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a persausive essay 24. Introduction and Conclusion. Ovid Love. These represent the most serious omission students regularly make. Every essay or paper designed to be persuasive needs a paragraph at the very outset introducing both the subject at hand and the thesis which is essay, being advanced. It also needs a final paragraph summarizing what's been said and driving the author's argument home. These are not arbitrary requirements.
Introductions and conclusions are crucial in persuasive writing. They put the ovid metamorphoses love essay, facts to be cited into a coherent structure and of world war 1 essay introductions, give them meaning. Even more important, they make the argument readily accessible to ovid metamorphoses essay, readers and remind them of that purpose from start to student on global, end. Think of it this way. As the writer of an essay, you're essentially a lawyer arguing in behalf of a client (your thesis) before a judge (the reader) who will decide the case (agree or disagree with you). Metamorphoses. So, begin as a lawyer would, by laying out the facts to the judge in the way you think it will help your client best. Like lawyers in court, you should make an essays on wilderness survival, opening statement, in this case, an introduction. Then review the facts of the case in detail just as lawyers question witnesses and submit evidence during a trial.
This process of presentation and cross-examination is equivalent to the body of your essay. Finally, end with a closing statement#8212;that is, the conclusion of your essay#8212;arguing as strongly as possible in favor of your client's case, namely, your theme. Likewise, there are several things your paper is not . It's not a murder mystery, for instance, full of surprising plot twists or unexpected revelations. Those really don't go over love essay well in this arena. Instead, lay everything out ahead of essays and robin, time so the reader can follow your argument easily. Nor is a history paper an action movie with exciting chases down dark corridors where the reader has no idea how things are going to end. In academic writing it's best to tell the essay, reader from the outset what your conclusion will be. On Mediation. This, too, makes your argument easier to follow. Essay. Finally, it's not a love letter. Lush sentiment and starry-eyed praise don't work well here.
They make it look like your emotions are in control, not your intellect, and that will do you little good in this enterprise where facts, not dreams, rule. All in all, persuasive writing grips the reader though its clarity and the force with which the data bring home the thesis. The point is to give your readers no choice but to adopt your way of seeing things, to lay out your theme so strongly they have to agree with you. That means you must be clear, forthright and logical. That's the way good lawyers win their cases. Abuse. A. How to Write an Introduction. The introduction of a persuasive essay or paper must be substantial. Having finished it, the reader ought to have a very clear idea of the author's purpose in writing. To wit, after reading the introduction, I tend to stop and ask myself where I think the rest of the paper is headed, what the individual paragraphs in metamorphoses love essay its body will address and what the general nature of the student essays on global, conclusion will be.
If I'm right, it's because the introduction has laid out in clear and detailed fashion the theme and the general facts which the author will use to support it. Let me give you an example of what I mean. The following is an ovid essay, introduction of what turned out to be a well-written paper, but the introduction was severely lacking: The role of women has changed over the centuries, and it has also differed from civilization to student essays, civilization. Some societies have treated women much like property, while others have allowed women to ovid metamorphoses love essay, have great influence and power. Not a bad introduction really, but rather scant. I have no idea, for instance, which societies will be discussed or what the theme of the paper will be. That is, while I can see what the general topic is, I still don't know the way the writer will draw the facts together, or even really what the or thesis, paper is arguing in favor of. Ovid. As it turned out, the author of this paper discussed women in ancient Egypt, classical Greece, medieval France and early Islamic civilization and neglect child abuse, stressed their variable treatment in these societies.
This writer also focused on the political, social and economic roles women have played in Western cultures and the various ways they have found to assert themselves and circumvent opposition based on ovid love essay, gender. Neglect Child. Given that, I would rewrite the introduction this way: The role of ovid metamorphoses love, women in Western society has changed dramatically over the centuries, from the repression of ancient Greece to the relative freedom of women living in Medieval France. The treatment of cause of world war 1, women has also differed from civilization to civilization even at the same period in history . Some societies such as Islamic ones have treated women much like property, while others like ancient Egypt have allowed women to metamorphoses love, have great influence and power. This paper will trace the development of women's rights and student on global, powers from ancient Egypt to late medieval France and love essay, explore their changing political, social and economic situation through time. All the various means women have used to assert themselves show the different ways they have fought against repression and established themselves in authority. Now it is clear which societies will be discussed (Egypt, Greece, France, Islam) and what the essays on wilderness survival, general theme of the paper will be (the variable paths to metamorphoses love essay, empowerment women have found over time).
Now I know where this paper is going and what it's really about. B. Batman And Robin. How to Write a Conclusion. In much the same way that the ovid metamorphoses, introduction lays out the thesis for project or thesis, the reader, the ovid metamorphoses essay, conclusion of the paper should reiterate the essay on mediation process, main points#8212;it should never introduce new ideas or things not discussed in the body of the paper!#8212;and bring the argument home. The force with which you express the theme here is especially important, because if you're ever going to convince the reader that your thesis has merit, it will be in the conclusion. In other words, just as lawyers win their cases in the closing argument, this is the point where you'll persuade others to adopt your thesis. Ovid Love. If the theme is clear and makes sense, the conclusion ought to be very easy to write.
Simply begin by restating the theme, then review the facts you cited in the body of the paper in support of your ideas#8212;and it's advisable to rehearse them in some detail#8212;and end with a final reiteration of the theme. Try, however, not to repeat the exact language you used elsewhere in the paper, especially the introduction, or it will look like you haven't explored all aspects of the situation (see above, #7). All in child abuse all, remember these are the last words your reader will hear from you before passing judgment on ovid metamorphoses, your argument. Make them as focused and forceful as possible.
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Metamorphoses Essay | Love and …
Narmada Bachao Andolan Case study. International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering Case Study Series. Narmada Dams Controversy – Case Summary. MJ Peterson with research assistance from Osman Kiratli and Ilke Ercan Version 1; September 2010. Need essay sample on Narmada Bachao Andolan Case study ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. The construction and maintenance of public facilities involves several sets of love essay, stakeholders: the political leaders who ultimately decide when, whether, and essays on global warming, what to build; the engineers and other government staff who provide or oversee design, construction, and maintenance; the private firms supplying design, construction, or maintenance services; the taxpayers whose money will fund the project; the lenders who supply loan funds permitting the project to go ahead in ovid metamorphoses essay advance of tax or toll collections; the or thesis users of the facility; and nearby residents. Ovid Metamorphoses. The question of which stakeholders should have what role and influence in the design, construction, and maintenance of public facilities has become more contentious as they have become larger and affected more people.
Proposals to construct large dams have inspired considerable contention in the last few decades as political mobilization of nearby residents who will be displaced by the reservoirs they create and of environmentalists concerned with the apa consequences of large dams for the river basin and nearby forests, wildlife habitat, or farmland have led to demands for greater public information and participation in project definition and ovid metamorphoses, design and greater transparency and accountability in construction, operation, and maintenance. Essay. Most dam projects proceed within a single country, meaning that stakeholders have to secure their influence within the national political system using whatever processes for citizen mobilization and input that system allows. Metamorphoses Love. Yet, some dam projects have transnational dimensions, either because the project itself involves more than one country or because the government hoping to build the dams needs loans from outside. War 1 Essay. These transnational aspects sometimes allow stakeholders unable to gain much influence in the national political processes to find outside supporters who pressure the government into listening to the previously ignored. This case study looks at one of the more famous instances of transnational involvement in stakeholder struggles over large dams, the long-running contention over dam construction on the Narmada Rover in India. Most of the ovid metamorphoses essay controversy has addressed the essays batman and robin size and construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam at Navagam in Gujarat, but the Narmada Project also includes several large dams at ovid metamorphoses love various points in Madhya Pradesh as well as medium and cause war 1, small-size dams on the Narmada’s tributaries in Madhya Pradesh and This case was created by the International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (IDEESE) Project at ovid metamorphoses love essay the University of Massachusetts Amherst with support from the National Science Foundation under grant number 0734887. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the on wilderness survival author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
More information about the IDEESE and copies of love, its modules can be found at http://www.umass.edu/sts/ethics. This case should be cited as: M.J. Peterson. 2010. Graduate Project Or Thesis. “Narmada Dams Controversy.” International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering. Available www.umass.edu/sts/ethics. © 2010 IDEESE Project. Maharashtra. Though proposals to build large dams on the Narmada inspired political controversy from the ovid essay day the first proposals were made in 1947-48, only in the mid-1980s did the controversy take on the transnational aspects for which it is now famous as critics took up the cause of those who would be displaced as the reservoirs created by on global warming the dams filled up and raised environmental concerns about the project. Contentions over the planning or construction of ovid essay, large dams in developing countries provide some of the best documented examples of local stakeholders.
using transnational connections to secure greater influence in the domestic decision-making and implementing processes. Dam projects in developing countries create a number of opportunities for stakeholder efforts to gain influence at home by building transnational connections. No government finances a large dam project from current tax collections; these are large physical capital investments with costs beyond the batman and robin ability of governments to finance from current taxes given all the love other demands on the budget. The governments of neglect abuse, industrial countries can easily borrow the money they need for essay, construction from private investors, but the essays on global warming governments of developing countries often find that difficult. The World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) (sometimes also called international financial institutions or IFIs) were established to help developing countries secure loans by acting as an intermediary. The MDBs are owned by ovid metamorphoses essay the governments of member states, which pay in neglect child essays a certain amount of money (their “quota”) based on their current level of economic prosperity, meaning that the industrial state members pay in more money and essay, hence own more shares – and have more votes on neglect abuse the board – than the developing country members. The MDB uses the paid-in capital as the reserve against which it borrows money on private investment markets that it then re-lends to the developing country members. Because of the industrial state backing and borrower promises to give the MDB priority in loan repayment, private investors are more willing to buy bonds issued by the MDB than bonds issued by ovid an individual developing country. This allows the MDB to introductions, charge borrowing countries lower interest rates than they would be able to ovid love, secure on their own.
The World Bank, the child abuse essays largest and most prominent of the MDBs, initially operated only in this fashion. By the late 1950s, however, both development economists and member governments realized that this design was insufficient because the poorest of the developing countries could not afford the interest rates. In response to ovid love, proposals that the United Nations General Assembly establish a large Capital Development Fund financed through UN budget assessments on member states, the or thesis World Bank expanded its lending through establishment of the ovid love International Development Association (IDA) in 1960. IDA would not sell bonds to essays, private investors; rather, its industrial country members would provide money for re-lending to metamorphoses love essay, the developing members on terms significantly less costly than prevailed in cause of world war 1 essay private bond markets by charging. approximately 0.5% interest on ovid metamorphoses essay 30- to 45-year loans rather than a more standard private market rate of or thesis, 67% and 25-year loans. Like other lenders, MDBs impose certain conditions on borrowers regarding how they use the money. Each MDB has policy guidelines their staffs follow in identifying and selecting projects, recommending that the MDB make a loan, and monitoring use and repayment of the loan. As long as the metamorphoses love MDB can operate with its existing capital and the income it derives from loan payments, it is somewhat removed from the domestic politics of member states. When, however, an MDB needs a new infusion of money, either to increase the reserve or to sustain a loan program financed by grants of money from the industrial country members, the question of financing can get caught up in the domestic politics of the member states providing the money.
This happened to the World Bank, which until 1993 was a major source of the loans supporting construction of the large dams on project or thesis the Narmada River, because of the need for periodic replenishment of ovid metamorphoses essay, IDA funds. In the on wilderness survival mid-1980s a broad coalition of activists in the Western industrial countries supporting poor and marginalized groups in developing countries (such as urban slum dwellers, landless and ovid metamorphoses love essay, other poor rural groups, indigenous peoples, disadvantaged ethnic or religious minorities) began a transnational Multilateral Development Banks Campaign intended to pressure the MDBs, particularly the World Bank, into project or thesis, adopting policies that would require paying greater attention to mitigating the negative socioeconomic and environmental impacts of projects being funded with MDB loans. By the late 1980s, they had found political allies in the industrial countries where the legislature had to approve contributions to the IDA replenishments. These connections were particularly strong in the USA, where the separation of power between the President and Congress allows congressional majorities to adopt policies even over love essay, presidential opposition, and the political culture was particularly open to private lobbying on behalf of causes as well as for direct material benefits. This.
influence was institutionalized in the International Development and Finance Act of 1989, which included provisions requiring that: a) the US Treasury use US votes and influence in essay on mediation the MDBs to promote adoption of public access to the pre-lending environmental impact assessments developed by ovid metamorphoses love each in the process of considering loans, and b) the US Director to abstain from voting on a proposed loan if the environmental impact assessment relating to the project for which the loan is sought has not been released to the public at least 120 days before the date of the vote.1 The US government also became the source of much current information the activists could not get from the World Bank itself because activists learned how to use the US Freedom of Information Act to secure it from the US Treasury Department, which houses the office of the US-appointed member of the World Bank executive board. Campaigners developed a two-part approach: using their connections first to pressure the World Bank and batman and robin, other MDBs into adopting stronger social and ovid essay, environmental policies, and then to ensure that the MDBs required borrowing governments to conform to graduate project or thesis apa, them. Simultaneously, MDB Campaign activists worked to develop a more balanced transnational network by making connections with and providing support to citizen groups in developing countries active in social and environmental causes, an evolution also encouraged as members of the World Bank reacted against pressure from ovid essay Western-based NGOs and coalitions by of world war 1 essay introductions requiring that complaints addressed to the Inspection Panel established in 1994 be made by affected people within the territory of the borrowing country.2 The Narmada River. The Narmada River, the fifth longest in India, begins its 1312 km (813 mile) flow to the sea near the village of love, Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh state. It flows through a relatively narrow basin defined on the north side by the Vindhaya Hills and on the south side by batman the Satpura Hills westward through Madhya Pradesh to a point where it becomes part of the ovid love boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. 35 km later it becomes part of the boundary between Maharashtra and Gujarat, and 39 km after that enters Gujarat for the last segment of batman, its run to the Gulf of Khambat, which connects to the Arabian Sea. Its origin point is 1Title. V, International Development and Finance Act of 1989 (Public Law 101-240).
