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Essay on early renaissance english poetry

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At 68, Mary Burger sits atop the barrel racing ranks -- and she's not done yet. Special to espnW.com. At 68 years old, Mary Burger leads the Women's Professional Rodeo Association barrel racing world standings. For Mary Burger, age truly is essay on early english poetry, just a number. The 68-year-old from Pauls Valley, Oklahoma, is an new graduate age-defying barrel racer who may further etch her name in the record books of professional rodeo with the start of the sport's world championship on Thursday. Burger -- who became rodeo's oldest world champion at age 58 with her gold buckle in on early renaissance poetry 2006 -- is back atop the Women's Professional Rodeo Association (WPRA) standings heading into new graduate lpn cover letters the Wrangler National Finals Rodeo, which features seven different events and runs through Dec. 10 at the Thomas Mack Center in Las Vegas. She will be one of 15 barrel racers competing in the $10 million rodeo, riding her horse in a cloverleaf pattern around three barrels placed strategically in a dirt-filled arena to see who can clock the fastest time. The cowgirl with the essay on early english poetry, best time each night earns $26,231 -- the lpn cover letters, top eight places get paid -- and the barrel racer with the on early english poetry, most money combined from the regular season and the Wrangler NFR after Round 10 earns the title of world champion.

Burger rode her 7-year-old buckskin gelding, Mo, to a WPRA-record $190,977 in regular-season earnings this year and enters Round 1 on Thursday night with a $74,590 lead over second-place Jackie Ganter as the odds-on favorite to win another world championship. It has been a dreamlike season for Burger, especially considering she didn't know how much she and her somewhat green horse would be on the road in 2016. Cued. I was just planning on going to whatever rodeos we wanted to go to, and I just wanted to go to Houston and some of the [indoor] rodeos, said Burger, who is competing in renaissance poetry her first Wrangler NFR since 2009. When Houston turned out real good, it just made it doable to make it [to Las Vegas] this year. Burger and Mo raced their way to new graduate lpn cover victory at RodeoHouston in essay english March, earning a $54,750 check that put them atop the humanism, world standings. On Early Poetry. Then, in mid-July, the dynamic duo hit it big again by winning the Calgary Stampede north of the border for $122,000, $72,000 of which counted for the WPRA's ProRodeo standings. Burger's final tally set a new regular-season record for barrel racing and has her poised to extend the age record she already set for rodeo world champions. And when you consider that Burger got Mo, an unknown and unproven commodity, in a trade for another horse, her 2016 campaign is even more impressive. She had an idea the horse was special, but his youth and playful attitude still had her wondering. It was always in the back of special my mind, but you just never know, Burger said of Mo's potential. I knew he had all the ability in essay on early renaissance english the world to run with the best of them, but he's kind of an immature horse.

He likes to just be a horse sometimes. Paper. He's been getting a lot better, and I knew he had the ability all along. It just all fell together for us. On Early Renaissance English. This is just what I love to do, Mary Burger says. Other than working on the ranch and essay keeping that in order, this is my life. I guess it's just all I know how to do. Not only is essay renaissance, she leading the barrel racing standings, but Burger will be wearing the coveted No. 1 back number in Las Vegas, an honor reserved for the Wrangler NFR contestant who wins the most money during the regular season. It's only the third time a woman has achieved that feat in the 58 years of the Super Bowl of Rodeo, which has 120 competitors (women compete in barrel racing, while men participate in bareback riding, steer wrestling, team roping, saddle bronc riding, tie-down roping and bull riding). Burger joins 11-time world champion Charmayne James (1987) and four-time world champion Sherry Cervi (1995) with that distinction. Frost Essay. I guess they won't ever forget me that way, will they?

Burger said. Essay English Poetry. Sometimes, you might make the NFR once and frost essay nobody knows who you are, but with the No. Essay Renaissance English. 1 spot, I guess they won't forget me. Her accomplishments have not gone unnoticed by her peers. I think it's awesome, and she's had a great year, said Cervi, who enters the lpn cover letters, 10-day rodeo at essay renaissance poetry, No. 12 in the standings. To be able to wear the No. 1 back number, I think it's really cool and is an honor. She's a good person, too, and new graduate letters represents the on early poetry, barrel racers well. Burger won her 2006 title on two-time American Quarter Horse Association/WPRA Horse of the Year Fred, and education term paper this year's world title would be the first for her and Mo. As a woman who won her world championships on multiple horses, Cervi knows how tough that is to accomplish on different mounts.

She's a great hand [horsewoman] and essay renaissance english poetry has ridden numerous horses in psych nurse resume her career, Cervi said. To come back and essay english have a chance to frost essay win a gold buckle is pretty exciting. She's trained a lot of great horses. Essay On Early English. The barrel racers who have competed in nomenclature the futurity, horse show and jackpot worlds know who Mary Burger is on early poetry, because she's been competitive for education term paper a very long time. Essay On Early English. But with round winners earning so much each night and up to $67,000 for winning the special education paper, 10-round aggregate, Burger's lead isn't exactly insurmountable. She'll have a target on her back as she takes on 14 other talented barrel racers and their trusty equine athletes in on early english a race against the clock at the $10 million rodeo. Mary Burger rode her way to $190,977 in regular-season earnings in 2016 -- a Women's Professional Rodeo Association record. Thesis Nomenclature. Her defense of the top spot may be tougher than Burger would like, as Mo -- who finished second in the AQHA/WPRA Barrel Horse of the Year voting -- is on early renaissance, recovering from free, a sore deep flexor tendon. Burger had him in physical therapy treatments throughout November and feels good about on early renaissance english poetry, his rehabilitation. She is taking some backup horses to Las Vegas as a contingency plan, but she hopes to ride Mo as long as he feels good enough to go.

I think he's going to make it, Burger said just before Thanksgiving. He's getting to where he's pretty sound, and cued nomenclature it's just a matter of if he gets sore. If he gets sore, I'll have to go to a backup. I'm really pleased with how he's doing, but he hasn't made any runs since the middle of October. So, we're hoping that he does well and is healthy enough to essay on early keep on running. Nurse Resume. Burger and Mo racked up their impressive money total in just 64 rodeos, 36 fewer than Ganter, thanks to the pair of big wins. The quality over quantity approach worked, and essay on early renaissance english poetry now Burger has a chance to take home another gold buckle. That's not a normal goal for a grandmother her age, but Mo's talent and success, combined with Burger's innate desire to compete in the sport she loves, propelled her along.

That internal fire and determination are what keep Burger going as she approaches 70. This is just what I love to do, she said. Humanism. Other than working on essay on early renaissance english poetry, the ranch and keeping that in order, this is my life. I guess it's just all I know how to do. Burger also knows how to teach the sport to others and is a world-class mentor for special education term her 10-year-old granddaughter, Kaden. She's been going to Little Britches [Association] rodeos, and we've got her a nice barrel horse and a really nice pole [bending] horse, said Burger, who competed alongside her daughter-in-law, P.J., at the 2009 Wrangler NFR. Essay On Early Renaissance English Poetry. She's having a good time and doing really well, and I'm a proud grandma. If Burger wins the gold buckle, her granddaughter could perhaps wear it as she progresses in the sport. It would just be a dream come true, Burger said. To win as much as I've won this year, it'd just be a great way to end an awesome year.

It'd be icing on the cake.

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Sample IELTS essay questions and essay on early english poetry, topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. Cued Nomenclature! There is a good reason for this: IELTS is renaissance a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for all countries and all cultures. Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the exam tend to thesis nomenclature choose relatively everyday topics – the sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and write about in their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for essay renaissance english poetry, the exam is to practise writing and new graduate letters, speaking about essay renaissance english, these topics. They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Again, there is also a good reason for this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic.

Remember that in nomenclature the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the question, you need to essay renaissance be able to explain and frost essay, exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and essay on early english, even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and topics.

if the task or question is “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at essays philosophy the first part of the on early renaissance, essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on thesis the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the essay english, argument? Another good question. There is no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the things the examiner is looking for frost essay, is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay. Accordingly, it makes sense to renaissance state your point of view clearly in the introduction. This way it makes it easy for the examiner to see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction.

That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to essays philosophy give your own personal opinion after looking at essay on early renaissance english poetry both sides of the argument. This is perhaps the slightly more academic approach and makes for a better balanced essay normally. If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at both sides of the issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the new graduate, question is “do you agree or disagree” and “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner.

The short answer is on early renaissance poetry that there is no major difference of approach required. If the question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on term both sides of the issue, but I tend to think that…” ie you can always agree to some extent. Likewise, if the question is “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of writing? What about a discussion? Is the another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for and against essay? “To What Extent” should be answered by choosing arguments to support one of 3 major stances: to a great extent, to a certain extent / to essay english poetry some extent, or to a lesser extent. The question is asking for frost, a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the essay on early poetry, “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the philosophy humanism, freedom to essay express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. Essay On Poetry! There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)”

Is it OK if I say that the essay renaissance english, main question is ” Does government restrict freedom of speech?” As you said before, what’s the use of essays humanism, writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the “hidden” argument? Thanks in advance! A really good question. One possible problem is on early renaissance english poetry that the question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS. If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in your example. That is not really the on poetry, case as the “they” in “There should be no government restrictions on what they do” clearly links to the creative artists in the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to on early renaissance english “creative artists”. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to free underline key words in essay on early the question to nurse resume make sure that you do not miss them out.

one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the essay on early poetry, bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to this. Free Thesis! All I would say is that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions? Many people told me that I am not suppose to use ” I ” , “we” and ” you ” things like that in my writting.

But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to think out ideas. I never can produce an essay in a limited time. I guess the problem for me is I do not have opinions at all. English Poetry! do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in your writing. However, given that that the essay task is free thesis frequently an essay poetry opinion based task and free will, asks you for to essay on early poetry use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the “I” altogether. Cued Nomenclature! IELTS is not academic writing – it is its own genre, The best advice is to answer the question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on poetry 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time.

Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of my essay relate to new graduate letters IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short. Hi What about if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the question as asked. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and don’t answer the question. The idea is essay renaissance poetry that the questions are designed for anyone to answer and essay on poetry, if you can’t you have a language problem. That sounds a little harsh, no?

The trick is to use examples from essay on early renaissance poetry, your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the problem though and I am planning a series of thesis nomenclature, postings giving ideas and language to deal with the most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor. When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in on early english Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in this case I will. Psych Nurse Resume! The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from on early english poetry, your own knowledge and experience” This means that you actually ought to include examples from your own knowledge/experience.

From this point of frost essay on poetry, view, academic IELTS is not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. I would suggest that you don’t want to on early english poetry use the first person “I” too much and that maybe is new graduate lpn cover letters what your tutor is worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and renaissance english poetry, I will post a lesson on cued thesis nomenclature this in the next couple of days. It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not. The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. IELTS is english designed for the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into account the level of your education. Feel free to humanism express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic!

Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. Essay Renaissance English Poetry! The latest rubrics for thesis nomenclature, wrtiing task 2 state that the essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on both. Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for the correction on essay on early renaissance english the exact wording. Resume! I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. Poetry! It is entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on their knowledge and will, another based on their experience: this satisfies both the rubric and the grading criteria. Renaissance English Poetry! Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to one or the other: if that were the new graduate lpn cover letters, case, the rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. Essay On Early Poetry! What has not happened is that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and free will, “experience-based” essays. Incidentally, the rubric was changed to put the emphasis on the task itself and to delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”. The idea is essay english supposed to simple and the key to cued understanding the new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to be “relevant” in their examples and that these support the main points.

Read this report by the chief IELTS examiner in Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too). I’ve been searching the essay renaissance english, net for ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and i now i can say yours is one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in free will your “The three different types of IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in which type of essay we should give our own opinion. Renaissance English Poetry! can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS. i am confused a little. in essay on poetry which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of on early english, them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to differ. 3. what is explanatory essay? Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to add to this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an psych nurse resume ocean for renaissance, spending time for philosophy, us. hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to english poetry suggest to cued thesis do thats why my essay is always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way.

Typically, I advise my students to on early english poetry think of examples and reasons. It is very easy to special paper get stuck when you are looking for ideas. On Early Renaissance English! Ask yourself the questions “Why is that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in th body paragraphs. whether i have to stick to agree only through out the whole essay or also have to write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an special education term argumentative essay. is that true ? and if not what else ? Ah. It depends what you mean by essay poetry argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to describe types of essay. I am guilty of this too.

To try and answer your question, there are different types of essay you need to be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on thesis a proposal to solve a problem. looking at two different options and deciding which is better. giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to be able to answer different types of questions. The secret as ever is to read the question and essay on early, think hard about it before writing. Think about special education paper, what it is asking you to do. The mistake is to on early english learn one model essay and try and on poetry, write the same essay all the time.

Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to write to) first of all I want to compliment you for your website. It is a very usefull resource for the preparation of the IELTS Test, the information are presented in a clear and nice way. Poetry! They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of information. This is a very important point -at least to letters me-, because reading your site had the result of on early english poetry, calming me me and improve my self confidence for the exam. This is often not the case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive.

Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to you my essay for essays humanism, the writing academic task 2. I would really like to have a feedback from you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to correct me one and I would like to have an opinion before I take the essay on early renaissance english, exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to nomenclature correct every mistake, just to read it once and give me your impression and essay on early renaissance, maybe the will thesis, main points that I have to be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the on early poetry, time, thing which I haven’t). If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is cued thesis nomenclature this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to read an renaissance english answer from you and I thank you in advance for your courtesy. Write about the following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in humanism the schools is the essay on early english, student behaviour. New Graduate Lpn Cover! In fact it is known that in many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools.

This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to prepare the students to english become responsible adult. It is essays philosophy therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in on early english poetry order for the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into lpn cover, account the renaissance, basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to essay be “bad”. Essay! Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems. One of the main cause could be the stress that the students frequently have to face in the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress. Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout. Nevertheless it is my opinion that the nurse, main source of bad behaviour of essay on early english poetry, students is to be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the frost essay on poetry, students. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is very often the cause of arrogant and generally bad behaviour. On Early English! Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the psych nurse resume, lessons or in the corridors.

Those problems suggest their solutions. On Early Renaissance! The amount of stress to which the students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and frost essay on poetry, accurately be revised and on early english poetry, adjusted. The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is inevitable, is the quality of the essays, school has to on early english be preserved. Thesis Nomenclature! Regarding family problems, it is my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and poetry, sustained by teachers, in order to education term allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and on early, adjust the pressures on the students. A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in psych nurse resume their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and it looks an extremely good essay.

My one concern is length. Essay On Early Renaissance English! sometimes shorter can be better. Sorry but I simply don’y have the time to special education paper look at individual essays. This is a very good job. Renaissance! It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the education paper, idea now on how to write and speak appropriately. English Poetry! TheIELTSSolution.com. it is my first acknowlegment of this wonderful site. Please, i have started to practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in September 2011 (24th Sep.). please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of will, telling – there’s a pretty large stock of questions. My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the essay english, exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and then to essays philosophy make sure you read the exact question in the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about looking at “recent essay questions”.

For me, their only real value is to tell you the types of topic you will need to write about and what sort of essay english poetry, vocab you need. Psych Nurse! Very frequently, the task part of the question – the bit that tells you what you need to on early english do – is wrongly reported. Thank you very much for on poetry, your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you. This is a very simple way to say thank you. Pleasure.

I hope it’s worked out for you now. 10 tests is a lot – painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words. Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to renaissance english those IELTS writing examinees. This would serve as a guideline for psych, them because it discusses and shows the poetry, exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and tips. Essay On Poetry! Through this, they can practice more in english writing their essays and frost essay on poetry, would develop their skills more on writing. TheIELTSSolution.com.

dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on on early renaissance poetry 3rd page becz it’s task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the will, answer to that one. Essay English! I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference. The examiner is likely to new graduate have worked out what you did. sir, i humbly wish to on early renaissance poetry draw your kind attention to the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to free be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for essay renaissance english, around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and cued thesis, experience?! As someone who holds a masters in philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to essay renaissance exact distinction between them.

I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to cued split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to do both. Poetry! If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of rephrasing the rubrics was to make them more accessible – if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the introduction from the statement of question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on cued thesis grouping the subject matter and comparisons . This is renaissance english what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in earnest. I see your point about “you” and psych, “I” in task 1, but cannot agree with you about “we”. I agree with you about copying wording from the on early renaissance, question. The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the essays philosophy, IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in my writing section I got only 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to essay on early get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME..

Your blog is very helpful. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and therefore feel more confident in their exams. pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page. The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given. help me #128578; write for and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for and against. I’ll see what I can do for you. It’s the letters, sort of topic you need to be able to write and speak about.

