline in school essay up to 1,000 words in any genre. Lithium Research? It is open to when quoting anyone aged over 16. The charity arranges for readings to stroke patients in hospitals and elsewhere by trained actors. The winner of the competition will be commissioned to write four further stories for InterAct Stroke Support over research papers, the course of in school one year. Stories must of course be suitable to be read in the sensitive environment of papers a hospital. Taste Short Story Competition . This freebie from quoting in an Ouen Press (the pronunciation is lithium research papers, given on their home page but you will probably be no wiser) is for gripping stories on the theme of . Mark Gibbs? I’m tempted to say ‘glue’ but in fact it’s Taste . Lithium? Stories should be between 3,000 and 10,000 words.

Prizes : 1st - Ј300. Epistle 3? Runners-up (2) - Ј100. Entry Fee : None - free to lithium enter. SciFan ‘Fire and Ice’ Competition . Here’s another contest from Fantastic Books Publishing of Yorkshire. They want you to get in touch with your dark side. Eat a kitten. Or perhaps not.

They are looking for your most-twisted dystopian stories with the theme of Fire and Ice. The genre is science fiction or science fantasy or, if you can’t make your mind up, a blend of both (hence the name SciFan). Just be aware that when you walk into that dark room in your mind you may never get out. Prizes : Ј100, Ј50, Ј25. Entry Fee : Ј5 each, five or more Ј3.50 each. Soundwork Short Story Competition . Soundwork-uk is a not-for-profit website which makes audio recordings (plays, poems, stories, monologues) available to the listener free of quoting in an charge. To enter the contest you submit a story of papers 15 minutes duration on any subject. Prizes : Your story recorded by Soundwork and, along with your photo, placed on the site. Entry Fee : None - free to enter. Magic Oxygen Literary Prize . Nothing But Net The Science Of Shooting Hoops Paper? Here is a poetry and short story contest with a difference.

For every entry received, Magic Oxygen Publishing of Dorset will plant a tree in Kenya to create a ‘tropical word forest’. Lithium Research Papers? And when the contest closes each entrant will receive the burden and standard of proof, GPS co-ordinates of their tree. Research? It is not clear if you will have visiting rights or if you will be able to pope on man 3 send your tree a card on its birthday, but you will certainly be able to feel good about helping to restore some of our planet’s lost greenery. The contest is also funding the building of another new classroom at Kundeni Primary School next to lithium papers the tropical world forest. Poems should be limited to 50 lines while short stories can, if required, extend to 4,000 words. Prizes (in each category) : Ј1,000, Ј300, Ј100, and 2 x Ј50. Thank you for continuing to provide so much information on your blog. It’d be a good read just for some of paper your coments even if I hadn’t found it extremely helpful. Research? I’ve had luck with a few of the competitions you’ve mentioned, including getting my first novel 'Escape to the Country' published a while back and more recently being placed in last month’s Spinetinglers competition.

Littoral Press Poetry Competition . This contest is for full collections of nature/spiritual.environmental poetry. Prizes (2) : Publication of your collection by Littoral Press and 50 free copies. Entry Fee : Ј20 per collection. Exeter Novel Competition . To enter this annual contest from Creative Writing Matters of Exeter you submit the first 10,000 words of your unpublished novel, this to include a synopsis of mark gibbs resume up to papers 500 words. Prizes : 1st - Ј500 plus a trophy. Runners-up (5) - Ј75 and a trophy.

The Mogford Food Drink Short Story Prize . Serving up a short story with a food and drink theme could win you a serious tip in this annual contest from Mogford Hotels and Restaurants. Just make sure you don’t over-egg the pudding by exceeding the word limit of 2,500. Your entry, which can be fiction or fact, should be your own original work and unpublished. You must submit this via the form on of proof and standard the website. The contest is lithium papers, open worldwide, but entries must be in English. Closing : 3.1.18 (noon). Entries only accepted from 26.10.17. Prize s: 1st - Ј10,000. The 4 shortlisted entrants will be invited as Jeremy Mogford’s guests to the Mogford Party in alexander pope on man 3, one of the Mogford Hotels in Oxford on 21.3.18 where the research, winner will be announced. Dinner will be included.

The menu is not specified, but we can assume it will not include pie and chips (so if that’s what you want, bring your own). Travel expenses will be paid. Essay? It doesn’t get much better than this. Fish Short Memoir Competition . This annual contest from Fish Publishing in Ireland is for lithium research papers, memoirs of ways to improve essay up to 4,000 words. Prizes : 1st - 1,000 euros. 2nd - A week on lithium research papers a writers’ retreat at ways discipline essay, Casa Ana at La Alpujarra in Spain, plus 300 euros.

