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An international journal on sexual and reproductive health and rights. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Although Shanghai has good maternal health indicators, it also has a large in-migrating population, which has made control of maternal mortality a major challenge. This study analyzed maternal mortality and causes of death in pregnant women in Shanghai in the ten years from 2000 to 2009, comparing resident and migrant women. All live births were registered and every maternal death audited. Essay. The number of live births rose from 84,898 in 2000 to 187,335 in 2009. The number of migrants increased 4.6 times, while the essays authors proportion of compare-and-contrast live births to migrant women increased from 27% to 55%. There were 262 maternal deaths, 55 in Shanghai residents and 207 in migrant women (78.9% of the total). Most deaths in migrant women were due to illegal delivery. Three policy changes focusing on maternal health greatly reduced deaths: low-cost delivery services were established for migrant women in maternity hospitals, five obstetric emergency care and essay referral centres were created in general hospitals, and training for health professionals and essay health education for women were instituted.
Maternal mortality in Shanghai decreased steadily from 2000 to 2009, reaching 10 per 100,000 live births in 2009. Among Shanghai permanent residents the ratio was below ten in most of those years, while among migrant women it declined sharply from 58 to 12 per 100,000 live births. Bien que Shanghai possede de bons indicateurs de sante maternelle, la ville abrite aussi une vaste population immigrante, et la lutte contre la mortalite maternelle y represente donc un enjeu majeur. Cette etude a analyse la mortalite maternelle et les causes de deces chez les femmes enceintes a Shanghai pendant 10 ans, de 2000 a 2009, en comparant les residentes et les migrantes. Toutes les naissances vivantes ont ete enregistrees et chaque deces maternel a ete examine. Le nombre de naissances vivantes est passe de 84 898 en 2000 a 187 335 en 2009. Le nombre de migrants a augmente de 4,6 fois, alors que la proportion de naissances vivantes chez les migrantes passait de 27% a 55%. On a enregistre 262 deces maternels, 55 residentes de Shanghai et 207 migrantes (78,9% du total). La plupart des deces de migrantes etaient dus a des accouchements clandestins. Trois changements politiques centres sur ont sensiblement reduit la mortalite : l'etablissement de services obstetricaux a faible cout pour les migrantes dans les maternites, la creation de cinq centres de soins obstetricaux d'urgence et de reference dans les hopitaux generaux, et l'institution d'une formation des professionnels de sante et de l'education sanitaire des femmes. La mortalite maternelle a Shanghai a diminue regulierement depuis 2000, atteignant un taux de 10 pour 100 000 naissances vivantes en 2009.
Parmi les residentes permanentes de Shanghai, le taux etait inferieur a dix pendant la plupart de ces annees, alors que chez les migrantes, il a recule rapidement de 58 a 12 pour 100 000 naissances vivantes. Aunque en Shanghai existen buenos indicadores de salud materna, tambien hay un gran numero de inmigrantes, por lo cual es muy dificil controlar la mortalidad materna. En este estudio se analizo la mortalidad materna y las causas de muerte de mujeres embarazadas en Shanghai durante un plazo de diez anos, del 2000 al 2009, y se compararon las mujeres residentes con migrantes. Todos los nacimientos vivos fueron registrados y cada muerte materna auditada. El numero de nacimientos vivos aumento de 84,898 en 2000 a 187,335 en 2009. El numero de migrantes aumento 4.6 veces, mientras que la proporcion de nacimientos vivos a mujeres migrantes aumento del 27% al 55%. For Online Education Education. Hubo 262 muertes maternas, 55 entre residentes de Shanghai y 207 entre mujeres migrantes (78.9% del total). La mayoria de las muertes entre mujeres migrantes fueron causadas por partos ilegales. Tres cambios a las politicas centrados en disminuyeron en gran medida las tasas de muertes: se establecieron servicios de bajo costo para mujeres migrantes en maternidades, se crearon cinco centros de cuidados obstetricos de emergencia y referencia en hospitales generales, y se instituyeron programas de capacitacion para profesionales de la salud y de educacion sobre la salud para las mujeres. Las tasas de mortalidad materna en Shanghai disminuyeron a un ritmo constante entre 2000 y 2009, alcanzando 10 por cada 100,000 nacimientos vivos en 2009. Entre las residentes permanentes de Shanghai la proporcion fue menos de diez en la mayoria de esos anos, mientras que entre las mujeres migrantes aumento bruscamente de 58 a 12 por cada 100,000 nacimientos vivos.
Maternal mortality remains a major challenge to health systems worldwide, even though a sharpened focus on reduction of maternal mortality became a defining part of Millennium Development Goal 5. 1 C Ronsmans , WJ Graham , on compare-and-contrast behalf of Lancet Maternal Survival Series steering group. Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why . Lancet. 368: 2006 ; 1189 – 1200 . [Google Scholar] However, the reduction in maternal mortality over the past decade has been modest overall, with a yearly rate of decline in the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR) since 1990 of thesis for online education 1.3%. 2 MC Hogan , KJ Foreman , M Naghavi . Maternal mortality for essay 181 countries, 1980–2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 . Lancet. 375(9726): 2010 ; 1609 – 1623 . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60518-1 . [Google Scholar] To achieve the MDG goal of reducing its 1990 MMR by three-quarters by 2015, China is on track. Between 2000 and 2005, the Chinese vital registration system recorded 64,780,153 live births and 30,672 maternal deaths, resulting in an overall MMR of 47 deaths per 100 000 live births. 3 G Yanqiu , C Ronsmans , A Lin . Time trends and regional differences in maternal mortality in China from 2000 to 2005 . Bulletin of World Health Organization. 87: 2009 ; 913 – 920 . Spanish. Doi: 10.2471/BLT.08.060426 . [Google Scholar] As a metropolitan city, Shanghai has a higher level of maternal health care than most other provinces and the lowest MMR in China.
4 J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of mortality of essay pregnant and essays written by filipino authors lying-in women from 2000 to 2007 in compare-and-contrast Shanghai . National Spanish Society Essay. Journal of essay Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] In 2000, the MMR of Shanghai permanent residents was below 10 per 100,000 live births, comparable to the level of many developed countries. 3,4 G Yanqiu , C Ronsmans , A Lin . Thesis Statement Education Vs Traditional Education. Time trends and regional differences in maternal mortality in China from 2000 to 2005 . Bulletin of World Health Organization. 87: 2009 ; 913 – 920 . Compare-and-contrast Essay. Doi: 10.2471/BLT.08.060426 . J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of kidss homework mortality of pregnant and lying-in women from 2000 to 2007 in Shanghai . Journal of compare-and-contrast Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. Bc English 10 Provincial Essay. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . [in Chinese]. Since the compare-and-contrast 1990s, however, China has experienced major internal population migration, with millions of people moving from central and western China to the east coast and large cities. In Shanghai, the should not be legalised population of 16.4 million in 2000 had increased by 35% in 2010, according to census data. Compare-and-contrast Essay. Migrants now account for about 36.4% of Shanghai's population, an increase from 19.4% in 2000. 5 Current Demographic Profiles of national spanish society Shanghai, 2001–2011. Shanghai Municipal Population and Family Planning Commission . At: http://rkjsw.sh.gov.cn/spfpen/data/ [Google Scholar] The number of live births among the essay migrant population exceeded that of Shanghai's permanent residents in written authors 2005 and migrant women became the majority maternity population.
This has created a great challenge for Shanghai's health system, especially since insurance for maternity care covers fewer than 20% of compare-and-contrast women in China. Maternity insurance is provided to women who are regularly employed and those who have urban household registration, so migrant women are not eligible. Most migrant women have no regular job or income, and essays authors their level of education is also lower than that of Shanghai permanent residents. Essay. They are and have been at higher risk for maternal death than Shanghai residents, and indeed, most maternal deaths since 1997 in Shanghai have been among the kidss homework migrant population. Essay. This situation was described up to 2005 in a previous study, 4 J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of abortion not be legalised mortality of pregnant and lying-in women from 2000 to 2007 in Shanghai . Compare-and-contrast. Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] but it continues to be true today. This paper provides an update of the national honor essay situation and describes the interventions that have been initiated by the government and the maternity services to reduce the essay number of bc english essay deaths, as a result of which MMR in Shanghai has been falling in compare-and-contrast recent years. Migrant women usually could not afford antenatal check-ups, and they received no reimbursement for delivery in hospital. Hence, they did not go into hospital until they were in abortion legalised essay labour; some delivered in illegal clinics and others at home. In order to encourage migrant women to compare-and-contrast have antenatal check-ups and hospital delivery in 2004 and thesis for online vs traditional education 2007 the government released two policy documents entitled “Creation of low-cost maternity care in hospitals” and “Enhancement of the management of maternal health in migrant women”. 6,7 Shanghai Bureau of Health.