I’ll try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for Monday. English Poetry! #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of essay on poetry, English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse. I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for on early renaissance poetry, general English. If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. I’m not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply? Normally, you can get a refund of thesis, your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Contact your local test centre. It may be that they might also take pity on you and essay on early english poetry, allow you to cued transfer to academic.

This is the first time i visited this site. English! In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in every exam including the OBS. And the will, requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and my overal band score was 6.0 in all of them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in Listening, 6 in Reading and Writing and 6.5 in Speaking. I really don’t know from where to start with studying, I have many books for IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the essay on early renaissance english, exam) which are the best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in every part of the free thesis, test.

Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to find out whether it is renaissance english appropriate to write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is thesis nomenclature important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance. No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently.

I found it great and a resourceful webpage. On Early Renaissance English! I have taken the IELTS at least 7 times now, and essay, I have not achieved my required results yet. Renaissance English! I need a band score of 8 in each module. My next exam is on new graduate the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is of great help for those who want to take IELTS #128521; I just want to ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in partictular about essay on early english poetry, paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and essays, left one line empty between each paragraph.

However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in the last paragraph( the on early english poetry, one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step.

Firstly explain both sides and then which you like most give him side . Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor. i m so confused which book to choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to psych resume study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service? Thanks! Sorry there is nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service. I can only suggest that you move the post to spam!!

Congrats on on early english poetry your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this? if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of new graduate letters, question, which kind of essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. I do need to go back to that post. Essay On Early English Poetry! The division you maker does make sense.

In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in front of you and answering the question as it is asked. I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by psych trying to follow a particular formula. I will put this on essay on early english my to do list. Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to cued nomenclature what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and also taking only one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the essay poetry, format of such essay? Good question. You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on psych how to answer different question types -setting out formulae/formulas for each type of question. I am never really convinced by that approach, I much prefer the on early poetry, approach of looking at each question on essays its own merits and focussing on answering the question as it is asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice.

The introduction and on early english poetry, conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on psych nurse resume addressing the question and giving your clear answer to it. So in those paragraphs you need to outline your your position in relation to the question and give your answer. Even if the question is essay renaissance poetry “do you agree?”, it is open to you to say I agree but only up to a point. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of view. Typically, the academic thing to do is to lpn cover look at both sides of the essay english, issue – even if you have a strong opinion for one point of view.

This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the issue, as for them IELTS is simply a passport to academic courses at university and lpn cover, I want them to learn the skills of academic writing.That said, it is essay on early renaissance poetry open to you to take just one position and essays humanism, argue that – on condition that you outline this is renaissance english poetry your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at nurse resume both sides of the question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. On Early Renaissance English! i participated on IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of term, my general knowledge of the topics. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. It was. ” It is a natural process of animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). There is no reason why people should try to happening this. English Poetry! Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to essays humanism get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and know where is the mistake in my writing to improve.Please give some tips.

Thank you. i m having my exam on essay poetry 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. your blog guide me to significant progress… thanks a lot… Hi there to every single one, it’s in psych resume fact a pleasant for essay renaissance, me to essay go to see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? I’m planning to essay renaissance english start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on. everything.

Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. Any recommendations? Cheers! Practiced essay need to letters get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site. As an ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and my students’ use. Hy, I dont have much to ask for essay renaissance english, right now. Just wanted to clarify a query for writing test.

Do we get choice to select the essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from given 3 topics…kind of. I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of academic and new graduate letters, general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. ). Essay Poetry! And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to frost essay on poetry stick with one side in on early renaissance english poetry the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldn’t it?

Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in this case ( if the question is ‘ is this positive or negative’)? Why many students are not getting 9 in task response? Is it mainly because of the lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, I’d really grateful. I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to school to prepare for psych nurse, IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. I could use “It is said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. Essay On Early Renaissance! What do you think about this opinion? Good question. My own preference is to avoid the essays, “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. There are times when you want to make it clear that this is your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate.

It may be more stylist though to use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for essay on early renaissance english, both view. Thank you for the great ideas. I have to focus on some time I choose to adopt to letters write a article. It is very important that you keep to the topic. Essay On Early Renaissance! Don’t stray onto something else! Hey DC .. I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for philosophy, any kind of essay.. Please help me.

dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned …then in first body paragraph problems by smoking in essay public places then in second paragraph effects of term paper, smoking in public places …..then in conclusion about goverment should take hard step to renaissance english poetry stop this………….also tell me in agree disagree we must have to dicusss both …….answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts. I need to prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on new graduate letters the section, error occurs. So please fix the poetry, problem. Cued Nomenclature! Regards. Can you point me to the exact link that doesn’t work. It all seems fine to me. Many of the poetry, links for the topics are broken.

How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from China? DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks. I found your website very useful for me. Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to get 8 for writing. Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for psych resume, exam?Can you please guide me sir? thank’s dominic you helped me a lot.

Sir my IELTS test will be on next week: and i need at least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the waste from homes is recycled. Renaissance Poetry! They say that the only way to nomenclature increase recycling is for governments to essay poetry make it a legal requirement. Mostly the frost, recycled product is come from the renaissance english, home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the will, society believe that it is the negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement. As far as my opinion is essay on early english concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is essay on poetry also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for recycling are doing their job in a proper manner. They collected every garbage from the street even from the essay on early english, gutters as well. In contrast, residents of the lpn cover, society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to essay on early english poetry lack of awareness in people for the importance of recycling garbage.

Secondly, there is the free thesis, negligence factor as well in the society in participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into their dustbins without separating the essay on early poetry, recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the thesis nomenclature, law. On Early English! Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to follow the law and help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the organizations wanted to recycle.

After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to frost conclude on the note that people should feel the importance material and legislation should be passed for waste material. These kind of essay renaissance english poetry, acts would be enough to enhance the free will thesis, proportion of waste material. […] Sample essay questions and sample essays […]

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POLITICO 44: A Living Diary of the on early english Obama Presidency. After nearly five years, we’ve decided to close down the 44 blog and will feature all White House coverage directly on the POLITICO homepage. Thank you for lpn cover letters, your readership, and we look forward to on early renaissance english poetry seeing you in 2014. Valerie Jarrett: Obama to education term paper buy health insurance by end of the renaissance poetry day. President Barack Obama plans to sign up for health insurance through an Affordable Care Act exchange before the end of the day Monday, senior adviser Valerie Jarrett said. Monday is the last day to sign up for essays philosophy, coverage that begins on Jan. 1, though the renaissance state and humanism federal exchanges remain open through March. The White House has not yet said whether Obama will buy insurance as a resident of the District of essay poetry, Columbia, which has its own exchange, or as a resident of Illinois, which is part of the federal exchange. Obama speaks out against will, more Iran sanctions. President Barack Obama urged Congress Friday not to enact new sanctions on Iran in the near future and he suggested lawmakers advancing such measures are making political hay of the issue.

I've said to members of Congress: Democrats and Republicans. there is no need for new sanctions legislationnot yet, Obama declared during a year-end press conference at the White House. The president said he wasn't shocked that some on Capitol Hill were advancing new sanctions legislation aimed at Iran's nuclear program. Essay On Early English Poetry. In what appeared to be a thinly-veiled reference to the pro-Israel lobby, he attributed those moves to a desire to please anti-Iran political forces in U.S. I'm not surprised that there's been some talk from some members of Congress about sanctions. Special Education Term Paper. I think the politics of renaissance poetry, trying to look tough on psych Iran are often good when you're running for officeor if you're in on early, office, Obama said. The president urged lawmakers to give a six-month deal with Iran over psych, its nuclear program time to work and to allow more in-depth negotiations on renaissance english poetry a permanent pact. If Iran suddenly tries to accelerate its nuclear capabilities, it's not going to be hard for us to turn the dials back or strengthen sanctions even further, Obama said. I'll work with members of Congress to put even more pressure on Iran, but there's no reason to do it right now, he said.

We've lost nothing during this negotiation period, precisely, because there are verification provisions in place. Psych Nurse. We'll know if they're violating the on early renaissance english terms of the agreement, Obama said. New Graduate Letters. Let's test them. Now's the time to see if we can get this thing done. Obama's comments came a day after White House press secretary Jay Carney warned for the first time that Obama would veto any new sanctions legislation Congress enacts before the interim deal with Iran expires. The president did not personally reiterate the veto threat Friday. However, Obama did suggest that shunting aside the current prospect for a diplomatic resolution would increase the chances of a military conflict over the issue. And he warned lawmakers that the war-weary American public is in no mood for that. It is my goal to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon. But I sure would rather do it diplomatically.

I'm keeping all options on the table, but if I can do it diplomatically, that's how we should do it, and I would think that would be the preference of everybody up on Capitol Hill, because that sure is the renaissance english preference of the essay American people, the president said. Obama to essay on early renaissance english hold news conference at 2 p.m. EST. President Barack Obama will close out the year with a news conference at the White House on Friday. He is set to take questions at term, 2 p.m. ET in the Brady Press Briefing Room, the White House said in updated guidance.

It's a chance for the president to reflect on the year, to on early english look ahead and to frost on poetry respond to on early english poetry pressing issues including changes to the health care mandate and reform of the National Security Agency. Later Friday, he and the first family will leave Washington for a two-week vacation in new graduate, Hawaii. Obama commuted sentence of Deval Patrick kin. One of the eight federal prisoners granted sentence commutations by President Barack Obama Thursday is essay english a first cousin of Gov. Deval Patrick (D-Mass), one of the education term president's most devoted supporters on the national political scene. Reynolds Allen Wintersmith Jr. Essay English. was sentenced to free will life in prison after being convicted in Illinois federal court in 1994 of conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and distribute cocaine and cocaine base and possession with intent to distribute crack.

He was 19 at the time of renaissance, his arrest and essay on poetry 17 at the time he got involved running drugs for the Gangster Disciples gang. He is 39 today and has spent the essay english past 19 years in essays philosophy humanism, prison. A spokeswoman for Patrick confirmed that the essay renaissance english poetry 57-year-old Massachusetts governor and Wintersmith are cousins but denied any invovement in the drive to get the special paper federal prisoner a rare commutation one of only on early renaissance english, nine Obama has granted as president. The Governor has no recollection of meeting Mr. Wintersmith (they are quite far apart in psych resume, age), and renaissance poetry believes that if they did meet, it would have been when Mr. New Graduate. Wintersmith was a small boy.

The Governor was not involved in any application for essay renaissance english, a commutation of Mr. Wintersmith’s sentence, and only learned of the essays philosophy commutation through today’s media reports, said the Patrick aide, who asked not to be named. Wintersmith is essay renaissance english poetry a first cousin on Patrick's mother's side, the spokeswoman added. Patrick's 2011 book, A Reason to Believe: Lessons from an special education paper, Improbable Life, discusses his upbringing on the South Side of Chicago, an uncle's addiction to heroin and the involvement of others in the neighborhood with drugs and gangs. A White House spokesman, who also asked not to be named, said Wintersmith's tie to Patrick had no impact on the commutation decision and essay on early renaissance english officials do not believe Patrick ever had any contact with the feds over the matter. Wintersmith's case went to the Supreme Court in 1996, on a challenge to how his sentence and those of free thesis, his co-defendants were arrived at based on distribution of both powdered and crack cocaine. The justices upheld the essay on early english poetry sentences without any noted dissent two years later in new graduate, an opinion written by Justice Stephen Breyer. The lawyer who led the drive for Wintersmith's pardon, MiAngel Cody of the federal public defender's office in Chicago, declined to comment when asked about her client's family tie to Patrick.

However, she said she was confident Obama would act when he learned about Wintersmith's story. We always felt like President Obama would correct this injustice with a clemency pen, Cody said in an interview Thursday. We just needed to give him the best clemency brief we could that would finally tell Reynolds's story . We always felt like Obama will do this and we hope it is a sign of what is to essay renaissance come. Wintersmith's story drew attention from national groups like Families Against Mandatory Minimums because he was a very youthful offender who got a life sentence and was not convicted of a violent crime. His crime began and ended when he was a teenager, said Cody. It was his first offense. He had no priors, but under the then-mandatory federal sentencing guidelines the judge had no discretion. He could only impose a life sentence. The defense attorney said changes in sentencing guidelines and the reduction in the so-called crack-powder disparity didn't help Wintersmith. The real problem is free will thesis this 18-to-1 disparity in crack versus powder sentences, which currently has rendered him and others ineligible for relief, Cody said., estimating that hundreds of inmates are in a similar predicament to her client.

Even the essay on early english poetry reduced disparity is still a disparity that, for some serving lengthy sentences, makes them ineligible for term, judicial relief, she said. Renaissance English. This certainly illustrates what we hope is special education paper a crack in the dam. Under the commutation granted Thursday, Wintersmith is set to be released on April 17. W.H.: Obama would veto Iran sanctions bill. President Barack Obama would veto an Iran sanctions bill with Democratic co-sponsors, White House press secretary Jay Carney said Thursday. “We don’t think this action is necessary, we don’t think it will be enacted. On Early Renaissance English. If it were enacted, the president would veto it,” Carney said of the Iran sanctions bill sponsored by, among others, Democratic Sens.

Chuck Schumer and Robert Menendez. Carney said the Senate bill would greatly increase the chances that the United States would have to take military action against Iran. He said it would also be bad for attempts at negotiating with Iran and defy the will of the special term paper nation and the Congress. “Doing so would derail negotiations just when diplomacy is making progress,” Carney said. Essay English Poetry. “It would potentially divide the international community and obviously would suggest bad faith on the part of the United States.” He added: “I think that there is overwhelming support in the country and in the Congress for a diplomatic solution to this conflict.” Update : An aide to one of the co-sponsors of the bill responds that the White House is presenting a false choice. The supporters of the bill believe it makes war less likely sanctions brought us this far, and the threat of additional sanctions can help us force Iran to cued nomenclature get rid of essay on early, their nuclear weapons in the negotiations, the aide said. W.H.: Sochi Olympic delegation not intended to be snub. President Barack Obama wasn’t trying to send a message about Russia’s anti-gay laws when he named an Olympic delegation with two lesbians and, for the first time since 1988, no president, vice president or first lady. “That’s not a message we would wait to send through this manner,” Carney said Wednesday.

The delegation was largely viewed as a snub of cued, Russia and essay english poetry its President Vladimir Putin, with whom Obama has been at odds on nomenclature a range of issues. Carney said a half-dozen times that the delegation, headed by on early poetry, former Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano and including tennis star Billie Jean King, former figure skater Brian Boitano and ice hockey medalist Caitlin Cahow, “represents the diversity of the United States.” “We have made no bones about the fact that we oppose and are offended by the anti-LGBT legislation in Russia,” Carney said. “We have not pulled any punches.” White House to release NSA task force report Wednesday. The White House will on Wednesday release the full electronic surveillance report from President Barack Obama’s task force, press secretary Jay Carney said. The White House had said it would release the report, which carries 46 recommendations for cued thesis nomenclature, Obama in response to essay renaissance english poetry revelations by former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden in January, after Obama decided which recommendations to frost essay follow. Obama received the essay on early renaissance report Dec. 13. “It’s a substantive, lengthy report, and it merits further assessment,” Carney said. Obama met Wednesday morning with the surveillance task force, known formally as the Review Group on Intelligence and term paper Communications Technologies.

“While we had intended to release the review group’s full report in January, as I said earlier, given inaccurate and incomplete reports in the press about the report’s content, we felt it was important to allow people to see the full report to draw their own conclusions,” Carney said. “For that reason, we will be doing that this afternoon.” Obama will speak about the report in January, Carney said. PHOTOS: Morning Money Breakfast with Valerie Jarrett. Jarrett: 'I'm not the essay english poetry shadow chief of staff' Valerie Jarrett says she has very specific responsibilities in the Obama White House and focuses on them, rather than on an all-encompassing portfolio. I'm not the shadow chief of staff, she said, responding to the use of the term by POLITICO's Ben White at philosophy, a Morning Money breakfast. She mentioned her roles in outreach to women and girls, and to the business community and local government officials.

Various accounts have detailed Jarrett's role in swaying Obama's views as she leverages her personal relationship with him, but she said that their private time isn't spent discussing work. We do compartmentalize, she said. Later on, pressed about essay on early english poetry what she and the president talk about free will thesis as friends, she responded with a smile. Just stuff, she said, just stuff. She elaborated a bit, saying they discuss our families and the same things that everybody else talks about. Jarrett also said she expects to stay in renaissance english, the White House through the nurse end of the Obama presidency. I have the best job that I have ever had and will ever have, she said. I serve at the pleasure of the essay on early english poetry president . I'll be there as long as he'll have me.

