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Evocative essays

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body essay work MLA Citations: Learn it. Love it. But first, what IS M.L.A? It stands for Modern Language Association. In-text Citation vs. Evocative! Works Cited Page. An in-text citation is when the dissertation reviews writer references the originating author in evocative, the actual body of the essay. This citation is always located just after the quoted, paraphrased, or summarized material. The in-text citation is oxbridge dissertation reviews, simple, generally including the author's last name and page number. Clearly, an essays author's last name is world essays, not enough information for evocative readers to know exactly where the outside information came from.

This is why writers need to include a works cited page at the end of all researched essays: the in-text citation references something more fully listed in the works cited page. A works cited page is an alphabetized list (generally by the author's last name) of all referenced materials used in the body of the essay. Following the full author's name, there is a series of information that more specifically details the reference. There is a special way to order this information, and MLA guidelines provides the evocative essays how to for just about every kind of material--from journals, to web sites, to barn full personal interviews. Use an Author Tag: An author tag is when you use the author's name somewhere in the sentence. Next, if a page number is available, type the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. The period ALWAYS goes after the parenthesis. Ex: According to Brown, standardized tests ineffectively measure student intelligence (42).

Using author tags over and over can be cumbersome. Evocative Essays! When you don't use an author tag, cite the information by typing the author's last name and page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Ex: Standardized tests ineffectively measure student intelligence (Brown 42). If the author's name is and the world essays, not known , type the title of the article instead of the author's last name. Some titles are very long and can be cumbersome in evocative essays, the body of the essay. If a title is determined to be too long, a shortened version of the title is appropriate. Include the page number, if known. Ex: Standardized tests ineffectively measure student intelligence (American Testing 42) . If the discuss an essay page number is not known , omit it. This is the case with most web page sources.

MLA In-Text Citations provides more information for particular situations, such as when a work has multiple authors, or is a reference book. Essays! As mentioned before, a works cited page is an alphabetized list (generally by the author's last name) of all referenced materials used in the body of the essay. Every in-text citation refers readers to sexism the complete documentation of the source in evocative, a Works Cited page at the end of the paper. Discuss An Essay! You do not need to include works that are not cited in the body of your essay. As shown in the MLA Style: How to essays Format using MS Word all pages of the essay are numbered. The Works Cited page(s) is the final page(s) of the essay, and on a letter about good it, there should be the correct page number(s). Type the words Works Cited at the top of the page, and essays, center it.

Then, list the sources used in the paper, alphabetized by the first word in each source, usually the author's last name. If a work has no author, alphabetize it by its title. Notice that everything is double spaced. Also, be sure to indent after the first line of each new citation. If the source is from the internet or the Web, use all that is available from the following list: Title of the short work, in quotation marks. Title of the web site, underlined (or italicized, just be consistent on which one you use) Date of publication or last update. On Usage! Sponsor of the evocative site (if not named as the author) PRACTICE FINDING INFO FOR CITING A WEB PAGE. Copy the following bulleted list above, and use the following web article to fill-in each point: http://www.csicop.org/scienceandmedia/controversy/ You can generally find a lot of the web site information at the bottom of the web page. Title of the short work, in quotation marks The Controversy Over Stem Cell Research and Medical Cloning: Tracking the Rise and Fall of Science in the Public Eye Title of the burning full web site, underlined (or italicized, just be consistent on which one you use) The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Date of publication or last update 2 April 2004.

Sponsor of the site (if not named as the author) The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (the name of the site is also the name of the sponsoring organization.) Date you accessed the source 23 May 2007. The URL in angle brackets http://www.csicop.org/scienceandmedia/controversy/ Usually some of these elements will not be available. Use as many as you can find. List the items in the order as shown above. Essays! Below is a quick, brief, and very short guide on how to actually type this information into your word processor: Lastname, Firstname. Title of the writer and the world Book . Place of essays Publication: Publisher, Year of good customer service Publication. Title of Page. NameofWebSite.com . Essays! Day Month Year last updated . Day Month Year accessed online.

EXAMPLES OF CITATIONS ON THE WORKS CITED PAGE. *Excerpts taken from the essay on usage while Purdue Online Writing Lab* Article in Online Magazine. Business Coalition for Climate Action Doubles. Environmental Defense. . 8 May 2007. Environmental Defense Organization. Essays! . 24 May 2007 http://www.environmentaldefense.org/article.cfm?ContentID=5828. Article from Online Newspaper. Clinton, Bill. Interview. An Essay! New York Times on the Web . Evocative Essays! May 2007. 25 May 2007 http://video.on.nytimes.com/.

Unknown Author, Page on a Web site. Global Warming . 2007. Cooler Heads Coalition. 24 May 2007 http://www.globalwarming.org/. An Article from a Professional Journal, NOT online: Gowdy, John. Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability.

International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology. 14.1 (2007): 27-36. Click here to see a Works Cited page of the above information. Finally, here are some very helpful web sites: MLA List of Works Cited provides more examples and information for situations such as multiple authors.

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Sample of evocative essay | Форум

Part 8 - Examples of essays, Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the the writer and the essays, names and dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to categorize the errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context.

Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the evocative, discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. About Customer. But since the essays, person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in the writer world, an essay about essays their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery. An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. If the an essay, same scientist was researching some aspect of evocative, physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology.

Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only write good customer, shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in evocative, his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an reviews, expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to essays, London , she then pulled him out of school with the barn full, intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is a run-on.

It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. Evocative Essays. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to and the world, be part of a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence. The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation.

The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to essays, the development of the two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is essay while, confusing and evocative, should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of of cellphones while driving, differentiation. Essays. The university re-opened after the plague in while driving, 1667. Smith was elected to essays, a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and barn summary, was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the elements of the theory of differentiation, was created in essays, 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection.

To the dismay of full, many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of evocative essays, criticism. Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of world essays, which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the essays, university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and write a letter about good service, fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand.

Don't bounce around within the evocative, paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the a letter about good service, university re-open in 1667, or was the evocative essays, plague in 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to the writer world essays, have all happened in one year, though it is evocative, possible. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for world poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information.

Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in essays, the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on the writer essays the subject. Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor.

Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to essays, be given the of cellphones, title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for essays his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of Sir. On Usage While. Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation.

Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean? Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the essays, main ideas of on usage of cellphones while driving, analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the evocative essays, widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts. An Essay. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is evocative, no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions.

It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is an essay, impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Essays. Such questions are rooted so far in oxbridge dissertation reviews, the past, however, that it is evocative, impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to barn full, try to persuade the Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg.

Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. Evocative Essays. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Essay. Proved the evocative essays, means of on usage of cellphones while driving, his visiting is essays, a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to essay while, understand, and simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. Evocative. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself.

If the problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to full summary, the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something.

A will does not include land, a house, etc. Evocative. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock and grain to [whomever]. I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in discuss an essay, the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to evocative, say.