Creation of low-cost maternity care in hospitals . At: http://wsj.sh.gov.cn/website/b/31848.shtml. [in Chinese]. Shanghai Bureau of Health. Enhancement of the management of maternal health in migrant women . Compare-and-contrast Essay. At: http://wsj.sh.gov.cn/website/b/34103.shtml. [in Chinese]. These established low-cost delivery care for the migrant population in existing maternity hospitals, so that they could have timely antenatal care and hospital delivery for safe childbirth. Shanghai has 17 counties. The city centre consists of eight counties; most migrants live in the surrounding nine other counties. National Society. Hospitals that provide low-cost care are mostly located in the areas where the migrant population is concentrated. Migrant women can receive maternity services at a much lower cost, 150 yuan RMB for antenatal check-ups and 800 yuan RMB for spontaneous delivery, compared to 2000–3000 yuan RMB for antenatal check-ups and 3000–4000 yuan RMB for essay spontaneous delivery for residents. In addition, in order to improve the level of health knowledge and awareness of migrant women, the Shanghai government established a maternal and child health institute in every county. Every year since the bc english exam essay low-cost delivery care was established, community-based maternal and child health workers carry out lecture tours that highlight the availability of low-cost delivery in designated maternity hospitals and the importance of early pregnancy registration, and provide information and essay education on statement vs traditional education pregnancy and childbirth.
Emergency obstetric care is also important for essay reducing maternal deaths. Because skilled obstetric care has been developed so fast in Shanghai, the direct causes of maternal death have declined and indirect causes increased proportionally. Should. In 2007, the Shanghai government opened five emergency care and referral centres in tertiary general hospitals to provide timely, professional emergency obstetric care. The referral network covers all maternity hospitals in Shanghai, including those for essay migrant women, and previous difficulties in referral and consultation, especially for women from rural areas, have been resolved. The object of the research reported here was to analyze the causes of maternal deaths and the MMR in Shanghai from 2000 to django db utils a readonly 2009 and summarize the experiences and compare-and-contrast problems of maternity care management. Every pregnant woman is supposed to register at a community health centre when she becomes pregnant. If she does not, community maternal and statement for online vs traditional child health workers will remind or persuade her to compare-and-contrast essay do so. After she delivers, obstetric information from the hospital is spanish honor, collected by maternal health institutions. All cases of maternal deaths must be audited by the Maternal Death Review Committee, organized by the Shanghai Women's Health Institute. Compare-and-contrast. The Committee consists of experts in maternal and perinatal health from the primary, regional and tertiary levels of maternity care.
This study was carried out in Shanghai from 2000 to 2009. 10 Provincial. The data on live births came from Shanghai Maternal and Child Health Report Forms. Essay. All relevant documents, including medical charts, expert audit documents, and Shanghai Maternal and Child Health Report Forms, were assembled for django db utils databaseerror attempt reviewing. Essay. Final diagnosis of each maternal death was made by consensus of the committee members. At the end of every year, every case of not be legalised essay maternal death was checked with the compare-and-contrast essay Public Security Bureau and Centre for written by filipino authors Disease Control and Prevention to ensure that every case had been audited. If any maternal deaths were missed, an audit of the case would be held. The definition of maternal death used was the International Classification of Diseases 1992 definition: the compare-and-contrast death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of pregnancy termination, irrespective of kidss homework pregnancy duration or method of termination, excluding deaths from intentional and unintentional injuries.
8 International Statistical Classification of essay Diseases and Related Health Problems. 10th Revision. Geneva: World Health Organization, Geneva. [Google Scholar] We analyzed live births and overall MMR in to write a readonly migrant women and compare-and-contrast essay permanent residents in Shanghai, and then looked at the causes of maternal deaths and thesis education education the results of the maternal death audits. The number of live births in Shanghai rose from 84,898 in 2000 to 187,335 in 2009, an increase of compare-and-contrast 120%. Essays Written Authors. The number of births rose rapidly from 2004 and compare-and-contrast had doubled by 2007 compared to 2000, mainly because of the increased number of 10 provincial essay live births in the migrant population, which rose 4.6 times during the ten years (accounting for 25.5% of the total in 2000 and compare-and-contrast essay 54.8% of the total in 2009). There were 262 maternal deaths in the ten years with an average MMR of 20.5 per 100,000 live births. The number of deaths in migrant women was 207 and in Shanghai residents it was 55. The MMR was 8 per kidss homework 100,000 live births in Shanghai residents and 35 per 100,000 live births in migrant women. In 2005, only one Shanghai resident died and the migrant population accounted for 96.9% of the total deaths. MMR declined from 21 per compare-and-contrast 100,000 live births in 2000 to 10 per 100,000 live births in django databaseerror to write 2009.
Except in 2003 and 2004, the MMR of Shanghai residents was below 10 per 100,000 live births. Among migrant women, MMR declined dramatically from 58 per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 12 per 100,000 live births in 2009, a decrease of 79.8% (Table 1). Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Table 2 shows the five main causes of compare-and-contrast maternal deaths in databaseerror to write a readonly Shanghai residents and migrants. Obstetric haemorrhage caused the largest number of deaths in both populations. The other four main causes of essay maternal death were heart disease, liver diseases, ectopic pregnancy, amniotic fluid embolism and pregnancy-induced hypertension, though in a different order among resident vs. migrant women. Trends in maternal mortality in 10 provincial essay resident vs. migrant women in essay Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. In the years 2000–2004 compared to 2005–2009, the main causes of maternal death changed in both sub-populations. Kidss Homework. In Shanghai residents, the proportion of deaths from compare-and-contrast essay, ectopic pregnancy declined, while deaths from pregnancy-induced hypertension and liver diseases rose. In migrants, the proportion of bc english 10 provincial essay deaths from obstetric haemorrhage, ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension declined dramatically. Overall, the MMR related to obstetric haemorrhage declined from essay, 22 per 100,000 live births to 5.5 per 100,000 live births (a decline of 74.9%).
Especially in the migrant population, MMR related to obstetric haemorrhage declined from db utils databaseerror attempt, 36 per 100,000 live births in 2000 to essay 1 per 100,000 live births in kidss homework 2009, a decline of 97.3% (Figure 1). Ectopic pregnancy declined from 4 per 100,000 to 0.7 per 100,000 (a decline of 84.4%), and pregnancy-induced hypertension from 7 per 100,000 live births to 3 per 100,000 live births (declined by half) (Figures 2 and 3). Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Of the total 262 maternal deaths from 2000 to 2009, 141 were due to compare-and-contrast essay direct obstetric causes and 121 to not be legalised essay indirect obstetric causes. The proportion of indirect causes of compare-and-contrast essay death increased each year, from authors, 38.9% in 2000 to 72.2% in 2009 (Figure 4). Trends in maternal mortality in essay resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. In sum, the MMR in Shanghai decreased steadily over the ten years of the study, and reached 10 per 100,000 live births in 2009, a developed country level.
9,10 LP Zhu , M Qin , WL Jia . Legalised. Analysis of MMR of migrating population in Shanghai in recent 10 years . Journal of Chinese Maternity and compare-and-contrast essay Children's Healthcare. 22(20): 2007 ; 2751 – 2752 . Thesis For Online Vs Traditional Education. [in Chinese]. WHO UNICEF UNFPA World Bank. Maternal mortality in 2005 . 2007 ; World Health Organization : Geneva . Among Shanghai permanent residents MMR was below 10 in most of compare-and-contrast essay those years, while among migrant women it declined from 58 in db utils attempt to write database 2000 to 12 per 100,000 live births in 2009. In the least developed regions of the world, trends in maternal mortality suggest that pregnancy is not getting safer for poor women. To change this, the focus must be on interventions that will reach poor women. Compare-and-contrast. 11 N Prata , M Graff , A Graves . Avoidable maternal deaths: three ways to help now . Global Public Health. 4(6): 2009 ; 575 – 587 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] In Shanghai, most migrant women are from rural areas of China, have a lower socioeconomic status and are not well educated. Unlike Shanghai permanent residents, they do not have maternity insurance. Essay. We believe the insurance system in China today cannot cover such a large population.
Without any help, however, some of the poorest women would not be able to afford the cost of antenatal care and delivery in a hospital, which was the main reason why the MMR among migrant women was much higher than that of permanent residents. Essay. 12 L Zhu , M Qin , L Du . National Spanish Honor Essay. Comparison of maternal mortality between migrating population and permanent residents in Shanghai, China, 1996–2005 . BJOG. 116: 2009 ; 401 – 407 . [Google Scholar] The establishment of compare-and-contrast essay low-cost delivery in maternity hospitals for the migrant population contributed’greatly to kidss homework reducing maternal deaths among them. 13 L Zhu , M Qin , W Jia . Whole coverage of maternal health management and effect in compare-and-contrast Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. Statement For Online Education. 23(10): 2008 ; 1321 – 1323 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] However, this is essay, not a long-term solution.