Jarrett: Obama won't fundraise for library while in office. President Barack Obama won't fundraise for his presidential library while in cued, office, White House senior adviser Valerie Jarrett said Wednesday, as she downplayed a recent report that planning for on early renaissance english, the library is well under way. He is nomenclature not raising any money for it whatsoever, nor will he while he’s in office, Jarrett said at essay renaissance poetry, POLITICO's Morning Money breakfast. A Tuesday report in frost essay on poetry, The New York Times detailed early-stage meetings about the library, but Jarrett said the process is not very far along. It's absolutely in the embryonic stages, she said.

Jarrett was also dismissive of the suggestion that she's trying to push her way into renaissance, the planning process. I have a big plate of responsibilities to thesis handle at the White House, she said. You can't believe everything you read, even if it's in the New York Times. A Chicagoan like the president, Jarrett said that it's up to the president to decide whether his library will be there, in Hawaii, or elsewhere. Who knows where it's going to be, she said. As she closed out her response, she again hit the renaissance english Times story, saying: The New York Times piece was not very accurate. Valerie Jarrett: No W.H. and tech 'disconnect' There's no disconnect between the White House and will the tech community, Obama adviser Valerie Jarrett said Wednesday, responding to complaints from some companies that the president was too focused on HealthCare.gov in a recent meeting,

Ninety-nine percent of President Obama's time in the room for Tuesday's meeting with tech executives including Apple CEO Tim Cook and on early poetry Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer was spent discussing the companies' concerns about the National Security Agency's surveillance programs, Jarrett said at POLITICO's Morning Money breakfast. There was a presentation on the health care site for psych nurse resume, the executives by poetry, Jeff Zients, but that was before Obama joined the meeting, Jarrett said. Lpn Cover. Sources at companies that attended the meeting have told various news outlets that they felt like there was too much discussion of health care and that it seemed as though the White House didn't realize their primary concern was the NSA. But, Jarrett said, there was no confusion. I don't think there was a disconnect at renaissance english poetry, all, she said.

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50 Resume Objective Statements Essay Sample. Writing an effective objective statement is tough. To make it easier, we have listed 50 objective statements from actual job seekers. You can see what works, and what doesn’t. A hiring manager will often read dozens, if not hundreds of resumes at a time. On Early Renaissance! There is free thesis no shortage of job seekers.

Reading through the list below can help you see the objective statements from the perspective of essay on early poetry, a hiring manager screening resumes. These are actual objective statements from resumes and are unedited, and are provided to give you an philosophy idea of how a typical resume starts. An objective statement on a resume can help you get a closer look from a hiring manager. Often, the person screening resumes will have a number of different positions that need to be filled. If it isn’t clear what your goals are, the screener may discard your resume without considering you for the specific job you seek. This is essay on early renaissance english poetry especially important if you are trying to break into a new career field.

The object statements below offer a wide range of styles and content. As you read these, consider a few best practices for objective statements: •Keep it Short: A hiring manage does not want to read a book on cued nomenclature, want you want. Make sure your objective is short and concise. On Early Renaissance English Poetry! Often one short sentence is sufficient. In the worst resumes, we have seen objectives that are in excess of 150 words. New Graduate! •WIIFT: Your objective is essay “What’s In It For Me,” but your resume is sales pitch to get you hired. Psych Resume! It needs to focus on “What’s In It For Them.” Provide just enough information in your objective for a hiring manager to renaissance english poetry know what job you are seeking, and get back to selling your potential. A good way to thesis do this is by listing a key skill and on early renaissance english, how you have added value with the skill. Start with a short one line objective, concluding with specific skill you want to utilize.

Then, after the objective statement, add three bullet points showing specific accomplishments using the skill. Make sure the education paper, accomplishments have specific, quantified results. •Be Specific: Many of the objectives below do not say anything. Almost any job would meet the objective. If you are going to essay renaissance poetry write an objective statement, it needs to be specific. What job and industry do you want? Saying you want to be part of a successful company, where you can utilize your skills and abilities, does not say anything. Who wants to new graduate letters work for on early renaissance english, a failing company where they are unqualified and can’t do the job? If you are going to take the time to put an objective statement on your resume, make it valuable. Few of the objective statements below satisfy these best practices, and this is will thesis typical of most resumes. Many are short, but that’s about all they have going for essay, them.

Look for the ones that are specific. Most are too general. You do not need to pick a single objective that you use for free will thesis, every application. On Early Renaissance English! You can and should change your resume to psych resume fit every employer and job you apply for. Essay On Early Renaissance English! 1.Objective: General Manager in new graduate, an established and successful business. 2.Position Targets: Director of Lean Manufacturing, Continuous Improvement Change Agent, Value Stream Manager, Lean Manufacturing Champion, Process Improvement Manager, Continuous Improvement Leader, Operations Manager and Management Process Improvement Consultant.

3.OBJECTIVE: Obtain a challenging leadership position applying creative problem solving and lean management skills with a growing company to essay on early english achieve optimum utilization of its resources and maximum profits. 4.PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVE: To continue my career with an organization that will utilize my MANAGEMENT, SUPERVISION ADMINISTRATIVE skills to benefit mutual growth and success. 5.Objective: I am currently looking for a full time position in an environment that offers a greater challenge, increased benefits for my family, and frost essay on poetry, the opportunity to essay on early renaissance english help the company advance efficiently and productively 6.Objective Director of special education term, Operations/General Manager. 7.JOB TARGET: My goal is to become associated with a company where I can utilize my skills and gain further experience while enhancing the company’s productivity and reputation. 8.Objective: To secure a position with a stable and profitable organization, where I can be a member of a team and essay on early renaissance, utilize my business experience to free thesis the fullest. 9.Objective: To further my professional career with an executive level management position in a world class company. Essay Renaissance English! Seek to diversify my skills in another industry and as part of a larger organization. Relocation desirable. 10.Employment Objective: long term consulting project or Permanent Position. 11.OBJECTIVE: I am pursuing a career as an account manager with limited overnight travel. I am seeking to deliver my research, analytical, as well as presentation skills that will benefit in volume, growth, brand, and profits.

12.OBJECTIVE: To contribute superior project and operations management skills and will, experience in poetry, an IT Service Management role. 13.Objective: My objective is to obtain a position in a professional office environment where my skills are valued and. can benefit the organization. Ideally, I wish to have a focus in marketing for a growing organization preferably dealing in commercial real estate and/or land acquisitions. 14.Objective: Seeking a position as an engineering VP/director/manager in will, initiatives that utilize state-of-the-art, software and/or hardware components with a creative, technology-driven organization in an environment that encourages innovative thinking, recognition, and career development. Customer interaction is a plus. 15.OBJECTIVE: To obtain a challenging position in a high quality engineering environment where my resourceful experience and english, academic skills will add value to organizational operations. 16.CAREER OBJECTIVE: A challenging and rewarding Logistics / Distribution Center Operations Management position within the cued, private sector where prior experience, personal ability, and a commitment to professionalism would be of essay on early renaissance, value. Position should allow for continued personal and professional growth commensurate with achievements.

17.Objective: Seeking a fulfilling position in the maintenance industry that offers growth opportunities and allows me to utilize my leadership skills and experience. 18.Short Objective: Seeking position as System Engineer and support of all IT Needs. 19.CAREER OBJECTIVE: Position as an engineer or related position which offers key participation, team oriented tasks, immediate challenges, and career opportunity. 20.PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVE: Secure a responsible position in account management and serve as an account representative sharing my breadth of experience and new graduate letters, abilities effecting mutual employee and employer growth and success. 21.Objective: To obtain a New Business Development position by essay on early renaissance english adding value through utilizing my superior knowledge, prospecting and selling abilities in the business to business arena. 22.Objective: to acquire a challenging career with a solid company utilizing the opportunity to offer proven and developing skills within the company.

23.Objective Expand leadership responsibilities, improve organizational ability to exceed corporate goals, and help honor all long-term commitments made to customers, stockholders, employees and the communities in which we live. 24.OBJECTIVE: To work as an ophthalmic assistant or administrator in cued thesis, hospitals, or with professionals as surgeons or physicians with a specialty. 25.Objective: Seeking Position in systems/ or network engineering / Team Lead. 26.OBJECTIVE: Seek to on early english poetry work in on poetry, an environment that will challenge me further; while allowing me to contribute to the continued growth and success of the organization. English Poetry! Obtain a position that will provide me the resume, ability to apply my sales and work experience to a growing industry. On Early! Look forward to working with a company that promotes quality products and services; and provides me with the opportunity to meet and frost on poetry, exceed assigned sales goals. Consultative selling approach coupled with the energy and drive as an english individual contributor with minimal supervision or team selling environment. Essay On Poetry! Experience with quotas ranging from 15k per month to 800k per year with excellent attainment. 27.OBJECTIVE: To lead, challenge and be challenged in on early, a marketing strategy or business/market development position. Will! Analyze and improve marketing, sales and operational performance.

Develop products, markets and relationships. Essay On Early Poetry! 28.Objective: An able, enthusiastic, skilled, and reliable computer technician seeking a position that reflects my experience, skills, and personal attributes including dedication, meeting goals, creativity, and the ability to follow through. 29.Objective: Seeking a position in Management. 30.OBJECTIVE: To Acquire A Challenging Position In An Environment Where I Can Best Utilize My Skills And Education. 31.OBJECTIVE: To obtain a management position, in which I am given the opportunity to play a direct role in the unlimited growth and success of solid organization. 32.OBJECTIVE: My goal is to obtain a dynamic, challenging opportunity that contributes to philosophy the outstanding success of the business via 15+ years Information Technology experience from various global industries. 33.OBJECTIVE: To secure a position as a public relations / marketing professional in order to essay utilize my administrative, marketing, and interpersonal skills with accuracy and efficiency while maintaining a motivated, productive, and goal oriented environment for the entire professional team on board while maintaining extensive customer loyalty. 34.OBJECTIVE: Seeking a sales position with a reparable company on a long term basis who is psych looking for an experienced, hardworking, detail oriented team player.

35.CAREER OBJECTIVE: Looking at new opportunities to leverage my 20+ years professional experience in a New Business Sales capacity to have an immediate impact on new business revenue while increasing profitability. 36.PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVE: To build upon my existing. corporate finance skill set in renaissance english, both analytics and free will thesis, transaction execution, leading to increasingly responsible positions in treasury. 37.OBJECTIVE: VICE PRESIDENT/DIRECTOR. Travel/Relocate Internationally. Operating business philosophy: Amazing things can be accomplished when no one cares who gets the credit. 38.Objective: To participate as a team member in a dynamic work environment focused on promoting business growth by providing superior value and service. 39.PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVE: Position in Human Resources, providing opportunity to renaissance english make a strong contribution by psych utilizing and expanding upon essay on early renaissance english related education, skills, experiences and capabilities. 40.OBJECTIVE: To further my experience and frost essay, knowledge in the field of electronics and essay on early renaissance poetry, warehouse.

41.Objective: Position at a leading organization as a financial analyst or trader and continue my education in the financial field by obtaining the CFA designation. 42.OBJECTIVE: Obtain a management, analyst or consulting position, in nomenclature, the Healthcare IT industry. 43.OBJECTIVE: To gain long term employment with a company that is on or looking to be on the cutting edge, a company that puts value on people and essay renaissance poetry, the products they are promoting. Honest and Ethical, I am looking to call this company my family. 44.CAREER OBJECTIVE: Exploring career opportunities in on poetry, the to utilize Sales, Account Management and Public Interfacing abilities in a challenging Business Development/Senior Sales Management assignment. 45.OBJECTIVE: To secure a responsible career opportunity, where I can fully utilize my training, human resource and management skills, while making a significant contribution to the success of my employer. 46.Objective: To apply my expertise as ‘Marketing Director’ for a dynamic organization that encompasses hiring a marketing director is an investment. An investment that is on early poetry crucial to the success of will thesis, almost all aspects of the english, organization: Business Development, Sales, Customer Retention, Public Relations, Recruiting and Database Management. 47.OBJECTIVE: I AM A CONSISTENT, HARD WORKING, HIGHLY MOTIVATED PERSON. I ENJOY WORKING WITH THE PUBLIC.

I FEEL THAT I AM A FRIENDLY, OUTGOING AND DEPENDABLE PERSON. Special! I FEEL IT IS CRUCIAL TO DEMONSTRATE THE IMPORTANCE OF MY JOB DUTIES AND EXPECTATIONS. English! I AM LOOKING TO IMPROVE MY POSITION IN THE WORK FORCE, EXPAND MY KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS. I AM ALSO LOOKING TO ESTABLISH LONG TERM EMPLOYMENT IN A FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT. Term! 48.Objective: Seeking employment in Transportation Coordination, Equipment Manager, but would enjoy discussing other available. positions for essay on early english, which I am qualified. 49.OBJECTIVE: IT Director – Information Technology Vice President (VP) – Chief Information Officer (CIO) Information Technology senior management, executive position in a leading multinational organization, contributing business value by developing and executing a strategic, long-term vision, while leading the firm to achieve measurable business results and growth, effectively managing the IT portfolio of investments. A strong desire to special transform “as-is” organizations into renaissance english, “to-be” market and industry leaders. Additional interest in organizations looking to expand their global presence. 50.Objectives Summary: My objective is to leverage my experience while continuing to be challenged. I have 20 years of experience working for philosophy humanism, service providers delivering marketing intelligence products and services.

My background in essay renaissance, Management, Account Management, Project Management and essays, Technical Process Management represent a unique combination of disciplines. Personally, I have the drive and determination to consistently achieve success as a leader in all of the organizations that I have worked with in the past. Is this the english, perfect essay for frost essay on poetry, you? Save time and order 50 Resume Objective Statements. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for 50 Resume Objective Statements. 1. On Early English Poetry! To pursue venerable career in a professional organization enable achieving company’s objectives of development, customer pleasure and service. 2. Together with assets for instance sincerity, truthfulness and struggle for#8230; Resume Objectives That Guarantee You Won’t Get Hired.

I work as a recruiter for a large insurance company, and lately I’ve seen a lot of resumes that would have been better off without an objective statement. These days,#8230; An Effective Resume And Cover Letter. Frost Essay On Poetry! An effective resume and cover letter is a valuable lesson for on early renaissance poetry, students entering the nomenclature, work force. This assignment gave great insight into the development of the essay, resume and free will, cover letter#8230;. Pro Forma Statements. Introduction It is essential for industries to be capable to evaluate their economic and financial condition and enhance their approaches to meet the market demands. The task of on early renaissance poetry, financial analysts#8230; Managing By Objective. Management by objectives (MBO) is a process through which specific goals are set collaboratively for the organization as a whole and all units and individuals within it. The goals are#8230; Job evaluation and its objective.

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Renaissance: Impact on English …

conclusion law essay Found on renaissance english, the site US History resources in the translation by Dean Russell for the Foundation for Economic Education . Reformatted by frost essay on poetry Francois-Rene Rideau for Bastiat.org . Note that the essay renaissance headlines were introduced by the FEE translation, and were not present in the original text in French La loi When a reviewer wishes to give special recognition to a book, he predicts that it will still be read “a hundred years from now.” The Law , first published as a pamphlet in June, 1850, is education term paper, already more than a hundred years old. And because its truths are eternal, it will still be read when another century has passed. Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850) was a French economist, statesman, and author. He did most of his writing during the years just before and immediately following the Revolution of February 1848. This was the period when France was rapidly turning to complete socialism. Essay On Early? As a Deputy to free thesis, the Legislative Assembly, Mr. Bastiat was studying and essay renaissance english poetry explaining each socialist fallacy as it appeared. And he explained how socialism must inevitably degenerate into communism.

But most of new graduate letters, his countrymen chose to ignore his logic. The Law is on early renaissance english poetry, here presented again because the same situation exists in America today as in the France of free, 1848. The same socialist-communist ideas and plans that were then adopted in France are now sweeping America. The explanations and arguments then advanced against socialism by Mr. Bastiat are word for word equally valid today. Essay On Early Renaissance English? His ideas deserve a serious hearing. The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc. Irvington-on-Hudson, New York 10533. This translation of The Law was done by Dean Russell of The Foundation staff. His objective was an nurse resume, accurate rendering of Mr. Bastiat's words and ideas into twentieth century, idiomatic English.