Text available at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgibin/query/D?c101:6:./temp/ c101PKqVuC: (accessed 12 Aug. Ovid Love Essay. 2010). The act followed a fine line: the provision for abstaining rather than voting against was meant as a signal to improve policy; it also avoided debates over child, whether member governments may tell MDB Directors how to vote on individual loans, an issue discussed in Bertram S. Brown 1992. Metamorphoses Essay. The United States and the Politicization of the World Bank: Issues of essays on global, International Law and Policy (London and New York: K. Paul International), p. 236. David A. Wirth. Ovid Metamorphoses Love. 1998. “Partnership Advocacy in World Bank environmental reform,” in Jonathan A. Fox and L. David Brown, eds., The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge MA: MIT Press) p. 68. 1051 meters (3447 feet) above sea level. Just west of Jabalpur it enters a deep channel faced by natural marble rocks 30 meters high on both sides, and then drops over essays and robin, the Dhaundhar Falls. The river then descends slowly until it reaches the narrow gorge bound by high rocks lying along the state borders and extending into eastern Gujurat. After leaving this gorge, the waters flow across flat plains to the sea.
Along the way the Narmada is augmented by waters from 41 tributaries – 22 on its southern side and 19 on its northern side. Together the metamorphoses love essay Narmada and its tributaries drain 98,796 sq km (37, 542 sq miles) of land. Like all of the other rivers in India the Narmada is an on wilderness, attractive resource for a country facing serious challenges in maintaining year-round water supply. Most of India lies in a monsoon climate zone where rains fall in concentrated periods. In some areas, half the annual rainfall occurs in less than 20 hours; rain is metamorphoses love essay, a bit more spread out in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, but is still concentrated in essays batman and robin four months of the year: Average rainfall in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (mm) Average Rainfall in Jabalpur, Madhya Predesh (mm) During the monsoon rains, India’s inhabitants must cope with deluges and heavy runoffs; during the rest of the year they draw their water from surface waters like lakes and rivers, from ovid metamorphoses love storage tanks, or from groundwater sources augmented by water traps that feed monsoon rains underground. This alternation between flood control and water storage means India has long traditions of constructing waterworks of all types. And Robin. The contemporary large dams, capable of holding water sufficient to irrigate more than 10,000 hectares of land, are a modern elaboration of this tradition.
Contemporary dams can also provide hydroelectric power generation by ovid metamorphoses love fitting water channels constructed into the dam and at the heads of any irrigation canals with turbines generating electricity as water flows through. Student Essays Warming. This increases the potential benefits and ovid love, adds electricity providers and electricity users to the set of neglect abuse, stakeholders. Love. 1947-1979: Determining the and robin Features of the Project. Between the first suggestions for dams on the Narmada made in 1947-48 and the Award of the ovid metamorphoses essay Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal in student on global 1979, disputes about what to construct where, were arguments among three, and later four, state governments within India. The governments of metamorphoses essay, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashta, later joined by the government of Rajasthan, argued about which. state could build what size dam where, how the waters made available for irrigation would be divided among them, and project or thesis apa, what share of electricity generated by hydroelectric power plants built in conjunction with the dams would flow to each. Though the populations and economic situations of the states along the Narmada have changed over the decades, their primary concerns about the locations and sizes of dams and waterworks on the Narmada have remained constant: primary: secure irrigation and drinking water to compensate for low rainfall secondary: hydroelectric supply. primary: limit amount of water others are allowed to take. secondary: limit displacement of villages by downstream dam construction. primary: secure hydroelectricity for metamorphoses, its energy-short industrial districts secondary: limit displacement of villages by neglect child downstream dam construction. secure irrigation waters for ovid love essay, its dry southwestern districts.
Disputes between the states have been so protracted because of graduate, competing ideas about the height of the dam to be built at metamorphoses essay Navagam. Gujarat favored a. higher dam to maximize water supply, but it would flood out a much larger area, extending further into Madhya Pradesh and Maharastha, than the lower dam preferred by the latter two states. When it became involved later, Rajasthan also preferred building a higher dam because that was the graduate or thesis only way it would get any Narmada water. The Constitution of India defines construction and maintenance of water development projects as a matter within the authority of the ovid metamorphoses state governments. It also provides that the central government can step in to help resolve disputes regarding projects that would affect the flow of child, a river crossing state boundaries.3 That was the basis for the central government’s involvement in the lengthy dispute among Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. Its first intervention was creation of the Narmada Water Resources Development Committee, a committee of eminent hydrological engineers chaired by Dr. A. Ovid Metamorphoses Essay. N. Khosla.
Khosla, then governor of Orissa state and a renowned dam engineer who had been trained at India’s leading engineering school, the University of Roorkee. On Mediation. He and the other engineers on the committee were instructed to help the three states resolve their disputes by developing a master plan for optimum development.4 They were particularly asked to examine the siting and ovid essay, height of the proposed dam at essays survival Navagam in metamorphoses essay relation to essays batman, alternative projects, mainly hydroelectric dams, that Madhya Pradesh wanted to ovid essay, build because their feasibility depended on the extent of the abuse reservoir created behind any dam at ovid love essay Navagam. The committee ultimately recommended in child abuse essays favor of the relatively high dam preferred by Gujarat, in part because it would allow extending irrigation systems into the dryer districts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, areas then prominent in politicians’ and officials’ minds because Pakistani troops had intruded into India during April 1965 through one of the dryer parts of Gujarat. Ovid Metamorphoses Love Essay. Though the Khosla Committee’s report was ultimately rejected, it shaped later discussion by considering the Narmada and its tributaries as one system and arguing for essays, a “national approach” to water resources that would justify extending irrigation canals to ovid, areas outside the Narmada basin. Constitution of India, Seventh Schedule, II:7 and I: 56, and essays on wilderness survival, Article 262. Government of India, Ministry of Irrigation and Power. 1965. Report of the Narmada Water Resources Development Committee (A.N.
Khosla, chair). Cuttack: Orissa Government Press. A combination of failure to resolve the dispute by direct discussions among the state governments involved and serious drought in western India caused by failure of the ovid love essay monsoons in 1965-66 and essays batman, 1968-1969 led Gujarat, where the drought was particularly severe, to ask for central government involvement. It formally invoked the Inter-State Water Disputes Act 1956 and asked the central government to form a water disputes tribunal to settle the contentions over Narmada projects. The Act specifies that water disputes tribunals are special three-member panels, consisting of a current member of the Supreme Court and two other Supreme Court of High Court judges, whose awards are final when the states involved accept them.5 The Narmada tribunal was announced in May 1969; its members – Supreme Court Justice V. Ramaswami (holder of a master’s degree in chemistry as well as a law degree), Allahabad High Court Justice G.C. Metamorphoses Essay. Mathur and retired chief justice of Kerala V.P. Gopalan – were aided by a staff of 50 technical advisers and civil servants. The need to essay process, address various procedural challenges, mostly from Madhya Pradesh, meant it did not start considering the substantive issues until February 1972. After another delay inspired by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s efforts to metamorphoses love, mediate the dispute, the Tribunal resumed work in August 1974. Between 1974 and and robin, December 1979 when it issued its report, the Tribunal held no public hearings or other consultations with any stakeholders (including politicians from the disputing states); such procedures were not the norm in India at the time and no one raised the issue. Rather, it operated like court, with the states presenting their arguments through lawyers, examination and cross-examination of expert witnesses, and visits to various sites along the Narmada in love the company of their technical experts.
The Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal Award (NWDT Award) set out a. plan for construction of 30 major dams, 125 medium dams, and 3000 small dams at various locations on the Narmada or its 41 tributary rivers plus a 532 km (329 mile) canal from the reservoir that would be created by the dam at graduate Navagam through Gujarat and into metamorphoses, Rajasthan. It accepted construction of a high large dam at Navargam, as Gujarat proposed, but determined that it should be 455 feet (138.7 meters) high rather than the 530 feet (162 meters) urged by essays batman Gujarat. Other terms of the ovid metamorphoses essay Tribunal’s Award reflected efforts to balance benefits and costs among the four participating states. Of the 28 million acre feet (maf) of available water flow estimated to be created by the dam construction, Madhya Pradesh would receive 18.25 maf (65.2%); Gujarat, 9 maf (32.2%); Rajasthan, 0.5 maf (1.7%); and Maharashtra, 0.25 maf (0.9%). Essays On Global. The estimated hydroelectric production would be divided on ovid the formula of 57% to Madhya Pradesh, 27% to Maharashtra, and 16% to Gujarat.
Though on essays hydrological calculations four fifths of the Narmada’s flow is within Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat was allocated a somewhat larger than proportional share of water on grounds that it needed water much more than Madhya Pradesh or Maharasthra because they can also draw on other rivers whereas Gujarat only had the Narmada. Rajasthan, though not along the river, was allocated water on the basis of great need; everyone in India acknowledged that it receives very little rain. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were given larger shares of electricity than their current populations might suggest to make up for the fact that the height of the dam at Navargam would prevent them from building their proposed Jalsindhi hydroelectric dam because the area would be flooded by the reservoir created by metamorphoses essay the Navagam dam.6. Inter State Water Disputes Act 1956, Section 6 (Publication of Decision of Tribunal) subsection 1 (subsection 2 incorporates the 2002 amendment). Text available at http://mowr.gov.in/index3.asp?sslid=385subsublinkid=377langid=1 (accessed 11 August 2010).
6Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal. 1979. Report of the Narmada Water Disputes. Tribunal with its Decision. 5 vols. New Delhi: Controller of Publications. The shorter terms of the Award, dated 7 December 1979, and published in the Official Gazette on 12 December 1979 are available at http://nca.gov.in/forms_pdf/nwdt_finalorder.pdf (accessed 29 July 2010) and reproduced in Appendix 2. To address the uncertainties involved in allocating shares of water, the tribunal included a provision that the water apportionment would be subject to review in 2025. This would be 45 years after 1980—a baseline picked because the tribunal expected that construction of the 3 largest dams of Madhya Pradesh’s portion of the Narmada Project (Indira Sagar, a combined irrigation and and robin, hydroelectric dam 319 km or 198 miles upstream from ovid metamorphoses essay Navagam; Omkareshwar, with a smaller irrigation reservoir plus hydroelectric capacity; and Maheswar, a hydroelectric flow-through dam) to begin before the end of that year. The review would permit addressing any changes in river flow caused by the climate or the hydrology of the basin and in essay on mediation user needs stemming from ovid metamorphoses essay demographic changes in the four states. The 45 years would also provide time to assess the performance of the whole interconnected system of dams and canals and take that into neglect child, account as well.
Detailed design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the ovid metamorphoses Narmada River system would be undertaken by the state governments, each on essays survival its own stretch of the ovid essay river. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh established public corporations for this purpose: Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL) in student on global warming Gujarat and metamorphoses love essay, the Narmada Valley Development Authority (NVDA) in Madhya Pradesh. The fact the on global warming river flows between states provided the legal basis for ovid metamorphoses, the tribunal’s decision to essays, set up the Narmada Control Authority, employing both government of India and state engineers and civil servants to coordinate and ovid love essay, monitor finance, construction, and resettlement of batman, people whose homes would be flooded by the reservoirs (“oustees”). The central government also had some control over the details of the ovid metamorphoses love essay projects through the Central Water and Power Commission, the essays batman and robin Planning Commission, and metamorphoses, the. Ministry of Environment and Forests, each of which had authority to grant or withhold clearance for proceeding with various aspects of neglect abuse, project construction. The NWDT Award did not end all the argument – Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh continued to disagree about the height of the metamorphoses essay dam to student essays warming, be built at Navagam, now named the Sardar Sarovar Dam, and hence the size of the reservoir to be created. Metamorphoses. However, those arguments were soon overshadowed by controversies over neglect abuse essays, treatment of the oustees and environmental impacts of the whole Narmada River project.
1980-2000 Resettlement and Rehabilitation. The environmental issues were fought out under the terms of the metamorphoses love essay Forest Conservation Act 1980, which gave the central government’s Department of Environment (later the essays Ministry of Environment and Forests) uthority to require environmental impact assessment of ovid essay, development projects and withhold clearance to begin construction until the terms of the Forest Conservation Act were satisfied. The Department used its authority to order both Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to do four things before they could begin their respective dam projects on the Narmada: 1) prepare alternate forest sites to compensate for forests that would be submerged behind the dams, 2) improve the terms of resettlement aid offered to people who would be displaced from their homes, 3) create wildlife sanctuaries, and 4) prepare both the catchment and command areas of each dam for on wilderness, that dam’s environmental effects.7 In 1983, when Gujarat submitted the Sardar Sarovar Dam plans and ovid essay, Madhya Pradesh submitted the Narmada Sagar Dam plans the ministry decided that neither state had met the requirements and refused to give clearance. The ministry did not budge until 1987, after several years of drought in Gujarat had created extremely strong pressure to essay process, let construction of Sardar Sarovar begin. By then, however, private nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 7 The catchment area is ovid essay, all the land where rainfall and other surface waters are drained by a river or stream; the command area is all the land irrigated by waters from reservoir, tank, or canal. working with and advocating for the rural poor were well organized. They immediately recognized that the central government’s concern about environment and displacement would give them leverage to confront the state governments.
The state governments were perceived, with good reason, as more concerned to get the projects built than with what happened to the oustees, many of cause of world essay introductions, who were poor and love essay, illiterate adivasi (members of Scheduled Tribes still living by their traditional culture). While the environmental issues were fought out within the terms of India’s environmental legislation and permitting processes, issues relating to batman and robin, “rehabilitation and resettlement” of oustees were fought out on terms deriving from the NWDT Award. Love. It made a significant break with previous Indian state and or thesis apa, national government policy towards resettlement. Prior to the NWDT Award, the central and ovid love essay, state governments followed rules first established in the Land Acquisition Act 1894 (adopted during British rule) that the people who lose their homes in the course of dam construction are to be given cash compensation. In fact, oustees were often simply expelled and many of those who received a payment ended up becoming landless rural laborers or urban slum dwellers because they were illiterate or unsophisticated; many were fleeced in phony land deals and graduate or thesis, other spent the money foolishly. Though Indian public opinion was not yet mobilized on the issue of how oustees were treated in 1974-79 when the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was pursuing its inquiries and preparing its findings, its three members were aware of earlier problems. They acknowledged that oustees would bear a heavy burden for the project and deserved decent recompense. Love. The NWDT Award sought to avert earlier problems by stipulating explicitly that compensation should be “land for land” rather than money: each displaced family is to receive land of its choice within the command area of the dam displacing them equivalent in area to what they were losing, or at essays minimum 2 hectares (4.94 acres). Each male 18 years or older is to be treated as the head of love, a separate family and allocated land.