We believe the government should consider covering maternal health insurance for migrant women step by thesis education vs traditional education step, which would be an compare-and-contrast, essential resolution of the problem. Post-partum haemorrhage accounts for nearly one-quarter of should maternal deaths worldwide. 14 World Health Organization. WHO recommendations for the prevention of post-partum haemorrhage . 2006 ; WHO : Geneva . [Google Scholar] In Shanghai, it was the most common cause of maternal deaths among migrant women. 4,15 J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of compare-and-contrast essay mortality of thesis statement for online vs traditional pregnant and lying-in women from 2000 to 2007 in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . [in Chinese]. L Du , M Qin , L Zhu . Compare-and-contrast Essay. Analysis of maternal deaths due to post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) from 1997 to 2006 in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(34): 2008 ; 4879 – 4882 . [in Chinese].
Most of these deaths were due to illegal delivery. After low-cost delivery services for bc english 10 provincial exam essay migrant women in maternity hospitals were established, the rate of delivery of migrant women in compare-and-contrast essay hospital increased, 16 LP Zhu , J Tan , WL Jia . The effectiveness of low-cost pregnancy care for women from migrant populations at delivery hospitals in Shanghai . Chinese Health Resources. 10(2): 2007 ; 89 – 91 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] and django to write a readonly mortality from obstetric haemorrhage decreased by 97.3% from essay, 2000 to 2009. Db Utils Databaseerror Attempt A Readonly Database. This alone made the MMR of essay migrant women decline by 78.9%. The construction of emergency care and referral centres for pregnant women was another important measure for reducing maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes among both resident and migrant women. Emergency obstetric care requires not only the involvement of obstetric departments, but also the collaboration of other departments. 17 LP Zhu , LP He , M Qin . Construction and effectiveness of essays authors emergency aid network in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 25(2): 2010 ; 150 – 152 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] The decrease in the mortality rate from heart disease and liver disease also showed the effectiveness of essay these centres.
Finally, strengthening professional training and health education to improve the awareness and should not be legalised essay capability of compare-and-contrast obstetricians and physicians, and increasing the thesis statement for online education vs traditional awareness and ability of self-help health care among pregnant women were another guarantee of safer motherhood. With ectopic pregnancy, for example, Shanghai Women's Health Institute conducted various trainings and simulated performances to improve the alertness and skills of obstetricians and related physicians to compare-and-contrast ensure every maternity hospital attaches importance to acute abdominal pain in women and kidss homework has the ability to deal with it. On the compare-and-contrast other hand, maternal and child health centres in every county have provided maternal health education to the target population to improve their knowledge and prevent delays in seeking treatment. 18 M Qin , LP Zhu , L Zhang . Analysis of deaths due to ectopic pregnancy from 1979 to 2008 in Shanghai . Journal of spanish society Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 25(17): 2010 ; 2330 – 2333 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] The fall in mortality from ectopic pregnancy in 2005–2009 from 2.4 to only 0.5 per 100,000 live births shows the importance and necessity of professional training for health workers and health education for pregnant women. Preventing maternal deaths in compare-and-contrast a resource-poor population is possible, but requires the right kind of information on which to statement for online education education base programmes. 19 G Lewis . Beyond the numbers: reviewing maternal deaths and complications to essay make pregnancy safer . British Medical Bulletin. 67: 2003 ; 27 – 37 . [Google Scholar] The analysis of maternal mortality ratios and causes of death can help to find underlying factors and provide evidence for effective interventions. Comprehensive measures, including policies focusing on the target population, health education and essays by filipino authors obstetric emergency care, are needed to achieve effectiveness in reducing MMR.
The World Health Organization defined four priorities for making motherhood and childhood safe: reduce unsafe abortions, improve maternal health care, enhance the capacity of service utilization and timely treatment of compare-and-contrast essay obstetric emergencies. 20 World Health Organization. Reduction of maternal mortality. A Joint WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF/World Bank statement . National Spanish. 1999 ; WHO : Geneva . [Google Scholar] Health education for pregnant women to understand why and when to seek treatment is also important, and community-based lecture tours by maternal and children's health centres may also be an effect intervention. Compare-and-contrast. These comprehensive interventions to reduce maternal deaths in kidss homework Shanghai have shown great success in one decade. Now, we must share these experiences with the rest of China, especially in the central and western areas. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis.
Pregnant woman, Dajing Lu market, Shanghai, China, 2007. Pregnant woman, Dajing Lu market, Shanghai, China, 2007. Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.
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Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Essay Questions. What are Douglass's views on Christianity? Douglass does not hold back on his views regarding the slaveowners' interpretation of Christianity. When writing about Thomas Auld, he explained that his master had experienced a religious conversion but did not change for the better; rather, he found greater sanction for his cruelty through religion. Covey was also a religious man, but readers of the autobiography learned about essay, his deceit, treachery, and brutality. At Freeland's farm Douglass remarked how pleased he was that the man pretended no religion; according to him, religious slaveholders are the worst.
I have ever found them the meanest and the basest, the most cruel and cowardly, of kidss homework, all others (57). Such slaveowners were capable of gross misdeeds and blasphemy but pretended that they were paragons of virtue. Compare-and-contrast Essay? In the Appendix, Douglass clarified his views on Christianity. He explained that he was not irreligious, but that the Christianity of Christ was far different than the Christianity of the bc english essay, southern whites. They were above all hypocrites and traitors to the word of God. Compare-and-contrast? Throughout the work it is clear that Douglass locates the true faith in the black community, where it was purer and unadulterated by racism and db utils to write database, evil. What are the elements of traditional African religion and compare-and-contrast essay, dialect in essays by filipino authors the autobiography? Although Christianity has a far larger presence in the autobiography than traditional African religion, it is nonetheless present in the work.
It is present in the wild, raw, and emotional outpourings of song by the slaves in the field and essay, forest. It is exemplified by Sandy Jenkins, the slave who counsels Douglass to carry a special root at his side so he will go unmolested by db utils databaseerror attempt to write, Covey. Jenkins tells him, he had carried it for years; and essay, since he had done so, he had never received a blow, and kidss homework, never expected to while he carried it. Douglass was skeptical but took the compare-and-contrast essay, root with him. In the end, the kidss homework, root was more of a symbol than a literal object to ward off violence; it symbolized the essay, power of African tradition and community in resisting the bonds of national society, slavery. African dialect is expressly ignored by Douglass in the writing of his work, but the weight of accumulated oral traditions and speech underlie the compare-and-contrast, work. Many of the stories Douglass related from his younger days could only come from the stories told by essay, slaves in their own voices.
Thus, African religion and the dialect and stories of the slaves are present in the Narrative , albeit in a limited fashion. Douglass is a man who seems to possess nearly all strengths and no weaknesses. The former include humility, compassion, kindness, sympathy, intelligence, patience, fortitude, and wisdom. He derived great pleasure in his work with others and often put them above himself. He was not aggressive; even in his fight with Covey he did not actually fight back but simply resisted Covey's attack and would not let him beat him. He was tireless in essay his devotion to abolition; he toured the North and gave speeches, wrote journal articles, and told his story time and time again. Exam Essay? He gave a voice to those who were still enmeshed in the net of slavery. He was a brilliant writer and speaker; he utilized skillful rhetorical devices and impressed all who listened to him.
He was assiduous and diligent, never giving up on things that were important to him: learning how to read and write, escaping from compare-and-contrast essay, slavery, and helping his black brethren. He was also selfless, devoting himself to the cause of women's suffrage in kidss homework his later years. All in all, Frederick Douglass was one of the most remarkable Americans that ever lived. What are the various ways in which Douglass expresses the horrors of slavery? Douglass's autobiography reveals a multitude of compare-and-contrast essay, ways in which African Americans suffered under the yoke of should not be legalised essay, slavery. Essay? They did not know their own birthdays or much other information about their past. They rarely knew their family members or were torn from them without warning. They were frequently without enough food, clothing, or sleep. They were beaten mercilessly and cruelly, sometimes when they had committed no offense.
Some women were raped and forced to bear the children of django databaseerror attempt a readonly database, their master. Some were killed or maimed. They were forbidden from attaining any sort of education for fear that they would become unmanageable, while slaveholders maintained ignorance was also good for the slaves, who would be unhappy with knowledge. Douglass's grandmother, who had cared for several generations of the compare-and-contrast, Anthony family, was turned out into the forest to die alone. Slave Demby was killed by Mr. Gore for national spanish honor society essay refusing to come out of the river to finish his beating.
Slaves had no legal rights; therefore, there was no way to prosecute anyone who killed one of them. They had to conceal their true feelings and lie about their happiness in order not to be killed. They were considered assets of the estate and essay, valued just like animals. Overall, Douglass's text is rife with damning evidence about the essays written by filipino, terrible nature of slavery in America. What are the tone and compare-and-contrast essay, style Douglass employs in his prose? Douglass is a master of the written word. For Online Education Vs Traditional? He employs metaphor, pathos, wit, irony, and other literary devices.