A nineteenth century translation of The Law, made in 1853 in England by an unidentified contemporary of Mr. Bastiat, was of much value as a check against this translation. In addition, Dean Russell had his work reviewed by essay poetry Bertrand de Jouvenel, the noted French economist, historian, and author who is also thoroughly familiar with the English language. While Mr. de Jouvenel offered many valuable corrections and suggestions, it should be clearly understood that Dr. Russell bears full responsibility for the translation. The law perverted! And the police powers of the humanism state perverted along with it! The law, I say, not only turned from its proper purpose but made to follow an entirely contrary purpose! The law become the weapon of every kind of greed! Instead of essay renaissance english poetry, checking crime, the law itself guilty of the evils it is supposed to punish!

If this is true, it is a serious fact, and moral duty requires me to call the attention of my fellow-citizens to it. We hold from God the cued thesis nomenclature gift which includes all others. This gift is life physical, intellectual, and moral life. But life cannot maintain itself alone. The Creator of essay renaissance english, life has entrusted us with the responsibility of preserving, developing, and perfecting it. In order that we may accomplish this, He has provided us with a collection of marvelous faculties. And He has put us in the midst of a variety of natural resources. By the application of our faculties to these natural resources we convert them into products, and use them. This process is necessary in order that life may run its appointed course. Life, faculties, production in other words, individuality, liberty, property this is new graduate, man. Essay Renaissance Poetry? And in spite of the cunning of psych nurse resume, artful political leaders, these three gifts from God precede all human legislation, and on early english are superior to it.

Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place. What, then, is law? It is the thesis nomenclature collective organization of the individual right to lawful defense. Each of us has a natural right from God to defend his person, his liberty, and his property. Essay On Early English? These are the three basic requirements of life, and lpn cover letters the preservation of any one of them is completely dependent upon the preservation of the other two. For what are our faculties but the extension of our individuality? And what is property but an extension of our faculties? If every person has the right to defend even by force his person, his liberty, and his property, then it follows that a group of men have the right to organize and support a common force to essay on early renaissance, protect these rights constantly. Thus the principle of collective right its reason for will existing, its lawfulness is based on individual right. And the common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute.

Thus, since an individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force for the same reason cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups. Such a perversion of force would be, in essay poetry both cases, contrary to our premise. Force has been given to us to defend our own individual rights. Who will dare to say that force has been given to us to destroy the equal rights of cued thesis nomenclature, our brothers? Since no individual acting separately can lawfully use force to destroy the rights of others, does it not logically follow that the same principle also applies to the common force that is nothing more than the organized combination of the english individual forces? If this is true, then nothing can be more evident than this: The law is the organization of the natural right of lawful defense. It is the substitution of a common force for individual forces. And this common force is to philosophy, do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful right to english poetry, do: to on poetry, protect persons, liberties, and properties; to maintain the right of essay renaissance poetry, each, and to cause justice to reign over us all. If a nation were founded on this basis, it seems to me that order would prevail among the people, in term thought as well as in deed. It seems to me that such a nation would have the most simple, easy to accept, economical, limited, nonoppressive, just, and enduring government imaginable whatever its political form might be. Under such an essay renaissance english, administration, everyone would understand that he possessed all the essay on poetry privileges as well as all the responsibilities of his existence.

No one would have any argument with government, provided that his person was respected, his labor was free, and the fruits of his labor were protected against all unjust attack. When successful, we would not have to thank the state for our success. And, conversely, when unsuccessful, we would no more think of blaming the state for our misfortune than would the farmers blame the essay renaissance english poetry state because of nurse, hail or frost. The state would be felt only by the invaluable blessings of essay poetry, safety provided by this concept of government. It can be further stated that, thanks to the non-intervention of the state in private affairs, our wants and their satisfactions would develop themselves in a logical manner. Nomenclature? We would not see poor families seeking literary instruction before they have bread. We would not see cities populated at the expense of poetry, rural districts, nor rural districts at the expense of cities. We would not see the great displacements of capital, labor, and population that are caused by legislative decisions. The sources of our existence are made uncertain and precarious by these state-created displacements. Education Term Paper? And, furthermore, these acts burden the government with increased responsibilities.

But, unfortunately, law by no means confines itself to its proper functions. And when it has exceeded its proper functions, it has not done so merely in some inconsequential and debatable matters. The law has gone further than this; it has acted in direct opposition to renaissance, its own purpose. The law has been used to destroy its own objective: It has been applied to annihilating the justice that it was supposed to maintain; to will, limiting and essay on early destroying rights which its real purpose was to respect. The law has placed the collective force at the disposal of the unscrupulous who wish, without risk, to exploit the person, liberty, and property of others. It has converted plunder into a right, in order to free thesis, protect plunder. And it has converted lawful defense into a crime, in order to punish lawful defense. How has this perversion of the law been accomplished?

And what have been the results? The law has been perverted by the influence of two entirely different causes: stupid greed and false philanthropy. Let us speak of the first. Self-preservation and english self-development are common aspirations among all people. And if everyone enjoyed the psych nurse unrestricted use of his faculties and the free disposition of the fruits of his labor, social progress would be ceaseless, uninterrupted, and unfailing.

But there is also another tendency that is common among people. When they can, they wish to live and prosper at the expense of others. This is no rash accusation. Nor does it come from a gloomy and uncharitable spirit. The annals of history bear witness to essay, the truth of it: the incessant wars, mass migrations, religious persecutions, universal slavery, dishonesty in will commerce, and monopolies. Essay Poetry? This fatal desire has its origin in the very nature of man in resume that primitive, universal, and english insuppressible instinct that impels him to satisfy his desires with the least possible pain.

Man can live and satisfy his wants only by ceaseless labor; by the ceaseless application of his faculties to natural resources. This process is the psych origin of property. But it is also true that a man may live and satisfy his wants by seizing and consuming the products of the labor of others. This process is the origin of plunder. Now since man is naturally inclined to avoid pain and since labor is pain in itself it follows that men will resort to plunder whenever plunder is easier than work. History shows this quite clearly. And under these conditions, neither religion nor morality can stop it. When, then, does plunder stop? It stops when it becomes more painful and more dangerous than labor.

It is evident, then, that the proper purpose of law is to renaissance, use the power of its collective force to essays humanism, stop this fatal tendency to plunder instead of to work. On Early Renaissance English Poetry? All the measures of the law should protect property and punish plunder. But, generally, the law is letters, made by essay on early renaissance poetry one man or one class of men. And since law cannot operate without the sanction and support of nurse, a dominating force, this force must be entrusted to those who make the laws. This fact, combined with the fatal tendency that exists in the heart of man to satisfy his wants with the least possible effort, explains the almost universal perversion of the law. Thus it is easy to understand how law, instead of checking injustice, becomes the invincible weapon of injustice. It is essay, easy to understand why the law is used by the legislator to destroy in varying degrees among the rest of the people, their personal independence by slavery, their liberty by oppression, and their property by plunder.

This is done for essay on poetry the benefit of the person who makes the law, and in proportion to the power that he holds. Men naturally rebel against the injustice of which they are victims. Thus, when plunder is organized by essay on early renaissance poetry law for thesis nomenclature the profit of those who make the law, all the plundered classes try somehow to enter by peaceful or revolutionary means into the making of laws. According to their degree of enlightenment, these plundered classes may propose one of two entirely different purposes when they attempt to essay english, attain political power: Either they may wish to stop lawful plunder, or they may wish to share in it. Woe to the nation when this latter purpose prevails among the mass victims of on poetry, lawful plunder when they, in turn, seize the power to make laws!

Until that happens, the few practice lawful plunder upon the many, a common practice where the on early renaissance english right to participate in the making of law is limited to a few persons. New Graduate Letters? But then, participation in the making of law becomes universal. And then, men seek to balance their conflicting interests by universal plunder. Instead of rooting out the injustices found in society, they make these injustices general. Essay On Early Poetry? As soon as the plundered classes gain political power, they establish a system of frost on poetry, reprisals against other classes. They do not abolish legal plunder. (This objective would demand more enlightenment than they possess.) Instead, they emulate their evil predecessors by participating in essay poetry this legal plunder, even though it is against their own interests. It is as if it were necessary, before a reign of justice appears, for everyone to suffer a cruel retribution some for free will their evilness, and some for their lack of understanding. It is impossible to introduce into society a greater change and a greater evil than this: the conversion of the law into an instrument of plunder. What are the consequences of such a perversion?

It would require volumes to poetry, describe them all. Thus we must content ourselves with pointing out the most striking. In the cued thesis nomenclature first place, it erases from everyone's conscience the distinction between justice and injustice. No society can exist unless the laws are respected to a certain degree. The safest way to make laws respected is to make them respectable.

When law and morality contradict each other, the citizen has the cruel alternative of either losing his moral sense or losing his respect for the law. These two evils are of equal consequence, and it would be difficult for a person to choose between them. The nature of law is to maintain justice. This is so much the case that, in the minds of the people, law and justice are one and the same thing. There is in all of us a strong disposition to believe that anything lawful is also legitimate.

This belief is so widespread that many persons have erroneously held that things are “just” because law makes them so. Thus, in order to make plunder appear just and essay on early renaissance english poetry sacred to thesis nomenclature, many consciences, it is only necessary for the law to decree and sanction it. Slavery, restrictions, and monopoly find defenders not only among those who profit from them but also among those who suffer from them. If you suggest a doubt as to the morality of these institutions, it is boldly said that “You are a dangerous innovator, a utopian, a theorist, a subversive; you would shatter the foundation upon which society rests.” If you lecture upon on early english morality or upon political science, there will be found official organizations petitioning the government in this vein of thought: “That science no longer be taught exclusively from the point of view of free trade (of liberty, of new graduate letters, property, and of justice) as has been the essay on early poetry case until now, but also, in the future, science is to be especially taught from the viewpoint of the letters facts and laws that regulate French industry (facts and laws which are contrary to renaissance english poetry, liberty, to property, and to justice). That, in special government-endowed teaching positions, the professor rigorously refrain from endangering in the slightest degree the respect due to the laws now in force.” [1] Thus, if there exists a law which sanctions slavery or monopoly, oppression or robbery, in any form whatever, it must not even be mentioned. For how can it be mentioned without damaging the respect which it inspires? Still further, morality and political economy must be taught from the point of essay on early english, view of this law; from the supposition that it must be a just law merely because it is a law. Another effect of psych nurse, this tragic perversion of the law is on early, that it gives an exaggerated importance to political passions and conflicts, and to cued thesis nomenclature, politics in general.

I could prove this assertion in essay on early a thousand ways. But, by way of illustration, I shall limit myself to a subject that has lately occupied the humanism minds of everyone: universal suffrage. The followers of Rousseau's school of thought who consider themselves far advanced, but whom I consider twenty centuries behind the times will not agree with me on this. But universal suffrage using the word in on early english poetry its strictest sense is not one of those sacred dogmas which it is a crime to examine or doubt. In fact, serious objections may be made to universal suffrage. In the first place the word universal conceals a gross fallacy. For example, there are 36 million people in France.

Thus, to cued, make the right of suffrage universal, there should be 36 million voters. But the most extended system permits only 9 million people to renaissance english poetry, vote. Three persons out of four are excluded. And more than this, they are excluded by the fourth. This fourth person advances the principle of incapacity as his reason for excluding the others. Universal suffrage means, then, universal suffrage for those who are capable. But there remains this question of fact: Who is capable? Are minors, females, insane persons, and essays humanism persons who have committed certain major crimes the only ones to be determined incapable? A closer examination of the subject shows us the motive which causes the right of suffrage to be based upon the supposition of incapacity.

The motive is that the elector or voter does not exercise this right for essay english poetry himself alone, but for everybody. The most extended elective system and the most restricted elective system are alike in this respect. They differ only in respect to what constitutes incapacity. Essays Philosophy Humanism? It is not a difference of principle, but merely a difference of essay on early renaissance english, degree. If, as the republicans of our present-day Greek and Roman schools of thought pretend, the essays philosophy humanism right of suffrage arrives with one's birth, it would be an essay renaissance english poetry, injustice for adults to prevent women and children from voting. Why are they prevented?

Because they are presumed to thesis nomenclature, be incapable. And why is incapacity a motive for exclusion? Because it is not the voter alone who suffers the consequences of his vote; because each vote touches and affects everyone in the entire community; because the people in the community have a right to demand some safeguards concerning the acts upon which their welfare and existence depend. I know what might be said in answer to this; what the objections might be. But this is not the place to exhaust a controversy of this nature. I wish merely to observe here that this controversy over universal suffrage (as well as most other political questions) which agitates, excites, and overthrows nations, would lose nearly all of its importance if the essay on early english law had always been what it ought to be.

In fact, if law were restricted to protecting all persons, all liberties, and all properties; if law were nothing more than the organized combination of the individual's right to self defense; if law were the cued obstacle, the check, the punisher of english, all oppression and plunder is it likely that we citizens would then argue much about the extent of the franchise? Under these circumstances, is it likely that the extent of the special term paper right to vote would endanger that supreme good, the public peace? Is it likely that the excluded classes would refuse to peaceably await the coming of their right to vote? Is it likely that those who had the essay on early renaissance poetry right to vote would jealously defend their privilege? If the law were confined to its proper functions, everyone's interest in the law would be the same. Is it not clear that, under these circumstances, those who voted could not inconvenience those who did not vote? But on the other hand, imagine that this fatal principle has been introduced: Under the pretense of organization, regulation, protection, or encouragement, the law takes property from letters, one person and gives it to another; the law takes the wealth of all and gives it to a few whether farmers, manufacturers, ship owners, artists, or comedians. Under these circumstances, then certainly every class will aspire to grasp the law, and logically so. The excluded classes will furiously demand their right to vote and will overthrow society rather than not to essay renaissance poetry, obtain it.

Even beggars and vagabonds will then prove to you that they also have an incontestable title to psych resume, vote. They will say to you: We cannot buy wine, tobacco, or salt without paying the tax. Essay Renaissance? And a part of the tax that we pay is given by law in privileges and subsidies to men who are richer than we are. Others use the law to raise the letters prices of bread, meat, iron, or cloth.

Thus, since everyone else uses the law for his own profit, we also would like to use the law for our own profit. We demand from the law the right to relief , which is the poor man's plunder. To obtain this right, we also should be voters and legislators in order that we may organize Beggary on essay renaissance english poetry, a grand scale for our own class, as you have organized Protection on frost, a grand scale for essay on early renaissance english your class. Now don't tell us beggars that you will act for us, and then toss us, as Mr. Mimerel proposes, 600,000 francs to keep us quiet, like throwing us a bone to gnaw. We have other claims. And anyway, we wish to bargain for ourselves as other classes have bargained for themselves!

And what can you say to answer that argument! As long as it is admitted that the free thesis law may be diverted from on early english, its true purpose that it may violate property instead of protecting it then everyone will want to participate in making the law, either to protect himself against lpn cover plunder or to use it for plunder. Political questions will always be prejudicial, dominant, and all-absorbing. There will be fighting at the door of the Legislative Palace, and the struggle within will be no less furious. To know this, it is hardly necessary to examine what transpires in the French and English legislatures; merely to understand the poetry issue is to frost on poetry, know the answer. Is there any need to offer proof that this odious perversion of the essay on early law is a perpetual source of hatred and discord; that it tends to thesis nomenclature, destroy society itself?

If such proof is needed, look at the United States [in 1850]. There is no country in the world where the law is kept more within its proper domain: the protection of every person's liberty and property. As a consequence of this, there appears to be no country in the world where the social order rests on a firmer foundation. But even in essay renaissance poetry the United States, there are two issues and nomenclature only two that have always endangered the public peace. What are these two issues? They are slavery and tariffs. These are the only two issues where, contrary to the general spirit of the essay on early poetry republic of the United States, law has assumed the character of a plunderer. Slavery is a violation, by law, of free will thesis, liberty.

The protective tariff is a violation, by law, of property. It is a most remarkable fact that this double legal crime a sorrowful inheritance from the Old World should be the only issue which can, and perhaps will, lead to the ruin of the Union. It is indeed impossible to imagine, at the very heart of a society, a more astounding fact than this: The law has come to be an instrument of injustice . On Early Renaissance? And if this fact brings terrible consequences to cued thesis, the United States where the proper purpose of the law has been perverted only in the instances of essay on early renaissance english poetry, slavery and tariffs what must be the consequences in Europe, where the perversion of the law is a principle; a system? Mr. Essays Philosophy? de Montalembert [politician and writer] adopting the thought contained in a famous proclamation by Mr. Carlier, has said: We must make war against socialism. According to the definition of socialism advanced by Mr. Essay Poetry? Charles Dupin, he meant: We must make war against plunder. But of what plunder was he speaking? For there are two kinds of plunder: legal and illegal. I do not think that illegal plunder, such as theft or swindling which the penal code defines, anticipates, and punishes can be called socialism.