The initial terms of the Award suggested that compensation would be provided only for those who held legal title to their land; activists later pressured the Gujarat state government into cause of world essay introductions, extending the program to ovid metamorphoses love essay, landless people and to “encroachers” (people who had simply set up their houses on government-owned land). The tribunal award required each of the. participating states to prepare its own package of resettlement and rehabilitation benefits, but Gujarat was also required to offer the same benefits to oustees of the Sardar Sarovar from Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra if they opted to graduate, move to Gujarat as the Tribunal balanced the ovid burden of of world war 1 introductions, providing for resettlement with the benefit of the greater water supply Gujarat would secure from the high Sardar Sarovar dam. The NWDT Award specified that each resettled family should get a housing plot as well as farmland, and monetary grants in ovid essay aid to graduate project, cover the cost of moving, buying farm implements and draft animals, and insurance. It also specified that resettlement villages should be provided with a primary school, a panchayat (village government council) meeting hall, a medical dispensary, a seed store, a children’s playground, a drinking water well, a village pond, and a link road. The Tribunal was clearly anticipating that oustees would remain or become rural farmers and love essay, seeking to provide them with basic improvements in their material surroundings. The Award did not make any distinction between adivasis and others among the oustees, even though several Indian laws do treat adivasis as a distinct category and provide them with certain legal protections for maintenance of their traditional communal ways of life.
Some two thirds of the oustees from the Sardar Sarovar Dam were adivasis, and they became the centerpiece of the controversy over oustee resettlement. The NWDT Award was published in December 1979, at the very end of the “Janata interlude” in Indian politics, a short period between two long eras of Congress Party rule. The Congress Party, which had been in war 1 essay power continuously since independence in 1947, lost the ovid metamorphoses love essay spring 1977 parliamentary elections in a popular rebuke of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s suspension of many civil liberties during Emergency Rule. in 1975-77. However, the batman and robin coalition that supplanted it was wracked by internal disagreements and soon faced strikes and ovid essay, other civil strife. This enabled the Congress factions forming Indira Gandhi’s new Congress (I) party to cause, win. the next election and return to power in January 1980.
A significant number of younger Indians who had become alienated from conventional politics during and after Emergency Rule began to channel their idealism into volunteer activism and work with NGOs. This new generation did not have any direct experience of the pre-1947 nationalist movement, but draw on the same extensive Indian repertoire of civil disobedience actions though adopting ideological stances ranging across socialism, the Gandhian tradition of nonviolence, humanist ideals, and feminism. Yet, whatever their disagreements all of the activists were committed to fighting for social justice through grassroots organization, public education, and organized political protest. Much of their discussion was framed in terms of rights: rights to equality, rights to dignity, rights to be consulted, rights to be free from exploitation, and rights of metamorphoses, both future and present generations to an undamaged environment. All of these claims are resonated with those of other groups in other countries who were also seeking alternatives to student essays on global warming, the existing political, economic, and social order.
This convergence made it easy for Indian NGOs concerned with the plight of the Narmada project oustees to recruit transnational allies. By the late 1980s, India was home to one of the essay most vibrant collection of local civil society organizations and cause, grassroots activism in the world. As John R. Wood observed: It is a matter of considerable debate as to whether the love proliferation of on wilderness survival, NGOs in the 1980s, and into ovid metamorphoses essay, the 1990s and beyond, reflected a failure of India’s political system, or rather its success. On the one hand, NGOs were taking up responsibilities that were originally thought to belong to the government and which the latter, for reasons of sloth, corruption or unwillingness to disturb the status quo, had clearly failed to fulfill. On the other hand, the essays vigorous voluntarism, outspokenness and self-sacrifice of many NGO activists could only love have emerged in an open political system that encouraged democratic participation and valued rights and freedoms. Of course, the response of governments to NGO activism in different parts of India varied greatly. In some states they were encouraged, and others ignored, and in still others are repressed.
Among and within the NGOs also there was considerable disagreement — between those activists who wanted to survival, cooperate with government officials, enlist their support and convert them to new thinking, versus those who saw government officials as the main enemy, whose policies and projects calls the metamorphoses love essay injustices that NGOs must fight.8. All of essays and robin, these features of ovid essay, Indian politics and the NGO and voluntary association scene were prominent in the long campaigns waged against either the Narmada Project in general or the on global warming Sardar Sarovar Dam in particular. The voluntary associations, NGOs, and community action groups took up the cause of the oustees first became active in ovid Gujarat. Initial organizing was assisted by cause war 1 introductions activists in Lokayan, an organization founded by social scientists at love the Center for essays batman and robin, the Study of essay, Developing Societies in New Delhi seeking to neglect, link researchers with activists policy makers and ordinary citizens affected by development projects. The Lokayan branch in Ahmedabad, Gujarat was particularly active and metamorphoses essay, other Ahmedabad activists began criticizing the resettlement provisions of the essays on wilderness survival NWDT Award soon after its publication. Ovid Metamorphoses Love. The Center for Social John R. Essay. Wood. 2007. Ovid Metamorphoses. The Politics of Water Resource Development in India: The Narmada Dams Controversy (Los Angeles: Sage Publications), 132-133.
Knowledge and Action (SETU in its Gujarati acronym), intended to build leadership within marginalized communities so they could carry out their own struggles, was founded in cause of world war 1 essay 1982 and soon began working on oustee issues. The Center for Social Studies in metamorphoses love essay Surat got involved in 1981 when the Gujarat government gave it a contract to monitor the condition of 19 Gujarati villages whose inhabitants would be displaced by the Sardar Sarovar reservoir. On Wilderness Survival. The contract was expanded in ovid metamorphoses love essay 1984 to cover all resettlement and of world war 1 introductions, rehabilitation for all Gujarati oustees. The surveys done by Center sociologists revealed that the social problems caused by relocation were much larger than anticipated. It was Center researchers who discovered that. many of the metamorphoses love essay oustees were encroachers lacking title to on mediation, the land they occupied. They also realized that a majority of the Gujarati oustees were adivasi familiar only with sustaining themselves by fishing, hunting, and gathering plant foods in a forest environment. Ovid Essay. The Center researchers wondered how they would manage to graduate project or thesis apa, convert from their largely non-monetized economy in the hills to the modern agriculture envisioned for resettlement. They were also concerned about finding enough land to permit the adivasi oustees to metamorphoses, move as a village unit so that hamlets of kin groups could be kept intact. Batman And Robin. By then several organizations were involved in providing services to adivasi villages so were very familiar with conditions on the ground. More NGO activity was galvanized by construction of Kevadia, a town of offices and residences built near the Sardar Sarovar site for engineers and workers involved in its construction.
Six villages were affected by this construction but since none were in the reservoir area and had not been listed in the NWDT Award, they did not qualify for resettlement benefits. The contractors building the metamorphoses love town sometimes paid compensation to batman and robin, villagers but more often pressured them into accepting token compensation through agreements they could not read. Their cause was taken up by Lok Adhikar Sangh (Association for People’s Authority) a civic organization specializing in legal assistance to the poor. It was able to get the Indian Supreme Court to issue a stay order stopping construction while court-appointed investigators determined how the oustees were being treated. This inquiry revealed massive irregularities and prodded the metamorphoses Gujarat government into realizing that it needed to follow proper expropriation procedures in all projectrelated construction activity. Two other organizations, Action Research in Community Health and Development (ARCH) and graduate apa, Vahini (short for love, Chhatra Yuva Sangharsh Vahini or Student Your Struggle Force), already engaged in providing social services in adivasi communities, combined their efforts to campaign on the villagers’ and dam oustees’ behalf. On Wilderness. A third, the Centre for Social Knowledge and Action (known by its Gujarati acronym as SETU), was formed in 1982 to provide marginalized groups with training and assistance for self-mobilization. Though the NGOs and metamorphoses love, other activists were often in conflict with Gujarat government officials, the conflict did not get too intense for several reasons. First, many of the NGOs followed the Gandhian approach to social service and employed only student warming nonviolent opposition methods. This gave them and their cause legitimacy in Gujarat politics and the government was careful to avoid actions that would make it look bad.
The longer-established NGOs had political and bureaucratic contacts in ovid metamorphoses the government, and several senior government officials were sympathetic to the demands they were putting forward. These officials realized fairly soon that they did not have the administrative capacity needed for relocating thousands of people and needed the NGOs’ assistance to avert a social disaster. Finally, the essays NGOs realized that securing water supply was so important to everyone in Gujarat that all-out opposition to ovid essay, Sardar Sarovar would weaken support for the oustees. These early interactions meant that Gujarat was far more prepared to resettle people of the 19 villages it was required to move under the NWDT Award then Madhya Pradesh was to move the people of its 33 listed villages or Maharashtra to move the people of its 193. NGOs were not active in either state and the. governments did not appear to be getting ready to deal with the problem. This inspired considerable concern within the Gujarati NGOs who understood the dimensions of the problem and SETU in particular began to expand its activity into Madhya Pradesh. The politics of resettlement intensified in Gujarat in March 1984 when massive rallies of villagers from the 19 affected villages got enough publicity to come to child, the attention not only of the government but also of international aid groups including Oxfam and the World Bank. Oxfam was already funding ARCH’s health programs, and this connection gave it considerable information about the local situation.
The protests also attracted notice of World Bank officials who were then negotiating the terms. of $450 million a startup loan for the Sardar Sarovar Dam. During the project assessment phase of considering the loan, the World Bank sent Professor Thayer Scudder, an anthropologist at the California Technical Institute (Caltech) with considerable expertise on involuntary resettlement, to assess the resettlement provisions. Scudder’s report confirmed most of the metamorphoses love Gujarati NGOs’ complaints about the inadequacies of the essay process tribunal resettlement provisions and became an important weapon in ARCH-Vahini’s battle with the ovid love Gujarat government. Officials at essay process SSNNL quickly realized that ARCH-Vahini and metamorphoses essay, the oustees could cause a delay in securing the World Bank loan and thereby slow the project. After several years of oustee organizing and demonstrations, the Government of Gujarat gave in. Neglect. In 1987 it offered a revised resettlement package that improved the terms and also included landless and encroachers among the beneficiaries.
Meanwhile the NGO coalition was splitting. ARCH-Vahini was following a pragmatic strategy of combining constant pressure, implied threats of mass unrest, and love, willingness to cooperate with the government if it made significant concessions. Its leaders regarded this as the only strategy that made sense in cause essay Gujarat where the urgent demand for water meant there was broad popular support for completing the dam as quickly as possible. The 1987 revised resettlement agreement looked very good on paper; now according to ARCH-Vahini, the task was to metamorphoses, make sure that it was fully implemented. Others rejected the ARCHVahini approach as too timid. The differences became greater after Medha Patkar, who was affiliated with SETU but somewhat on the sidelines in Gujarat, had begun working with adivasi oustees in Maharashtra. Organizers from the Communist Party of India (Marxist) were already in the villages, and competing effectively with them required her to advance more radical views than prevailed among the Gujarati groups. She attributed her decision to oppose the entire project to a combination of greater awareness of the environmental problems it was causing, belief that the Forest Conservation Act 1980 would restrict the ability to resettle oustee adivasi on forest land, and belief that the survival project should not have gone forward until after full public consultation with those who would be affected. She became the central figure in metamorphoses essay the Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save the Narmada Movement), which was formed in Maharashtra in 1989 and later spread to include 150 affiliates in other parts of India and organizations of on global, supporters abroad. Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) organized village committees in the areas of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra that would be affected by Sardar Sarovar and other dams on the Narmada, and succeeded in maintaining a coalition between adivasis in Maharasthra and western Madhya Pradesh and members of the landowning Patidar caste in the plains.
It registered its opposition to the Narmada Project on human rights and love essay, environmental grounds and staged a series of demonstrations, road blockades, and sit-ins against neglect child abuse, its continuation. The NBA’s success at metamorphoses love essay getting Prime Minister V.P. Cause Essay. Singh to agree to reconsider the Narmada Project in March 1990 sparked a fierce counter-reaction in Gujarat, where state government officials and metamorphoses essay, newly formed pro-Project civic organizations mobilized to support construction. January 1991 was marked by a 21-day confrontation between some 5000 NBA activists and essays, supporters on one side and Gujarat police plus thousands of pro-dam demonstrators on metamorphoses essay the other at Ferkuva on and robin the Gujarat-Madhya Pradesh border, where the NBA group had been stopped before they could reach the Sardar Sarovar site. Baba Amte, a. Gandhian social worker greatly respected everywhere in India for his longtime work with lepers, set the stage for an extended confrontation by announcing a “dharna (fasting sit-in) unto death” on the 5th.
Medha Patkar and six other NBA activists started their own fasts on the 7th. Standoff ensued until NBA leaders called off their protest and left the area 21 days later. NBA then began a noncooperation campaign in the Narmada Valley involving refusal to pay taxes and blocking entry to all government officials except teachers and doctors. Ovid Essay. As Narmada waters backed up behind the partly constructed Sardar Sarovar Dam and threatened Manibeli village in batman and robin Maharashtra, NBA also organized a confrontation between villagers who did not want to move and police sent to clear the village. NBA initially refused to accept foreign funding, because doing so would open it to one of the ovid metamorphoses essay most common charges in Indian politics: that it is the agent of outside powers.9 However, it did garner international media. attention, an invitation to testify at a US Congressional hearing,10 and the Right Livelihood Award from the Swedish Right Livelihood Foundation. Graduate Or Thesis Apa. In the early 1990s, it also had tacit support from the Madhya Pradesh and Maharasthra governments because its opposition to dam construction dovetailed with their concerns about the ultimate height of the Sardar Sarovar Dam and succeeded in triggering debate all around India about the social and environmental impacts of the ovid metamorphoses essay Narmada River Project and large dams more generally. The broader transnational struggle over dams forming part of the MDB campaign began focusing on the Narmada in the late 1980s. By 1989, campaigners were demanding that the World Bank, which was considering additional loans for the Sardar Sarovar Project — $350 million for canal construction and $90 million for environmental measures – either force modification of or refuse to support the project.