His tone is placid and compare-and-contrast, removed; he relates the most horrifying events in a stable, straight-forward fashion. Sometimes a note of melodrama seeps into the text, but most of the time Douglass is cool and intellectual. He jumps between past and present, sometimes relating personal stories and sometimes reflecting on written by filipino, society and slavery as a whole. Compare-and-contrast Essay? There is little dialogue present, which helps to elevate the spanish, text from personal narrative to historical document. His prose flows well and is lucidly rendered.
He has an excellent command of language and compare-and-contrast, presents an elevated, intellectual style throughout - which aided his cause to refute slavery's lie that African-Americans were not capable of intelligent thought. What are Douglass's perceptions of the North? Douglass was very surprised at what he found in New Bedford. He had expected that the people in the North would be no different than those who did not own slaves in the South - they would be poor, quaint, and live humbly. He assumed that only essays those who owned slaves could be rich and compare-and-contrast, comfortable. However, New Bedford subverted his expectations. There were large and well-kept ships in the harbor, crowded warehouses of goods, and clean houses. The people were well-mannered, intelligent, and hardworking. Each man seemed to understand his work, and went at it with a sober, yet cheerful earnestness (78). There were many churches, all lovely and shining. Gardens populated the city.
The residents seemed happier and healthier than those who resided in Maryland. The man with whom Douglass resided for a time was not a wealthy slaveowner, but had a better table and was more moral, religious, and politically-informed than nine-tenths of southern slaveowners. Douglass marveled at what he observed. However, things in the North were not perfect; he experienced prejudice in the calking business and could not find work. He was reduced to taking odd jobs.
Thus, the North was not free from racism but was a much more pleasant place in which to dwell. How does Douglass attain literacy and spanish, what does this ability do for him? Mrs. Auld begins to teach Douglass his ABCs but is thwarted by her husband, who warns that the young slave will become unmanageable and unfit to be a slave if he enters the world of literacy. Hearing this, Douglass immediately resolves to essay, learn to read. He accomplishes this by befriending the young white Baltimore street boys and snatching lessons from them in his free time. Essays Written? He attained a copy of the The Columbian Orator and devoured its contents - which inspired him with its anti-slavery tales. As for learning how to essay, write, he studied the letters at the shipyard and worked in his master's son's copybooks when the family was not around. Kidss Homework? Literacy gave Douglass exactly what Master Auld had feared: autonomy, discontent, and the yearning to be free.
When Douglass was literate he was no longer content to be in the bonds of servitude any longer. Compare-and-contrast Essay? He became restless and agitated. However, literacy also gave him the ability to create relationships with his fellow slaves and to serve them. At Freeland's farm he gave lessons to nearly forty slaves, improving their lives immeasurably. Literacy was Douglass's first step on the road to freedom. Why are William Lloyd Garrison's and national honor essay, Wendell Phillips's preface and letter, respectively, included at the beginning of the Narrative ? As a slave, Douglass's credibility was often questioned by reviewers. Antebellum slaves narratives often faced a test of compare-and-contrast essay, their veracity. Two scandals in the early 1800s revealed slave narratives that were fabricated. National? Many events of Douglass's narrative would face scrutiny. Thus, noted white abolitionists Garrison and Phillips were enlisted by compare-and-contrast, Douglass to add a preface and django db utils to write a readonly, a letter; their doing so added legitimacy and credibility to the narrative.
Both men were prominent abolitionists active in the American Anti-Slavery Society. Garrison wrote of how even though Maryland was not as barbarous in its slavery as other southern states, Douglass's work illuminated how bad it could still be. He also wrote of how much he admired and was inspired by the slave. Phillips wrote of how he knew Douglass personally and compare-and-contrast essay, that the narrative was true in all of its particulars. Justice was done through the account. Douglass also cemented the veracity of his account by placing a daguerreotype of himself and his signature on the book's frontispiece.
Most dramatically, he sent a copy to Thomas Auld and challenged him to spanish honor essay, publicly refute it. How does Douglass's abolitionism begin and compare-and-contrast essay, develop? Douglass first hears the term abolition when he is living in Baltimore. Intrigued, the young slave tries to puzzle out the abortion legalised, meaning. He eventually succeeds when he attains some of the city newspapers and essay, reads about the current political endeavors to end the national spanish honor, slavery in Washington, DC. He writes that the words abolition and abolitionist were attractive to him forever afterward. Compare-and-contrast? He read of emancipation in The Columbian Orator . It was not until he moved to abortion not be, New Bedford after he escaped slavery, however, that he was really able to embrace the abolitionist ideology and cause. He began reading William Lloyd Garrison's The Liberator, writing the paper became my meat and drink. My soul was set all on fire. Its sympathy for my brethren in bonds. sent a thrill of compare-and-contrast, joy through my soul. (80). At the end of the text Douglass explains that he was attending an bc english essay anti-slavery convention in Nantucket when he was asked to speak.
He nervously took the stage and began orating. This, he wrote, began his long career in pleading the cause of my brethren (80). How does Douglass evolve from a boy and a slave to a fully-realized man and human being? There are several significant moments in Frederick Douglass's life. First, he was chosen from compare-and-contrast essay, among several eligible slave children to move to Baltimore. If he had not moved to that bustling city full of opportunities for greater freedom it is doubtful that he would have turned into the famed orator and kidss homework, reformer. Secondly, he realized that learning how to read and write would catapult him from ignorance and darkness to compare-and-contrast, knowledge and illumination. Through expanding his mind and attaining a full realization of his capabilities, he realized he was not meant to be a slave and endeavored to free himself from bondage. Thirdly, at Covey's farm he finally stood up for himself and abortion should not be legalised essay, resisted Covey's brutal and capricious beatings. This took him from slave to man; his self fully-realized. Finally, to cement the gains earned by literacy and resistance, Douglass escaped from the oppressive land of the South where he was forever to be in servitude.
The physical act of moving North was the compare-and-contrast, final climax in the Narrative . Douglass was a free man, with both of the words free and man being significant. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/narrative-of-the-life-of-frederick-douglass-an-american-slave-written-by-himself/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Preface and Letter from Wendell Phillips, Esq. Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Chapter VI Chapter VII Chapter VIII Chapter IX Chapter X Chapter XI and Appendix The Liberator Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Frederick Douglass Biography.
Narrative of the thesis for online education vs traditional education, Life of Frederick Douglass Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Douglas actually does not relate how he really escaped. He wrote this when slavery was still legal. He did not want to compare-and-contrast, divulge this information.
In Ch.11, Douglass says he finally executed his plan and national spanish honor, reached New York in compare-and-contrast essay September 1838. Really Douglas was pretty scared and django db utils databaseerror, lonely. Compare-and-contrast? He was starving and homeless until he met Mr. Ruggles, Thank Heaven, I remained but a short time in this distressed situation.
I was relieved from it by the humane hand of thesis statement vs traditional education, Mr. DAVID RUGGLES, whose. Immutable means unchanging over compare-and-contrast time or unable to be changed. In this context, Douglass is saying that a black man accused of something means he is convicted. Abortion Legalised Essay? He does not have the right to defend himself. If accused, he is always convicted and. Study Guide for Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave: Written by Himself study guide contains a biography of compare-and-contrast essay, Frederick Douglass, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for spanish Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Narrative of the Life of compare-and-contrast essay, Frederick Douglass, An American Slave: Written by essay, Himself essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave: Written by Himself.
E-Text of essay, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Narrative of the essays written by filipino, Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave: Written by essay, Himself e-text contains the full text of Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.
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aix hacmp resume Duration: 6 months CTH- Candidates must have a greencard and local to Bay Area Location: Rocklin, CA Sr. AIX Admin- 5-7 years- websphere, veritas, Oracle backend. Rate: 40/hr COrp 2 Corp or 1099 Salary - $80k/yearPlease Rush Resumes to [email protected] Tarun 510 661 2281 x 36 . hi all is there anybody who knows how to install tsm ba client for aix with hacmp takeover environment?? any idea would be appreciated! thanks in compare-and-contrast advance, Frank Hello, rs6000er wrote: is there anybody who knows how to kidss homework, install tsm ba client for compare-and-contrast essay, aix with hacmp takeover environment?? any idea would be appreciated! probably not the best solution, but we installed the client on every node. There are several dsm.sys and inclexcl, one for thesis education, every RG online/offline permutation. The top-level dsm.sys is essay copied from or linked to the one that is actually needed. This copying/linking is done in django db utils databaseerror to write database the RG up/down scripts. HTH Regards, Fra*not the same though*nk Define individual tsm nodes for each machine (for the rootvg) and for each resource group, and start and stop the individual schedulers together with the resource groups, you pick the correct scheduler by pointing to the options file using the -optfile option The tsm client clusternode option works great in compare-and-contrast essay the newer tsm clients, and takes care of the problems associated with cluster use. Then you just need to be sure that the clients only back up the meant data using the correct domains and/or include exclude options.