It is not this kind of plunder that systematically threatens the foundations of society. Anyway, the essays philosophy humanism war against this kind of plunder has not waited for the command of these gentlemen. The war against illegal plunder has been fought since the beginning of the world. Essay English? Long before the new graduate Revolution of February 1848 long before the appearance even of socialism itself France had provided police, judges, gendarmes, prisons, dungeons, and scaffolds for the purpose of fighting illegal plunder. The law itself conducts this war, and it is my wish and opinion that the law should always maintain this attitude toward plunder. But it does not always do this. Sometimes the law defends plunder and on early participates in it. Thus the beneficiaries are spared the shame, danger, and scruple which their acts would otherwise involve. Sometimes the law places the special education term paper whole apparatus of judges, police, prisons, and gendarmes at essay renaissance english the service of the plunderers, and treats the victim when he defends himself as a criminal. In short, there is free thesis, a legal plunder , and essay on early renaissance it is of this, no doubt, that Mr. de Montalembert speaks.

This legal plunder may be only an isolated stain among the legislative measures of the psych nurse people. Essay On Early English Poetry? If so, it is new graduate lpn cover, best to wipe it out with a minimum of speeches and essay denunciations and in spite of the uproar of the vested interests. But how is this legal plunder to be identified? Quite simply. See if the law takes from some persons what belongs to them, and gives it to essays, other persons to whom it does not belong. Essay On Early Renaissance English Poetry? See if the law benefits one citizen at the expense of another by doing what the citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime.

Then abolish this law without delay, for essays philosophy humanism it is not only an evil itself, but also it is a fertile source for further evils because it invites reprisals. On Early Renaissance English? If such a law which may be an isolated case is frost on poetry, not abolished immediately, it will spread, multiply, and develop into a system. The person who profits from this law will complain bitterly, defending his acquired rights . He will claim that the state is obligated to renaissance english, protect and encourage his particular industry; that this procedure enriches the state because the free protected industry is thus able to spend more and to pay higher wages to the poor workingmen. Do not listen to this sophistry by vested interests. The acceptance of these arguments will build legal plunder into a whole system. Essay Renaissance English Poetry? In fact, this has already occurred. The present-day delusion is an attempt to enrich everyone at the expense of everyone else; to make plunder universal under the pretense of organizing it. Now, legal plunder can be committed in an infinite number of ways. Thus we have an infinite number of plans for organizing it: tariffs, protection, benefits, subsidies, encouragements, progressive taxation, public schools, guaranteed jobs, guaranteed profits, minimum wages, a right to relief, a right to the tools of labor, free credit, and so on, and so on.

All these plans as a whole with their common aim of legal plunder constitute socialism. Now, since under this definition socialism is a body of doctrine, what attack can be made against it other than a war of doctrine? If you find this socialistic doctrine to be false, absurd, and evil, then refute it. And the essays philosophy more false, the more absurd, and english poetry the more evil it is, the easier it will be to refute. Above all, if you wish to be strong, begin by rooting out every particle of socialism that may have crept into your legislation. This will be no light task. Mr. de Montalembert has been accused of desiring to fight socialism by the use of essays philosophy humanism, brute force. Essay Renaissance? He ought to be exonerated from essays humanism, this accusation, for on early he has plainly said: The war that we must fight against socialism must be in harmony with law, honor, and justice. But why does not Mr. de Montalembert see that he has placed himself in lpn cover a vicious circle?

You would use the law to essay on early english poetry, oppose socialism? But it is upon the law that socialism itself relies. Socialists desire to practice legal plunder, not illegal plunder. Free Will? Socialists, like all other monopolists, desire to make the law their own weapon. And when once the law is on the side of socialism, how can it be used against socialism?

For when plunder is abetted by the law, it does not fear your courts, your gendarmes, and your prisons. Rather, it may call upon them for help. To prevent this, you would exclude socialism from entering into the making of laws? You would prevent socialists from entering the Legislative Palace? You shall not succeed, I predict, so long as legal plunder continues to be the main business of the legislature. It is illogical in renaissance english fact, absurd to assume otherwise. This question of legal plunder must be settled once and for all, and there are only three ways to settle it: The few plunder the will many.

Everybody plunders everybody. Nobody plunders anybody. We must make our choice among limited plunder, universal plunder, and no plunder. The law can follow only one of these three. Limited legal plunder: This system prevailed when the english poetry right to vote was restricted. One would turn back to this system to prevent the invasion of socialism. Universal legal plunder: We have been threatened with this system since the franchise was made universal. The newly enfranchised majority has decided to formulate law on the same principle of legal plunder that was used by their predecessors when the vote was limited.

No legal plunder: This is the principle of justice, peace, order, stability, harmony, and logic. Until the day of my death, I shall proclaim this principle with all the force of my lungs (which alas! is all too inadequate). [2] And, in all sincerity, can anything more than the absence of plunder be required of the law? Can the law which necessarily requires the use of thesis, force rationally be used for renaissance english poetry anything except protecting the rights of everyone? I defy anyone to extend it beyond this purpose without perverting it and, consequently, turning might against right.

This is the most fatal and most illogical social perversion that can possibly be imagined. It must be admitted that the true solution so long searched for in the area of social relationships is contained in these simple words: Law is organized justice. Now this must be said: When justice is organized by law that is, by force this excludes the idea of essay, using law (force) to organize any human activity whatever, whether it be labor, charity, agriculture, commerce, industry, education, art, or religion. The organizing by law of on early renaissance english, any one of these would inevitably destroy the essay on poetry essential organization justice. For truly, how can we imagine force being used against essay on early renaissance poetry the liberty of citizens without it also being used against justice, and thus acting against its proper purpose? Here I encounter the most popular fallacy of frost, our times. It is not considered sufficient that the law should be just; it must be philanthropic. Nor is essay on early english poetry, it sufficient that the law should guarantee to every citizen the free and inoffensive use of term paper, his faculties for physical, intellectual, and moral self-improvement. Essay On Early Renaissance English Poetry? Instead, it is demanded that the law should directly extend welfare, education, and morality throughout the nation. This is the seductive lure of socialism.

And I repeat again: These two uses of the law are in direct contradiction to each other. We must choose between them. A citizen cannot at the same time be free and not free. Mr. de Lamartine once wrote to me thusly: Your doctrine is only the letters half of my program. You have stopped at liberty; I go on to fraternity. Essay On Early Renaissance English? I answered him: The second half of your program will destroy the first. Legal plunder has two roots: One of them, as I have said before, is in human greed; the other is in false philanthropy. At this point, I think that I should explain exactly what I mean by the word plunder. [3] I do not, as is essay on poetry, often done, use the word in any vague, uncertain, approximate, or metaphorical sense. I use it in its scientific acceptance as expressing the idea opposite to that of property [wages, land, money, or whatever]. When a portion of essay on early renaissance english, wealth is transferred from the person who owns it without his consent and without compensation, and whether by force or by fraud to anyone who does not own it, then I say that property is violated; that an act of special education term paper, plunder is committed.

I say that this act is exactly what the law is supposed to suppress, always and everywhere. When the law itself commits this act that it is supposed to suppress, I say that plunder is essay on early renaissance, still committed, and I add that from the point of view of essays, society and welfare, this aggression against rights is even worse. In this case of legal plunder, however, the person who receives the benefits is not responsible for the act of plundering. The responsibility for this legal plunder rests with the law, the legislator, and society itself. Therein lies the political danger. It is to be regretted that the essay poetry word plunder is offensive. I have tried in vain to find an inoffensive word, for I would not at any time especially now wish to humanism, add an irritating word to essay renaissance english, our dissentions. Thus, whether I am believed or not, I declare that I do not mean to attack the intentions or the morality of anyone. Rather, I am attacking an idea which I believe to be false; a system which appears to me to be unjust; an injustice so independent of essays philosophy, personal intentions that each of us profits from it without wishing to do so, and suffers from essay renaissance english, it without knowing the cause of the suffering. The sincerity of those who advocate protectionism, socialism, and essays communism is not here questioned.

Any writer who would do that must be influenced by a political spirit or a political fear. It is to be pointed out, however, that protectionism, socialism, and communism are basically the same plant in three different stages of its growth. All that can be said is that legal plunder is more visible in communism because it is essay on early renaissance, complete plunder; and in protectionism because the plunder is limited to psych, specific groups and industries. [4] Thus it follows that, of the three systems, socialism is the vaguest, the essay renaissance most indecisive, and, consequently, the most sincere stage of cued nomenclature, development. But sincere or insincere, the essay on early renaissance english poetry intentions of persons are not here under question. Frost Essay? In fact, I have already said that legal plunder is based partially on philanthropy, even though it is a false philanthropy. With this explanation, let us examine the value the origin and the tendency of this popular aspiration which claims to accomplish the general welfare by general plunder. Since the law organizes justice, the essay english poetry socialists ask why the law should not also organize labor, education, and religion. Why should not law be used for these purposes? Because it could not organize labor, education, and religion without destroying justice.

We must remember that law is force, and that, consequently, the proper functions of the law cannot lawfully extend beyond the proper functions of force. When law and frost essay force keep a person within the essay poetry bounds of justice, they impose nothing but a mere negation. They oblige him only to abstain from harming others. Nurse Resume? They violate neither his personality, his liberty, nor his property. They safeguard all of these. They are defensive; they defend equally the rights of on early renaissance english, all. The harmlessness of the mission performed by law and lawful defense is self-evident; the usefulness is obvious; and the legitimacy cannot be disputed. As a friend of essays philosophy, mine once remarked, this negative concept of law is so true that the statement, the purpose of the law is to cause justice to reign , is not a rigorously accurate statement.

It ought to be stated that the purpose of the law is to prevent injustice from reigning . In fact, it is injustice , instead of justice, that has an existence of its own. Justice is achieved only when injustice is absent. But when the law, by on early renaissance means of its necessary agent, force, imposes upon men a regulation of free will, labor, a method or a subject of education, a religious faith or creed then the law is no longer negative; it acts positively upon people. It substitutes the will of the legislator for essay poetry their own wills; the initiative of the legislator for their own initiatives. When this happens, the people no longer need to discuss, to compare, to plan ahead; the law does all this for them. Intelligence becomes a useless prop for the people; they cease to frost essay on poetry, be men; they lose their personality, their liberty, their property. Try to imagine a regulation of labor imposed by force that is not a violation of liberty; a transfer of wealth imposed by force that is not a violation of property. If you cannot reconcile these contradictions, then you must conclude that the law cannot organize labor and essay renaissance poetry industry without organizing injustice. When a politician views society from the seclusion of his office, he is struck by essays philosophy humanism the spectacle of the inequality that he sees. He deplores the deprivations which are the lot of on early poetry, so many of our brothers, deprivations which appear to be even sadder when contrasted with luxury and term paper wealth.

Perhaps the politician should ask himself whether this state of essay on early renaissance english, affairs has not been caused by old conquests and lootings, and by essays philosophy humanism more recent legal plunder. Perhaps he should consider this proposition: Since all persons seek well-being and perfection, would not a condition of justice be sufficient to cause the greatest efforts toward progress, and the greatest possible equality that is compatible with individual responsibility? Would not this be in accord with the concept of on early english, individual responsibility which God has willed in lpn cover order that mankind may have the choice between vice and english virtue, and the resulting punishment and reward? But the politician never gives this a thought. His mind turns to organizations, combinations, and arrangements legal or apparently legal. He attempts to remedy the evil by increasing and perpetuating the free very thing that caused the evil in the first place: legal plunder. We have seen that justice is on early renaissance english poetry, a negative concept.

Is there even one of these positive legal actions that does not contain the principle of plunder? You say: There are persons who have no money, and you turn to the law. But the law is not a breast that fills itself with milk. Nor are the lacteal veins of the cued law supplied with milk from a source outside the society. Nothing can enter the essay on early public treasury for the benefit of one citizen or one class unless other citizens and other classes have been forced to send it in. Psych? If every person draws from the treasury the amount that he has put in it, it is true that the law then plunders nobody. On Early Poetry? But this procedure does nothing for the persons who have no money. It does not promote equality of income. The law can be an instrument of philosophy, equalization only as it takes from some persons and gives to essay english, other persons. When the law does this, it is an essay, instrument of plunder.

With this in mind, examine the protective tariffs, subsidies, guaranteed profits, guaranteed jobs, relief and welfare schemes, public education, progressive taxation, free credit, and public works. Essay On Early Renaissance English? You will find that they are always based on legal plunder, organized injustice. You say: There are persons who lack education, and essays philosophy humanism you turn to essay on early renaissance english poetry, the law. But the law is not, in itself, a torch of learning which shines its light abroad. The law extends over a society where some persons have knowledge and others do not; where some citizens need to learn, and others can teach. In this matter of education, the new graduate lpn cover letters law has only two alternatives: It can permit this transaction of teaching-and-learning to operate freely and without the use of force, or it can force human wills in this matter by taking from some of them enough to pay the teachers who are appointed by government to essay english, instruct others, without charge. But in thesis nomenclature this second case, the english poetry law commits legal plunder by violating liberty and property.

You say: Here are persons who are lacking in morality or religion, and you turn to the law. But law is force. And need I point out what a violent and futile effort it is to use force in the matters of morality and religion? It would seem that socialists, however self-complacent, could not avoid seeing this monstrous legal plunder that results from such systems and such efforts. New Graduate Lpn Cover? But what do the socialists do?

They cleverly disguise this legal plunder from poetry, others and free thesis even from on early renaissance poetry, themselves under the seductive names of fraternity, unity, organization, and association. Because we ask so little from the law only justice the socialists thereby assume that we reject fraternity, unity, organization, and association. Thesis? The socialists brand us with the name individualist . But we assure the essay renaissance english poetry socialists that we repudiate only forced organization, not natural organization. We repudiate the forms of association that are forced upon us, not free association. We repudiate forced fraternity, not true fraternity. We repudiate the artificial unity that does nothing more than deprive persons of individual responsibility. We do not repudiate the natural unity of mankind under Providence. Socialism, like the ancient ideas from essays humanism, which it springs, confuses the distinction between government and essay english society.

As a result of this, every time we object to a thing being done by government, the socialists conclude that we object to its being done at all. We disapprove of state education. Then the socialists say that we are opposed to any education. Will? We object to a state religion. Then the socialists say that we want no religion at all. We object to a state-enforced equality.

Then they say that we are against equality. On Early English? And so on, and so on. It is as if the socialists were to accuse us of not wanting persons to eat because we do not want the state to raise grain. How did politicians ever come to believe this weird idea that the psych nurse resume law could be made to produce what it does not contain the wealth, science, and religion that, in a positive sense, constitute prosperity? Is it due to the influence of our modern writers on public affairs?

Present-day writers especially those of the socialist school of thought base their various theories upon one common hypothesis: They divide mankind into two parts. People in general with the exception of the writer himself form the first group. The writer, all alone, forms the second and most important group. Surely this is the weirdest and most conceited notion that ever entered a human brain! In fact, these writers on public affairs begin by supposing that people have within themselves no means of discernment; no motivation to on early renaissance english, action. The writers assume that people are inert matter, passive particles, motionless atoms, at on poetry best a kind of vegetation indifferent to its own manner of existence. They assume that people are susceptible to being shaped by the will and essay english poetry hand of special education term, another person into an infinite variety of forms, more or less symmetrical, artistic, and perfected.

Moreover, not one of these writers on governmental affairs hesitates to imagine that he himself under the title of on early poetry, organizer, discoverer, legislator, or founder is special term, this will and hand, this universal motivating force, this creative power whose sublime mission is to mold these scattered materials persons into a society. These socialist writers look upon people in the same manner that the on early english gardener views his trees. Just as the gardener capriciously shapes the trees into pyramids, parasols, cubes, vases, fans, and other forms, just so does the socialist writer whimsically shape human beings into groups, series, centers, sub-centers, honeycombs, labor-corps, and will thesis other variations. And just as the gardener needs axes, pruning hooks, saws, and shears to shape his trees, just so does the socialist writer need the force that he can find only in law to shape human beings. On Early English? For this purpose, he devises tariff laws, tax laws, relief laws, and school laws. Socialists look upon people as raw material to be formed into social combinations. This is so true that, if by chance, the socialists have any doubts about the success of on poetry, these combinations, they will demand that a small portion of mankind be set aside to experiment upon . The popular idea of trying all systems is essay on early renaissance english, well known. And one socialist leader has been known seriously to demand that the Constituent Assembly give him a small district with all its inhabitants, to lpn cover, try his experiments upon.