Transnational environmentalist and human rights NGO campaigning led several Western governments to indicate doubts about the loans. In response, the World Bank commissioned an Independent Review of Indian and state government implementation of the resettlement and environmental mitigation aspects of the Sardar Sarovar Project. To placate the NGOs, it consulted them about or thesis composition of the review team, a decision that later inspired additional negative reaction from the Indian government and ovid essay, Sardar Sarovar supporters. The review team was led by Bradford Morse, a former US Congressman and UN Development Programme Administrator, and Thomas Berger, a Canadian lawyer who had chaired the Canadian inquiry into the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Project and given strong support to on wilderness survival, indigenous peoples’ rights, and included a group of mainly Canadian engineers, environmental planners and indigenous rights experts. In June 1992 after 10 months of ovid, inquiry, it issued a 363-page report criticizing the project for abuse, failure to: a) include adequate assessment of the human impact of Sardar Sarovar Dam, involve any consultation with those who would be affected, consider the character of adivasi culture in working out resettlement plans, provide adequate additional resettlement when the height of the dam was increased, pay sufficient attention to environmental factors in the initial project design, and comply with the stipulations included in the conditional clearance issued by the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1987.11. Such charges are frequently raised against others in a debate, regardless of their place on the left-right ideological spectrum, as exemplified below in discussion of the controversy over love, World Bank funding. 9. US House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. 1989.
Sardar Sarovar Dam Project: Hearing before the Subcommittee on essay Natural Resources, Agricultural Research, and ovid metamorphoses, the Environment. 101st Congress, 1st Session. Sardar Sarovar: Report of the Independent Review. 1992. Ottawa: Resource Futures International. The Independent Review Report recommended that the World Bank suspend the loans until the Governments of India and of the states involved complied with the standards for resettlement and essays batman and robin, environmental protection that they had themselves adopted or accepted. Ovid Metamorphoses. However, it did not offer any recommendations regarding how the project could be fixed or how the governments of India and the states should proceed. The Independent Review’s report was shaped by essays the terms of reference given to the review team.
It was asked to metamorphoses love, assess resettlement and environmental issues, not to offer alternative project designs. However, lack of comment about how the project might be modified intensified the political controversy that arose in India after the report was released. The Gujarat and Indian governments both reacted angrily to what they regarded as a “partisan” and unfair report, and were additionally perturbed that NGO activists were able to get copies faxed to them by foreign supporters before the government received its copy from the World Bank.12 Some project supporters even suggested that the on mediation Independent Review was part of a conspiracy to block India’s development.13 Official government remarks were more restrained, but did criticize the Report for an incomplete survey of the situation, ignoring several Indian studies, and failing to take account of conditions in India rather than subconsciously applying North American standards. Essay. ARCH-Vahini, which regarded the report as too heavily influenced by NBA views, produced a point-by-point critique and lamented that Review Commission had not provided an essay process, objective review but had been biased against the project.14 The report simultaneously buoyed the anti-dam campaign in India and around the world. NBA increased its pressure against the whole Narmada Project by demanding that the World Bank withhold the loans and that India stop construction of Sardar Sarovar, calling on supporters to undertake “direct action” if the Bank did not announce a withholding by July 15th, and ovid metamorphoses, condemning the World Bank for promoting neocolonialism through its financing of the Project.15 The World Bank Initially reacted by indicating continued support for the loans and sending a staff team to India to reappraise the resettlement program and environmental concerns and project apa, report directly to the World Bank’s Executive Board. Its report, released by the Bank in September, rejected several of the ovid love Independent Review’s conclusions but did agree with the Independent Review on the need to essays survival, improve resettlement provisions and said that Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra should offer the same resettlement aid as Gujarat.16. The World Bank faced strong pressures on ovid metamorphoses essay both sides. There were several reasons to approve the loans: the project was underway, it was clear that the governments of student essays on global warming, India and the states involved wanted it to happen, and.
some Gujarat officials were saying openly that the loans amounted to only 10% of the total. See “Morse Commission Report Condemned,” Times of India (Ahmedabad), 20 June 1992. “Morse Commission report condemned,” Hindustan Times, 24 June 1992. Anil Patel and Ambrish Mehta. 1997.
The Independent Review: Was it a search for truth?” in ovid William Fisher, ed., Toward Sustainable Development: Struggling over the Narmada River (Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications), 381-417. 14. by NBA leader Mehda Patkar, as reported in “3 CMs to meet on Narmada,” Times of India (Ahmedabad) 2 July 1992. 16Terms summarized in World Bank. 1995. Project Completion Report P009829, India – Narmada River Development – Gujarat, pars. 6.11 (p. 27) and 7.39 (p.
45). Available at project or thesis apa http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1995/03/29/000009265_3980625173028/Rendered/PDF/multi _page.pdf (accessed 11 August 2010). cost and the state would proceed with construction no matter what the World Bank did. In addition, Bank management realized that refusing the loans would mean losing all leverage India or the states. Yet, there were reasons. to deny.
Local groups were campaigning stridently for the World Bank to withdraw the loans and appeared to have considerable local as well as transnational support. Ovid Love Essay. Bank management was aware that the Bank’s own record on the project was fodder for NGO efforts to cast it as a proponent and encourager of projects violating human rights and harming the environment, and that these campaigns were intensifying because of the upcoming replenishment of IDA funds. European campaigners persuaded the Swedish and European Parliaments to recommend that European Community (now European Union) member governments use their votes in the Bank Executive Board to stop the loans. Japanese groups organized an International Narmada Symposium in Tokyo, which inspired 20 members of the Japanese Diet (parliament) to demand the World Bank and student on global, the Japanese government (which was a co-financier) to cancel their loans.17 27 transnational NGOs organized a “Stop Sardar Sarovar” campaign in the USA18 and threatened to campaign actively against the 10th IDA replenishment. World Bank President Lewis Preston told the Executive Board that most of the Independent Review objections were being addressed and the project should continue. Morse and Berger countered with a letter to Board members saying Preston was ignoring most of the ovid love essay Independent Review findings. The Board split along industrial country-developing country lines, then patched up a compromise giving India six months to comply with certain conditions. However, this was not much of a compromise because it would have been very difficult to meet them all within six months. Project Or Thesis Apa. The political embarrassment of having to accept such publicly stated and ovid, detailed outside conditions was more than the Indian government was willing to accept. It was also aware that the loans were a small part of the finance needed and that only $250 million was coming on the IDA terms of 0.5% a year with repayment over 45 years; the other $170 million would carry more standard terms of and robin, 7 percent with repayment over 25 years.19 The governments of India and of the three states resolved to move ahead without World Bank loans.20 This affected the political balance in a number of metamorphoses essay, ways.
ARCH-Vahini lost influence among adivasi, now fired up by NBA. It also lost leverage over the government of Gujarat because it would not be able to neglect child, use the World Bank as a prod. NBA built on the prestige gained by having “chased away” the World Bank to expand its work and found a new organization, National Alliance of People’s Movements, to amalgamate all opponents of the. project into one group. It also upped its political demands by ovid metamorphoses calling for complete removal of the existing 61- meter high Sardar Sarovar Dam and urging all supporters to neglect abuse, engage in jal samarpan (“self-sacrifice by water”) by metamorphoses love essay refusing to move as flood waters covered their dwellings during the monsoon season already underway. Indian Prime Minister Narashima Rao, leading a factionalized Congress Party (I) after Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated during the 1991 election campaign, was facing greater opposition from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which was actively stoking Hindu nationalism. This helped Gujarat, Wirth 1998, p. 63. See full page ads in the New York Times, 21 September 1992, the essays batman and robin Financial Times 21 September 1992, p. 6, and the Washington Post, 21 September 1992,. terms noted in “World Bank and Narmada Project,” India Abroad, 16 April 1993.
20 Stefan Wagstyl 1993. “India to drop World Bank Dam Loans: Government refuses to meet Stiff Conditions on $3 billion Project,” Financial Times, 20 March 1993, p. 6. where the BJP mobilization was threatening to cut into metamorphoses, Congress Party support. Cause Of World Introductions. The Indian government ignored BNA demands and assured Gujarat of funding while looking for a way to address anti-dam opinion by convening another review, by what became known as the Five Member Group. However, its terms of ovid essay, reference were limited to “reappraising the project, and the state government of Gujarat further limited its activities by refusing to allow it. to visit sites within the essays survival state. Continued disagreements, including a call by the new first minister in Madhya Pradesh for lowering the final dam height from 455 to 463 feet to exclude 67 villages and metamorphoses love, 38,000 people from the essays on wilderness survival reservoir area,21 created further uncertainty. In May 1994, Narmada Bachao Andolan sued in the Indian Supreme Court to prevent further construction, technically by asking the question of whether the love terms of the NWDT Award and related agreements regarding resettlement were being carried out.22 It responded in January 1995 with a stay order restricting construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam to the already-attained 80.5 meter (263.3 feet) height for five years to provide additional time for resettling oustees. During this period work did continue on the hydroelectric powerhouse, located – meters downstream of the dam, and the irrigation canal that would supply water to dry parts of cause war 1 introductions, Gujarat and Rajasthan.
At the same time, discussions about dam projects in India and ovid essay, around the world were redefining the contention. Debates about on global Technology Choice. As political instability swept the center, and politics in ovid essay the states was also affected by the strong CongressBJP competition that led to 4 parliamentary elections between 1996 and 1999 when a BJP-led coalition was able to secure a comfortable majority. Indian courts, particularly the Supreme Court, became more active on social and economic justice by encouraging class action suits on social and economic questions. In the 1980s, the of world war 1 Supreme Court’s rulings on social issues were admired by social and economic justice advocates tired of metamorphoses love, seeing the politicians ignore them but criticized by others who thought the courts were being overambitious, litigation delays lengthening, and graduate project or thesis, some courts losing the reputation for impartiality and integrity on which their authority rested. Globally, the concerns about dams were reframed by adoption of the notion of “sustainable development.” Though vague and ovid love essay, attracting detractors, the concept was used to organize discussions where proponents and graduate apa, opponents of large infrastructure projects found ways to talk despite their often diametrically opposed preferences.
The most notable change at essay the international level was expressed in and robin the meetings and report of the ovid metamorphoses essay World Commission on Dams. It originated at an April 1997 workshop on Large Dams in Switzerland organized by the World Bank and the International Union or the Conservation of on mediation, Nature (IUCN) where participants drawn from 18 countries and having opinions across the spectrum attempted to develop consensus on “whether dams have a role to ovid essay, play in land, water, and energy development and how particular dams should be designed, constructed, and operated.”23 The workshop led to appointment of a World Commission on. The Madhya Pradesh government acknowledged that this would lower the hydroelectric potential, and on global warming, agreed to forego its share of the metamorphoses electric power, while arguing that Gujarat could still meet its water needs with the cause essay lower dam. 21. Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and metamorphoses love essay, Others, Writ Petition (C) No. 319 of 1994. IUCN-The World Conservation Union and the World Bank Group. 1997. Large Dams: Learning from the graduate Past, Looking to ovid love essay, the Future: Workshop Proceedings.
Gland Switzerland: IUCN and essays on wilderness survival, Washington: The World Bank Group. 22. Dams, which produced a report circulated on the Internet and on CD-ROM.24 Indian participants were prominently involved. NBA leader Medha Patkar and former India Planning Commission member L.C. Jain were 2 of the 12 members of the Commission, and ovid love, the government of India was invited to contribute a country report about its experiences with large dam projects. Cause War 1 Essay Introductions. The Commission concluded that many large dam projects undertaken in the past were not viable but that dam building could be improved to ovid love, cause less suffering by people living in river valleys and minimize negative environmental impacts.
Thus, the Commission came into line with emerging development thinking placing greater stress on sustainability, choice of technology attuned to. local conditions, and the need for greater consultation and reliance on “bottom-up” processes of project definition. Contentions over dams spread to Madhya Pradesh in 1997 when that state began work on process the dams at Bargi, Mann, and Maheshwar. When the ovid love essay private Indian firm S. Kumars Ltd. began work on the dam at Maheshwar, local residents opposing the dam and of world, NBA activists pressured the Madhra Pradesh government into love, suspending construction and undertaking an student essays on global, additional investigation of the ovid metamorphoses essay dam’s likely impact. In early 1998, before the investigating team could report, Kumars indicated that some “safety work” needed to be done to protect the already-built portion of the foundation. The government accepted the or thesis argument and allowed Kumars to go ahead. The NBA saw the move as a way to re-start construction and mobilized members to demonstrate at the site. The Madhya Pradesh government invoked Section 144 of the Indian Penal Code to issue orders banning assembly of more than four persons at any place and begin arresting the protesters. NBA believed that 76% of the project costs would be covered by ovid metamorphoses essay foreign investors in batman and robin the project and was able to use its transnational supporters to deter a number of foreign corporations from becoming involved. However, NBA’s continuing resistance to any dam construction was beginning to get out of phase with Indian opinion.
This became more obvious in the summer of 1999 when novelist Arundhati Roy, well known after her The God of Small Things won the Booker Prize in the UK, wrote a series of essays on ovid metamorphoses love essay the Sardar Sarovar Project. These emphasized the neglect suffering of the oustees in eloquent terms but paid no attention to the water management issues. Their publication coincided with the second year of failed monsoons and metamorphoses, severe drought in essays on global warming Gujarat, and they became the target of criticism by others – and even of public burning during pro-dam demonstrations in Ahmedabad.25 Opinion shifted even more as the state governments involved improved services for oustees. Gujarat offered to provide the metamorphoses love same financial aid to Sardar Sarovar oustees in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra who wanted to settle near their original homes rather than move to Gujarat. Essays. Gujarat also established a special Grievance Redressal Authority (GRA) for Sardar Sarovar Affected Persons giving oustees who had moved to new homes in Gujarat a place to go. to get complaints resolved as the resettlement process moved forward. Metamorphoses Essay. Its head, former High Court Judge P.D. Desai, secured strong guarantees of autonomy from the Gujarat government and instituted processes through which the GRA simplified procedures and worked mainly through roving investigation teams who went to the oustee’s new villages.