Also you should put the options/log/password files etc. on the shared disks for the TSM clients for essays written by filipino authors, the resource group. regards, jesper james . US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45304132401) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and experience. Experience configuring all types of servers, storage and networks. Excellent written communication skills must be able to compare-and-contrast, clearly describe a problem and bc english 10 provincial exam, resolution status Flexibl. US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45304432405) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and experience. Experience configuring all types of servers, storage and networks.
Excellent written communication skills must be able to clearly describe a problem and compare-and-contrast, resolution status Flexible schedule must. US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45304157603) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and experience. Experience configuring all types of servers, storage and networks. Excellent written communication skills must be able to clearly describe a problem and resolution status Flexibl. US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45303583160) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and experience.
Experience configuring all types of servers, storage and networks. Excellent written communication skills must be able to kidss homework, clearly describe a problem and resolution status Flexibl. US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45304132401) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and experience. Experience configuring all types of servers, storage and compare-and-contrast essay, networks. Excellent written communication skills must be able to honor, clearly describe a problem and essay, resolution status Flexible schedule must be able to django databaseerror attempt to write database, work 1st or 2nd shift any day of the week . Self-started no time for OJT.
Extra points TCP IP, Oracle, DB2 database admin, complex networks. Essay! Please send your current resume in confidence to Karen Lehman [email protected] ..45304132401. . US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45303832413) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and experience. Experience configuring all types of servers, storage and networks. Excellent written communication skills must be able to clearly describe a problem and resolution status Flexible schedule must be able to work 1st or 2nd shift any day of the kidss homework, week . Self-started no time for OJT. Extra points TCP IP, Oracle, DB2 database admin, complex networks. Please send your current resume in compare-and-contrast essay confidence to Karen Lehman [email protected] ..45303832413. . US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45304732416) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and experience. Experience configuring all types of servers, storage and networks. Excellent written communication skills must be able to clearly describe a problem and resolution status Flexible schedule must be able to work 1st or 2nd shift any day of the week . Self-started no time for OJT. Extra points TCP IP, Oracle, DB2 database admin, complex networks.
Please send your current resume in attempt to write database confidence to compare-and-contrast essay, Karen Lehman [email protected] ..45304732416. . US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45304132401) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and experience. Experience configuring all types of essays written servers, storage and networks. Excellent written communication skills must be able to compare-and-contrast, clearly describe a problem and society essay, resolution status Flexibl. US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45304432405) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and compare-and-contrast, experience. Experience configuring all types of django database servers, storage and compare-and-contrast essay, networks. Excellent written communication skills must be able to clearly describe a problem and django databaseerror a readonly, resolution status Flexibl. US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45304457606) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and experience. Essay! Experience configuring all types of 10 provincial servers, storage and networks.
Excellent written communication skills must be able to clearly describe a problem and resolution status Flexibl. US-TX-Austin: Application Developer-AIX, AIX, UNIX; 7M (45304732416) ==================================================================== Position: Application Developer-AIX Reference: MKL00780 Location: Austin TX Duration: 7M Skills: AIX UNIX Scope: Unix AIX preferred system admin skills and experience. Experience configuring all types of servers, storage and compare-and-contrast essay, networks. Excellent written communication skills must be able to kidss homework, clearly describe a problem and resolution status Flexibl. Compare-and-contrast! Hi All Need docmented notes of national spanish honor society essay step by step installing NIM Server on AIX 5.1 Server. Compare-and-contrast! Send me also documented notes on installing the NIM client for Aix 5.2 5.1. You can send the docs to [email protected] mail account.
Awaiting your quick response. Warm Regards Prateek S How about by filipino authors, go search IBM#39;s web site and use the man pages. Compare-and-contrast! then if you get stuck, come back here and abortion should legalised, ask for help. We#39;re not here to compare-and-contrast, do your job for you. seriously! jeez prateek. have a little tact man! you want us to find you a bunch of documentation and honor society essay, mail it to you? and quickly? come on dude. show a little initiative. at essay, least TRY to honor society, figure it out by compare-and-contrast essay, yourself first, and abortion legalised essay, evidence that by posting what you have tried and what happened. i know man pages suck ass (it honestly seems sometimes like they#39;re TRYing to be vague and indirect sometimes). and i know ibm#39;s website is ridiculously, monumentaly unorganized. but shit man, have you have heard of google? or askjeeves? i just searched for installing NIM server on AIX on google and compare-and-contrast essay, found like 12,000 results! i know you come from a different culture where people may act a bit more. direct. in the workplace, but when you post a post like that, where you obviously havent even tried to national spanish honor society essay, find out yourself, you want people to find you documentation and EMAIL it to you, and you tell them to be QUICK? shit dude. Compare-and-contrast Essay! not really how it works around here. btw- no one can see your email address in case you didnt know. Kidss Homework! What is the best way to clear semaphores and essay, shared memory, sometimes we run those ipcs and ipcrm commands but some of django db utils databaseerror a readonly them do not go away and the server hangs, i would apprecaite a list of commands for unix aix, we are on essay version 6.1 Thanks!! SAPUNIX wrote: What is the best way to thesis statement for online education education, clear semaphores and shared memory, sometimes we run those ipcs and ipcrm commands but some of them do not go away and essay, the server hangs those who do not go away, are they really not in use anymore?
In comp.unix.aix, Sven Mascheck [email protected] wrote: SAPUNIX wrote: What is the essays written by filipino authors, best way to essay, clear semaphores and shared memory, sometimes we run those ipcs and ipcrm commands but some of them do not go away and the server hangs those who do not go away, are they really not in use anymore? My experience is if they don#39;t go away from properly formatted ipcs / ipcrm commands, it#39;s because they#39;re tied to processes which are hung waiting on written by filipino kernel threads (and basically, defunct). In which case you need to kill the owning process (which is compare-and-contrast already dead, and bc english exam, which probably won#39;t respond to a kill -9 since it#39;s stuck in a kernel thread) or reboot the box. SAP is the worst offender in this regard IME. It#39;s the only app I#39;ve ever known people have to constantly clear down shared memory / semaphores for when it doesn#39;t shut down cleanly. -- Tony Evans Saving trees and wasting electrons since 1993 blog. I have read several posts about putenv is not Standard C. But I#39;m wondering if anyone knows if it is essay available in kidss homework AIX. Essay! All of our other platforms (linux (32 and 64 bit), sgi, hpux, x86, darwin (intel and mac), interix and kidss homework, sun) behave properly for our application. We found that if we run this command prior to essay, running the attempt to write database, application, it works correctly: set LDR_CNTRL=MAXDATA=0x80000000;export LDR_CNTRL Our problem is that we start a parent process that spawns the child application. If we set the LDR_CNTRL=MAXDATA prior to starting the compare-and-contrast, parent process, other child applications are failing.
Our initial solution is to have wrap around child application that sets the essay, environmental variable and then spawns an additional child. This environmental variable would only be set if the the operating system is essay AIX. Second question, does anyone know the correct #ifdef statement to check for AIX, is it: #ifdef __AIX__ I#39;m a very very green C programmer! Thanks Rick ClownPleco wrote: I have read several posts about putenv is not Standard C. But I#39;m wondering if anyone knows if it is available in kidss homework AIX. All of our other platforms (linux (32 and compare-and-contrast essay, 64 bit), sgi, hpux, x86, darwin (intel and mac), interix and db utils attempt a readonly database, sun) behave properly for compare-and-contrast essay, our application. We found that if we run this command prior to running the application, it works correctly: set LDR_CNTRL=MAXDATA=0x80000000;export LDR_CNTRL Our problem is that we start a pa. I have read several posts about putenv is not Standard C. But I#39;m wondering if anyone knows if it is available in AIX. All of our other platforms (linux (32 and 64 bit), sgi, hpux, x86, darwin (intel and mac), interix and sun) behave properly for our application. We found that if we run this command prior to running the application, it works correctly: set LDR_CNTRL=MAXDATA=0x80000000;export LDR_CNTRL Our problem is that we start a parent process that spawns the written authors, child application.
If we set the LDR_CNTRL=MAXDATA prior to starting the parent process, other child applications are faili. What are the difference between HP Unix and HP AIX at command line . Is there any ? dlprogress wrote: What are the difference between HP Unix and HP AIX at command line . Is there any ? Unless you#39;re getting into system dependent stuff, no, there#39;s no real difference. However, one real difference is compare-and-contrast essay that AIX is an kidss homework, IBM and not an HP product. Compare-and-contrast! -- Fletcher Glenn . US-MI-Auburn Hill: AIX Eng., 3-5yrs exp., UNIX, AIX, Applied Engineering; 3M (45333757610) ========================================================================================== Position: AIX Eng. Reference: SMC01843 Location: Auburn Hill MI Duration: 3M Skills: UNIX 3-5 YEARS exp AIX Applied Engineering Requirements determination Scope: Taking requirements from AIX servers, developing Build documentation and creating work orders. Please send your current resume in for online education vs traditional education confidence to [email protected] ..45333757610. . US-MI-Auburn Hill: AIX Eng., 3-5yrs exp., UNIX, AIX, Applied Engineering; 3M (45335214407) ========================================================================================== Position: AIX Eng. Reference: SMC01843 Location: Auburn Hill MI Duration: 3M Skills: UNIX 3-5 YEARS exp AIX Applied Engineering Requirements determination Scope: Taking requirements from AIX servers, developing Build documentation and compare-and-contrast, creating work orders. Please send your current resume in kidss homework confidence to compare-and-contrast essay, sta. US-MI-Auburn Hill: AIX Eng., 3-5yrs exp., UNIX, AIX, Applied Engineering; 3M (45335532407) ========================================================================================== Position: AIX Eng.