They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the discuss an essay, student had used first names during this part of the essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization. It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did.

This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. The student suddenly introduces the evocative essays, phrase during the world, fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the essays, verb were should be singular as well, and changed to was. It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. And The World Essays. Adding an evocative essays, 's' without an apostrophe in this case is write a letter good customer, pluralization, not indicative of possession.

The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. Evocative Essays. It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of while driving, six. Essays. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries.

After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the angles of the projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. Essay Of Cellphones. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the evocative essays, importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Write A Letter Good Customer Service. Are we to understand that ALL of the essays, people in England failed to realize the importance of scientific advancement for an entire century?

It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in discuss an essay, wave . The current time is the moment the reader is reading the sentence. The student meant to say that the belief was such during the essays, historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in wave has an error.

It should either be in waves or in a wave. And The. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is evocative essays, incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the a letter customer, student had read the paper out loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to evocative essays, the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the sexism essays, proper meaning of a word.

Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to check if the evocative, word fit the context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to impedance to dissertation, be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word.

Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in evocative essays, the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. Discuss. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. Evocative Essays. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and dissertation reviews, fnordleish.

It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Essays. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and world essays, the value of that is always questioned.

Who is questioning the essays, value? There is no attribution to reviews, explain who questions it or to prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the evocative, student. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to Smith in particular? . which means that the cut in the # of points is equal to the degree of the curve. Using the # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for a letter good customer service a formal essay. Smith also helped to evocative, improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the sexism, subject in the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is a badly worded assertion.

If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. Evocative. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. At the end of the sexism in language, day John challenged the boy to a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy.

Winning the fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and essays, soon became the top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student. Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the reviews, anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and essays, the reader can guess that John wished to write about good customer service, beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to evocative, outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is dissertation, very choppy and the sentences do not flow well.

Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. Evocative. He constructed the about good customer, clock out of an old box. This is choppy. Essays. It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to study motion.

This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the the writer world, word became being edited without became being removed. If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to evocative, read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. The word of should be between calculation and essays, the. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and essays, confusing. If the instructor has to reread the sentence to try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted. If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the discuss an essay, students had bothered to read their essay:

One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in evocative, fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of dissertation, monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion.

These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and evocative essays, the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of what the student meant by the flip from incorrect to the writer and the, correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. Evocative. It clearly wasn't spell-checked.

Such complete disregard is essay of cellphones, automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about evocative essays their final product, and while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at oxbridge dissertation reviews the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to essays, his uncle's place in dissertation reviews, Brunswick. Place is evocative, colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him.

Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an reviews, implication that perhaps the secretary is evocative essays, not dead and the student went so far as to interview the secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation]

Using bullets in dissertation reviews, a formal essay is evocative essays, rarely appropriate. It is preferable to write out the sexism, bulleted information into proper paragraph form. This student seems to evocative, have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Sloppy. The first page of the a letter good, essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph.

Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. Evocative. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay. If the instructor has to begin by figuring out discuss what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and evocative essays, possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in the writer world, that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and evocative essays, most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. A busy man would do.

The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. If not, it is colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones. Driving. Who should be whom in this case. Evocative Essays. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to the writer world essays, use who and whom. Essays. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and the writer essays, was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant.

Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the evocative, natural philosophical world around him. Has is the discuss an essay, wrong word here because the essay is essays, about a person who is now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally.

One does not speak orally in a publication. It is written. This word should be omitted. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse. This too should be omitted. Oxbridge. Natural philosophical world is confusing.

Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on evocative the answer to burning full summary, the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him.

He was home for approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of essays, his life. This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Discuss. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. If the student means it was the most powerful time of evocative, Jones' life, they should be clear about sexism essays that.

If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of evocative, his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Jones was not that easy, the sexism, two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and evocative, confusing. Jones was not that easy to a letter about good customer, what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence.

It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of evocative, whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and oxbridge dissertation, Style has information on how to use who and essays, whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and his. In Language. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. Essays. This might be because it would be difficult to discuss an essay, prove in the face of the importance of Newtonian physics.

Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in advance of publication. Evocative Essays. The addition of most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for sexism a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence:

Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the essays, student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to make. Work, theories and studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. While. If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely?

World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and one of mathematics. Evocative. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of discuss an essay, Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Ration is the essays, wrong word.

The student meant ratio. This is one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the the writer and the, essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the change in tense. Essays. You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting).

A dead person is world essays, not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Evocative Essays. Try to while, avoid using the evocative, passive form was proclaiming and barn burning, instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter. Evocative. The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to independently invent the oxbridge, widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to libel people. Evocative. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to lose.

But because the essay while driving, student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to evocative essays, a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at burning full summary the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and evocative essays, never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the an essay, student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and set the evocative, basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in burning summary, this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the evocative, portion after the comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the burning full summary, Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth.

Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. Essays. The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of widgetry. It has to be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Sexism In Language. Intellectual development would have been much better. Evocative Essays. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the bibliography to a letter good, confirm the name, and evocative, discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and bibliography.

Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of world essays, irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from essays, their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. An Essay. It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. although that is still an awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural. This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to essays, read over his essay. An Essay. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is essays, so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is in language, just icky.

I'd put such as limit concepts in evocative essays, parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and refused to use real numbers and oxbridge, limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Essays. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until.

That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the word at all at worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not. Oxbridge. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Evocative Essays. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is good customer service, a case of Smith's word against a number of suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of evocative, a copy of part of full summary, one of evocative, Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and oxbridge, a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78)

Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and essays, basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is truly essential. A number of suspicious details pointing against write a letter customer service, him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence. When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the evocative essays, sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition:

The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in oxbridge dissertation, the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to essays, do it well and essay driving, with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition. Saying the dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. Essays. A cardinal sin is a sin of fundamental importance. Barn Burning Full Summary. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Essays. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. Burning Full. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in essays, the dictionary, not in the mathematical world.

The student meant against the mathematical world. It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in sexism essays, Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is evocative, surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Such great minds requires an barn burning full, example. Evocative. The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in the writer world essays, Paris was to make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an evocative essays, opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57).

An object is a thing. The student means Jones' first objective. Discuss An Essay. This is a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and evocative, philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of discuss, topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Essays. Math is the discuss, colloquial version of essays, mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of burning, saying improved our technological aptitude.

Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from essays, his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to oxbridge dissertation, one of the evocative, greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Oxbridge Dissertation Reviews. Even if it is true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the essays, paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from barn burning full summary, something, you go to or follow through to evocative essays, another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going.

Furthermore, the paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to his death. That is still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted.

This really should be cited. John's address may be a matter of essay on usage while, public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is evocative, not productive itself. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in essay of cellphones, his dedication. Math is colloquial.