The best 10 entries will be published in the Fish Anthology . Entry Fee : 16 euros. The Plough Poetry Prize . Lithium? Arr, it be that time again. The Plough Prize is gibbs, back for its umpteenth annual appearance. It comes from the Plough Arts Centre in Torrington, Devon. It is for poems of up to 10 lines (Short Poem) or up to 40 lines (Open Poem) in any style and on any subject. Papers? The judge this year is Michael Symmons Roberts. Prizes : I’m tempted to say ploughs, but I think I’ve done that one before. The prizes are actually quite useful amounts of money: Ј1,000, Ј500, Ј250. The Bhal Five Words International Poetry Competition . Here’s another Corker from Ireland. Sorry couldn’t resist that.

I’ll start again. This one from Cork in Ireland is for river essay, poems of up to 50 lines (including line breaks) which feature the five words given on the website for that week. A shortlist of 12 will be selected after the final closing date next January, and the winner will be chosen from that. Bhal, incidentally, is papers, a weekly poetry event in Cork (and as you probably know, the word itself is Irish for alexander pope an essay 3, ‘word of lithium mouth’). Closing : Every Tuesday at noon until the last week of January 2018. Prize : 500 euros and an invitation to read at the Bhal’s event in Ireland, with travel expenses of 100 euro and BB accommodation.

I won this year's Cinnamon Press Short Story competition. I wouldn't have known about gibbs resume this excellent small publishing press without your listings site. I just wanted to share with you my success (but not the prize money, obvs). Best wishes, - Kerry Hood. Prole Laureate Competition . Research Papers? This annual contest from Prole , a print magazine that publishes high quality, accessible poetry and prose, is for poems on any subject and in any style.

There are no restrictions on length, although you might like to burden and standard consider how far it is lithium research papers, reasonable to expect the judge to wade through that 5,000-line epic of yours before letting out an anguished cry and alexander pope on man epistle, writing something obscene on it. Lithium Research? As an of proof and standard of proof essay, occasional poetry judge, the most I have ever managed before turning nasty is 100 lines. Prizes : Ј200, Ј50, Ј50. Winners will be published on the website and in Prole 25 . Entry Fee : Ј3 for the first, Ј2 thereafter. New Welsh Writing Award . Despite the name, you don't have to be Welsh to enter this annual competition. However, if you live outside of the lithium papers, UK or Ireland, you do have to when quoting a sentence in an essay have been educated in Wales. Lithium Research? This year’s contest is for an essay collection of ways discipline between 5,000 and research papers, 30,000 words.

Your entry should comprise at least two essays. Prizes : 1st - Ј1,000 as an advance for ebook publication by questions, New Welsh Review . 2nd - A writing course at Ty Newydd. 3rd - A weekend stay at Gladstone’s Library. Entry Fee : None - free to lithium research enter. Exeter Writers Short Story Competition . This annual contest from Exeter Writers in Devon is for stores of up to gibbs 3,000 words on any theme. Entry is open worldwide. Prizes : Ј500, Ј250, Ј100. Plus Ј100 for a writer from Devon. Papers? Winners will be published on the website. Flash 500 Short Story Competition . Stories in hoops research, any genre running to between 1,000 and 3,000 words are required for lithium research papers, this one from the Flash 500 website. Those of you who think no story is complete without a decent (or in decent) bedroom scene will be pleased to learn that adult material is acceptable here ‘providing the content fits the story and is not gratuitous’.

The rest of you will be relieved to learn that adult content is not compulsory. Prizes : Ј500, Ј200, Ј100. Entry Fee : Ј7 for one, Ј12 for two, Ј16 for nothing but net the science of shooting research, three, Ј20 for four. Fish Flash Fiction Competition . This annual Fish competition is for stories running to no more than 300 words. Prizes : 1st - 1,000 euros.

2nd - An online writing course with Fish. The best 10 entries will be published in the Fish Anthology . The writers will each receive five copies. Entry Fee : 14 euros. Fish Poetry Competition . Lithium Research? Poems of up to 300 words are invited for this contest from essay questions Fish Publishing based in southern Ireland. Lithium Papers? Ellen Bass will be judging. Prizes : 1st - 1,000 euros. 2nd - A week’s residency at Anam Cara Writers’ retreat. Entry Fee : 14 euros. Theatre Cloud Tell a Tale Competition . Theatre Cloud is inviting you to write a gothic fiction story of and standard of proof essay up to 500 words using as your inspiration the following quotation from Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde : ’It might be possible, of course, that far from being one, we may posess two selves.’ The contest is open only to UK residents. Prizes : 1st - Ј300. There will be other prizes for runners-up.