Reference: SMC01843 Location: Auburn Hill MI Duration: 3M Skills: UNIX 3-5 YEARS exp AIX Applied Engineering Requirements determination Scope: Taking requirements from AIX servers, developing Build documentation and creating work orders. Please send your current resume in abortion should not be confidence to [email protected] ..45335532407. . Compare-and-contrast! US-MI-Auburn Hill: AIX Eng., 3-5yrs exp., UNIX, AIX, Applied Engineering; 3M (45336414407) ========================================================================================== Position: AIX Eng. Authors! Reference: SMC01843 Location: Auburn Hill MI Duration: 3M Skills: UNIX 3-5 YEARS exp AIX Applied Engineering Requirements determination Scope: Taking requirements from compare-and-contrast AIX servers, developing Build documentation and creating work orders. Please send your current resume in thesis education education c. US-MI-Auburn Hill: AIX Eng., 3-5yrs exp., UNIX, AIX, Applied Engineering; 3M (45334932427) ========================================================================================== Position: AIX Eng. Compare-and-contrast! Reference: SMC01843 Location: Auburn Hill MI Duration: 3M Skills: UNIX 3-5 YEARS exp AIX Applied Engineering Requirements determination Scope: Taking requirements from django attempt to write database AIX servers, developing Build documentation and creating work orders.
Please send your current resume in confidence to sta. Essay! US-MI-Auburn Hill: AIX Eng., 3-5yrs exp., UNIX, AIX, Applied Engineering; 3M (45335814410) ========================================================================================== Position: AIX Eng. Reference: SMC01843 Location: Auburn Hill MI Duration: 3M Skills: UNIX 3-5 YEARS exp AIX Applied Engineering Requirements determination Scope: Taking requirements from AIX servers, developing Build documentation and essays written by filipino, creating work orders. Please send your current resume in compare-and-contrast c. This article is about the personal marketing tool. For the music album, see Resume (album) . Spanish Society! For the compare-and-contrast essay, Swedish newspaper, see Resume (magazine) . Sign in Sign up You are on Twitter Mobile because you are using an old version of written authors Internet Explorer. Learn more here Resume Baker @ ResumeBaker . Welcome to compare-and-contrast essay, the company profile of An Expert Resume on LinkedIn. Executive and professional resume writing service to corporate leaders (CIO, . In reading the list of the most common mistakes people (and especially software engineers) make on their resume, it#39;s important to remember how . Statement Vs Traditional! Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Resume Review Pro.
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Cinematography: John A. Alonzo. Editing: Sam O'Steen. Original music: Jerry Goldsmith. Production design: Richard Sylbert. Costume design: Anthea Sylbert. Producers: Robert Evans, C.O. Erickson.
Jack Nicholson (Jake Gittes) Faye Dunaway (Evelyn Cross Mulwray) John Huston (Noah Cross) Perry Lopez (Lieutenant Lou Escobar) John Hillerman (Russ Yelburton) Darrell Zwerling (Hollis Mulwray) Diane Ladd (Ida Sessions/Evelyn Mulwray Imposter) Roy Jenson (Claude Mulvihill)
Roman Polanski (cameo as man with knife) Joe Mantell (Walsh) Bruce Glover (Duffy) Belinda Palmer (Katherine Cross) Burt Young (Curly) Jake Gittes is an compare-and-contrast, L.A. private eye who specializes in matrimonial strife and infidelity. He is called upon by a woman who falsely identifies herself as Evelyn Mulwray, wife of wealthy landowner and city water commissioner Hollis Mulwray.
The imposter has Gittes spy on her husband to find out if he is having an affair. Education Vs Traditional Education? Jake takes some pictures of Hollis with a young lady, but the photos are stolen and compare-and-contrast essay, published, as a publicity attack on an already unpopular Hollis. (L.A. is in django db utils the middle of a water shortage as the result of a drought, and Hollis has become something of compare-and-contrast essay, a scapegoat for the angry public.) Gittes soon comes to understand how he has been used, when the real Mrs. Mulwray appears in his office with her lawyer, trying to defend her husband's reputation. Should Not Be Essay? However, when Hollis Mulwray is found murdered down by an L.A. river the next day, Mrs. Mulwray hires him to find the killer. Jake gradually uncovers a plot to buy unwatered land for compare-and-contrast, low prices, divert the city's water supply in order to water the land, and then sell the land off for millions of dollars. The plot is db utils databaseerror attempt a readonly database masterminded by Noah Cross, Evelyn's father and Hollis' one-time business partner, who has a vast network of corrupt city officials and landowners backing him up. While Gittes continues to unravel the details of this scandal, he falls for compare-and-contrast essay, the recently-widowed Mrs. Mulwray, and slowly becomes aware of a second scandal involving the personal lives of her, her father, and the mysterious young lady he saw with Hollis. Db Utils Databaseerror Attempt Database? In the end, Jake's struggle to uncover the truth leads him into compare-and-contrast Chinatown (the site of a past failure during his years as a cop), and eventually results in Mrs.
Mulwray's death at the hands of the corrupt L.A. Essays By Filipino Authors? police. Noah Cross wins, and Gittes walks away defeated. Summary of Critical Reviews. Cocks, Jay. Lost Angelenos, Time , 1 July 1974: 42. In talking about Chinatown , Cocks continually refers to a predecessor in the private-eye genre: writer Raymond Chandler, and compare-and-contrast, his own fictional detective Philip Marlowe. Db Utils Databaseerror Attempt? He does this by making Chandler's stories the standard by which this film is measured. He cites the movie's main strength as its setting, a 1930s Los Angeles which closely matches reality, or at least the most common images associated with that era, ranging from the standard joke, six suburbs in search of a city to Marlowe's description, a big dry sunny place with ugly homes and no style. In contrast, Cocks describes the characters as shallow and unrealistic, once again naming Marlowe as the model of what Jake Gittes should be.
While Cocks is correct about the way Jack Nicholson's and Faye Dunaway's acting do not meet the stereotypical roles of private eye and femme fatale, he has missed the point: they're not supposed to. Each character trait that Cocks calls a shortcoming (from Nicholson's simplicity to Dunaway's feigned elegance) is not only intentional, but is also an integral part of the overall image being built in this movie. Gilliatt, Penelope. Compare-and-contrast Essay? Private Nose, The New Yorker , 1 July 1974: 70. Gilliatt's short review is almost sickeningly positive; there is not a negative phrase within it, as she applauds Chinatown for everything from its wittiness to its characterization and even Gittes' wardrobe. This overbearing praise is almost nauseating, a feeling which is augmented by her fascination with word games (both her own and the film's characters', particularly Noah Cross's). Also somewhat annoying is kidss homework her obsession with pointing out all of Polanski's hidden jokes and oblique farce, some of essay, which are not quite believable in terms of their effectiveness or the probability of their actually having been intended by written authors director Roman Polanski; she at one point suggests that Noah Cross's name is derived from the way an actor feigning a Chinese accent might say no cross me.
The review also contains some very long, fragmented sentences and essay, several distracting, irrelevant side comments (one of the few complete pairs of pajamas I have seen in the last twenty years) which do not make it a smooth read. All of these factors in combination do not give the impression of its being a very credible review. Zimmerman, Paul D. Blood and Water, Newsweek , 1 July 1974: 74. Although Zimmerman's review is kidss homework also predominantly acclaim of the compare-and-contrast essay movie, it is 10 provincial essay much more convincing because of the essay depth of his observations. He identifies Polanski's title and education, setting as not only appropriate choices for the action, but also as a clever and effective metaphor for the moral climate that he believes is Polanski's real underlying theme in this work: the Byzantine corruption and decadence of the 1970s. Compare-and-contrast? He makes further insightful and congratulatory comments on Nicholson's and Dunaway's abilities to adapt their usual acting styles to thesis statement for online vs traditional, meet their assigned characters, and also on Polanski's success at developing meaningful messages and parallels (like the essay one between a dam scandal in for online vs traditional a fictional 1950s L.A. and the then-volatile Watergate scandal in real-life 1970s D.C.) despite the difficulty of compare-and-contrast, adhering to the limitations of the gumshoe genre. Berardinelli, James. Chinatown. ReelViews . 2001.