It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and it pushes back against evocative essays, us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. And The World Essays. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the student is evocative, trying to oxbridge dissertation reviews, make the evocative, science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of dissertation reviews, doing it. Essays. It is also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to write about, children. Evocative Essays. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. Discuss. The description of the invisible force is very awkward. A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in the essay mentions this, and here too it is evocative essays, accurately described as a push, not a pull.

To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is write about, monumental to scientists. Evocative. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in an essay, each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. Evocative Essays. The second part of and the world essays, this is a separate sentence and should be capitalized and essays, punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Show off is colloquial.

Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an on usage while driving, impact in all of evocative essays, our lives . The Writer And The World. He is recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to essays, further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to a letter about service, come. This is an important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and evocative essays, invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is one that embodies greatness in and the essays, all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and evocative essays, their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of this, but the barn full, essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to essays, declare it in the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to discuss, one person may not for another.

Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in. If by all of us the student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the evocative essays, life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Sexism In Language. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in essays, your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the the writer world essays, student cannot effectively predict the evocative, future in of cellphones, this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay.

No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for essays those instances. But an barn burning full, essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the essays, reader from understanding the content. If the discuss an essay, instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. All rights reserved.

This original work is available for distribution, provided the following: it is only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and evocative essays, it is not used to generate income for sexism in language anyone without my consent. I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is distributing this in printed form. If you want to receive notification of updates on any portion of this site, simply enter your email address here and click/select the button to enter. You will be required to sign up for a free Yahoo! account to complete registration. Please note that Yahoo!'s privacy policy and other management are outside of kimberlychapman.com's responsibility. Users are encouraged to perform their own due diligence before signing up with any online service.

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Your Ultimate APA Format Guide Generator. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on psychology. They are responsible for creating APA Style. APA Style, or APA citing, is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavior and social sciences, not just psychology. APA Style is a way to format citations. There are other citation formats such as MLA and Chicago, but APA is most popular in essays the science fields. Following the dissertation reviews, same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the essays, types of barn summary, sources used in a project and also understand their components.

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is currently in its 6th edition. Evocative Essays. It outlines proper ways to organize and reviews structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and also how to properly cite sources. Evocative. This page focuses on how to create APA citations. We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to the creator of the work that you used to help you with your research. When you use another person’s research or information to help you with your project, it is important to give acknowledgement to sexism essays, that individual. Evocative. This is one way to write a letter about good customer, prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about citations, check out this page on crediting work.

Click here to learn more on how to be careful of plagiarism. There are two types of citations in APA. In-text citations are found in evocative essays the body of the project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work. Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at the end of the assignment and includes the full APA citations of all sources used in a project. Depending on the types of sources that you used for your project, the format you use for your citations is discuss an essay, different for each source type. There is a certain format for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and so on.

Scroll down to find the evocative essays, appropriate APA citation format for your sources. Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for dissertation a full explanation of APA in-text citations and reference citations. To learn more about APA style format, including APA’s blog, formatting questions, APA referencing explanations, click on this link for further reading on evocative essays, the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text citation in the body of on usage while driving, your project, immediately following it. APA In-text citations may look something like this: “Direct quote” or paraphrase (Author’s name, Year, page number). See the essays, section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for discuss an essay a full explanation and evocative essays APA format instructions. Each source used to help with the gathering of dissertation, research or information for evocative essays your project is listed as a full citation in the reference list, which is usually the write about good, last part of a project. The APA citation format for each source is evocative essays, based on the type of source used. Scroll down to dissertation, see examples of some common source formats.

Most citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order: Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date published). Evocative. Title of Source. Location of Publisher: Publisher. Retrieved from URL. To determine the exact format for your full APA citations, scroll down to essay on usage, the section titled, “Common ALA Examples.” If you’re looking for an easy way to create your citations, use BibMe’s APA citation machine. Evocative Essays. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and easily.

Authors are displayed in burning full summary reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using BibMe’s APA reference generator, click “Add another contributor” to add additional author names. Essays. Our free APA citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets. Brooks, G. [Geraldine]. (2005). March . Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Annie Allen . When no author is the writer, listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title. When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for examples of essays, citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to Structure Publication Dates in APA:

Place the barn burning summary, date that the evocative, source was published in parentheses after the name of the author. For periodicals, include the the writer and the, month and evocative day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses. How to essay of cellphones while driving, Structure the essays, Title in sexism essays APA: For book titles: Only capitalize the essays, first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle in your APA citation. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. End it with a period. Example: Gone with the wind.

For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the essay driving, first word in the title and the same for evocative the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in quotation marks. End it with a period. Example: The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview. For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the on usage driving, title in evocative essays standard form, with each important word starting with a capital letter. The Boston Globe. If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description directly after the title. Burning. Only capitalize the essays, first letter. New World Punx. (2014, February 15).

A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht. How to Structure Publication Information in APA: For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and essay of cellphones while driving state (or city and country if outside of the U.S.) for evocative essays the place of publication. Barn Burning Full Summary. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title.

Italicize this information. Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to evocative essays, Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source.

Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period. Little Brown and Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown.

Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from write about good URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it.

This stands for Direct Object Identifier. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. Evocative. If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and write good service then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card. Mashable . Retrieved from evocative essays http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945.

APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). And The World Essays. Title of essays, book . Saenz, B.A. In Language. (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily.

Citations for E-Books found online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of book . Retrieved from URL. Colwin, L. Essays. (2014). Happy all the oxbridge dissertation, time. . Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=EemmBAAAQBAJlpg=PP1dq=happypg=PP1#v=onepageq=happyf=false. Notice that for e-books, publication information is excluded from the evocative, citation. Citations for Chapters in summary Edited Books:

Chapter author’s last name, F.M. Evocative. (Year published). Title of chapter. In F.M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968).

Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. In S.R. Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false. Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher.

Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030. Looking for an APA formatter to cite your website sources?

Use BibMe’s APA citation generator! Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. An Essay. doi:xxxxxx.

Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to essays, mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Oxbridge. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. Essays. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and on usage of cellphones driving easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to evocative essays, use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day). Title of article.

Title of of cellphones driving, Newspaper . Evocative Essays. Retrieved from URL. Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). Sexism. Bad hospital design is making us sicker. The New York Times . Evocative Essays. Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76. Looking for an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily.

In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of APA in text and parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into your own words. These are called parenthetical citations.

Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. Essay On Usage Driving. You also need to include the full citation for the source in evocative essays the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in a project. In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the essays, direct quote. It should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to evocative essays, adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in Egypt.

This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of and the world, choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to evocative essays, Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the barn burning full summary, page number that the information was found on. Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and evocative only include the other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at on usage while a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation.

If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in evocative essays the first in-text citation along with the date. In the following in text citations, only include the first author’s name and discuss an essay follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al. Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and evocative essays any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the and the world, group name to something that is simple and understandable.

1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017) 2nd and evocative subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to reviews, create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of evocative essays, all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of a project. Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project.

All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in in language order by the year of publication. Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). Essays. The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back.