NBA praised its work, and student essays on global warming, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra created their own Grievance Redressal Authorities modeled on it in 2000. World Commission on Dams. 2000. Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making (London: Earthscan. 25 Wood. 2007, p. Metamorphoses. 175. This inspired an additional commentary from her.
See “My argument is not anti-Gujarat: Roy,” The Indian Express 31 July 1999. The impact of all these changes was foreshadowed in the Indian Supreme Court’s February 1999 decision to student on global, permit raising the ovid love Sardar Sarovar Dam from 80.3 to 85 meters (278.8 feet). NBA was unhappy to see the project given new life, pro-dam opinion was unhappy to see that the height was short of the 110 meters (360.8 feet) needed to create a reservoir high enough to fill the canal. It became clearer in October 2000 when a three-member bench26 of the Indian Supreme Court ruled on the case Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and Others. 27 In a two-to-one decision, it invoked the common law doctrine of latches to rule that the NBA had failed to raise its objections in a timely manner, that the Court was not going to review issues related to design of the dam itself but only the fundamental rights of the oustees guaranteed by Article 21 of the Constitution, and reminded the parties that the decision of a Water Disputes Tribunal could not be challenged by private parties once it became binding on the states involved. Essays. The decision rejected NBA claims that the Ministry of Environment and Forests decision to grant conditional clearance of the project in 1987 was itself a violation of. Article 21 because it was taken on ovid love essay political grounds rather than after taking full account of the environmental impacts. Rather, the on wilderness survival establishment of a Narmada Management Authority with an environmental sub-group having authority to recommend stopping work to address negative environmental impacts and imposition of the pari passu condition that resettlement must precede successive raisings of the dam height, indicated to ovid essay, the majority that the decision was based on serious consideration of the environmental and social impacts.
The majority made extensive reference to the need to balance benefits and burdens and to India’s growing need for reliable water supplies in concluding that Sardar Sarovar and other dams in graduate project the Narmada Project should be built. The minority dissent argued that the 1987 clearance had been contrary to then-existing Indian law because it was based on a woefully inadequate set of ovid metamorphoses love essay, data about environmental impact. It suggested that the graduate or thesis apa Government of India should be required to do a full environmental impact assessment before further work on the Sardar Sarovar Dam.28. The majority decision left the control institutions established by the NWDT – the Narmada Control Authority and the 6-member NCA Review Committee consisting of the chief ministers of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and ovid love essay, Rajasthan plus the India ministers of essay on mediation, Water Resources and of Environment and Forests – in place. It concluded the ruling with these directions: 1) Construction of the dam will continue as per metamorphoses essay the Award of the Tribunal. 2) As the Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group have cleared the construction up to 90 meters, the same can be undertaken immediately. Further raising of the height will be only pari passu with the student essays implementation of the love relief and rehabilitation and on the clearance by the Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group.
The Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-Group will give clearance of further construction after consulting the three Grievances Redressal Authorities. 26 The Indian Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and 26 Justices; particular cases are heard by Benches of three, five, seven, nine, or eleven Justices depending on essays the subject matter. See Supreme Court of India. Love Essay. 2010. Practice and Procedure: A Handbook of Information.
3rd ed. New Delhi: Supreme Court of India. Available at war 1 essay introductions http://www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in/handbook3rdedition.pdf (accessed 28 July 2010). Love. 272000 AIR 3751; 2000(4) Suppl.SCR 94. Essays Batman. Also available through the metamorphoses essay Supreme Court website using the search utility at http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (accessed 28 July 2010). Essays. 28. The dissent does not appear on the Supreme Court website. Its terms are summarized from Wood 2007 187-188. 3) The Environment Sub-group under the Secretary, Ministry of Environment Forests, Government of India will consider and give, at each stage of the construction of the dam, environment clearance before further construction beyond 90 meters can be undertaken. Metamorphoses Love. 4) The permission to raise the dam height beyond 90 meters will be given by the Narmada Control Authority, from time to essays on wilderness, time, after it obtains the above-mentioned clearances from the Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group and love, the Environment Sub-group.
5) The reports of the Grievances Redressal Authorities, and of Madhya Pradesh in particular, shows that there is a considerable slackness in the work of identification of land, acquisition of suitable land and the consequent steps necessary to be taken to rehabilitate the project oustees. We direct the States of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat to implement the process Award and give relief and rehabilitation to the oustees in terms of the packages offered by them and these States shall comply with any direction in this regard which is metamorphoses, given either by the NCA or the Review Committee or the Grievances Redressal Authorities. 6) Even though there has been substantial compliance with the conditions imposed under the environment clearance the NCA and the Environment Sub-group will continue to project apa, monitor and ensure that all steps are taken not only to protect but to restore and ovid love, improve the environment. 7) The NCA will within four weeks from today draw up an Action Plan in relation to further. construction and the relief and rehabilitation work to be undertaken. Apa. Such an Action Plan will fix a time frame so as to ensure relief and rehabilitation pari passu with the increase in the height of the ovid metamorphoses essay dam. Each State shall abide by the terms of the action plan so prepared by the NCA and in the event of any dispute or difficulty arising, representation may be made to the Review Committee. However, each State shall be bound to comply with the directions of the NCA with regard to the acquisition of land for the purpose of relief and rehabilitation to the extent and within the period specified by graduate project the NCA.
8) The Review Committee shall meet whenever required to do so in the event of there being any unresolved dispute on an issue which is before the NCA. In any event the Review Committee shall meet at least once in three months so as to oversee the progress of construction of the dam and ovid love, implementation of the RR programmes. If for any reason serious differences in implementation of the Award arise and and robin, the same cannot be resolved in the Review Committee, the Committee may refer the same to love, the Prime Minister whose decision, in essay process respect thereof, shall be final and binding on all concerned. 9) The Grievances Redressal Authorities will be at liberty, in ovid metamorphoses love case the need arises, to issue appropriate directions to the respective States for due implementation of the RR programmes and in on wilderness case of nonimplementation of its directions, the GRAs will be at liberty to approach the Review Committee for appropriate orders. 10) Every endeavor shall be made to see that the project is completed as expeditiously as possible.29.
As the dam builders resumed work, the value of such large projects had come. under intense scrutiny in India and elsewhere. Reevaluation had begun before the ovid love World Commission on Dams first met, but was strongly reinforced by its report and by the growing global interest in finding more ecologically sensitive ways of of world war 1, building physical infrastructure. In India, reconsideration was greatly advanced by advocates of metamorphoses, “human scale” development who looked to both traditional Indian practices and new ideas from on wilderness survival around the world.30 The Centre for Science and Environment, an ovid metamorphoses, “alternative development” think tank, issued a very comprehensive study of traditional technologies in different parts of India that highlighted their small-scale, relatively low cost, and reliance on abuse local management.31 Growing awareness that the groundwater resources being tapped by metamorphoses drilled wells were declining revived interest in finding ways to essays batman and robin, conserve water, improve capturing of monsoon water, and ovid love essay, increase recharging of groundwaters. The Government of India issued a new National Water Policy in 2002, and combined two preexisting programs – the National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas and the Watershed Development Project – plus other water-related projects into on mediation, one set of water development activities under a common set of Hariyali (“Greening”) Guidelines in 2003. These replaced the previous practice of promoting water project work in villages through central government programs providing food in return for work, which quite important in the 1960s when frequent drought meant India often depended on food imports including large amount of love, food aid from the USA under its Public Law 480 program. Batman And Robin. The Guidelines specified that village water projects would be run by the Panchayati Raj (council rule) institutions of local government, which had been given new, more open, rules and love, expanded tasks in 1992.32 The village, block, or district panchayat (council) would serve as the coordinating body, and initiate projects after the student essays on global warming people in the village, block, or district had been consulted about and ovid metamorphoses love essay, agreed to the proposed project. This put project design, management, and maintenance at survival the local level. This ran across longstanding efforts by many Indian NGOs using a participatory development approach emphasizing the ovid love promotion of local leadership and activity that had been working on rural water projects.33 Feared that the change would inhibit their ability to run truly bottom-up projects even though the Guidelines do allow a local council to select an NGO as the “Project Implementation Agency” coordinating.
construction and maintenance of the particular flood control and water retention facilities the villagers select. In parallel with the new projects to construct water-control and child, storage facilities in essay villages, there was also a significant revision to management of irrigation systems in India. By the mid-1990s, both the Union government in New Delhi and most state governments recognized that many of the state-run irrigation systems were failing. Farmers were complaining that many of them were inefficient, poorly maintained, and often failed to deliver expected water to cause of world introductions, farms at ovid metamorphoses essay any distance from the canal because farmers closer to the canal would tap the pipes to get extra. Or Thesis Apa. At the love essay same time, water management officials complained that water rates were too low to cover the costs of managing and maintaining current irrigation systems, much 30 Such as Vandana Shiva.
1990. Ecology and neglect child essays, the Politics of Survival: Conflicts over Natural Resources in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications and Tokyo: United Nations University Press or Alka Srivastava and Janaki Chundi. 1999. Watershed Management: Key to Sustainable Development. New Delhi: Indian Social Institute.
Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain. 1997. Dying Wisdom: Rise, Fall, and ovid love essay, Potential of India’s Traditional Water Harvesting Systems. Essay On Mediation Process. New Delhi: Centre for ovid love essay, Science and Environment. Constitution of India, Amendment 73. 33 A significant literature on process participatory development indicating best practices existed by the mid 1990s. E.g., Robert Chambers.
1997. Whose Reality? Putting the First Last (London: Intermediate Technology Publications); less add to them. In some parts of the country, including Gujarat, the. farmers poorly served by irrigation systems were so desperate to get water in time to grow their crops that private suppliers emerged to fill the ovid love demand. Essays Batman And Robin. An individual farmer with his own tube well could sell surplus water to neighbors, supplying it through plastic tubes extending as far as 5 km (3.1 miles) away from the well. Love. Though the private water sellers tend to charge high rates, and some farmers had to pay for their irrigation water before they received any,34 farmers, worried that their whole investment in batman a crop may be lost because they will not get the irrigation water in time, will pay extra for the certainty of supply from the well. Gujarat was heavily affected by these problems. The extent of the situation is indicated by a study done in metamorphoses love Gujarat that determined that water rates were covering about 8% of the cost of actually delivering water to farmers.35 The government realized, however, that increasing water prices would be very difficult. Senior officials in the Gujarat Water Resources Department decided in 1995 to batman and robin, address the metamorphoses essay problem with a new program of Participatory Irrigation and Management. Student. Water Users Associations consisting of farmers using a particular set of irrigation pipes were given responsibility for planning, managing, and ovid metamorphoses essay, maintaining them.
The canals and water distribution pipes would continue to be owned by the government, which would also continue to provide technical and financial assistance. Participatory Irrigation Management was extended to all parts of India after 2002, though it had been suggested in the 1987 National Water Policy references to involving farmers in managing and maintaining irrigation systems. Because water is a state level responsibility, each state has discretion to develop its own version of Participatory Irrigation Management; the Ministry of Water Resources in New Delhi has been active in encouraging the sharing of best practices and comparing actual progress in the various systems. The World Bank and the Ford Foundation have also provided the Government of India with money to child, send state irrigation officials and staff from NGOs working on water works or other village programs to other countries where participatory irrigation is more established, including the Philippines, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and ovid love, Turkey, to learn about projects there.36 The resulting state Participatory Irrigation Management schemes vary considerably. In 1997 the government of Andhra Pradesh introduced a version of essays and robin, PIM in all parts of the state simultaneously. Other states have used more. incremental approaches, starting pilot projects in a few villages and then extending the more successful schemes to others. John R. Wood, a Canadian water expert, suggests that these efforts to establish participatory irrigation project design and management have had mixed success. In most areas they have led to better maintenance of the system, but their impact on social relations and distribution of resources within villages has often been small. He does note, however, that the requirement to establish a Water Users Association means that farmers with large landholdings have to work together with their less-prosperous neighbors having small landholdings, and that all farmers are moved towards thinking on a village rather than an individual scale. Love. However, the essays survival overall social effects of participatory irrigation depend on the extent to which the metamorphoses love essay poor and essays batman, traditionally marginalized groups like dalits (untouchables; “scheduled castes” in the language.
Wood 2007, p. 205 notes that pre-payment was the rule in Gujarat except in drought years. Ecotech Services. 1996. The Policy Review of the Land and Water Sector in Gujarat (New Delhi: Royal Netherlands Embassy), p. Metamorphoses. 32. 36 For instance, Nirmal Sengupta. Cause Of World Introductions. 1991. Managing Common Property: Irrigation in ovid love India and essays on global warming, the Philippines. Indo-Dutch Studies on Development Alternatives. New Delhi: Sage Publications. of Indian law) are included in metamorphoses love essay village activity.
In areas where traditional hierarchies remain strong, they remain outside.37. The small-scale technologies being used in the projects will allow villages receiving enough rain during the monsoons to move towards self-sufficiency in water. However, those solutions do not address all the needs of apa, drier areas of the country, of cities, or of industry. Thus, the small-scale village water projects will always coexist in national water plans with larger-scale projects. This is foreseen in ovid metamorphoses love essay the Narmada River Project, with its connected network of small, medium, and large dams coordinated by computer to provide both hydroelectric generation and water supply. These local projects will coexist with large projects supplying water and hydroelectric power to India’s urban and industrial areas simply because those areas are growing. As India’s economy has developed, there is greater appreciation of the multiple purposes to which large dams can be put.
The lesson came to Madhya Pradesh in a different way, when it lost a considerable portion of its potential electricity supply as 16 districts in of world introductions the southeast, where much of Madhya Pradesh’s coal and thermal power generation capacity was located, were split off to form the new state of essay, Chhattisgarh. With power blackouts increasing in Bhopal, its largest city, the state government began to regard building Sardar Sarovar Dam to graduate project, the full height of 138.68 meters (455 feet) as essential to meeting electricity demand. Madhya Pradesh also became more anxious to love, speed up construction of the dams and hydroelectric power houses along its stretch of the Narmada, so anxious that it agreed to have construction work taken over by the central government’s National Hydro-electric Power Corporation when the neglect child private contractors hired initially ran into ovid metamorphoses love, financial difficulties. Speeding up a dam construction also required speeding up the student on global warming process of ovid metamorphoses, resettling people. This was complicated in some places by the seasonal pattern of river flow. Significant additional areas of “drawdown” land — land that is underwater for part of the year but reemerges in the dry season as the reservoir empties and can be used to grow a vegetable or watermelon crop in that season – made it harder to child, define who should be counted as an oustee because owners of that land often wanted to hold on to it.38 The continuing severity of demand for water in Gujarat meant that as soon as the essay Supreme Court handed down its judgment in 2000 construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam resumed. It quickly reached the authorized 90 meters; and permission was sought to raise it further. It stood 95m high by the end of 2002 and 100. meters high in 2003.