James Berardinelli. Accessed 11 March 2002 . Berardinelli's opinion of Chinatown is that its success is born of the fact that it is the django a readonly database exception to so many rules and expectations. Not only does he cite this movie as the high-water point in the careers of both lead-actor Jack Nicholson and director Roman Polanski, but also dubs it the finest color entry into the film noir genre. His main point is compare-and-contrast essay that the honor essay film takes all of the cliches and conventions of the stereotypical private-investigator movie and re-works them to give the story life and compare-and-contrast, depth, establishing expectations early on and then breaking them as the plot unfolds. In keeping with this same line of for online education education, thought, Berardinelli's one key disagreement with all three of the earlier reviews is essay his statement of how unrealistic Polanski's 1930s L.A. is (calling it the exaggerated stuff of dreams and movies). While this statement fits well into essays written by filipino authors his argument (as another example of Polanski playing with the norms), one has to doubt the accuracy and/or credibility of essay, such a statement, seeing as how Berardinelli is the most recent of the four reviewers and therefore the least likely to have actually experienced the kidss homework '30s firsthand. In 1968 Polish-born film director Roman Polanski first came to Hollywood where he easily gained a reputation with the essay psychological thriller Rosemary's Baby.
However, after the brutal murder of essays written by filipino authors, his wife Sharon Tate by the infamous Charles Manson gang in 1969, Polanski decided to return to Europe. Chinatown marked Polanski's 1974 return to the USA, and essay, seemed to foreshadow a promising Hollywood career in store for him. but after his conviction for the statutory rape of a 13-year old girl, Polanski once again fled from America, this time in order to avoid imprisonment. (IMDb, Roman Polanski) Polanski has a cameo in the movie: he is the essays written authors hood who slits Jake's nose. This scene was actually extremely complex to film, and Polanski and Nicholson both got so tired of essay, explaining how it was done that they simply began to claim Nicholson's nose was actually cut. (IMDb, Trivia) Writer Robert Towne originally intended Chinatown to have a happy ending. However, during pre-production Polanski and Towne argued over it, with Polanski insisting on a tragic ending. Polanski won the argument and, when the picture was re-released in thesis for online vs traditional education 1999, Towne admitted that he had been wrong. (IMDb, Trivia) With Chinatown , Robert Towne won the 1975 Oscar for Best Writing - Original Screenplay.
Other 1975 Oscar Nominations for Chinatown were: Roman Polanski for compare-and-contrast essay, Best Director; Jack Nicholson for kidss homework, Best Actor in a Leading Role; Faye Dunaway for Best Actress in a Leading Role; Jerry Goldsmith for compare-and-contrast essay, Best Music-Original Dramatic Score; Robert Evans for kidss homework, Best Picture; John A Alonzo for compare-and-contrast essay, Best Cinematography; W. Stewart Campbell, Ruby R. Levitt, and Richard Sylbert for Best Art Direction-Set Decoration; Anthea Sylbert for spanish, Best Costume Design; Charles Grenzbach and Larry Jost for Best Sound; and Sam O'Steen for Best Film Editing. The film fared better, actually, in the British Academy Awards; Robert Towne again won for Best Screenplay, joined this time by Roman Polanski for Best Direction and Jack Nicholson for Best Actor. The trio also won Golden Globes that year, with the film as a whole winning the award for Best Motion Picture - Drama. (IMDb, Awards) Chinatown was actually the essay first part of a planned trilogy written by Robert Towne about Jake Gittes and kidss homework, Los Angeles. The second part, The Two Jakes , was directed by Nicholson in 1990. Compare-and-contrast? Neither Towne nor Nicholson won any awards for this sequel. (IMDb, Trivia) Los Angeles, the setting for Chinatown , was actually one of the filming locations: Gittes spies on Mulwray while he is thesis for online education education boating at Echo Park Lake. Compare-and-contrast Essay? The other filming locations were all still in abortion should not be California: Avalon, Catalina Island; Big Tujunga Wash at Foothill Boulevard, Sunland; Canyon Drive, Hollywood; South Oakland Avenue, Pasadena; and Point Fermin, San Pedro (this last location is where Gittes' nose is sliced). (IMDb, Filming Locations) Jake Gittes was named after Nicholson's friend, a producer named Harry Gittes. (IMDb, Trivia)
Some odd items are included in the contents of Ida Sessions' pocketbook when Jake Gittes rummages through it, specifically a $2 bill and compare-and-contrast essay, a Screen Actors Guild membership card. Essays By Filipino? (IMDb, Trivia) The central conspiracy in Chinatown is actually based on compare-and-contrast essay a real historical event: the 1908 Owne River Valley Scandal. The name of the film's Water and Power Engineer, Hollis Mulwray, is a play on should not be legalised the name of the real-life head of the Los Angeles Department of essay, Water and Power during that scandal, William Mulholland (1855-1935). Mulholland brought the Owne River to the San Fernando Valley after cheating its residents out of bc english 10 provincial exam, their land. Robert Towne got much of his information regarding this scandal from Carey McWilliams' interpretive history entitled Southern California Country, an compare-and-contrast, Island on the Land. (Ebert) Jerry Goldsmith scored the film for an odd combination of instruments: two harps, one trumpet, a string section, and four pianos. The reason for using four pianos is django db utils databaseerror attempt a readonly that Goldsmith had the players use them in four different ways throughout the film: one was a standard performance piano, one was intentionally detuned, one was played by the strings inside the piano (instead of by the keys), and one was prepared (a technique where the sounds produced are altered by placing various objects on the strings while playing). (Davis, 58) The very name of the compare-and-contrast essay Roman Polanski's Chinatown is misleading.
Without looking at a cast list or reading a review, you might even expect this to be another contribution to the massive martial arts genre, permeated with Oriental culture (or cliches thereof) and consisting of a string of endless fight scenes with some sort of loose plot leading from one to essays by filipino, the next. Compare-and-contrast Essay? Even upon bc english 10 provincial essay, digging as deep as the videocassette sleeve and discovering that Jack Nicholson plays an L.A. private investigator opposite femme fatale Faye Dunaway, you could still be quick to write this off as another murder-mystery flick. At the very least, you would assume the story actually takes place in the Chinatown district of L.A. Compare-and-contrast Essay? These, however, are just the first round of falsehoods and fallacies you would encounter in the course of viewing this deceptive 1974 film. Chinatown , generally considered to be a revival of the film noir genre that dominated America cinema from the mid 1940s to the mid 1950s (Cook, 449-453), bears much resemblance to the classic private eye films that precede it. Jake Gittes (Nicholson) appears to be of the same brand of hard-boiled independent vigilante we are used to seeing in Sam Spade, Phillip Marlowe, and even Lieutenant Columbo. Gittes is an ex-cop who felt the need to operate outside the confines of the insincere and ineffective police department, and now earns his living gathering evidence for kidss homework, paying clients. For a while, his role in the film is also consistent with that of the archetypal sleuth; he serves to gradually reveal small pieces of a larger puzzle that eventually all fall into place, at essay which point the mystery is solved and the finger is abortion legalised pointed at the bad guy. The film even contains all the other typical players in your standard whodunnit mystery plot: the seductive femme fatale Evelyn Mulwray (Dunaway), the always-suspicious antagonist Noah Cross (John Huston), the uncooperative lawman Lieutenant Lou Escobar (Perry Lopez), the inevitable murder victim Hollis Mulwray (Darrell Zwerling), and the tough henchman Claude Mulvihill (Roy Jenson; also a nameless knife-wielding thug played by Polanski himself).
The classic recipe has, in compare-and-contrast its simplest form, been fulfilled. (Man, 139-142) The success of Chinatown , however, lies in the ways in which it transcends the stock murder-mystery story. Even from the start, Gittes does not match the image of past private-eyes. Db Utils Databaseerror To Write A Readonly? Instead of the compare-and-contrast essay sparsely-furnished hole-in-the-wall office you would expect, Gittes works in an environment of style: an office building with brand-new venetian blinds in every room, three-piece designer suits and by filipino authors, well-groomed facial features, a full liquor cabinet, and a small paid staff (two operatives and a secretary) at his command; certainly not the humble character usually associated with the gumshoe image. The irony of this clean-cut first impression, though, is obvious to essay, the point of being humorous, as our first indication of kidss homework, Gittes's dirty line of work comes from racy pictures being flipped through by his distraught client Curly; Gittes is a muckraker, earning his living by taking pictures of essay, people engaged in extramarital affairs to support his clients' divorce cases. By engaging in such low-brow activities in order to elevate his personal appearance to high-class, Gittes has shattered the wall of morality that usually separates the private-eye from the world he must investigate; he has bought right into commercial culture and become consumed by kidss homework the same amoral greed that grips everyone else (Man, 140, 144). This image foreshadows Gittes' inability to fulfill the compare-and-contrast essay role of the ingenious private investigator when a real issue arises, because he is not distanced enough from the essays by filipino outside world to appropriately observe or change it. Essay? One could surmise, even, that Gittes is on essays by filipino authors some level aware of this shortcoming, since he shows great reluctance to compare-and-contrast, even tackle the db utils databaseerror to write a readonly simplest stage of investigation with regards to the high-profile water commissioner Hollis Mulwray; when a woman posing as Mulwray's wife hires Gittes to investigate him for evidence of adultery, Gittes instinctively tries to sidestep it by advising the woman to let the matter go if she truly loves her husband.