In the same manner, an inventor makes a model before he constructs the essay full-sized machine; the chemist wastes some chemicals the farmer wastes some seeds and land to try out an idea. But what a difference there is between the gardener and his trees, between the inventor and cued thesis nomenclature his machine, between the chemist and his elements, between the farmer and his seeds! And in on early renaissance all sincerity, the socialist thinks that there is the same difference between him and mankind! It is no wonder that the special paper writers of the nineteenth century look upon society as an artificial creation of the legislator's genius. This idea the essay poetry fruit of classical education has taken possession of all the intellectuals and famous writers of our country. To these intellectuals and writers, the relationship between persons and the legislator appears to be the same as the relationship between the clay and the potter. Moreover, even where they have consented to recognize a principle of action in the heart of man and a principle of discernment in man's intellect they have considered these gifts from God to be fatal gifts. They have thought that persons, under the impulse of will, these two gifts, would fatally tend to essay renaissance english, ruin themselves. They assume that if the legislators left persons free to follow their own inclinations, they would arrive at atheism instead of religion, ignorance instead of knowledge, poverty instead of production and exchange.

According to these writers, it is indeed fortunate that Heaven has bestowed upon certain men governors and thesis nomenclature legislators the exact opposite inclinations, not only for their own sake but also for the sake of the rest of the poetry world! While mankind tends toward evil, the education paper legislators yearn for on early renaissance english poetry good; while mankind advances toward darkness, the legislators aspire for enlightenment; while mankind is drawn toward vice, the legislators are attracted toward virtue. Since they have decided that this is the true state of affairs, they then demand the psych nurse resume use of force in order to essay on early english poetry, substitute their own inclinations for those of the human race. Open at random any book on philosophy, politics, or history, and you will probably see how deeply rooted in special paper our country is this idea the child of classical studies, the mother of socialism. In all of them, you will probably find this idea that mankind is merely inert matter, receiving life, organization, morality, and prosperity from the power of the state. Renaissance? And even worse, it will be stated that mankind tends toward degeneration, and is stopped from free, this downward course only by the mysterious hand of the essay on early renaissance legislator. Nurse Resume? Conventional classical thought everywhere says that behind passive society there is a concealed power called law or legislator (or called by some other terminology that designates some unnamed person or persons of undisputed influence and authority) which moves, controls, benefits, and essay on early renaissance poetry improves mankind. Let us first consider a quotation from Bossuet [tutor to the Dauphin in the Court of Louis XIV] [5] : One of the psych things most strongly impressed (by whom?) upon the minds of the Egyptians was patriotism. No one was permitted to be useless to the state.

The law assigned to each one his work, which was handed down from father to son. No one was permitted to have two professions. Nor could a person change from english, one job to another. But there was one task to which all were forced to conform: the study of the laws and of wisdom. Ignorance of religion and of the essays philosophy humanism political regulations of the country was not excused under any circumstances. Moreover, each occupation was assigned (by whom?) to a certain district. Renaissance English Poetry? Among the good laws, one of the best was that everyone was trained (by whom?) to obey them. As a result of this, Egypt was filled with wonderful inventions, and nothing was neglected that could make life easy and quiet. Thus, according to Bossuet, persons derive nothing from themselves. Patriotism, prosperity, inventions, husbandry, science all of these are given to the people by the operation of the laws, the rulers. All that the people have to do is to bow to special education paper, leadership.

Bossuet carries this idea of the state as the source of essay english poetry, all progress even so far as to humanism, defend the Egyptians against the charge that they rejected wrestling and music. Essay English Poetry? He said: How is that possible? These arts were invented by essay Trismegistus [who was alleged to essay on early renaissance poetry, have been Chancellor to the Egyptian god Osiris]. And again among the Persians, Bossuet claims that all comes from special term paper, above: One of the first responsibilities of the prince was to encourage agriculture. Essay English Poetry? Just as there were offices established for the regulation of armies, just so were there offices for the direction of special education, farm work. On Early Renaissance English? The Persian people were inspired with an overwhelming respect for royal authority. And according to Bossuet, the Greek people, although exceedingly intelligent, had no sense of frost essay on poetry, personal responsibility; like dogs and horses, they themselves could not have invented the most simple games:

The Greeks, naturally intelligent and courageous, had been early cultivated by the kings and settlers who had come from Egypt. From these Egyptian rulers, the Greek people had learned bodily exercises, foot races , and horse and chariot races. But the best thing that the Egyptians had taught the Greeks was to become docile, and to permit themselves to english poetry, be formed by the law for the public good. It cannot be disputed that these classical theories [advanced by these latter-day teachers, writers, legislators, economists, and philosophers] held that everything came to the people from a source outside themselves. As another example, take Fenelon [archbishop, author, and instructor to the Duke of Burgundy]. He was a witness to the power of Louis XIV. This, plus the fact that he was nurtured in the classical studies and the admiration of antiquity, naturally caused Fenelon to will, accept the idea that mankind should be passive; that the misfortunes and the prosperity vices and virtues of people are caused by the external influence exercised upon them by the law and the legislators. Thus, in his Utopia of Salentum , he puts men with all their interests, faculties, desires, and possessions under the absolute discretion of the legislator.

Whatever the issue may be, persons do not decide it for themselves; the prince decides for them. The prince is depicted as the soul of essay on early renaissance poetry, this shapeless mass of free, people who form the nation. In the prince resides the thought, the foresight, all progress, and the principle of all organization. Thus all responsibility rests with him. The whole of the tenth book of Fenelon's Telemachus proves this. Essay Renaissance Poetry? I refer the reader to it, and content myself with quoting at frost essay random from this celebrated work to which, in every other respect, I am the first to pay homage. With the amazing credulity which is typical of the classicists, Fenelon ignores the essay authority of reason and facts when he attributes the general happiness of the Egyptians, not to their own wisdom but to the wisdom of their kings: We could not turn our eyes to either shore without seeing rich towns and country estates most agreeably located; fields, never fallowed, covered with golden crops every year; meadows full of flocks; workers bending under the weight of the fruit which the earth lavished upon essays its cultivators; shepherds who made the echoes resound with the soft notes from their pipes and essay renaissance flutes. Happy, said Mentor, is the psych people governed by a wise king. Later, Mentor desired that I observe the contentment and essay on early renaissance poetry abundance which covered all Egypt, where twenty-two thousand cities could be counted.

He admired the good police regulations in the cities; the justice rendered in frost essay favor of the poor against english the rich; the sound education of the children in obedience, labor, sobriety, and the love of the arts and nurse letters; the exactness with which all religious ceremonies were performed; the unselfishness, the high regard for honor, the faithfulness to men, and the fear of the gods which every father taught his children. He never stopped admiring the prosperity of the country. Happy, said he, is the people ruled by a wise king in such a manner. Fenelon's idyl on Crete is even more alluring. Mentor is made to say:

All that you see in this wonderful island results from the laws of Minos. The education which he ordained for the children makes their bodies strong and robust. From the very beginning, one accustoms the children to a life of frugality and labor, because one assumes that all pleasures of the senses weaken both body and mind. Thus one allows them no pleasure except that of becoming invincible by virtue, and english poetry of acquiring glory. Cued Nomenclature? Here one punishes three vices that go unpunished among other people: ingratitude, hypocrisy, and greed. There is essay on early renaissance, no need to punish persons for pomp and dissipation, for new graduate they are unknown in Crete. No costly furniture, no magnificent clothing, no delicious feasts, no gilded palaces are permitted. Thus does Mentor prepare his student to mold and to essay english poetry, manipulate doubtless with the best of intentions the special paper people of essay on early english, Ithaca. And to convince the student of the wisdom of these ideas, Mentor recites to essay on poetry, him the example of Salentum.

It is from essay on early renaissance poetry, this sort of resume, philosophy that we receive our first political ideas! We are taught to treat persons much as an instructor in agriculture teaches farmers to prepare and tend the soil. Now listen to the great Montesquieu on this same subject: To maintain the spirit of commerce, it is necessary that all the laws must favor it. On Early Renaissance? These laws, by proportionately dividing up the fortunes as they are made in commerce, should provide every poor citizen with sufficiently easy circumstances to enable him to work like the others. These same laws should put every rich citizen in such lowered circumstances as to force him to work in order to thesis nomenclature, keep or to gain. Thus the laws are to dispose of essay on early renaissance, all fortunes! Although real equality is the soul of the state in a democracy, yet this is on poetry, so difficult to renaissance english, establish that an extreme precision in this matter would not always be desirable. It is sufficient that there be established a census to reduce or fix these differences in wealth within a certain limit.

After this is done, it remains for specific laws to equalize inequality by imposing burdens upon the rich and granting relief to the poor. Here again we find the idea of equalizing fortunes by law, by nomenclature force. In Greece, there were two kinds of republics. One, Sparta, was military; the poetry other, Athens, was commercial. In the thesis former, it was desired that the citizens be idle; in the latter, love of labor was encouraged . Note the marvelous genius of these legislators: By debasing all established customs by mixing the usual concepts of all virtues they knew in advance that the world would admire their wisdom. Lycurgus gave stability to his city of Sparta by combining petty thievery with the essay on early poetry soul of justice; by combining the most complete bondage with the thesis most extreme liberty; by combining the most atrocious beliefs with the greatest moderation. He appeared to deprive his city of all its resources, arts, commerce, money, and defenses. In Sparta, ambition went without the hope of material reward. Natural affection found no outlet because a man was neither son, husband, nor father. Even chastity was no longer considered becoming.

By this road, Lycurgus led Sparta on to greatness and glory. This boldness which was to be found in the institutions of Greece has been repeated in the midst of the essay renaissance english degeneracy and corruption of our modern times . An occasional honest legislator has molded a people in whom integrity appears as natural as courage in the Spartans. Mr. William Penn, for example, is a true Lycurgus. Even though Mr.

Penn had peace as his objectivity while Lycurgus had war as his objective they resemble each other in that their moral prestige over free men allowed them to overcome prejudices, to subdue passions, and to lead their respective peoples into new paths. The country of Paraguay furnishes us with another example [of a people who, for their own good, are molded by their legislators]. [6] Now it is true that if one considers the sheer pleasure of commanding to be the greatest joy in life, he contemplates a crime against society; it will, however, always be a noble ideal to govern men in a manner that will make them happier. Those who desire to establish similar institutions must do as follows: Establish common ownership of property as in the republic of Plato; revere the gods as Plato commanded; prevent foreigners from mingling with the people, in order to preserve the customs; let the state, instead of the citizens, establish commerce. The legislators should supply arts instead of luxuries; they should satisfy needs instead of desires. Those who are subject to new graduate lpn cover, vulgar infatuation may exclaim: Montesquieu has said this! So it's magnificent! It's sublime!

As for me, I have the courage of my own opinion. I say: What! You have the essay on early renaissance english nerve to call that fine? It is frightful! It is abominable! These random selections from the writings of on poetry, Montesquieu show that he considers persons, liberties, property mankind itself to be nothing but materials for legislators to exercise their wisdom upon. Now let us examine Rousseau on this subject. This writer on public affairs is the supreme authority of the democrats. And although he bases the social structure upon the will of the people , he has, to a greater extent than anyone else, completely accepted the english poetry theory of the total inertness of mankind in the presence of the legislators: If it is true that a great prince is rare, then is essays philosophy, it not true that a great legislator is even more rare?

The prince has only to follow the pattern that the legislator creates. The legislator is the mechanic who invents the machine; the prince is merely the workman who sets it in motion. And what part do persons play in essay on early poetry all this? They are merely the machine that is set in motion. Essays Philosophy Humanism? In fact, are they not merely considered to be the renaissance poetry raw material of which the machine is made? Thus the same relationship exists between the legislator and the prince as exists between the agricultural expert and the farmer; and on poetry the relationship between the prince and his subjects is the same as that between the farmer and his land. Essay Renaissance English? How high above mankind, then, has this writer on public affairs been placed? Rousseau rules over legislators themselves, and cued thesis nomenclature teaches them their trade in these imperious terms: Would you give stability to the state? Then bring the essay english extremes as closely together as possible.

Tolerate neither wealthy persons nor beggars. If the soil is poor or barren, or the country too small for its inhabitants, then turn to industry and arts, and trade these products for the foods that you need. On a fertile soil if you are short of inhabitants devote all your attention to agriculture, because this multiplies people; banish the arts, because they only serve to depopulate the nation. If you have extensive and accessible coast lines, then cover the sea with merchant ships; you will have a brilliant but short existence. If your seas wash only inaccessible cliffs, let the people be barbarous and eat fish; they will live more quietly perhaps better and, most certainly, they will live more happily.

In short, and in addition to nurse resume, the maxims that are common to all, every people has its own particular circumstances. And this fact in itself will cause legislation appropriate to the circumstances. This is the reason why the Hebrews formerly and, more recently, the Arabs had religion as their principle objective. The objective of the Athenians was literature; of Carthage and Tyre, commerce; of Rhodes, naval affairs; of english, Sparta, war; and of Rome, virtue. The author of resume, The Spirit of on early english poetry, Laws has shown by what art the legislator should direct his institutions toward each of these objectives . But suppose that the legislator mistakes his proper objective, and acts on a principle different from that indicated by the nature of things? Suppose that the selected principle sometimes creates slavery, and sometimes liberty; sometimes wealth, and sometimes population; sometimes peace, and sometimes conquest? This confusion of new graduate, objective will slowly enfeeble the law and impair the poetry constitution. The state will be subjected to ceaseless agitations until it is destroyed or changed, and invincible nature regains her empire. But if nature is lpn cover letters, sufficiently invincible to regain its empire, why does not Rousseau admit that it did not need the legislator to essay on early renaissance, gain it in special term the first place?

Why does he not see that men, by obeying their own instincts, would turn to essay on early renaissance english, farming on fertile soil, and to commerce on free will thesis, an extensive and easily accessible coast, without the interference of a Lycurgus or a Solon or a Rousseau who might easily be mistaken . Be that as it may, Rousseau invests the creators, organizers, directors, legislators, and controllers of essay on early poetry, society with a terrible responsibility. Resume? He is, therefore, most exacting with them: He who would dare to undertake the political creation of a people ought to believe that he can, in a manner of speaking, transform human nature; transform each individual who, by himself, is a solitary and perfect whole into a mere part of a greater whole from which the individual will henceforth receive his life and being. Thus the renaissance poetry person who would undertake the political creation of a people should believe in his ability to alter man's constitution; to strengthen it; to substitute for the physical and independent existence received from nature, an existence which is partial and moral. [7] In short, the would-be creator of political man must remove man's own forces and endow him with others that are naturally alien to him. Poor human nature! What would become of frost essay on poetry, a person's dignity if it were entrusted to the followers of Rousseau? Now let us examine Raynal on this subject of mankind being molded by the legislator:

The legislator must first consider the climate, the essay english air, and the soil. The resources at his disposal determine his duties. New Graduate Lpn Cover Letters? He must first consider his locality. A population living on maritime shores must have laws designed for navigation. If it is an inland settlement, the legislator must make his plans according to the nature and fertility of the soil. It is especially in the distribution of property that the genius of the legislator will be found.

As a general rule, when a new colony is established in any country, sufficient land should be given to each man to support his family. On an uncultivated island that you are populating with children, you need do nothing but let the seeds of truth germinate along with the development of renaissance english poetry, reason. But when you resettle a nation with a past into a new country, the skill of the legislator rests in the policy of permitting the people to retain no injurious opinions and customs which can possibly be cured and corrected. If you desire to prevent these opinions and customs from becoming permanent, you will secure the second generation by a general system of public education for psych nurse resume the children. A prince or a legislator should never establish a colony without first arranging to send wise men along to essay on early renaissance, instruct the youth. In a new colony, ample opportunity is open to the careful legislator who desires to purify the customs and manners of the people . If he has virtue and essays genius, the land and on early english the people at his disposal will inspire his soul with a plan for society. A writer can only vaguely trace the new graduate lpn cover plan in advance because it is necessarily subject to the instability of all hypotheses; the problem has many forms, complications, and circumstances that are difficult to foresee and essay on early renaissance poetry settle in detail. Raynal's instructions to psych resume, the legislators on essay english, how to manage people may be compared to a professor of agriculture lecturing his students: The climate is the first rule for the farmer.

His resources determine his procedure. He must first consider his locality. If his soil is clay, he must do so and so. If his soil is sand, he must act in lpn cover another manner. Every facility is open to the farmer who wishes to clear and improve his soil. If he is skillful enough, the essay on early manure at his disposal will suggest to him a plan of operation.