The 100-meter height created a reservoir high and essays, long enough to fill the irrigation canal. By the end of 2005 that canal was complete almost to the Gujarat border, with construction of the extension into Rajasthan under way. As construction of Sardar Sarovar’s additional height and of upriver dams in Madhya Pradesh proceeded, more disputes broke out about treatment of oustees from those projects arose. Ovid Metamorphoses Love Essay. Allegations that Madhya Pradesh was failing to provide “land for land” were rife; the essays state government claimed that many oustees preferred money to land. Villagers from Jalsindhi petitioned the Supreme Court for ovid metamorphoses essay, a review, and student essays on global warming, its March. Wood 2007, Chapter 9. The question of ovid metamorphoses essay, how many people are affected has been controversial from the start, with BNA and others citing higher numbers and the state governments lower ones. Even the World Bank acknowledged numbers varying from 67,340 to 127,446 for and robin, Sardar Sarovar alone between 1985 and 1994. Jonathan A. Metamorphoses Essay. Fox.
1998. “When does reform policy influence practice?” in Jonathan A. Fox and L. David Brown, eds., The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge MA: MIT Press), Table 9.1, p. 324. 2005 ruling reaffirmed the “land for land” requirement.39 However, later reports suggested that the state was still offering monetary compensation.40 In 2006, NBA complained that Madhya Pradesh was persisting in ignoring the land for land principle and failing to provide resettlement in advance of construction. Madhya Pradesh officials contended in return that most of the oustees wanted money rather than land. The same issue that had triggered the. initial NBA activism — fair treatment for those whose homes would be lost to rising waters — was still very much alive despite all the changes in Indian politics and in Indian policy regarding water management over the more than 20 years of contention. Similar contentions swirl around construction of the other large Narmada dams.41.
Lessons for scientists and engineers. The Narmada Dams controversy provides apt demonstration of the batman and robin ways that large physical infrastructure projects can generate strong contentions among their many stakeholders. Love. It also demonstrates how changing political culture can have severe impacts on student essays warming project design and execution. Ovid Love. The idea of batman, building a dam at Navagam on the Narmada River inspired controversy from the beginning, even when the only stakeholders included in the discussions were the governments of the three states through which the river flows: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. Metamorphoses Essay. All three wanted to tap the cause war 1 introductions river’s potential as a source of drinking and irrigation water and of hydroelectric power, but they disagreed about the most effective way to harness the river with dams. Though India is a federal country in essay which states’ governments rather than the Union government deal with water-related infrastructure, the fact the river was shared allowed the central government ministries, agencies, and ultimately the Indian Prime Minister to play roles in defining the project.
In 1947-65, when early versions of the Narmada Project were being considered, it was commonplace in its ambitions though Gujarat’s proposals would make the Sardar Sarovar Dam one of the largest concrete gravity dams in the world.42 The project was designed to rely on centralized, large-scale infrastructure to meet the challenges of supplying water and electricity to a large area of a country with facing stiff challenges in child water management because it receives its annual rainfall in two highly concentrated periods and possessing few fossil fuel resources. The procedures for defining and designing the project followed the usual path of such projects in democratic countries: elected officials defined the broad parameters of the ovid metamorphoses love project; civil servants and on wilderness survival, government-employed experts in hydrology, dam design, canal design, and metamorphoses love, construction of such projects worked out the details. The. broad needs of graduate project apa, users were considered, as were Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and Ors, Writ Petition (Civil) 328 of 2002, decided March 2003. Ovid Love Essay. 2005 AIR 2994, 2005(2) SCR 840. Also available through the Supreme Court website using the search utility at http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (accessed 28 July 2010). 39. “Cash not land on offer for oustees,” The Hindu 1 December 2005. E.g., Eric Yep, “The Maheshwar Dam – A short-lived victory?” India Real Time, Wall Street Journal Digital Network, 10 May 2010 at http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2010/05/10/the-maheshwar-dam-a-short-lived-victory/ (accessed 4 August 2010); Suchandana Gupta, “Maheshwar Dam: PMO lifts ban on work,” Times of India, 9 May 2010 at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/5908453.cms (accessed 4 Ag. 2010).
41. 42 Central Water Commission. Essay On Mediation. 2004. Water and Related Statistics. (New Delhi: Central Water Commission, May 2004), p. Ovid Metamorphoses Essay. 60 says that Sardar Sarovar is the on global third largest such dam, after the Soufengyng Dam in China and ovid love, the Grand Coulee Dam in the USA. those of persons whose homes would be flooded in the course of the project were considered. Essay. That those whose homes would be flooded received brief consideration is not surprising. They were politically immobilized populations having relatively small numbers (in a country the size of India or in comparison to the number who would benefit from the ovid metamorphoses love essay water and electricity to be supplied) of low social status living in remote areas. Before the 1980s, they had no influential advocates whereas the people who would benefit from the water and the electricity did have such advocates. Yet, it is important to remember that the oustees were not entirely ignored.
The basic notion of monetary compensation for land had been institutionalized in 1894 under British rule and carried forward at independence. Individual project managers, civil servants, and members of the political elite did realize that the system of warming, payment for love essay, land often failed oustees, particularly unsophisticated and often illiterate rural dwellers. The judges named to the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal were cognizant of that history, and determined to do better by ordering that oustees be compensated with land somewhere else in the area to essays on global, be irrigated by waters of the reservoir that would inundate their original homes. Yet, unlike later advocates of essay, indigenous peoples, who would take up the cause of adivasi oustees in student on global the 1980s, members of the tribunal made no provision for adivasi to move as villages and re-create their traditional modes of living; they believed that everyone displaced would be better off in the modern farming villages to be created. Though the environmental and love, social impact criticisms of the Sardar Sarovar Dam, and the Narmada Project as a whole were raised simultaneously in the late 1980s, resettlement was the primary basis of local challenge and transnational advocacy coalition activity. The most active Indian advocates for the oustees, the Narmada Bachao Andolan, raised three issues: compliance with the NWDT Award requirement of on mediation, “land for land,” making provision for adivasi to continue their traditional ways, and lack of consultation with all stakeholders, including those who would be displaced, during initial consideration of the project. The first was a demand that government authorities do as they had been ordered by a special tribunal.
It refers to the Indian government’s own standards and love, failure of the governments involved to follow through in ways the advocacy groups desire has inspired continued mobilization and contention. Cause Of World War 1 Introductions. The second and third issues involved demands to apply newly emerged standards to an already begun activity. Here, the advocacy groups encounter greater opposition because a lot of money has been spent and the larger numbers of ovid love, stakeholders anticipating benefits from water use and/or hydropower generation are growing impatient with the process long delays stemming from the controversies. The term “indigenous peoples” denoting distinct populations living in traditional ways who should have. their right to love, maintain those ways protected was initially applied to native peoples living in an area colonized by Europeans – like Aboriginals in Australia, Maoris in New Zealand, and neglect abuse essays, the many groups variously called “Indians,” “First Nations,” and “Native Americans” in the Western Hemisphere. In the 1990s, it was expanded to include any relatively isolated group, somehow ethnically distinct from the rest of the metamorphoses love population of a country that continues to live in its traditional ways. This expanded definition included the adivasi and similar groups in Africa and other parts of Asia.43 Though Indian legislation has provided certain legal protections for adivasi, the Government of India has resisted the notion that they should be regarded as “indigenous” and covered by UN definitions of distinct indigenous rights. There is less opposition to the demand that discussions broaden to include all stakeholders.
Since the student essays on global efflorescence of NGOs and advocacy groups in the 1980s, the notion of “bottom up” project planning emerging in development and public policy literatures and 43Notd. in J. K. Das. Essay. 2001. Essays Survival. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples (New Delhi: APH). practice around the world has won a wider following in India. Yet, this sentiment often coexists with support for ovid, large projects when it can be shown that operating only at a small local scale will not fully address some particular need. The environmental challenges to Sardar Sarovar and graduate project or thesis apa, the whole Narmada Project were strengthened in the 1990s as concepts of ecological sustainability and sustainable development became more widely accepted. The World Commission on Dams marked the ovid transition from old to new visions of water management at the international level, but its work drew on and helped reinforce reconsiderations already underway in many countries, including India. These challenges did not affect the basic design of student essays on global warming, Sardar Sarovar Dam, which was set by 1980, or the basic parameters of the Narmada project. However, they did inform project management techniques, and the organization of the.
irrigation systems tied to the canal supplying Narmada waters to Gujarat and Rajasthan. Transnational advocacy had three intertwined but distinct effects on the Narmada Dams: adding to the weight of oustee advocates in ovid essay India, encouraging new visions of water management in all of India, and essay, persuading major shareholders of the World Bank to ovid metamorphoses essay, stop Bank involvement in lending for Sardar Sarovar Dam. The broad coalition of batman and robin, oustee advocates ranging from the moderate ARCH-Vahini to the increasingly radical SETU, were able to use transnational contacts with development organizations like Oxfam and with environmentalist groups to mount a transnational challenge. Ovid Metamorphoses Essay. Rather than focus on the Indian government or the student warming state governments involved, this coalition focused on metamorphoses essay what it thought was a weak point in the project: dependence on World Bank financing. The World Bank and other MDBs were already being criticized for failure to cause of world war 1, pay sufficient attention to the social and ecological impacts of ovid essay, their projects; it was easy to add the Narmada Project as another example. This transnational advocacy did raise the issue internationally and helped build support for the oustees, but was not enough to settle the issue in India. The pari passu requirement that oustees must be resettled before the next increment of height is added to Sardar Sarovar had several effects: 1) it spread the project costs over essay process, a longer period, 2) it gave mostly unprepared state governments longer to muster their capacities or join efforts with NGOs already working in villages, and 3) kept the issue alive longer. Ovid. Narmada Bachao Andolan is essay on mediation process, still campaigning, using the metamorphoses essay full repertoire of Gandhian civil resistance techniques, on oustees’ behalf. Student. It still has a network of strong supporters at home and abroad, but does not command as wide respect today as it did in the early 1990s.44 Its continuing campaigns for the oustees, the most recent in spring 2010,45 have held the Indian and state governments more closely to ovid essay, the terms of the NWDT Award, but have not realized the greater ambition of stopping the project altogether. Even if elites were inclined to neglect child, give in to NBA’s continuing sit-ins and metamorphoses love essay, fasting protests, the user groups are too large for the project to be abandoned.
They are more numerous, have more votes, and at various. times have mounted effective counter-mobilizations. Today, the agricultural and urban users are confident that the whole Narmada Project will be built, but are now worrying that a new set. comments in, e.g., Tavleen Singh, “Luddite sisters.” India Today, 22 June 1998; Kirk Leech, “The Narmada Dambusters are Wrong” The Guardian 3 March 2009. Bachao Abndolan protests against resettlement program failures regarding Maheshwar Dam in Madhya Pradesh,” available at http://blog.taragana.com/law/2010/02/16/environment-ministry-promises-action-against-narmada-dam-builder-20233/ (accessed 2 Aug. 2010).
of users – industry – now wants a share of essay on mediation, Narmada waters. Farmers and households are mobilizing to limit allocations to industry on grounds the NWDT Award gave priority to irrigation and drinking water.46 Transnational networking on issues of water management, dam design, and sustainable development provided opportunities for ovid metamorphoses love essay, professionals concerned with the environment to advocate new models of water infrastructure – smaller in scale, lower in cost, more attuned to natural cycles. The World Commission on Dams made these discussions more visible to the general public, but they would have proceeded as new generations of technical experts trained to pay more attention to neglect child abuse essays, the environmental and social impacts of projects rose in their professions. How these new ideas play out depends very much on ovid metamorphoses love essay conditions in each area: small projects can help villages, individual farms, and essay, households with enough land to build their own storage tanks. Cities and industrial complexes will still need larger-scale water infrastructure, though both can do more to use water more efficiently and lose less of it to leaky pipes, contamination by human or animal wastes, or pollution from. Pressuring major member governments to block World Bank loans in 1992 did not work out ovid essay quite as the transnational advocacy coalition hoped. The campaign did call attention to severe problems with World Bank lending and lead to changes in essays its policies and practices.
It did not lead to stopping or significantly scaling back Sardar Sarovar Dam or the larger Narmada Project. The Indian and state governments remained sufficiently committed to fund the project out of their own resources, resources that have become more plentiful as the pace of India’s economic development picked up in metamorphoses love essay the 1990s and 2000s. The broader effort to limit MDB lending for essay on mediation, large dam projects has not stopped all of ovid love, them. Child Essays. Countries able to finance them through their own resources or by securing loans from private lenders are still going ahead. Contemporary dam projects can benefit from lessons provided by the Narmada Project experience, but the metamorphoses love extent they do will depend primarily on on mediation process the orientations of the metamorphoses love essay national actors involved.
Transnational contacts can help spread new ideas, but will only have effect on the politics of dam projects in countries where national institutions permit a wide range of neglect essays, stakeholders to participate effectively in decisions.
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Metamorphoses Essay | Love and …
Think Simple Now — a moment of clarity. 25 Things to Avoid for Better Relationships. When Cat introduced me to ovid metamorphoses love essay Leah earlier this year, she said Leah is cause war 1 essay, one of the ovid essay most mindful people I've ever spoken with. After experiencing her work—both written and of world war 1 essay introductions, drawn—I agreed. Take the ovid essay time to read the story below. It's worth it.
One of the most conscious piece of writing I've read. Enjoy! “At the essay on mediation process end of metamorphoses love your life” a friend once asked, “What do you hope to have happened?” I thought it was a great question and decided to give him a thoughtful answer, so I pocketed it for later and bought myself a month for the assignment. For a while my mind flooded with questions of plot. Will I fall in love? Will I have kids ? Will I know passion in my work? Will I touch lives? Will I change the world for the better?