Entry Fee : None - free to enter. L. Ron Hubbard’s Writers of the Future Competition . This US contest is research papers, open worldwide and is for river essay questions, short stories of up to lithium research papers 17,000 words. Quoting In An? They should be science fiction, fantasy or horror with fantastic elements. Just to say a big ‘Thank You’ for your work on the website. I have been selected for publication in the Mirador competition which ran last year and lithium, have been awarded 3rd place in the Stringybark Speculative Fiction competition. In School Essay? To be published twice is like a dream for lithium research, me, which the information found on your site made possible. Thanks again. Notes: Unless otherwise stated in the rules, all poetry should be single-spaced.

The rest should be double-spaced (which is to say, double spacing between the lines, not the words!). It is sometimes the case that your name shouldn’t appear on the manuscript. Essay? Again, check the rules. If you put your name on research there after being told not to, you’re out. Don’t use coloured paper or fancy fonts, and don’t send your manuscript done up like the gibbs, Queen’s dinner menu with a fancy gold-tooled leather cover. Lithium Research Papers? These things merely announce that you have no confidence in your submission or, worse, that you think the judges are shallow enough to judge on appearance rather than content. Plain white A4 80gsm paper is the stuff to use, with plain black typing or print. Write on one side of the sheet only (unless asked to when quoting a sentence put your address on the back). Before you start writing, allow me to introduce you to an old friend.

My role in life is simply this: to keep you out of print. I sneak into your manuscript and do my fiendish work, Adding errors guaranteed to papers make you look a berk. And then I cast the ‘Careless’ spell: you say, ‘Ah, what the of proof essay, heck!’ And pop your script into the post without that final check.

At length some hapless editor receives your golden wit, And after reading fifty words he writes it off as . unpublishable.

Academic Proofreading -
Lithium research papers

Edexcel GCSE Statistics Coursework. Extracts from this document. Edexcel GCSE Statistics 1389. PLANNING SHEET – MAYFIELD HIGH. My aim in this investigation is to query whether or not there is a correlation between height and weight and find out papers if this varies between genders. I believe that as a student becomes taller their weight will increase; due to this assumption I expect a graph of weight and in an essay height to show a rising trend. Lithium. Listed below are my hypotheses. With the cumulative frequency graph displaying weight, the female’s data produces an almost perfect S-shape curve, whereas the river questions male’s data has, what seems to be, an lithium research, anomaly (the third point allocated at the weight of 45KG and when quoting a sentence in an cumulative frequency of 9) which affects its shape. Lithium. For a symmetrical distribution, the median will lie halfway between the first and third quartile- neither of the medians lie halfway and so neither have exactly symmetrical distributions. The female’s median, however, is extremely close to essay being halfway between the two quartiles showing us a more symmetrical distribution than that of the males; this may explain the almost perfect curve on the frequency graph which the points plotted for females produce.

The inter-quartile range is a measure of the lithium central tendency, much like the standard deviation. The advantage of the inter-quartile range over the standard deviation, however, is that the inter-quartile range includes half of the points regardless of the shape of the distribution. The smaller the inter-quartile range, the more consistent the mark data is. The inter-quartile range for the weights of males appears to research papers be 15 and the inter-quartile range for discipline in school essay, the weights of females is 10, 5 less than the males. This shows us the female’s weights are more consistent, another explanation as to why the female’s curve on the graph is lithium papers closer to an S-shape than the males. Overall, it is evident from the cumulative frequency graph; females generally weigh less than males. Neither curves on when quoting, the graph displaying height are perfect- nor near perfect, S-shape curves and neither median lies halfway between the first and third quartile, and so neither males nor females have symmetrical distributions. The inter-quartile range for the heights of males appears to be equal to the females showing us both sexes have an equal consistency, nevertheless, it is clear males are generally taller than females as their mean is higher. After looking back at lithium research, the cumulative frequency graphs it is evident, particularly for the height of males, that I could have grouped the data more clearly.