New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Suess. (1958). Yertle the turtle. Customer Service. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title. Need help creating the citations in evocative your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to an essay, produce a research paper in APA format:

In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). Essays. (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of discuss, research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Evocative Essays. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…). What is a running head?

In an APA paper, next to sexism in language, the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is a simplified version of the title of your paper. Place the running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the evocative essays, phrase: Running head. Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head.

Example of subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and the writer world essays many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Use these tools to make this addition easier for you! If you’re looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe.

Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by essays entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition.

The 6th edition was released in the writer 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for essays creating APA citations for electronic resources. Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and essay while driving journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of evocative essays, sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles. If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to dissertation reviews, your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation.

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Evocative Object Essay Example | Topics and Well Written…

achilles anger essay Troy and the Bronze Age. Achilles' Wrath and the Plan of Zeus. Dr. Evocative? Diane P. Thompson. Oxbridge? (Adapted from Chapter 1 of “Human Responsibility and the Fall of Troy,” Diss. CUNY, 1981 Diane Thompson ) The Iliad 1 begins and evocative ends showing people in a normal state, before and discuss after the wrath of Achilles has precipitated the plan of essays, Zeus. In this normal state, people are capable of acting rationally, using experience and wisdom to guide their behavior. However, during the main action of the Iliad , the wrath of Achilles and the plan of Zeus, people live in an extraordinary state of human/divine crisis, because human emotions have broken down those barriers which serve to protect them from the essays gods.2 In such a human/divine crisis, the disorder of human passion spreads outward, intensifying like a plague, affecting the gods themselves and disrupting the normal order of the cosmos. The resulting cosmic disorder is evocative essays wonderfully represented in the Iliad by the chaotic battle of the elements between the river Xanthus (water) and the god Hephaestus (fire). The passions of the gods are stimulated and magnified by the emotions of human beings, producing an interactive intensification of violence that can only be ultimately controlled by the plan of Zeus, requiring the deaths of Patroclus and Hector. These deaths, carefully orchestrated by Zeus, serve to reestablish boundaries and distance between humans and the gods: their relationships are normalized; the barriers are restored; and the contacts between humans and the writer world essays the gods are once again carefully regulated by the prudence and rituals which serve to protect people from the gods. Human actions initiate events in the Iliad . Evocative? However, once the gods are involved, people become helplessly caught up in the terrible logic of oxbridge reviews, a system of rules that operate as relentlessly as the laws of physics.

This system is called the plan of essays, Zeus; it is inexorable; it is deadly; it works itself out by causing many human deaths. It is a balance of powers rather than a system of morality . The golden scale expresses the essence of the law of Zeus--balance. Human actions upset that balance in the first place, causing the sexism in language essays human/divine crisis of total war that governs the essays action of the reviews Iliad .3. Anger is the essays emotion that disturbs the distance between human beings and the gods in the Iliad . Uncontrolled anger destroys orderly social relationships and barn burning full summary upsets the evocative balance of correct actions necessary to keep the gods away from human beings. Anger also seems to be infectious; it can spread to other human beings and even to the gods themselves. But anger can and should be controlled, in essay of cellphones while order to preserve human society and essays protect it from the wrath of the gods.4. About Customer Service? Book 1 provides several examples of situations involving anger, demonstrating both correct and incorrect means of dealing with it. Essays? Agamemnon directs his anger against Chryses, Calchas, and Achilles, all men with close relationships to the gods. Consequently, Agamemnon’s anger is especially dangerous, because it can so easily involve the gods.5 The anger of Chryses against Agamemnon produces the plague from essay of cellphones while Apollo. Evocative? The anger of Achilles against Agamemnon sets off the wrath.

Once Achilles petitions Zeus for discuss an essay, revenge, the plan of Zeus is put into action, which in turn sets off the anger of Hera against Zeus, as well as the anger of various other gods, each with his/her own agenda. Essays? Anger in the Iliad can be directed outward against the enemy, as in a war, or it can be directed inward, against one's own social group. These two modes of anger have radically different results: one promotes the order of the world; the other destroys it. The anger of Chryses against Agamemnon is actually constructive. Chryses persuades Apollo to kill men who are already Chryses' enemies, and the result is that he regains his daughter. But the anger of Achilles is purely destructive, since he persuades Zeus, via Thetis, to destroy members of Achilles' own social group and glorify the enemies of that group, purely for personal honor.6. Reviews? When the Iliad starts, a plague caused by Agamemnon's behavior is evocative essays killing many Greeks. Chryses, a priest of Apollo, has approached Agamemnon, attempting to ransom his daughter, who is held by Agamemnon as his personal prize. Although all of the in language essays other Greeks want to honor the priest and return the girl, Agamemnon responds with anger, sending the old man away with cruel threats. The terrified priest flees, but as soon as he is safely away, he prays to Apollo, who responds by sending a plague to kill many Greeks.

This is the Iliad 's first example of the conjunction of human and evocative essays divine anger creating a human/divine crisis. Unaided, humans are not able to alleviate the situation once the gods have become actively involved. However, another god, Hera, takes pity on write about the Greeks, and she inspires Achilles to call a meeting to investigate the causes of the plague. There is a general awareness that the plague is sacred in evocative essays nature, and Achilles suggests that they inquire of essays, a seer or priest as to its specific cause. The seer Calchas explains that Apollo is evocative angry with the discuss an essay Greeks because of evocative, Agamemnon’s rude treatment of oxbridge reviews, Chryses. Evocative? Only by world, returning Chryses’ daughter and performing ritual sacrifices will the Greeks appease Apollo's anger and evocative essays stop the burning full summary plague. Essays? Agamemnon initiated this human/divine crisis of plague by a letter about good, his angry treatment of Chryses. He continues it by his angry treatment of another seer, insulting Calchas. Agamemnon is furious and makes no attempt to control his anger: and evocative essays with rage was his black heart wholly filled, and his eyes were like blazing fire ( Il. 1. 103-4).

Agamemnon insults Calchas bitterly, but agrees to return the girl for the sake of his people. However, he demands that the Greeks provide him with another prize to replace her. Achilles rises to the bait, calling Agamemnon: 'thou most covetous of all men' ( Il. 1. 122). The struggle is on, culminating in Agamemnon’s demand for the girl Briseis, Achilles' prize, as a substitute for Chryseis, the girl he must return to Chryses. Achilles, furious, is considering killing Agamemnon, when Athena appears only to him, advising (but not compelling) restraint. Hera has sent her, since she loves Achilles and Agamemnon equally.7 Athena promises that Achilles will receive threefold rewards in the future if he controls himself now. Achilles agrees to cooperate and the writer and the sheaths his sword. However, he swears an oath to Agamemnon that will become the core of the plan of Zeus: 'verily shall a longing for Achilles some day come upon the sons of the Achaeans one and all, and in that day shalt thou in no wise be able to help them for all thy grief, when many shall fall in death before manslaying Hector. But thou shalt gnaw thy heart within thee in wrath that thou didst honour no whit the best of the Achaeans' ( Il . 1. 240-44).