What will my regrets be? Where will I have traveled? Where will I have lived? Will I have really traveled? Will I have really lived? When I was a kid watching movies, I used to shout during tense scenes, “Ah!
What’s gonna happen?” My dad would laugh, “How should I know? I’m watching the same movie you are!” I wasn’t really asking him. Essay. But the uncertainty is unnerving. It’s so tempting to ask questions about ovid metamorphoses love, how things will turn out, grasping at some kind of assurance in a constantly changing world. But the answers are not here, not now. They’re waiting patiently at essays and robin the end of the story, relaxing in the shade. Probably sipping lemonade.
They’re not going anywhere. So perhaps it’s better to essay let the cause of world war 1 essay introductions questions go and just give in to essay the possibilities . “Will I this? Might I that?” I let all those questions go, and soon a new question began peaking around the corner of essays and robin my consciousness. Rather than asking what life I hoped to live, I began wondering how to live life . The assignment had changed for me, from one of story telling to an inquiry into my own personal values. For most of my life, I believe I inherited my personal values from my context. Essay. Looking back, I can see that in the years before getting into a good college, the most important thing to me was just that–getting into a good college. Once at Brown , it was the grades. On Mediation Process. After graduating, I spent two years working and love, living, proving my independence to…myself?
I think? And then I came to project work at Facebook , a company with deeply embedded and ovid love essay, well-articulated values. Child Essays. I believed in love, the vision and my coworkers, which was enough for me to adopt the values of the company as my own. Efficiency and leverage became important to me, along with openness, connectedness, and impact. These were the things that kept me up at night. What should’ve kept me up was my dad’s cancer. He’d been diagnosed sometime while I was in graduate project apa, college, but I mostly pretended he hadn’t, because that was easier. Ovid Metamorphoses. I assumed he’d just get better. But then one day, during my Facebook years, he got worse.
X-years-to-live type of graduate project apa thing. I was tempted to push the news aside again and go back to ovid metamorphoses love essay helping democratize the world’s information (also known as processing my email) when something inside me flipped, snapped, woke up, and sang out. I saw in child abuse, an instant that I was living a life on autopilot. I was asleep at the wheel and I had been for… could it be? Forever? So, what do I do now? That day I put in a request for ovid essay, a six month leave-of-absence, needing space from my own life in order to see it. And to spend time with my parents. In the two years that followed, I began, super slowly, to start following my own heart.
As unpracticed as I was, it often spoke in low tones, gave me mixed messages, or long bouts of silence. This is essays batman, still true, but the more I listen, the more I hear. And now that I’ve spent some time living in accordance with my own intuition, I can look back and see a new cohesion take shape, my very own personal values are becoming clear. And just before I share them, I’d like to add that one result of following my heart is ending up in metamorphoses love, the presence of amazing teachers and role models. Graduate Project Or Thesis Apa. Much of what follows comes directly from metamorphoses love what I have learned from them. Big hug. Deep bow. I can’t presume to know all the manifestations of living a truthful life, but I hope to always live into that question.
One aspect of truth I’ve come to value is the ability to see clearly . A practical way I’ve learned to see True versus False is through “Is” versus “Isn’t.” I value learning to see what IS. As I move down my path, I no longer care what I am not, what this world isn’t, what my partners or family or friends aren’t, you know? Rather, who am I? Who are they? What is happening? Recently a friend stopped emailing me when he got a new girlfriend. My first thoughts were “He isn’t responding”, I’m not as important to him”, “I not being supported” and “I don’t have my close friend anymore.” It took me a few weeks to essay on mediation let go of what wasn’t happening and see what was . He was falling in love. My hurt and metamorphoses love essay, anger had kept me from being happy for him. And as I began writing for project apa, myself each day instead, I was developing my internal support.
My sense of essay loss and indignation had kept me from seeing the growth in myself. Along with the isnt’s I am also learning to let go of the shoulds and shouldn’ts, the neglect abuse essays can’ts, didn’ts, weren’ts, and the needs and ovid essay, has-tos. I’ve also taken on the practice of process speaking as truthfully as I can, which has come to ovid include saying not simply whatever is true, but also what is kind, helpful and timely. Communicating truth is not just to lie or not to lie. Rather, it’s an art. I can send you a text to tell you I love you.
Or I can open my door to graduate project or thesis you whenever you knock; answer whenever you call; or listen whenever you need. Love. Which is most true? Recently I heard someone say that speaking truthfully is only half the game, “How truthfully can we listen?” Listen without judgment, without expectation, without interruption, and without planning a response? Until two years ago, I liked myself. If you’d asked me to swap with anyone I wouldn’t have done it, and I often felt proud of essays on global warming who I was and what I’d done. But I didn’t LOVE myself.
I didn’t LOVE myself as if I was absolutely perfectly wonderfully unconditionally irresistibly lovable. Like truth-seeking, it may be a journey that lasts my whole lifetime, but these days I’m aggressively committed to honoring myself, my needs, my desires, my tastes, my emotions, my choices, my past, my intentions, my body, my art, my mistakes, my everything. I hope to honor it all as if there is nothing more important in this world to ovid metamorphoses love honor. I (am working to) love myself as if I’m my own child; as if me and myself were the last two people on earth. I believe in graduate, myself as my very own religion. Not in a way that ranks me above anyone else; but allows for everyone to be their own personal God. I don’t know who said this, but I like this quote, “If everyone healed them selves, the metamorphoses essay world would be healed.” My body, my self, this physical being is the way in which I interact in the world. What my body does, how it acts, what it says, what my fingers type, that is the only contact I have with this Universe. This is my vehicle. This is my tool.
This is it. So I need to keep it healthy and happy , and energized. I need to cause of world know everything about it. Metamorphoses Essay. I need to learn to use it as wisely as possible. This self, it’s the only thing I have, really, so I will love it, worship it, and learn to make it shine as brightly as I know how. While I’m learning to graduate project apa honor and love, love myself, I try to remain aware of the effect that my actions have on others. I’m healing myself with the desire of healing the world . So after asking “Is this right for me?” The next question is “What example does this set?” They are deeply related. The answers can’t be separate because nothing is right for me unless it is also right for others to witness. Sometimes it might feel good to complain or gossip, but what example does that set?
We speak a thousand times a day, and each time is an opportunity to say something helpful or harmful. Sometimes I rush to be first in line, get the best seat, get the best piece, etc., without regard for how that might be affecting others around me. Quite often I find excuses for graduate project apa, living out of line with my personal values. Asking what kind of example I’m setting so often sheds light on the gray areas and helps me pay attention to the broader impact of my actions. The world is. It is what it is. What good is, “I wish my parents would…” or “the world was…” or “my boss would…” or “my friends this” or “traffic that” or “the weather this” or “anything that?” The world is what it is. People are how they are. I don’t sit around getting annoyed that gravity doesn’t work differently (well, sometimes) because it just IS. So, the ovid world is what it is and essay process, I want to live a happy peaceful life.
Really, the only question left: how do I do this? What do I change? Who do I become? I love this quote: “Feeling resentment is like drinking poison and hoping someone else will die.” Even if I don’t change the world at all, I am empowered to change the feelings and responses I have to it. Recently, an almost-landlord of mine pulled some weird stuff. Ovid Love Essay. I spent a few days feeling angry , and then annoyed, and now I’m almost up to compassion. I may never meet the guy again, so it’s not for his sake, it’s for mine.
Anger feels crappy, like I’m caging an animal inside me. Annoyance is the same, but maybe like a fly instead. Compassion, however, is on wilderness, like drinking a warm cup of Chai: cozy, sweet, and energizing. Ovid Love. It feels great to my insides. My experience of this life will be the graduate or thesis apa sum of my actions and my reactions, so if I want to ovid live a good life (which I do! I do!) I will cultivate healthy responses. Essays On Wilderness Survival. I want to take full accountability for everything that happens to me. I’m not a victim of anything.
I am free. The idea is this: If I find myself craving something, I’m learning to give it away. If I’m lonely , I look for ways to make someone else feel less lonely. If I wish someone loved me, I find someone to love. If I think I’m being wronged, I find a way to ovid metamorphoses love apologize. If I want more community in my life, which I do, I will create it. I believe the student on global clearest sign of what I am meant to cultivate in essay, the world is identifying that which I crave the batman most.
It’s harder than it sounds. When I walk into metamorphoses essay the kitchen and see dirty dishes everywhere, you can bet my gut instinct is not to joyfully clean up after everyone. But, that’s how it works. I have two paths to and robin peace in that moment: let go of the irritation, or do the dishes myself. Understanding that which I crave is love, actually that which I am best suited to foster.
That’s pretty damn empowering. While sometimes humor can seem like a frivolity, that which comes at the end of a knock knock joke, or after the chicken crosses the road, it must be more. Humor melts ice. Cause Introductions. It cuts tension, and metamorphoses love essay, lightens the heaviest loads. Process. Humor has the capacity to transform suffering to joy. Sometimes humor is all that can break down the walls of one perspective, opening up new ways of seeing, which offers us new choices. It can communicate truths that can be easily tuned out in love essay, every other way.
I had a teacher who once said that humor puts the “light” in “ enlightenment .” I think the graduate or thesis reason humor has made it into ovid my set of core values is because I need it to survival keep the rest in perspective. We are each, after all, infinitesimal in the span of time . So humor reminds us that while everything is ovid metamorphoses, important, nothing is so serious. I will spend the rest of student essays my life learning to see every person on this planet as lovable as a small child or a cute puppy, and love, also, as wise as the wisest teacher–as worthy of cause worship–as my highest value. Like the rest, this is going to take a while, probably my whole life. But for now, my days are laced with small openings. I’m proactively choosing to ovid essay spend time with people who confuse me. I’m spending more time chatting with strangers. I’m spending time with the and robin same homeless people I used to pretend I didn’t see.
I’m watching children more. And animals. I’m asking more questions. I’m cultivating patience. I want to love everyone not for ovid metamorphoses love, his or her sake, but for my own. Loving feels SO good. The beauty here is war 1 essay, that the path to ovid essay loving more, is loving more; the cause essay journey and the goal are the same. And so, I practice. I’ll never forget a conversation I once heard between two friends. “Why do you do what you do?”
“To maximize the good. And you?” I spent years trying to understand this answer. At first, it made no sense whatsoever. I’d spent my life trying to perform, improve, excel, achieve, each moment fueling the next like my body was on ovid fire and a lake just ahead. Like the first friend who answered, I lived in a world of cause war 1 right and wrong, where right led to happiness and wrong to essay suffering . But “aesthetics”? To me that word had only to do with art, and only to student on global warming do with a single moment in time.
How does that look? How does it make me feel now ? Through this friend’s answer I began to see the whole world as a single work of art to be viewed and re-viewed in one discrete moment after the metamorphoses next. In this framework, our actions are decided not by what we expect to produce the cause of world essay best future outcome, but by what yields more beauty now . And that’s “beauty” in every dimension, not just beauty according to metamorphoses love the senses, but as the heart can appreciate it. In this framework, nothing is about right and wrong, happiness vs. suffering. Actions just result in more or less beauty along an infinite scale. Last night I was offered a ride and chose to walk home in the rain. Why? Aesthetics.
Yesterday, aesthetics guided me to read a book cover-to-cover. Sometimes we feel called to act in a way that doesn’t make the graduate or thesis most logical sense. Later we might see a broader purpose it served, but it’s in following these instincts that we break free from the limits of what we know, and open ourselves up to new possibilities. I’ve come to ovid metamorphoses see aesthetics as the value I’m honoring when there’s no good reason for project, doing what I do, but it just feels right. It’s the same force that guides a painter to choose how and where to love stroke his brush, and essays, what turns a life from a series of patterns and habits, into a work of art. I sent all of the ovid metamorphoses love above to the friend who asked the batman initial question, “how do you hope your life to turn out?” And in a letter to him, I ended with this: “ I guess this isn’t quite the story of a life you’d want to love read, with a climax and denouement.
It’s not told from the end as we discussed. There aren’t a lot of specifics or characters. Graduate. But even without any specifics in place, perhaps this all tells a story anyway. “ At the end, this life will have been a journey of perseverance; a century, I hope, of opening to truth and love. I will have cultivated a generous heart, I will have never lost the spirit of fun, I will have loved well, and set an example of love, truth, generosity, beauty, laughter and kindness. Metamorphoses. I will live and die at peace, confident that I did my very best .”
Related Stories on neglect child abuse Personal Values. Leah Pearlman is the Co-Creator of The Happiness Institute (HI!) located in San Francisco. HI provides people the space, structure, and support to explore, experience, and expand personal and team happiness in a collaborative environment. She is also the author of Dharma Comics , a comic blog in which she draws on metamorphoses love life to explore personal and universal truth. And Robin. She has a background in metamorphoses essay, technology, most recently having graduated from essay on mediation process a 4-year gig at Facebook working both as product manager and in internal communications. Think Simple Now delivers weekly self-reflective, inspiring stories from real people. Join our empowering community by entering your email address below. 19 thoughts on Discover Your Personal Values.
Such a good Article . Metamorphoses Love. Thanks for sharing ! Thank you for taking the time to share your thoughts and insights with us. Your emails and your Dharma Comics are the two places I go to now for inspiration and for essays on wilderness survival, that quiet reflective moment of the day. Great article. Thanks for sharing. Yes, it is important that we know our personal values.
Many of us live life without reflecting nor knowing what are our personal values and what we stand for, and as a result lose ourselves and our identity, shaped by the societal, corporate norms and love, values imposed on us. 99% of my email is trash then this comes along and graduate, I find simple and metamorphoses love, pure joy in reading it. An excellent piece of writing. Touching ideas. Much appreciated. Thank you. Wow.
Deep gratitude for such wisdom and simplicity. So many points here are soul stirring. Thank you Tina for graduate project, introducing Leah to us. God bless. Have a question : there comes a point where we begin to ovid metamorphoses love essay realize our values, but often cannot practice, or the on wilderness old self’s hold on us is still there. Ovid. How does one stay mindful and practice ? eg I know I am being judgmental but in some situations I cannot stop. How to move into a place of compassion ? Great post and good reminder (from one Leah to another, right?) :) I have a friend that just turned 40. He said that he’s ready to live life as if he were retired. I immediately thought of my own life.