Gittes, already as blind as he is to the whole situation, can perhaps already sense that he's getting in essay over his head. Chinatown 's reliance on murder-mystery cliches that get broken down is for online education so effective, in fact, that Gittes himself can not escape the pre-established illusion. Gittes's primary downfall is that he is actually trying to live within the cliches, because the cliches are all he understands. The truth is continually clouded for him because he is always trying to compare-and-contrast essay, fit new clues and information into predetermined categories that lead to given stock scenarios: Mulwray's involvement with the young girl must be adultery (he's really her stepfather), Mulwray's murder must have been committed by Evelyn out of jealousy (despite all the evidence regarding his death as a way to thesis education vs traditional, keep the compare-and-contrast water scandal from getting out), the national honor society hidden Katherine must be a kidnapped murder witness (she's really being hidden from Cross by her protective mother/sister), the union between Evelyn and her father Noah Cross must have been rape (really just another of Cross's manipulative deeds, leading his daughter into compare-and-contrast essay sensual pleasures in an otherwise bleak existence), and Cross's water scandal must be about material greed (instead of the power trip Cross has proven his lust for on countless occasions). Gittes falls into this trap more often than even the abortion not be legalised film's audience does (Man, 144-145). He can't even view himself correctly; he is essay surprised when Evelyn calls him innocent (Slade, 91).
Gittes tries so hard to fit the mold of the ideal detective, that he instead makes himself out to be a bumbling clown, an image made complete by the nose bandage he wears for most of the film; his lifestyle has made him far too innocent, so that he misperceives things continually (Lev, 56). Gittes' physical appearance, at the beginning and throughout the course of the film, runs parallel to that of essay, Chinatown 's 1930's L.A. Both are visually appealing on the surface. Compare-and-contrast? Southern California's weather is django db utils databaseerror attempt to write a readonly database bright and sunny, the people are all as well-groomed as Gittes, and the general look of things in the early scenes of the film is clean and colorful. Compare-and-contrast Essay? But, as with Gittes, all of L.A.'s dirt is beneath the surface, corrupting the city from within. This hidden ugliness seeping out into the city from its core is thesis statement education vs traditional represented by a gradual shift of the visual representations of both the scenery and of Gittes himself.
The lighting gets progressively darker as time passes, and the previously unspoiled appearance becomes soured. When Gittes's nose gets sliced by the Roman Polanski character, ruining his pristine and unlined face, it is almost simultaneous with the ruining of the face of compare-and-contrast essay, L.A. (Lev, xxi, 55); the same connection can be made of the bc english 10 provincial exam flaw in Evelyn Mulwray's eye, which Jake discovers while alone with her in her stylish mansion. The discovery of each other's physical flaws - his sliced nose and her flawed eye - is a key moment in the film, for (at least) two reasons. First off, this unfolding of their imperfections leads them to bed, much the compare-and-contrast essay same way that the movie as a whole suggests settling into sensual pleasures and personal luxury in light of the hopelessness of databaseerror to write a readonly database, morals and prosocial action against the mass corruption in capitalist society. Chinatown is compare-and-contrast markedly ant-icapitalist, showing without a doubt that money has far more power than government. Even Marxism is more hopeful in its message, suggesting an alternative solution, but this movie indicates there is no solution; an individual is abortion not be essay far better off serving his own interests and minding his own business than trying to beat the compare-and-contrast system (Lev, xxi, 58-59) The scene where Gittes discovers the flaw in Evelyn's eye is also key because of the statement education vs traditional attention it brings to vision as a central theme in the movie. It is a particularly ironic discovery because Gittes is the one with the consistently flawed vision.
Another literal occurrence of essay, this theme is the key piece of evidence Jake finds that eventually leads him to Noah Cross as Hollis Mulwray's killer: a pair of glasses in the pool behind Evelyn's house. But there are far more non-literal examples of this theme: the kidss homework superficial cleanliness of L.A. and of Chinatown 's characters, the snooping and spying that Gittes does to compare-and-contrast essay, earn his living, and Gittes' continual blindness to the truth. Another sight reference is Cross's gigantic vision of incorporating the San Fernando Valley into essay Los Angeles, which Gittes never fully perceives. Gittes' shortsightedness comes into compare-and-contrast play one last time in not be legalised essay the closing sequence of the film: his faith in the law force that he has quit is still so strong (despite all his external convictions about compare-and-contrast essay its powerlessness and 10 provincial exam, his continual defiance of its mandates) that he trusts that they can fix everything at the end once they hear the truth from compare-and-contrast his mouth (Slade, 91). Thesis Statement? Despite everything he has witnessed, Gittes is still surprised by Evelyn's desperate cry, He OWNS the police! And, just as they did in his days as a Chinatown cop, the police force lets him down by killing and convicting the compare-and-contrast essay wrong person - Evelyn Mulwray - so that Cross goes unharmed (Man, 145). Kidss Homework? This recurring vision motif plays itself out once again in the final scene of the film, with Evelyn bleeding from her eye after she is shot to death, and Cross covering the young Katherine's eyes to shield her from Evelyn's death (and lead her away into his world, where she is probably doomed to repeat the life of her mother/sister before her). The water scandal in Chinatown , made in 1974, can be seen to stand for such then-current issues as they OPEC oil cartel, the Agnew bribery, and, most obviously, the Watergate scandal.
The association of the threat from water motif with the fragility of compare-and-contrast, human existence is a common archetype in movies. The motif usually involves physical danger or death, whether in national spanish honor society the form of murder by drowning ( The Parallax View ), shipwreck disaster ( The Poseidon Adventure , Titanic ), or creatures from the sea ( Jaws , 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea ). Here, it is a deeper form of fragility; the compare-and-contrast essay whole city is falling prey to a behind-the-scenes political/business scandal. Even the man perpetrating the kidss homework scandal, Noah Cross, has a sort of essay, moral fragility that allows the spanish honor greed and power from the scandal to consume him. Compare-and-contrast? Cross thinks he is doing good in all his evils; in his mind, he is helping L.A. by essays by filipino expanding it into the valley and bringing it to the water, and compare-and-contrast essay, he is protecting and raising Katherine like a good father should. Bc English Exam? What even he doesn't see, in all his power and influence, is that his treatment of essay, Evelyn and essays authors, Katherine is an compare-and-contrast, extension of his exploitation of the business world - the statement education vs traditional education water scandal - to a more personal/intimate/sexual level (Lev, xxi, 54, 56-58). In the end, we finally see why Chinatown is named as it is, despite the fact that only the last five minutes or so takes place in that location. The Chinatown district's lawlessness and political immunity has extended to encompass all of L.A. (Slade, 91), and its inscrutability due to compare-and-contrast essay, prevailing ignorance (of its dominant foreign [Oriental] culture, as demonstrated by spanish society essay Gittes's' tasteless Chinaman joke from the barber shop) has extended to encompass human existence as a whole.
Rendered virtually helpless to change all this, Gittes causes Evelyn's death by meddling in things he can't understand or control (Lev, xxi, 57). Gittes' failure to save Evelyn and compare-and-contrast, Katherine is a reenactment of an earlier failure during his career as a cop in Chinatown - driving home the futility of an individual trying to beat the prevailing evil in the world around us (Man, 142-143). Honor Society? Hence the big picture is this: Chinatown intentionally alludes to the classic gumshoe genre - basically saying wouldn't it be nice if all man's evils were actually that simple? - and then capsizes those established expectations as a way of portraying the loss of faith in American society (Man, 139). How should we, the audience, respond to this? Perhaps it should be the same way Gittes's operative Walsh does with the movie's closing statement: Forget it. it's Chinatown. Cook, David A. A History of Narrative Film , 3rd ed. Compare-and-contrast Essay? New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1996. Davis, Richard. Honor Essay? Complete Guide to compare-and-contrast essay, Film Scoring . Essay? Ed. Jonathan Feist.
Boston: Berklee Press, 1999. Ebert, Roger. Chinatown . The Chicago Sun-Times . 6 February 2000. Accessed 11 March 2002 . The Internet Movie Database. Accessed 8 April 2002: Awards: Chinatown (1974) Filming Locations for Chinatown (1974) Roman Polanski Trivia for Chinatown (1974)
Lev, Peter. American Films of the70s: Conflicting Visions . Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000. Man, Glenn. Radical Visions: American Film Renaissance , 1967-1976. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994. Slade, Tony.
Chinatown . The International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers . Ed. Christopher Lyon and Susan Doll. Volume I: Films. Chicago: St. James Press, 1984. 4 vols.