So far there has been tremendous anger, the gods have been involved, but the situation is not irreversible. Agamemnon could regain his self-control; Achilles might accept sufficient apologies. It is at this point, when correct action is still possible, that the master of correct action, Nestor, rises to speak, giving good advice that could repair the evocative situation. Nestor's age and experience are sources of sexism in language, wisdom that can teach men how they ought to behave. Evocative? Nestor tells the write good customer service two quarreling leaders: Neither do thou, mighty though thou art, seek to take from him the girl . . . Evocative Essays? nor do thou, son of Peleus, be minded to the writer essays, strive with a king . . Evocative? . for it is no common honour that is the portion of a sceptred king to whom Zeus giveth glory. Though thou be valiant, and a goddess mother bore thee, yet he is the mightier, seeing he is king over more. Son of Atreus, do thou check thy rage; nay, even I beg thee to let go thine anger against Achilles, who is for an essay, all the Achaeans a mighty bulwark of evil war ( Il. 1. 275-84).

Nestor’s advice weighs the relative merits of the evocative essays two angry men and shows the path to discuss an essay, a compromise that would benefit all of the Greeks. Evocative? Even Agamemnon agrees that Nestor is correct but objects that Achilles is constantly challenging his authority. Achilles replies with more angry words and they part. Agamemnon sends men to fetch Briseis from Achilles, who relinquishes her and then goes to pray to his goddess mother Thetis. Agamemnon has made a fatal error. Achilles, like Chryses and Calchas, is connected directly to the gods, which makes it incredibly dangerous to offend him. If Achilles were an ordinary Greek, no matter how good a warrior, he might go to and the, his tent and sulk, he might even refuse to fight, causing the essays deaths of many Greeks, but that would not produce the sexism in language essays human/divine crisis of the Iliad . However, Achilles is not an ordinary warrior, he is semi-divine, and when offended he is able to approach the gods directly, precipitating the human/divine crisis that will result in the terrible wave of deaths that constitutes both the evocative wrath of Achilles and the plan of Zeus.8. Essay Of Cellphones While Driving? Achilles seeks the evocative essays payment of a debt that Zeus owes to Thetis. Achilles asks Thetis to remind Zeus of this debt and then beg him to help the Trojans against the Greeks, so that Agamemnon 'may know his blindness in that he honoured no whit the best of the Achaeans' ( Il . 1. 411-12).

Thetis weeps and sexism essays replies that now Achilles will be doomed to a speedy death, but she goes to petition Zeus. Meanwhile the Greeks return the girl to Chryses, perform the correct rituals of sacrifice, and Chryses prays to Apollo to stop the plague. This aspect of Agamemnon's anger is not irrevocable; he is able by means of the proper expiatory behavior to persuade Apollo to evocative essays, stop the plague. However, this can only happen because Chryses, the man originally offended by Agamemnon, forgives him and prays to Apollo to sexism in language, stop the plague. Agamemnon has to do several things to stop the sacred plague: expiate his offense to the priest, Chryses, by returning the girl; expiate his offense to Apollo by essays, offering sacrifice; and gain the sexism in language essays forgiveness of Chryses, who approached Apollo in the first place.

If Chryses had been hardhearted, one can be sure that the Greeks alone could not have appeased Apollo sufficiently to stop the plague, which was produced to evocative, honor Chryses rather than merely to punish the Greeks. This theme of forgiveness will be echoed in the later stress on Achilles' hardness of heart. The path to the god is via the oxbridge dissertation man connected to the god; consequently forgiveness, or the resolution of a human/divine crisis, must be mediated by the emotions of human beings, just as the original offense was produced by human emotions. On the twelfth day Thetis visits Zeus and asks him to honor her son Achilles, who has been dishonored by Agamemnon. She asks Zeus to help the Trojans until the Greeks show honor to Achilles and give him gifts to compensate for the dishonor he has suffered. Zeus agrees reluctantly to do what she requests and evocative makes the promise irrevocable by bowing his head, saying 'no word of mine may be recalled, nor is barn burning full summary false, nor unfulfilled, whereto I bow my head' ( Il. Evocative Essays? 1. 526-27). On Usage Of Cellphones While Driving? Now there can be no forgiveness, no good advice, no easy reconciliation. Events have escalated to evocative essays, a full human/divine crisis, and from this point until the barn burning summary final resolution, human actions will be largely determined by the terrible plan of essays, Zeus.9. Write Service? Once the distance between humans and evocative the gods is collapsed, and the human anger of Achilles and Agamemnon has involved the gods, many humans must die until the wrath of Achilles and the plan of Zeus are fulfilled.

Achilles has initiated the mass killing of his fellow Greeks by his petition to Zeus to give him honor. There is no longer a rational, human-centered means of defusing the situation. Agamemnon was able to discuss, return the girl to Chryses and end the plague. He can no longer solve his relationship to Achilles by essays, merely returning Briseis to discuss, him, because Zeus has promised to give Achilles honor by having the Trojans kill many Greeks. The quarrel between two leaders has turned into the willful destruction of evocative, many of their own people. Achilles has committed a terrible act by turning his anger from Agamemnon onto the masses of Greek soldiers. This parallels the situation where Chryses prayed to Apollo that the write a letter about good service Greeks might pay for his tears.

But there are two critical differences: Chryses begged Apollo to evocative, destroy men who were properly his enemies; Achilles has persuaded Zeus to destroy Greeks. Strictly speaking, it is the Myrmidons who are Achilles' own people. However, the discuss price he finally pays for his behavior strongly suggests that he should never have petitioned Zeus to evocative essays, allow the Trojans to kill the Greeks. Dissertation? Furthermore, Apollo is not Zeus. Apollo reacts to Chryses’ prayer by sending a plague, not by making a plan that must be fulfilled. From the human point of view, the struggle between Agamemnon and Achilles cannot be solved; both have grievances and both have power.

From the divine point of view, only a radical realignment of their relationship can check the evocative violence of their mutual anger. The anger of Agamemnon has spread like an infection, first producing the plague, and then inflaming Achilles, leading to the events of Achilles' wrath and the plan of Zeus, paralleling the anger of Chryses and the plague of Apollo. The plan of Zeus centers on mass killing of Greeks until Hector kills Patroclus, Achilles' best friend. The death of Patroclus is the price Achilles pays for his wrath; the death of Hector is the price the Trojans pay for the death of Patroclus; and write about customer Achilles' death will be the price for the death of Hector. All these prices help to reestablish the balance account between human beings and the gods, between heroic wrath and fraternal sanity, between war and peace. Patroclus' death finally deflects the wrath of Achilles away from the Greeks onto the more suitable figure of Hector. Essays? Achilles kills and mutilates Hector in a state of beastlike rage that only subsides when Priam comes to ask for his son’s body. Prompted by the gods, Achilles returns Hector’s body for burial and prepares Patroclus' funeral. Achilles, finally calm, is no longer a source of violence and danger within the Greek camp. His wrath is over, and the plan of Zeus has been fulfilled.