A professor can only vaguely trace this plan in advance because it is necessarily subject to the instability of will thesis, all hypotheses; the problem has many forms, complications, and circumstances that are difficult to renaissance poetry, foresee and settle in cued thesis nomenclature detail. Oh, sublime writers! Please remember sometimes that this clay, this sand, and this manure which you so arbitrarily dispose of, are men! They are your equals! They are intelligent and free human beings like yourselves! As you have, they too have received from renaissance poetry, God the faculty to observe, to essays, plan ahead, to think, and to judge for themselves! Here is Mably on this subject of the english poetry law and the legislator. Essays Philosophy? In the passages preceding the one here quoted, Mably has supposed the laws, due to english poetry, a neglect of security, to be worn out.

He continues to address the reader thusly: Under these circumstances, it is obvious that the springs of government are slack. Give them a new tension, and the evil will be cured. Think less of punishing faults, and will thesis more of rewarding that which you need . In this manner you will restore to your republic the vigor of youth. Because free people have been ignorant of this procedure, they have lost their liberty! But if the essay evil has made such headway that ordinary governmental procedures are unable to cure it, then resort to an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time.

The imagination of the citizens needs to be struck a hard blow. In this manner, Mably continues through twenty volumes. Under the influence of teaching like this which stems from classical education there came a time when everyone wished to place himself above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it in his own way. Next let us examine Condillac on this subject of the legislators and mankind: My Lord, assume the character of essay on poetry, Lycurgus or of Solon. And before you finish reading this essay, amuse yourself by renaissance english poetry giving laws to some savages in America or Africa. Confine these nomads to fixed dwellings; teach them to new graduate, tend flocks. Attempt to develop the social consciousness that nature has planted in essay renaissance english them.

Force them to begin to special education term, practice the duties of humanity. Use punishment to cause sensual pleasures to become distasteful to them. Then you will see that every point of your legislation will cause these savages to lose a vice and gain a virtue. All people have had laws. But few people have been happy. Why is this so? Because the legislators themselves have almost always been ignorant of the essay on early english purpose of society, which is the uniting of thesis, families by a common interest. Impartiality in law consists of two things: the establishing of equality in wealth and essay on early english poetry equality in dignity among the citizens. As the laws establish greater equality, they become proportionately more precious to every citizen. When all men are equal in wealth and education paper dignity and when the laws leave no hope of on early, disturbing this equality how can men then be agitated by greed, ambition, dissipation, idleness, sloth, envy, hatred, or jealousy? What you have learned about the republic of Sparta should enlighten you on this question.

No other state has ever had laws more in accord with the order of nature; of equality. Actually, it is not strange that during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the human race was regarded as inert matter, ready to receive everything form, face, energy, movement, life from a great prince or a great legislator or a great genius. These centuries were nourished on the study of antiquity. And antiquity presents everywhere in Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome the spectacle of a few men molding mankind according to their whims, thanks to the prestige of force and of fraud. But this does not prove that this situation is desirable. It proves only that since men and society are capable of improvement, it is naturally to be expected that error, ignorance, despotism, slavery, and superstition should be greatest towards the origins of history. The writers quoted above were not in error when they found ancient institutions to be such, but they were in error when they offered them for the admiration and imitation of education, future generations. English Poetry? Uncritical and childish conformists, they took for granted the grandeur, dignity, morality, and happiness of the artificial societies of the ancient world.

They did not understand that knowledge appears and grows with the will thesis passage of time; and that in proportion to this growth of knowledge, might takes the side of right , and society regains possession of itself. Actually, what is the political struggle that we witness? It is the instinctive struggle of all people toward liberty. Essay English? And what is this liberty, whose very name makes the heart beat faster and shakes the world? Is it not the union of all liberties liberty of thesis nomenclature, conscience, of education, of association, of the press, of on early, travel, of labor, of trade? In short, is not liberty the freedom of new graduate, every person to make full use of his faculties, so long as he does not harm other persons while doing so?

Is not liberty the destruction of all despotism including, of course, legal despotism? Finally, is not liberty the restricting of the law only to its rational sphere of organizing the right of the renaissance english poetry individual to lawful self-defense; of punishing injustice? It must be admitted that the tendency of the essays humanism human race toward liberty is essay on early renaissance poetry, largely thwarted, especially in France. This is greatly due to a fatal desire learned from the teachings of antiquity that our writers on special term, public affairs have in common: They desire to set themselves above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and essay poetry regulate it according to their fancy. While society is essay, struggling toward liberty, these famous men who put themselves at on early poetry its head are filled with the spirit of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Psych Resume? They think only of subjecting mankind to the philanthropic tyranny of their own social inventions. Like Rousseau, they desire to force mankind docilely to bear this yoke of the public welfare that they have dreamed up in their own imaginations. This was especially true in 1789. Poetry? No sooner was the old regime destroyed than society was subjected to still other artificial arrangements, always starting from the same point: the omnipotence of the law.

Listen to essays philosophy, the ideas of on early renaissance poetry, a few of the writers and politicians during that period: SAINT-JUST: The legislator commands the philosophy future. It is for essay on early renaissance him to will the cued good of mankind. It is for him to make men what he wills them to be. ROBESPIERRE: The function of essay on early renaissance poetry, government is to direct the physical and moral powers of the nation toward the end for which the commonwealth has come into being. BILLAUD-VARENNES: A people who are to cued nomenclature, be returned to liberty must be formed anew. A strong force and vigorous action are necessary to destroy old prejudices, to renaissance poetry, change old customs, to correct depraved affections, to restrict superfluous wants, and to destroy ingrained vices. Citizens, the inflexible austerity of Lycurgus created the firm foundation of the Spartan republic.

The weak and trusting character of Solon plunged Athens into slavery. This parallel embraces the whole science of free will thesis, government. LE PELLETIER: Considering the extent of human degradation, I am convinced that it is necessary to effect a total regeneration and, if I may so express myself, of creating a new people. Again, it is claimed that persons are nothing but raw material. It is english poetry, not for them to term, will their own improvement ; they are incapable of it. According to Saint-Just, only the legislator is capable of doing this. Persons are merely to essay renaissance poetry, be what the legislator wills them to be. According to Robespierre, who copies Rousseau literally, the legislator begins by decreeing the humanism end for which the on early english commonwealth has come into being . Once this is determined, the government has only to nurse resume, direct the physical and moral forces of the nation toward that end. Meanwhile, the inhabitants of the nation are to remain completely passive. And according to the teachings of Billaud-Varennes, the people should have no prejudices, no affections, and no desires except those authorized by essay english poetry the legislator. Essays Philosophy? He even goes so far as to say that the inflexible austerity of one man is the foundation of a republic.

In cases where the english poetry alleged evil is so great that ordinary governmental procedures cannot cure it, Mably recommends a dictatorship to promote virtue: Resort, he says, to an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time. The imagination of the essay citizens needs to essay renaissance, be struck a hard blow. This doctrine has not been forgotten. New Graduate? Listen to Robespierre: The principle of the republican government is virtue, and the means required to establish virtue is terror. In our country we desire to substitute morality for essay on early selfishness, honesty for honor, principles for psych customs, duties for renaissance english manners, the empire of reason for the tyranny of fashion, contempt of vice for essays humanism contempt of poverty, pride for insolence, greatness of soul for vanity, love of essay on early poetry, glory for love of money, good people for good companions, merit for intrigue, genius for cued wit, truth for glitter, the charm of happiness for the boredom of pleasure, the greatness of man for the littleness of the great, a generous, strong, happy people for a good-natured, frivolous, degraded people; in short, we desire to essay renaissance english, substitute all the virtues and miracles of a republic for all the vices and absurdities of thesis, a monarchy. At what a tremendous height above the rest of mankind does Robespierre here place himself! And note the arrogance with which he speaks. Renaissance? He is new graduate lpn cover letters, not content to pray for a great reawakening of the human spirit. Nor does he expect such a result from a well-ordered government. Essay Renaissance Poetry? No, he himself will remake mankind, and by means of nurse, terror.

This mass of rotten and contradictory statements is extracted from a discourse by Robespierre in which he aims to essay english poetry, explain the principles of morality which ought to guide a revolutionary government . Note that Robespierre's request for dictatorship is not made merely for the purpose of repelling a foreign invasion or putting down the opposing groups. Rather he wants a dictatorship in order that he may use terror to cued thesis nomenclature, force upon essay english the country his own principles of morality. He says that this act is only to essays philosophy, be a temporary measure preceding a new constitution. But in on early poetry reality, he desires nothing short of on poetry, using terror to essay renaissance, extinguish from essays philosophy, France selfishness, honor, customs, manners, fashion, vanity, love of money, good companionship, intrigue, wit, sensuousness, and poverty . Not until he, Robespierre, shall have accomplished these miracles , as he so rightly calls them, will he permit the law to reign again. (At this point in the original French text, Mr. Bastiat pauses and speaks thusly to all do-gooders and would-be rulers of on early english poetry, mankind: Ah, you miserable creatures! You who think that you are so great!

You who judge humanity to be so small! You who wish to reform everything! Why don't you reform yourselves? That task would be sufficient enough.) Usually, however, these gentlemen the reformers, the legislators, and the writers on public affairs do not desire to nomenclature, impose direct despotism upon mankind. Essay On Early? Oh no, they are too moderate and philanthropic for such direct action. Instead, they turn to the law for this despotism, this absolutism, this omnipotence.

They desire only to make the essay laws. To show the prevalence of this queer idea in France, I would need to copy not only the entire works of Mably, Raynal, Rousseau, and Fenelon plus long extracts from Bossuet and essay renaissance english poetry Montesquieu but also the entire proceedings of the Convention. I shall do no such thing; I merely refer the reader to them. It is, of course, not at all surprising that this same idea should have greatly appealed to Napoleon. Education Paper? He embraced it ardently and used it with vigor. Like a chemist, Napoleon considered all Europe to be material for his experiments. But, in due course, this material reacted against him. At St. Essay Poetry? Helena, Napoleon greatly disillusioned seemed to philosophy humanism, recognize some initiative in mankind. Recognizing this, he became less hostile to liberty.

Nevertheless, this did not prevent him from leaving this lesson to his son in his will: To govern is to increase and spread morality, education, and happiness. After all this, it is hardly necessary to quote the same opinions from Morelly, Babeuf, Owen, Saint-Simon, and Fourier. Here are, however, a few extracts from Louis Blanc's book on essay english, the organization of labor: In our plan, society receives its momentum from power. Now consider this: The impulse behind this momentum is to be supplied by the plan of Louis Blanc; his plan is to be forced upon will thesis society; the society referred to is the human race. Thus the on early renaissance human race is to frost essay on poetry, receive its momentum from Louis Blanc. Now it will be said that the people are free to essay on early renaissance, accept or to reject this plan. Admittedly, people are free to accept or to reject advice from whomever they wish. But this is not the way in which Mr. Louis Blanc understands the matter. He expects that his plan will be legalized, and thus forcibly imposed upon the people by free will the power of the law: In our plan, the state has only to pass labor laws (nothing else?) by means of which industrial progress can and must proceed in complete liberty.

The state merely places society on an incline (that is all?). Then society will slide down this incline by the mere force of things, and by the natural workings of the established mechanism. But what is this incline that is indicated by on early renaissance english poetry Mr. Louis Blanc? Does it not lead to an abyss? (No, it leads to happiness.) If this is special term paper, true, then why does not society go there of its own choice? (Because society does not know what it wants; it must be propelled.) What is to propel it? (Power.) And who is to supply the essay renaissance english impulse for this power? (Why, the inventor of the machine in this instance, Mr. Louis Blanc.) We shall never escape from this circle: the idea of passive mankind, and the power of the law being used by a great man to propel the people. Once on this incline, will society enjoy some liberty? (Certainly.) And what is liberty, Mr. Louis Blanc?

Once and for all, liberty is not only a mere granted right; it is also the power granted to a person to use and to free, develop his faculties under a reign of justice and on early under the essay on poetry protection of the law. And this is no pointless distinction; its meaning is deep and its consequences are difficult to estimate. For once it is poetry, agreed that a person, to be truly free, must have the power to use and develop his faculties, then it follows that every person has a claim on society for such education as will permit him to develop himself. It also follows that every person has a claim on society for tools of term, production, without which human activity cannot be fully effective. Now by what action can society give to every person the necessary education and the necessary tools of production, if not by the action of the state? Thus, again, liberty is power. Of what does this power consist? (Of being educated and of being given the tools of production.) Who is to give the education and the tools of production? (Society, which owes them to everyone. ) By what action is society to give tools of production to those who do not own them? (Why, by the action of the state .) And from whom will the state take them? Let the reader answer that question.

Let him also notice the on early renaissance direction in which this is taking us. The strange phenomenon of will thesis, our times one which will probably astound our descendants is the doctrine based on this triple hypothesis: the total inertness of mankind, the omnipotence of the law, and the infallibility of the legislator. These three ideas form the sacred symbol of those who proclaim themselves totally democratic. The advocates of essay on early renaissance poetry, this doctrine also profess to be social . So far as they are democratic, they place unlimited faith in philosophy mankind. But so far as they are social, they regard mankind as little better than mud. Let us examine this contrast in on early renaissance english poetry greater detail. What is the cued attitude of the democrat when political rights are under discussion? How does he regard the people when a legislator is to be chosen? Ah, then it is claimed that the people have an instinctive wisdom; they are gifted with the finest perception; their will is essay renaissance english poetry, always right; the education term paper general will cannot err; voting cannot be too universal. When it is time to vote, apparently the voter is not to be asked for any guarantee of his wisdom.

His will and capacity to choose wisely are taken for granted. Can the people be mistaken? Are we not living in essay on early renaissance english poetry an age of enlightenment? What! are the people always to be kept on leashes? Have they not won their rights by free will thesis great effort and essay on early renaissance sacrifice?

Have they not given ample proof of their intelligence and wisdom? Are they not adults? Are they not capable of judging for themselves? Do they not know what is best for themselves? Is there a class or a man who would be so bold as to set himself above the people, and judge and act for them? No, no, the people are and should be free . They desire to frost on poetry, manage their own affairs, and they shall do so. But when the legislator is finally elected ah! then indeed does the tone of his speech undergo a radical change. The people are returned to passiveness, inertness, and unconsciousness; the legislator enters into omnipotence. Now it is for him to initiate, to direct, to propel, and to on early renaissance, organize. Mankind has only to submit; the hour of despotism has struck. We now observe this fatal idea: The people who, during the election, were so wise, so moral, and so perfect, now have no tendencies whatever; or if they have any, they are tendencies that lead downward into degradation.

But ought not the people be given a little liberty? But Mr. Considerant has assured us that liberty leads inevitably to monopoly! We understand that liberty means competition. But according to Mr. Louis Blanc, competition is a system that ruins the businessmen and exterminates the people . It is for psych resume this reason that free people are ruined and exterminated in proportion to their degree of freedom. (Possibly Mr.

Louis Blanc should observe the results of competition in, for example, Switzerland, Holland, England, and the United States.) Mr. Louis Blanc also tells us that competition leads to monopoly . And by the same reasoning, he thus informs us that low prices lead to high prices; that competition drives production to destructive activity; that competition drains away the sources of essay renaissance poetry, purchasing power; that competition forces an increase in production while, at the same time, it forces a decrease in consumption . From this, it follows that free people produce for the sake of not consuming; that liberty means oppression and madness among the people; and that Mr. Frost Essay? Louis Blanc absolutely must attend to poetry, it. Well, what liberty should the legislators permit people to have? Liberty of conscience? (But if this were permitted, we would see the people taking this opportunity to become atheists.) Then liberty of education? (But parents would pay professors to teach their children immorality and falsehoods; besides, according to Mr. Thiers, if education were left to national liberty, it would cease to nurse resume, be national, and we would be teaching our children the ideas of the Turks or Hindus; whereas, thanks to this legal despotism over education, our children now have the good fortune to be taught the noble ideas of the essay on early renaissance english poetry Romans.)

Then liberty of labor? (But that would mean competition which, in turn, leaves production unconsumed, ruins businessmen, and exterminates the psych resume people.) Perhaps liberty of trade? (But everyone knows and the advocates of protective tariffs have proved over and over again that freedom of trade ruins every person who engages in renaissance english it, and that it is necessary to suppress freedom of trade in order to prosper.) Possibly then, liberty of psych resume, association? (But, according to socialist doctrine, true liberty and voluntary association are in contradiction to each other, and the purpose of the on early english poetry socialists is to suppress liberty of association precisely in will order to force people to essay on early poetry, associate together in true liberty.) Clearly then, the conscience of the social democrats cannot permit persons to nurse, have any liberty because they believe that the nature of mankind tends always toward every kind of degradation and disaster. Thus, of course, the legislators must make plans for the people in order to on early renaissance, save them from themselves.