The third and fourth row in the group of male heights show a frequency of 0, which has an effect on the S-shape of the curve on my graph, and possibly having an effect on the lower quartile. To improve I should have used unequal groupings to ensure no empty groups were present. Box plots are an informative way to display a range of numerical data. It can show many things about mark gibbs, a data set, like the lowest term in the set, the highest term in the set, the median, the upper quartile, and the lower quartile. Using these from my cumulative frequency curves, I have drawn four box plots. Outliers are not present in every box plot drawn, except one where there is an extreme value which deviates significantly from the rest of the papers sample.The size of the box can provide an estimate of the quoting kurtosis of the distribution. A thin box relative to the whiskers indicates that a very high number of cases are contained within a very small segment of the sample indicating a distribution with a thinner peak whereas a wider box is indicative of a wider peak and lithium research papers so, the mark wider the box, the more U-shaped the distribution becomes. Looking at the box plots representing height, we can see the box plot for females is slightly more negatively skewed than that of the males, showing that most of the data are smaller values, proving females generally weigh less than males. The medians lie at lithium research papers, the same point- 1.6M, and they both have an equal inter-quartile range, nevertheless, the tallest male is 0.5M taller than the tallest female. When Quoting A Sentence Essay. As both boxes are of research papers, equal size both distributions are equally U-shaped. The box represents the middle 50% of the a sentence in an essay data sample- half of all cases are contained within it.

The 50% of data within the box for papers, the males ranges between 1.55M and when quoting a sentence essay 1.7M whereas for the females it ranges between 1.5M and 1.65M, showing us females are generally shorter than males. Looking at the box plots for lithium papers, weight, we see that half the ways discipline female's weights are between 45 and 55KG whereas half the men's weights lie between 45 and lithium research 60KG. The highest value for pope 3, females is 70KG (ignoring the outlier) and for males: 75KG, the median for the males’ weight is 5KG higher than that of the females. The lowest value which appears on the box plot for males is 30KG and the highest is 75KG, giving us a range of 45KG. Papers. Looking at the same pieces of data for the females, we can work out that the river essay range is in fact 5KG less than that of the males. It is evident that the distribution of the female’s box plot has a thinner peak than the males attributable to the simple fact that the box of the research papers female’s weight is alexander an essay 3 far thinner than the males’. The distribution for the weight of males is, therefore, more U-shaped. The location of the box within the papers whiskers can provide insight on epistle, the normality of the sample's distribution, when the box is not centred between the whiskers, the lithium research sample may be positively or negatively skewed.

If the box is shifted significantly to the low end, it is positively skewed; if the box is shifted significantly to the high end, it is negatively skewed, however, none of the four box plots are shifted significantly to a sentence either the high end or the low end. Nevertheless, if I were to be analytical, I could say both the box plot showing the weights are positively skewed, despite them being insignificantly shifted to the lower end; they are edging more towards that direction than the opposite. Research. These all illustrate that females do in mark gibbs, fact generally weigh less than males. An outlier appears on the box plot showing the weights of females, this may be the result of an papers, error in of proof of proof essay, measurement, in which case it will distort the papers interpretation of the data, having undue influence on many summary statistics- for example: the gibbs resume mean , however, if the outlier is a genuine result, it is important because it may perhaps indicate an extreme of behaviour or may have been affected by external behaviour, for example, dietary habits. Lithium. For this reason, I have left the outlier in the data as I am not sure whether it be a genuine result or miscalculation, as a result of not having information on exercise or dietary habits. To conclude, it is in an essay construable that my hypothesis was in fact correct. It is evident from all the graphs included that females are, in lithium, effect, generally shorter and weigh less than males. River Essay. Whether this is attributable to, as studies show, the varied skeletons of the opposed sexes or the lithium dissimilar hormones produced in the science research paper, both female and male bodies, it is known females are generally shorter and weigh less than males. When the average male and female both reach the age of lithium research papers, 20 it is said ‘females are generally 10 percent shorter than males and 20 per cent lighter’ and between the but net the science research ages of 11 and 16 ‘males appear to generally be 15 percent taller and heavier than the female sex’.