Patroclus must die because he is world essays a substitute for the deadly Achilles who has taken a step far more destructive than the anger of Agamemnon, by praying to Zeus to let the Trojans kill the essays Greeks.10 Patroclus dies instead of Achilles. That is why he wears Achilles' armor and why his identity becomes so merged with Achilles' during his last battle.11 Hector must die because he kills Patroclus and because he is the barn burning main Trojan who participates in the plan of Zeus, killing many Greeks. Both Patroclus and essays Hector are killed by the direct involvement of gods and humans; both die wearing the armor of Achilles. Burning Full? Both die in a state of evocative essays, delusion sent by the gods, which is only lifted at the moment of their deaths. Both die knowing it is the will of the oxbridge dissertation gods, not the strength of men, that is killing them. The funerals of Patroclus and Hector provide the mustering out of the violent emotions that have drawn the gods down into evocative, human life. Patroclus must die because Achilles cannot cease from his murderous rage against the Greeks. Even as he prepares to an essay, send Patroclus out to fight in his stead, Achilles says: `I would, O father Zeus, and evocative essays Athene, and Apollo, that no man of the Trojans might escape death, of all that there are, neither any of the Argives, but that we twain might escape destruction, that alone we might loose the sacred diadem of Troy' ( Il . 14. 97-100).

Achilles is just as dangerous to oxbridge dissertation reviews, the Greeks as he is to the Trojans, even though the wrath acts indirectly, by willing that the Trojans kill the Greeks, rather than by evocative, killing the Greeks directly. Achilles' wrath is violence run wild within the about service society of the Greeks. Achilles finally sends out his troops to help the Greek army, because he pities his friend's pity, not because he personally cares about the fate of the Greeks. Achilles observes Patroclus crying at the opening of book 16 and asks the evocative essays reason. Patroclus replies that he weeps for the terrible injuries and deaths that the and the world Greeks have suffered and requests that he might wear Achilles' armor and evocative take the Myrmidons into battle. The narrator comments of burning full summary, Patroclus at this point: So spake he in prayer, fool that he was, for in sooth it was to be his own evil death and fate for which he prayed ( Il . 16. 46-47).

As he moves toward his death, Patroclus will increasingly become a sacred fool, a victim, manipulated by essays, the gods for ends he does not comprehend. Unknowing, he will fit into the plan of a letter customer, Zeus and the ultimate fulfillment and cessation of the wrath of Achilles. Patroclus is a kind, gentle man. He interrupts an errand for Achilles in order to bind up the wound of Eurypylus. Evocative? He is the one who weeps for the dying Greeks.

He is also the man closest to Achilles; they are like brothers. As Patroclus dons the armor of Achilles, his role as a substitute for Achilles is stressed. Patroclus hopes that if he wears Achilles' armor, the essays Trojans will mistake him for Achilles, increasing his impact as a warrior. Achilles' armor does increase Patroclus' value as an Achilles-substitute, deflecting Achilles' anger finally away from the Greeks onto the Trojans, as well as paying the price for the plan of Zeus. It is evocative essays not clear why Achilles lets Patroclus go out in an essay his armor rather than going himself. Achilles responds to Patroclus' request to go out and fight by saying: `Dread grief is this to me, seeing I have suffered woes at heart….

Howbeit these things will we let be, as past and done. In no way, meseems, was I to essays, be filled with ceaseless wrath at heart; yet verily I deemed that I should not make an end of mine anger until the hour when unto mine own ships should come the war-cry and the battle' ( Il . 16. Oxbridge Dissertation Reviews? 55-63). Achilles does not understand the plan of Zeus, nor the sacrifice that he is making of his dearest friend in order to fulfill that plan. Before sending Patroclus forth, Achilles makes a ritual drink offering to Zeus, praying that Patroclus might drive the Trojans back from the Greek ships, and essays that he might return safely: So spake he in prayer, and Zeus, the counsellor, heard him, and a part the Father granted him, and a part denied. That Patroclus should thrust back the war and battle from the ships he granted; but that he should return safe from out the battle he denied ( Il . 16. Sexism In Language Essays? 249-52). Patroclus, in Achilles' armor, routs the Trojans who think that he is Achilles. The approaching death of Patroclus takes on essays a quality of compulsion that is extreme, even for this poem about the wills of the gods exercised upon write about customer the lives of men. Zeus, the director of the war-scene, arranges Patroclus' death for maximum effect.

[Zeus] ever looked down upon them, and debated in heart, pondering much about the slaying of Patroclus, whether in the fierce conflict even there over evocative godlike Sarpedon, glorious Hector should slay him likewise with the sword, and should strip the armour from his shoulders, or whether for yet more men he should make the utter toil of war to wax. And as he pondered, this thing seemed to him the better, that the valiant squire of Achilles, Peleus' son, should again drive toward the city the Trojans and Hector. ( Il . 16. 646-54) Patroclus had been warned by Achilles to drive the Trojans back from the ships, but not to pursue them across the plain to Troy. However, we see him doing just that, driven by Zeus, and yet somehow responsible for oxbridge reviews, his behavior: Patroclus . . . pressed after the Trojans and Lycians, and was greatly blinded in heart, fool that he was! for had he observed the evocative essays word of the son of Peleus, he would verily have escaped the evil fate of black death. But ever is the about intent of Zeus stronger than that of men, for he driveth even a valiant man in rout, and robbeth him of victory full easily, and again of himself he rouseth men to fight; and he it was that now put fury in evocative essays the breast of Patroclus. ( Il . 16. 648-91) This extraordinary passage sums up the paradox of the death of Patroclus. Burning Full Summary? Zeus drives Patroclus to his death, yet Patroclus is responsible in some obscure way; he should have obeyed Achilles' instructions. But he could not obey those instructions, because Zeus has him under his control.

Zeus drives Patroclus to excess and death because of the excesses of Achilles, whose debt to the gods Patroclus must now pay. Evocative Essays? The odd blame attached to him really belongs to Achilles, who is generally not blamed at all. Achilles petitioned Zeus for redress; Patroclus' death is the price of that petition. Driven by Zeus, Patroclus leads the Greeks in slaughtering the Trojans. Patroclus’ magnitude increases until he is godlike in his ability to oxbridge, kill. He has incarnated the violence of Achilles, which up to now had been, in effect, turned against the Greeks. As Patroclus reaches the full stature of his incarnation of Achilles as semi-divine violence, he also reaches the end of evocative, his life: Patroclus with fell intent leapt upon the Trojans. Thrice then leapt he upon them, the peer of swift Ares, crying a terrible cry, and thrice he slew nine men.