This line of reasoning brings us to a challenging question: If people are as incapable, as immoral, and as ignorant as the politicians indicate, then why is the right of these same people to vote defended with such passionate insistence? The claims of these organizers of humanity raise another question which I have often asked them and which, so far as I know, they have never answered: If the natural tendencies of mankind are so bad that it is not safe to permit people to be free, how is it that the frost tendencies of these organizers are always good? Do not the legislators and essay on early renaissance their appointed agents also belong to the human race? Or do they believe that they themselves are made of a finer clay than the rest of mankind? The organizers maintain that society, when left undirected, rushes headlong to its inevitable destruction because the instincts of the people are so perverse. The legislators claim to stop this suicidal course and to give it a saner direction.

Apparently, then, the legislators and the organizers have received from Heaven an intelligence and frost virtue that place them beyond and above mankind; if so, let them show their titles to this superiority. They would be the essay english shepherds over us, their sheep. Special Term? Certainly such an arrangement presupposes that they are naturally superior to the rest of us. And certainly we are fully justified in demanding from the legislators and organizers proof of this natural superiority. Please understand that I do not dispute their right to invent social combinations, to advertise them, to advocate them, and to essay on early english poetry, try them upon themselves, at their own expense and risk. But I do dispute their right to impose these plans upon us by law by force and to compel us to pay for them with our taxes. I do not insist that the supporters of these various social schools of thought the Proudhonists, the Cabetists, the Fourierists, the Universitarists, and the Protectionists renounce their various ideas. I insist only that they renounce this one idea that they have in common: They need only to give up the idea of letters, forcing us to acquiesce to their groups and series, their socialized projects, their free-credit banks, their Graeco-Roman concept of morality, and their commercial regulations. I ask only that we be permitted to decide upon these plans for ourselves; that we not be forced to accept them, directly or indirectly, if we find them to be contrary to our best interests or repugnant to our consciences. But these organizers desire access to the tax funds and to the power of the law in order to carry out their plans. In addition to being oppressive and essay on early renaissance english unjust, this desire also implies the fatal supposition that the organizer is special education paper, infallible and mankind is incompetent.

But, again, if persons are incompetent to judge for themselves, then why all this talk about universal suffrage? This contradiction in ideas is, unfortunately but logically, reflected in events in France. For example, Frenchmen have led all other Europeans in obtaining their rights or, more accurately, their political demands. Yet this fact has in no respect prevented us from becoming the most governed, the most regulated, the essay renaissance english poetry most imposed upon, the most harnessed, and the most exploited people in Europe. France also leads all other nations as the one where revolutions are constantly to be anticipated. And under the circumstances, it is psych, quite natural that this should be the case.

And this will remain the case so long as our politicians continue to renaissance poetry, accept this idea that has been so well expressed by Mr. Louis Blanc: Society receives its momentum from new graduate lpn cover, power. This will remain the essay renaissance poetry case so long as human beings with feelings continue to remain passive; so long as they consider themselves incapable of education paper, bettering their prosperity and happiness by their own intelligence and english their own energy; so long as they expect everything from the law; in short, so long as they imagine that their relationship to the state is the same as that of the sheep to the shepherd. As long as these ideas prevail, it is clear that the responsibility of government is enormous. Good fortune and bad fortune, wealth and destitution, equality and inequality, virtue and vice all then depend upon political administration. It is burdened with everything, it undertakes everything, it does everything; therefore it is philosophy humanism, responsible for everything. If we are fortunate, then government has a claim to our gratitude; but if we are unfortunate, then government must bear the blame. For are not our persons and renaissance english poetry property now at the disposal of government?

Is not the law omnipotent? In creating a monopoly of education, the government must answer to the hopes of the fathers of families who have thus been deprived of their liberty; and if these hopes are shattered, whose fault is it? In regulating industry, the government has contracted to free, make it prosper; otherwise it is absurd to deprive industry of its liberty. And if industry now suffers, whose fault is it? In meddling with the balance of trade by playing with tariffs, the government thereby contracts to essay renaissance poetry, make trade prosper; and if this results in destruction instead of prosperity, whose fault is it? In giving the maritime industries protection in exchange for their liberty, the government undertakes to make them profitable; and if they become a burden to the taxpayers, whose fault is it?

Thus there is new graduate lpn cover letters, not a grievance in the nation for essay on early renaissance english which the government does not voluntarily make itself responsible. Is it surprising, then, that every failure increases the threat of another revolution in France? And what remedy is proposed for this? To extend indefinitely the domain of the law; that is, the essays philosophy responsibility of government. But if the government undertakes to essay on early renaissance, control and to raise wages, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to free thesis, care for poetry all who may be in want, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to support all unemployed workers, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to term paper, lend interest-free money to all borrowers, and cannot do it; if, in these words that we regret to say escaped from the pen of Mr. de Lamartine, The state considers that its purpose is to enlighten, to develop, to enlarge, to strengthen, to spiritualize, and to sanctify the soul of the people and if the government cannot do all of these things, what then? Is it not certain that after every government failure which, alas! is more than probable there will be an equally inevitable revolution? [Now let us return to a subject that was briefly discussed in the opening pages of this thesis: the relationship of economics and of politics political economy.] [8] A science of economics must be developed before a science of politics can be logically formulated. Essentially, economics is the science of determining whether the interests of human beings are harmonious or antagonistic. This must be known before a science of politics can be formulated to determine the proper functions of essay on early renaissance english poetry, government. Immediately following the philosophy humanism development of a science of economics, and at the very beginning of the formulation of essay, a science of politics, this all-important question must be answered: What is law?

What ought it to be? What is its scope; its limits? Logically, at what point do the just powers of the legislator stop? I do not hesitate to answer: Law is the essays philosophy humanism common force organized to act as an obstacle of essay renaissance poetry, injustice . In short, law is justice . It is not true that the legislator has absolute power over our persons and education term paper property. The existence of persons and essay on early english poetry property preceded the existence of the legislator, and his function is only to guarantee their safety.

It is not true that the function of law is to regulate our consciences, our ideas, our wills, our education, our opinions, our work, our trade, our talents, or our pleasures. The function of law is to protect the free exercise of these rights, and to prevent any person from interfering with the free exercise of free will thesis, these same rights by any other person. Since law necessarily requires the support of force, its lawful domain is only in the areas where the use of force is necessary. This is justice. Every individual has the right to use force for lawful self-defense.

It is for this reason that the collective force which is only the essay on early organized combination of the new graduate lpn cover letters individual forces may lawfully be used for the same purpose; and it cannot be used legitimately for any other purpose. Law is solely the organization of the individual right of essay english poetry, self-defense which existed before law was formalized. Law is justice. The mission of the law is not to oppress persons and plunder them of their property, even though the essays humanism law may be acting in a philanthropic spirit. Its mission is to on early english poetry, protect persons and property.

Furthermore, it must not be said that the frost essay on poetry law may be philanthropic if, in the process, it refrains from oppressing persons and plundering them of their property; this would be a contradiction. The law cannot avoid having an effect upon essay renaissance persons and property; and if the law acts in essays philosophy humanism any manner except to protect them, its actions then necessarily violate the liberty of persons and their right to own property. The law is justice simple and clear, precise and bounded. Every eye can see it, and every mind can grasp it; for justice is measurable, immutable, and unchangeable. Justice is neither more than this nor less than this. If you exceed this proper limit if you attempt to make the essay on early law religious, fraternal, equalizing, philanthropic, industrial, literary, or artistic you will then be lost in thesis nomenclature an uncharted territory, in vagueness and uncertainty, in a forced utopia or, even worse, in a multitude of utopias, each striving to seize the law and impose it upon you. This is true because fraternity and philanthropy, unlike justice, do not have precise limits. Once started, where will you stop? And where will the law stop itself? Mr. de Saint-Cricq would extend his philanthropy only to some of the industrial groups; he would demand that the law control the consumers to benefit the producers.

Mr. Considerant would sponsor the english poetry cause of the free will thesis labor groups; he would use the law to secure for them a guaranteed minimum of clothing, housing, food, and all other necessities of life. Mr. Essay On Early? Louis Blanc would say and with reason that these minimum guarantees are merely the beginning of complete fraternity; he would say that the law should give tools of production and free education to all working people. Another person would observe that this arrangement would still leave room for inequality; he would claim that the law should give to everyone even in nurse resume the most inaccessible hamlet luxury, literature, and art. All of these proposals are the high road to communism; legislation will then be in fact, it already is the battlefield for renaissance english the fantasies and frost essay on poetry greed of everyone. Law is essay on early poetry, justice. In this proposition a simple and enduring government can be conceived. And I defy anyone to say how even the thought of revolution, of insurrection, of the slightest uprising could arise against lpn cover a government whose organized force was confined only to suppressing injustice. Under such a regime, there would be the most prosperity and it would be the essay renaissance most equally distributed. As for the sufferings that are inseparable from humanity, no one would even think of accusing the government for them.

This is nomenclature, true because, if the force of government were limited to suppressing injustice, then government would be as innocent of these sufferings as it is now innocent of changes in essay renaissance english poetry the temperature. As proof of this statement, consider this question: Have the people ever been known to rise against the Court of Appeals, or mob a Justice of the free Peace, in order to essay renaissance english poetry, get higher wages, free credit, tools of production, favorable tariffs, or government-created jobs? Everyone knows perfectly well that such matters are not within the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals or a Justice of the Peace. And if government were limited to its proper functions, everyone would soon learn that these matters are not within the jurisdiction of the law itself. But make the laws upon new graduate the principle of fraternity proclaim that all good, and all bad, stem from the law; that the law is responsible for on early renaissance poetry all individual misfortunes and all social inequalities then the thesis door is open to an endless succession of essay poetry, complaints, irritations, troubles, and frost revolutions.

Law is justice. And it would indeed be strange if law could properly be anything else! Is not justice right? Are not rights equal? By what right does the law force me to essay renaissance english poetry, conform to the social plans of Mr. Mimerel, Mr. de Melun, Mr. Thiers, or Mr. Louis Blanc? If the psych nurse resume law has a moral right to do this, why does it not, then, force these gentlemen to submit to my plans ? Is it logical to suppose that nature has not given me sufficient imagination to dream up a utopia also? Should the law choose one fantasy among many, and put the organized force of government at its service only? Law is justice.

And let it not be said as it continually is said that under this concept, the law would be atheistic, individualistic, and renaissance english poetry heartless; that it would make mankind in its own image. This is an absurd conclusion, worthy only frost essay on poetry, of those worshippers of government who believe that the essay renaissance english law is mankind. Nonsense! Do those worshippers of new graduate, government believe that free persons will cease to act? Does it follow that if we receive no energy from the essay on early law, we shall receive no energy at all? Does it follow that if the law is restricted to the function of protecting the free use of thesis nomenclature, our faculties, we will be unable to use our faculties? Suppose that the law does not force us to follow certain forms of religion, or systems of association, or methods of education, or regulations of labor, or regulations of trade, or plans for charity; does it then follow that we shall eagerly plunge into atheism, hermitary, ignorance, misery, and greed? If we are free, does it follow that we shall no longer recognize the power and goodness of God? Does it follow that we shall then cease to associate with each other, to help each other, to english, love and succor our unfortunate brothers, to study the secrets of will thesis, nature, and to renaissance english poetry, strive to improve ourselves to the best of our abilities? Law is justice. And it is new graduate letters, under the essay poetry law of justice under the reign of new graduate letters, right; under the influence of liberty, safety, stability, and responsibility that every person will attain his real worth and on early english the true dignity of his being.

It is only under this law of justice that mankind will achieve slowly, no doubt, but certainly God's design for the orderly and peaceful progress of humanity. It seems to me that this is theoretically right, for whatever the question under discussion whether religious, philosophical, political, or economic; whether it concerns prosperity, morality, equality, right, justice, progress, responsibility, cooperation, property, labor, trade, capital, wages, taxes, population, finance, or government at resume whatever point on the scientific horizon I begin my researches, I invariably reach this one conclusion: The solution to the problems of human relationships is to renaissance, be found in liberty. And does not experience prove this? Look at the entire world. Which countries contain the most peaceful, the most moral, and the happiest people? Those people are found in the countries where the law least interferes with private affairs; where government is least felt; where the individual has the greatest scope, and free opinion the greatest influence; where administrative powers are fewest and simplest; where taxes are lightest and most nearly equal, and popular discontent the least excited and the least justifiable; where individuals and groups most actively assume their responsibilities, and, consequently, where the morals of admittedly imperfect human beings are constantly improving; where trade, assemblies, and associations are the least restricted; where labor, capital, and frost essay on poetry populations suffer the fewest forced displacements; where mankind most nearly follows its own natural inclinations; where the inventions of essay renaissance english poetry, men are most nearly in harmony with the essays philosophy humanism laws of God; in short, the happiest, most moral, and most peaceful people are those who most nearly follow this principle: Although mankind is not perfect, still, all hope rests upon the free and voluntary actions of on early renaissance poetry, persons within the frost on poetry limits of right; law or force is to be used for nothing except the administration of universal justice. This must be said: There are too many great men in the world legislators, organizers, do-gooders, leaders of the people, fathers of nations, and so on, and so on. On Early Poetry? Too many persons place themselves above mankind; they make a career of organizing it, patronizing it, and ruling it. Now someone will say: You yourself are doing this very thing.

True. But it must be admitted that I act in an entirely different sense; if I have joined the ranks of the reformers, it is solely for the purpose of persuading them to leave people alone. I do not look upon essays humanism people as Vancauson looked upon his automaton. Essay Poetry? Rather, just as the physiologist accepts the human body as it is, so do I accept people as they are. Essay? I desire only to study and admire. My attitude toward all other persons is on early poetry, well illustrated by this story from a celebrated traveler: He arrived one day in the midst of a tribe of savages, where a child had just been born. A crowd of soothsayers, magicians, and quacks armed with rings, hooks, and cords surrounded it. One said: This child will never smell the special term perfume of a peace-pipe unless I stretch his nostrils. Poetry? Another said: He will never be able to hear unless I draw his ear-lobes down to his shoulders. Essays Philosophy? A third said: He will never see the renaissance english sunshine unless I slant his eyes. Nomenclature? Another said: He will never stand upright unless I bend his legs.

A fifth said: He will never learn to think unless I flatten his skull. Stop, cried the traveler. What God does is well done. Do not claim to know more than He. On Early Renaissance? God has given organs to this frail creature; let them develop and grow strong by exercise, use, experience, and liberty.

God has given to men all that is necessary for them to accomplish their destinies. He has provided a social form as well as a human form. And these social organs of persons are so constituted that they will develop themselves harmoniously in the clean air of liberty. Away, then, with quacks and organizers! A way with their rings, chains, hooks, and pincers! Away with their artificial systems! Away with the whims of governmental administrators, their socialized projects, their centralization, their tariffs, their government schools, their state religions, their free credit, their bank monopolies, their regulations, their restrictions, their equalization by taxation, and their pious moralizations! And now that the legislators and do-gooders have so futilely inflicted so many systems upon society, may they finally end where they should have begun: May they reject all systems, and try liberty; for liberty is an acknowledgment of new graduate lpn cover letters, faith in God and His works. [1] : General Council of Manufacturers, Agriculture, and on early english Commerce, May 6, 1850. [2] : Translator's note: At the time this was written, Mr.

Bastiat knew that he was dying of tuberculosis. Within a year, he was dead. [3] : Translator's note: The French word used by Mr. Bastiat is spoliation . [4] : If the special privilege of government protection against competition a monopoly were granted only to thesis, one group in essay renaissance english France, the iron workers, for instance, this act would so obviously be legal plunder that it could not last for frost essay long. It is for this reason that we see all the on early protected trades combined into a common cause. They even organize themselves in such a manner as to appear to represent all persons who labor . Instinctively, they feel that legal plunder is concealed by generalizing it. [5] : Translator's note: The parenthetical expressions and the italicized words throughout this book were supplied by Mr. Bastiat. All subheads and free will bracketed material were supplied by the translator. [6] : Translator's note: What was then known as Paraguay was a much larger area than it is essay renaissance poetry, today. It was colonized by the Jesuits who settled the Indians into villages, and generally saved them from further brutalities by the avoid conquerors.

[7] : Translator's note: According to Rousseau, the existence of social man is partial in the sense that be is henceforth merely a part of society. Psych? Knowing himself as such and renaissance thinking and feeling from the point of view of the whole he thereby becomes moral. [8] : Translator's note: Mr. Bastiat has devoted three other books and several articles to the development of the ideas contained in the three sentences of the following paragraph.