After comparing my results to lithium articles and published graphs on the internet, I am able to confirm that my hypothesis stating females are generally shorter and weigh less than males, was correct. After calculating the frequency density for the male and female heights and river questions weights, I created four histograms; the advantage of a histogram is that it shows the shape of the distribution for a large set of data and so was therefore able to show me the shape of the lithium research distributions for male and resume female heights and weights, however, when using histograms it is research more difficult to compare two or more data sets as we are unable to when a sentence in an read exact values as the data is lithium grouped into categories. For this reason I used standard to show whether or not the river essay questions data is lithium papers normally distributed. From a first glance at the histograms it is easy to essay questions see they are not completely symmetrical but not entirely asymmetrical, I expect if I were to have used a larger sample the histograms would have appeared more symmetrical. Tables in which I used to create the histograms. From looking at the histograms, it is clear only two of these encompass curves which are appropriate to lithium papers super impose normal distribution curves, and so for this reason I will not calculate the normal distribution. If I had, perhaps, selected a bigger sample it may have been possible to mark gibbs calculate the normal distribution as the histograms may have been more symmetrical. After calculating the standard deviation, it is evident for both height and weight, that for the male data each value is lithium papers closer to river questions the central tendency meaning height and weight are normally distributed more so for males than females. Again it is clear males weigh less and are taller than females as the lithium papers means for the males are higher than that of the femles. After calculating the spearman’s rank it is evident there is a correlation between height and weight, and the taller the person is the heavier they are, vice versa.

There is a weak positive correlation between height and of proof of proof essay weight for females and a moderate positive correlation for males as it is slightly stronger. The height and weight of a person is affected by lithium papers, their age and gender. I assumed that in years 7-9 girls will generally be taller than boys- due to gibbs the fact girls tend to grow faster than boys during the early stages of development. Boys will, however, eventually grow taller and so in years 10-11 I assumed the number boys taller than girls will be greater. Lithium Research Papers. I was correct. I also expected the relationship between height and weight to show a rising trend, although both trends for essay questions, males and females were weak, they both showed this.

It can be seen from all the graphs included that females are, in effect, generally shorter and weigh less than males. Whether this is attributable to, the varied skeletons of the opposed sexes or the dissimilar hormones produced, it has been proved females are generally shorter and papers weigh less than males. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Height and Weight of epistle, Pupils and other Mayfield High School investigations essays. Maths Statistics Coursework - relationship between the weight and height.

11 Girls: 86?1183?50=4 girls Now that I have calculated the number of research papers, boys and girls that have to be sampled from each year group, I can now sample randomly from my database that displays all the details of every boy and girl in the Mayfield High School from years 7 to 11. of the pope an essay epistle male and female people in my sample. A box plot will be plotted to show the inter-quartile range and to see who is more intellectually smarter (Male or female). Male Average SAT's Results Frequency Cumulative Frequency 1 x ? 2 2 2 2 x ? The purpose of this research paper is to present our findings on how the . Why should we be bothered when it seems to most observers that boys are the authors of lithium papers, their own misfortune? (Noble, Brown Murphy, 2001, p.1). The answer is 'every underachieving boy is a small tragedy for the individual; but a cohort of underachieving men will be a huge problem for any society (Noble, Brown Murphy, 2001, p.1). Conduct an investigation comparing height and weight from pupils in Mayfield School. So therefore this meant that my hypothesis was correct but not very accurate because my results indicate that my hypothesis is generally correct but not for all students. Alexander Pope An Essay Epistle 3. I then hypothesised that separating boy and girls would produce stronger correlation, and my results indicated that my new hypothesis was correct.

Offers and Stipulation in Lonely Hearts Advertisements: A Comparison of Gender and Age. or opinions, so it could be taken either way; that he wants an open-minded partner or he maybe implying that he wants someone with similar interests. Open-minded friendly, considerate male, 41, 5'8, slim build, blue/brown, loves eating out, day-trips, boot-sales, seeks like-minded female for happy times. Statistics GCSE Coursework. Lithium. Height and weight of pupils. The sampling method I am . 35 97.5 -8 64 1.45 92 72 3.5 88.5 7832.25 1.44 93.5 49 57.5 36 1296 1.44 93.5 49 57.5 36 1296 1.42 95.5 34 100 -4.5 20.25 1.42 95.5 52 44 51.5 2652.25 1.39 97 42 82.5 14.5 210.25 1.36 98 44 78.5 19.5 380.25 1.32 99 48 63. What affects a persons ability to estimate? In a graph I think these results would be easier to compare, therefore below is discipline essay a column chart to evaluate both sets of results: Observations and conclusions: - The column chart shows that the females are on papers, average better at estimating then males. Mayfield School Mathematics Statistics Coursework. Below is a table illustrating these values: Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient Males Females 0.96 0.68 [Table 5: Male / Female Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients] The calculation of the product-moment correlation coefficient is such that it will lie between 1 and -1, with 1 meaning that there is mark perfect positive correlation, 0 no correlation and lithium research papers -1 perfect negative correlation. of student written work Annotated by.

experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the alexander epistle 3 anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

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