But when for the fourth time he rushed on, like a god, then for thee, Patroclus, did the end of life appear; for Phoebus met thee in the fierce conflict, an awful god. ( Il . 16. 783-89) He is the peer of Ares the war god; he is like a god. He is the violence of Achilles in a form that can and oxbridge must be killed in essays order to oxbridge dissertation reviews, fulfill Zeus' plan. He is, in short, a victim, the price Achilles must pay for his wrath. Patroclus, for all his glory as a warrior, dies the death of a victim, struck down first by Apollo: And Patroclus marked him not as he passed through the turmoil, for enfolded in essays thick mist did he meet him; and barn burning Apollo took his stand behind him, and evocative essays smote his back and broad shoulders with the flat of his hand, and his eyes were made to on usage while driving, whirl. And from his head Phoebus Apollo smote the helmet, that rang as it rolled beneath the feet of the horses--the crested helm; and the plumes were befouled with blood and dust…. And in evocative the hands of Patroclus the far-shadowing spear was wholly broken, the spear, heavy, and and the essays huge, and strong … and from his shoulders the tasselled shield with its baldric fell to the ground, and evocative essays his corselet did Apollo loose--the prince, the son of Zeus. Then blindness seized his mind, and on usage driving his glorious limbs were loosed beneath him, and he stood in a daze. ( Il. 16. 789-806) After Patroclus has been stunned and disarmed by Apollo, Euphorbus, a Trojan, hurls a spear at him, and only after that does Hector thrust his spear into Patroclus' belly for the final stroke of death.

The dying Patroclus realizes he has been killed first of all by the gods, and he tells the essays foolishly boasting Hector: `Nay, it was baneful Fate and the son of Leto that slew me, and of men Euphorbus, while thou art the third in my slaying. And another thing will I tell thee … thou shalt not thyself be long in life, but even now doth death stand hard by thee, and might fate, that thou be slain beneath the hands of Achilles' ( Il. 16. 849-54). Patroclus and Hector are the two men whose deaths are required to fulfill the plan of Zeus. Patroclus had to die to pay for the excesses of Achilles, and to oxbridge dissertation, deflect the anger of Achilles from the evocative essays Greeks to the Trojans.

Hector must die because he has been the murderous agent of Achilles' wrath, killing the Greeks so that Achilles might receive honor according to the bitter plan of Zeus. Hector’s death will complete the wrath of Achilles and the plan of Zeus. Hector, the about customer final victim of the evocative essays plan of Zeus, strips the body of Patroclus and exchanges his armor for the armor of Achilles. This is essential so that he may more perfectly be the final victim of the wrath, killed by a conjunction of gods and in language essays men, as was Patroclus. Zeus observes doomed Hector donning the essays armor of Achilles: Ah, poor wretch, death verily is the writer not in they thoughts, that yet draweth nigh thee; but thou art putting upon thee the immortal armour of a princely man before whom others besides thee are wont to quail. His comrade, kindly and valiant, hast thou slain, and in unseemly wise hast stripped the armour from his head and shoulders. Howbeit for this present will I vouchsafe thee great might, in recompense for this--that in no wise shalt thou return from essays out the battle. ( Il. 17. Essay On Usage While? 201-07) Zeus then makes the armor fit Hector's body, and there entered into him Ares … and his limbs were filled within with valour and essays with might ( Il . 17. 210-12).

Hector, like Patroclus, is enhanced and and the world glorified to evocative, increase the essays value of his death. Just as Patroclus had to become glorious in the immortal armor in order to be killed as a substitute for Achilles, now Hector, in the same armor, is glorified so that his death can better absorb the force of Achilles' violence.12. Achilles’ anger against the Greeks is now redirected onto a more suitable object--the leader of the enemy army, Hector, who has been acting out Achilles' rage against the Greeks. Thetis, weeping, tells Achilles that, `straightway after Hector is evocative essays thine own death ready at hand' ( Il. 18.

96). This, too, will restore balance, since Achilles ultimately has been the one responsible for the deaths of the Greeks. The death of Hector will be the next to final price for discuss an essay, Achilles' wrath, since it is the precondition for evocative essays, Achilles' own death. Achilles tells Thetis that he is willing to die, since he did not help Patroclus in his moment of need. Further, Achilles accepts responsibility for the destruction his wrath has caused: `Now, therefore, seeing I return not to my dear native land, neither proved anywise a light of deliverance to Patroclus nor to my other comrades, those many that have been slain by sexism in language, goodly Hector, but abide here by the ships a profitless burden upon the earth . . . so may strife perish from among gods and men, and anger that setteth a man on to grow wroth, how wise soever he be.' ( Il. Evocative Essays? 18.

101-8) After acknowledging the destructiveness of sexism essays, his anger, Achilles finally exercises self-control over his emotions, telling his mother, `Howbeit these things we will let be as past and done, for all our pain, curbing the heart in evocative essays our breasts, because we must. An Essay? But now will I go forth that I may light on the slayer of the man I loved, even on Hector; for my fate, I will accept it whenso Zeus willeth to bring it to essays, pass' ( Il . 18. 112-16). Having accepted his responsibility and his fate, Achilles will dress in the immortal armor made for him by the writer world essays, Hephaestus and evocative complete the violence of the wrath, killing many Trojans in a bloody fury that leads up to the final killing of Hector wearing armor that makes him look like Achilles, like another self. The gods prepare Hector for his death, just as they arranged for his earlier glory in battle. As the Trojans flee into their city, escaping Achilles’ wrath on essays the battlefield, Hector is stopped outside the city walls. Hector did deadly fate ensnare to abide there where he was in front of Ilios ( Il . 22. 5-6). Apollo had diverted Achilles away from the city, so that all of the Trojans except Hector could escape within.

Priam is the first to see Achilles finally approaching Troy, and he begs Hector to come within the gates, but Hector is furiously eager to do battle with Achilles ( Il . 22. 36). Hector resists Priam's tearful pleading--he is willing to die to pay the price for his error in not properly leading the Trojans and debates within himself: Ah, woe is me, if I go within the gates and the walls Polydamas will be the first to put reproach upon me, for that he bade me lead the Trojans to the city during this fatal night, when goodly Achilles arose. Howbeit I hearkened not--verily it had been better far! But now, seeing I have brought the host to ruin in my blind folly, I have shame of the Trojans . . . for me it were better far to meet Achilles man to evocative essays, man and slay him, and so get me home, or myself perish gloriously before the city. ( Il. 22. 99-110) This parallels the blame attached to Patroclus, who should have obeyed the instructions of essay on usage of cellphones while driving, Achilles, although he could not because Zeus drove him to fury. But Patroclus and evocative essays Hector must appear sufficiently guilty (or responsible for disaster, if one dislikes the term guilt applied to Homeric Greeks),13 so that their deaths can appear to be appropriate to them, rather than to Achilles, for whom they are substitute victims.14. Hector is in a state of confusion before the write about good service walls of Troy. He quickly vacillates in his feelings from wanting to face Achilles like a hero to wondering if he can offer to essays, return Helen and much treasure, ending the war then and there. Hector does not want to play the role of victim assigned to on usage while, him, and when Achilles finally draws close, Hector begins to essays, run away.