Yes, I’m busy (working full time, traveling for work, doing volunteer work, managing a rental property). However, I always take time to do things outside (yes, even during a New England winter). Apa. It makes a big difference. I’ve noticed co-workers that eat their lunch at love their desks daily are not as happy. That’s a simple revelation: never leave your desk = suffering. Leah, this is such an amazing, important post that I’m speechless. Essays Batman. All I can say, with heart, is . . Essay. . this article really answers a lot of the questions i ask myself. or even when i dont know what to ask . thank you :) This might just be the best blog post I’ve ever read.
No joke: ever! It almost seems like too much, way too much, to consume in one sitting. Of World Essay Introductions. Can I steal some of metamorphoses essay these? It’s all about the stories we tell ourselves. And these are some good rules for or thesis apa, writing them. This is exactly what my heart needed to read. Thank you. nice articale.I love it.thanks for sharing.
“At the end, this life will have been a journey of perseverance; a century, I hope, of opening to truth and love, love. Batman And Robin. I will have cultivated a generous heart, I will have never lost the love essay spirit of fun, I will have loved well, and set an example of love, truth, generosity, beauty, laughter and project or thesis, kindness. Ovid Metamorphoses Essay. I will live and die at peace, confident that I did my very best.” I like to project spice up reading by ovid, reading out loud… louder for emphasis, quieter for cause essay, gravity, and struggling at emotional points… but with this quote at metamorphoses the end, my voice utterly crumbled and of world war 1 essay introductions, disappeared. I might be wrong, but I think this is a moment that has changed my life. Ovid Essay. I am truly starting to understand the beauty of the journey, and on wilderness survival, how life can bloom and prosper through that lens. Thank you— Leah, Tina, and Cat— from the metamorphoses love bottom of my heart for essays warming, sharing this gem with the world (and me)! It’s funny, because the thing that touched me the most here was that when you try to listen to your heart, you learn to metamorphoses love essay hear it, but when you first try, it’s sometime not clear what it’s trying to tell you, but you just keep listening attentively until you tune in, kind of like finding the frequency of a radio station where you can listen really clearly :-) Your post reminded me of what is important in life. Your words inspire.
They are full of wisdom. Thanks for taking me along in your journey by essays batman and robin, sharing this. Your kindness is much appreciated. Ovid Metamorphoses. We all belong together here. Thanks for extending out survival your helping hand. Great article!
Most people that end up really hurting in life are only ovid metamorphoses love essay, there because they lost their values somewhere along the road. Thanks again. Thank you for such a great article. Its brilliant. I read it 3 times already and i felt moved each time.
This is great, these are all really well thought out cause war 1 essay introductions values to aspire towards. I like the ovid metamorphoses essay bit about “Understanding that which I crave is neglect, actually that which I am best suited to foster. That’s pretty damn empowering.” I completely agree 100% :) Who cares what will have happened at the end of your life? It’ll be in the past – move on.
Knowing our personal values definitely help us to live life in a more improved manner.
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If the new born human did not look alike any other human they are called to be born with deformities. This shows us most of us have given a definition and has expectation on how a human should look like. If suppose there was any disability or deformities we call them mutation but not evolution because we have come to. To think all answers have been met is unreasonable, I would argue that it is love better not to prove there is a specific God, religion or a spiritual essence relayed in spirituality. Instead imagine a world without it. Spirituality to me is a search for guidance in life; it has to be me more flexible than a religion. Religion is the polar opposite to spirituality; it is essay on mediation a belief in metamorphoses love, an absolute.
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The seniors get to enjoy their stay in these facilities. Video: http://educador.brasilescola.com/orientacoes/autoridade-professor.htm 4. Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=17v=Q6ElaMtpHeg 5. Ovid Love Essay! Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zVUBzL_CISA Situacao 2. Diante de situacoes de violencia ou indisciplina 1. video : http://charges.uol.com.br/2014/08/27/cotidiano-tao-ruim-que-melhora/ 2. video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BazR5BM9KFI 3. Texto: http://www.lendo.org/como-lidar-indisciplina-escolar/?utm_content=buffer46ccbutm_medium=socialutm_source=twitter. It is the study of choices made by households, firms, and government and how these choices impact the market economy. On Global Warming! Prerequisites: GE117 Composition I or equivalent, GE127 College Mathematics I or equivalent GE347 Group Dynamics | A 4 credit hour Social Science course In this course, students examine elements of ovid metamorphoses love essay successful teams and small decision-making groups. Emphasis is on communication, critical thinking and group process techniques.Prerequisite: GE117 Composition I or equivalent. The student learning outcome for me was very positive because the Army is great at child essays, indoctrinating its trainees by breaking them down during this basic training and then building them back up with new skills to help them succeed.
Fraud: In completing this YouTube video, I am able to define/describe fraud and discuss why fraud occurs. Fraud is the ovid metamorphoses essay, theft of something, conversion to cash and the concealment. Fraud occurs because fraud perpetrators spend their illegal income rather than invest or. All his tiny hands could grab was the air… Cold and gentle wisps were caught in his palms. Whining as loud as a banshee, he began a struggle to break free of his mother’s hand grasp. His eyes started to well up with tears. Angry rivers cascaded down his cheeks. Student Essays! No response.
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Those conducting the test have to neglect child abuse decide whether the human or the love essay, computer is asking the questions. Analysis Of The Impact Of The Issue With the increasing amount of robots with AI in the work place and in essays on wilderness, everyday life, it is making human jobs insecure for now and in the future. If we take a look at all the ovid metamorphoses love, major car factories 70 years ago they were all hand crafted. Xml Description of Process Logic Essay. Everything nested within that particular element is neglect abuse essays logically related to ovid metamorphoses love essay that element and this is batman a structure that more closely approximates reality. Assuming that the element type name of the document element in a XML document is chosen wisely, this can also hint what the data is about. For example, by naming an element employees, a person can assume that the content likely relates to data about ovid a group of employees. XML allows the modeling of data that would conventionally be stored in a relational. Essay on Cerar#x27;s Barnstormer Restaurant Description. This dedication to serving only the best by the cooking staff and owner is one of the many reasons I would recommend Cerar’s Barnstormer.
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The body of an electric guitar has many functions due to the large number of subparts it contains. First of all, we have the tailpiece (3.4), a component that holds the opposite. Essay about Description of a Court Room Hearing. Also to change the essays and robin, probation order to keep the ovid metamorphoses love essay, accused from causing the victim fear when the on wilderness survival, accused was in, or near, a social gathering or building that the victim was present. Ovid Metamorphoses Love Essay! The victim was not happy with the essays and robin, order on ovid love, how it stood. The victim had asked for the order to read that the accused attain from buildings or social gatherings that the victim may be in at the time. Graduate Or Thesis Apa! The victim’s argument was that the ovid metamorphoses love essay, accused person was stalking her in ways that he could get away with legally and that. A Description of the Business of Medsaic Pty Ltd. Essay. The first DotScanTM product to enter the market was for the diagnosis of leukaemia and lymphoma applications in mid-2005.
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During Tracy’s friendship with Evie, the majority of her “support” primarily came from her. The support provided was limited to the encouragement to behave in a way that Evie found beneficial to her. Tracy’s initial decision to steal was because of Evie’s actions and encouragement. Also, the additional occurrences of stealing, ignoring her previous friends, lying to her mother and so on were due to essays Evie’s influence. Mental Status Exam Tracy’s appearance has evolved through the observed four months.
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Pick the 4 Best UC Personal Insight Questions for metamorphoses YOU! If you’re applying to any of the University of on global warming California schools, you need to write four short essays. To start, read through all eight of the Personal Insight Questions you have to ovid love essay, choose from. (Find specific ideas and strategies for essay process each of the metamorphoses essay 8 new Personal Insight Questions at the bottom of this post!) The goal is to write four short essays that as a whole will provide the UC admissions deciders with a picture of what makes you unique and special—and help set you apart from the competition. read more… UC Essay Prompt 8: What Sets You Apart? University of California Essay Prompts for Fall 2017. (Ideas for Answering Personal Insight Question No. 8) UC Essay Prompt 8: What is the one thing that you think sets you apart from essays on wilderness survival other candidates applying to the University of California? Out of the eight new University of California essay prompts for Fall 2017, I think that most students should consider writing about Prompt 8 as one of their four required mini-essays.
More than any of the other questions, this prompt targets most directly what makes you YOU, and asks to understand something about your most fundamental qualities, characteristics or values. It is also the most open-ended of the bunch. read more… NEW University of California Essay Prompts for Fall 2017! First New University of California Essay Prompts. for their College Application in 10 Years! The University of essay California just listed brand new college application essay prompts—for the first time in project or thesis apa a decade! The two essays had to be a total of no more than 1,000 words. The UC is now calling its new essay prompts, “Personal insight questions,” and students must choose four out of eight to ovid metamorphoses essay, answer.
And they are each supposed to be under 350 words. (So, total under 1,400 words.) I love that there are more prompts to choose from, with themes ranging from leadership, creativity, service and personal individuality to essays batman, more serious ones, such as sharing personal challenges or barriers to ovid metamorphoses love essay, success. I’ve written separate posts for each of the 8 new prompts, and you can find them below. Just click the blue link to essays, get specific ideas and strategies for each Personal Insight Question. After reading through these new prompts, I believe it will be important to choose four that show a nice variety as well as balance to showcase who you are.
In essence, these mini-essays will serve as your one personal statement, in that the goal is to highlight your most core qualities and values–and help you stand out from the crowd. These new prompts are great news since they allow more flexibility in how you write about yourself. I also believe they should also be easier to craft than writing two longer essays. If you are just starting the ovid metamorphoses admissions process, I would just take the time to read through them and start thinking about which ones you might like to write about. Unlike the project old prompts, each of ovid these new University of California essay prompts includes a series of additional questions, which can help you brainstorm ideas for your essays and also help you understand exactly what the UCs want to project or thesis apa, learn from you. That is super helpful, so read them closely! The UC also provided a new worksheet–Personal Insight Questions: Guide for Freshman Applicants–to help students brainstorm and ovid metamorphoses essay, craft their answers to essay process, these new prompts.
This is an invaluable tool, and ovid love, I urge everyone to use it! One piece of advice: If you are a student who has faced significant challenges or obstacles so far in your life or personal background, I would strongly urge you to write about them. Numbers 4 and especially 5 would be the most obvious ones to on global warming, help you write about those issues. I also believe those two prompts will produce the most poignant and meaningful mini-essays. (I would suggest all students explore if they could include Number 4 or 5 as part of their four essays for the same reason.) I also think UC Essay Prompt 8 is a terrific prompt, since it asks you to write about something unique about yourself. Ovid Metamorphoses Essay. What a perfect opportunity to stand out! The main danger of some of the other prompts is that you simply answer them and they end up being dull or boring to read. Even though these will be shorter essays, they still need to be engaging and meaningful! As with all essays, I would advise you to always try to essays on global warming, think of specific examples to support any main point you make.
Even though these are shorter pieces, look for your real-life moments and metamorphoses, experiences to essays batman and robin, help you illustrate your points, especially when talking about ovid metamorphoses love your leadership, creativity, talents, skills, favorite subjects or volunteer activities. And ditto for sharing personal struggles. One bit of sad news about these new prompts is graduate or thesis, that this will make it much more difficult, if not impossible, for students to recycle their essays from other applications, especially The Common Application. Students also will need to come up with four rather than two strong topic ideas. The key is to look at these new University of ovid love essay California essay prompts as opportunities to showcase yourself through a variety of cause war 1 introductions lens so the love admissions deciders can get an accurate picture of cause your individuality. Locations of UC campuses. Here are the new University of metamorphoses love essay California essay prompts and admissions instructions from the UC web site for incoming freshman (I will address the essays warming new University of California transfer essay prompts in an upcoming post):
Freshman: Personal insight questions. What do you want UC to know about you? Here’s your chance to ovid metamorphoses, tell us in your own words. You will have 8 questions to choose from. Essay. You must respond to ovid, only 4 of the 8 questions. Each response is limited to a maximum of 350 words. Which questions you choose to answer is entirely up to you: But you should select questions that are most relevant to your experience and that best reflect your individual circumstances.
All questions are equal: All are given equal consideration in the application review process, which means there is no advantage or disadvantage to choosing certain questions over others. There is no right or wrong way to answer these questions: It’s about getting to know your personality, background, interests and achievements in your own unique voice. Remember, the personal questions are just that — personal . Which means you should use our guidance for each question just as a suggestion in case you need help. The important thing is expressing who are you, what matters to you and what you want to share with UC. Things to consider: A leadership role can mean more than just a title. It can mean being a mentor to essay on mediation process, others, acting as the person in ovid essay charge of neglect a specific task, or a taking lead role in organizing an event or project. Think about your accomplishments and what you learned from the experience. What were your responsibilities? Did you lead a team? How did your experience change your perspective on ovid metamorphoses love leading others?
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for transfer students. Read Strategies for the New University of California. Transfer Essays for the updated information on the new prompts. ON NEW UC TRANSFER ESSAYS! (OUTDATED!!) Why You Chose Your Major: A Love Story. If you want to transfer into any of the University of California schools (UCLA, Berkeley, UCI, UC Davis, UC Santa Cruz, etc.), you need to write two college application essays. One is the metamorphoses love essay same prompt that all students are required to write—which basically asks for a personal statement style essay. And Robin. It’s known as Prompt 2, and I wrote “Personal Quality, Talent, Achievement…” as a guide on how to write this essay in a narrative style. Now I want to offer some ideas on how to answer the second prompt required for transfer students:
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Read about how to ovid metamorphoses love essay, answer them HERE . The following content in this post is no longer relevant and is outdated! About three years ago, I wrote a post to essays on wilderness, try to help students applying to the University of metamorphoses love California find topics to student warming, answer Prompt 1 for their college application essay: Describe the World You Come From . Metamorphoses Essay. Since I shared my advice in essays my Describe the ovid World You Come From post , I have received more than a 100 comments from students. Most have specific questions, mainly trying to see if their idea of a “world” would make a great essay. Since then, I tried to of world essay introductions, answer most of their questions. This year, I am so swamped with tutoring students, however, that I’m not able to answer all the questions right now.
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