This scene takes on qualities of the reviews funeral games, where the prizes are no longer life or death--they celebrate a death that has already occurred. This race is essays a game before the funeral, a rite made into a dramatic situation. The narrator remarks: it was not for beast of sacrifice or for bull's hide that they strove … but it was for discuss an essay, the life of horse-taming Hector that they ran ( Il . 22. 159-61). Hector's life is indeed the prize in this race and the price of Patroclus' death.

To be worthy of this role, Hector must be excellent, the evocative best available. So at just this moment when Hector's race is most like a funeral rite, Zeus, knowing full well that Hector must die, addresses his fellow gods, as if Hector could be saved, and remarks on his excellence and the writer world essays piety: Look you now, in sooth a well-loved man do mine eyes behold pursued around the wall; and my heart hath sorrow for Hector, who hath burned for me many thighs of oxen . . . but now again is goodly Achilles pursuing him with swift feet around the city of Priam. Nay then, come, ye gods, bethink you and take counsel whether we shall save him from death, or now at evocative, length shall slay him, good man though he be, by the hand of Achilles, son of Pelleus. ( Il . 22. About Good Service? 168-76) Athena correctly replies that Hector has been doomed by essays, fate and oxbridge reviews cannot be saved. Hector's excellence becomes that of a fleeing animal. First, he is compared to a racing horse, then to a fawn chased by a hound. So that Hector may excel in this role, Apollo gives him swiftness for essays, the last time. This is necessary because Achilles is swift-footed and requires a victim who can excel at on usage, running, just as his violence requires a victim who can excel at violence.

Having been as violent as a deity in evocative essays the armor of Achilles, Hector is now swift as a deer in the armor of Achilles--a perfect match, a perfect victim for Achilles. Hector's death proceeds with the and the finality of a funeral race. On the fourth circuit of Troy15 Zeus lifts his scales: and set therein two fates of grievous death, one for evocative, Achilles, and one for horse-taming Hector; then he grasped the balance by the midst and raised it; and down sank the day of doom of Hector, and departed unto Hades ( Il . 22. 209-13). The scale is a perfect image for deciding the death of Hector because it functions to discuss, establish balance . The balance of human emotions and of the right separation between humans and gods has been disturbed by violence spreading outward from Agamemnon and Achilles; the death of Hector will being to evocative essays, reestablish this balance and separation.16. Hector must die to restore balance in the world. Once the scale of Zeus has objectified this necessity, the gods proceed to prepare Hector’s death. Apollo leaves Hector and Athena comes to full summary, Achilles.

She will prepare the victim to die in a dignified manner. Achilles is evidently tired from so much running, so Athena tells him to rest while she fetches his victim. She then goes to Hector, and disguised as his brother Dephobos, urges him to stand and fight Achilles. Deluded into believing he has help, Hector prepares to meet Achilles, offering to fight according to the covenants of civilized men. Achilles rejects any talk of covenants, saying: `No more is there any escape for thee, but forthwith shall Pallas Athene lay thee low by my spear. Evocative Essays? Now shalt thou pay back the about good service full price of all my sorrows for evocative essays, my comrades, whom thou didst slay when raging with thy spear' ( Il . 22. Sexism Essays? 270-72). The death of Hector, killed by both a god and a man, will be the price for the death of Patroclus, as well as for the many dead Greeks. Of course, Hector was only able to kill those many Greeks because Achilles had withdrawn from the battle in his wrath and had persuaded Zeus to let the Trojans have dominance over the Greeks. Hector's death is the final focus for all the violence and death caused by Achilles' anger and the plan of Zeus.

Hector's death will end the wrath, but it will bring no joy to Achilles, who knows he will die soon after.17. Hector’s mutilation is a critical element of his death, beginning when he asks Achilles for evocative essays, covenants, and continuing throughout the burning summary rest of the Iliad . Achilles' wrath has gone beyond all possibility of covenants. Achilles is not satisfied with merely killing Hector; he continues to exercise his rage upon the corpse. After Achilles, aided by Athena, has fatally wounded Hector, but left the windpipe intact so that he can speak, Hector's one concern is that his body be returned to his family unmutilated, while Achilles' concern is that the dogs and birds shall rend Hector's corpse while Patroclus receives proper burial. Achilles, wrathful beyond humanity, tells the dying Hector: `Would that in any wise wrath and fury might bid me carve thy flesh and myself eat it raw, because of what thou hast wrought, as surely as there lives no man that shall ward off the dogs from thy head' ( Il . 22.

346-48). Achilles continues to abuse Hector's body even after the funeral and games for Patroclus. Every night he weeps for Patroclus, and at dawn every day he fastens Hector's corpse behind his chariot, drags him three times around the mound of Patroclus, and then leaves him lying in evocative the dust. Howbeit Apollo kept all defacement from his flesh, pitying the warrior even in death, and with the golden aegis he covered him wholly, that Achilles might not tear his body as he dragged him ( Il . 24. 18-21). Such continuing abuse of barn full, a dead body was beyond the evocative pale of acceptable behavior. On the twelfth day Apollo, the god of purification, speaks out among the gods against Achilles' behavior. On Usage? Zeus determines that Achilles must relinquish Hector's body, so he sends Iris to Priam `to bid him go to the ships of the Achaeans to ransom his dear son, and to evocative, bear gifts unto Achilles which shall make glad his heart' ( Il . 24. 118-19).

Just as Patroclus and Hector paid the price for Achilles' wrath, now Priam must pay the price even more literally, with ransom to the writer and the, recover his dead son and release Achilles from his obsessive connection to the corpse. Essays? This ransom is a step back towards civilization and in language essays covenants, where men may make a deal instead of killing one another. After Achilles has killed Hector, other Greeks run up and gaze at the body; each speaks and inflicts a wound on the corpse. Hector's death is a community affair and the resulting funeral ceremonies will purify the entire community, which has been polluted by an excess of death. The funeral of Patroclus, with its human sacrifices, defuses much of the passion and pollution of the evocative Greeks due to the many deaths they have suffered during the wrath. The plan of Zeus has been completed, but the reestablishment of normal relations among men and between men and burning the gods requires careful rituals and elaborately civilized behavior in order to succeed. The funeral games for Patroclus are the focus for the reestablishment of human social order as the passions of men calm down and the gods recede from human affairs.

There are minor interventions of gods in the funeral games, but men are now able to handle these interferences without any deadly result. Although there are incipient quarrels about place and worth and prizes, Achilles is evocative now able to graciously defuse anger and essay on usage distribute prizes to keep the evocative essays peace. This reintegrates Achilles back into human society from which he had withdrawn during his wrath. The plan of Zeus was a response to the wrath of Achilles. This plan shows a pattern of cause and effect which operates with the sexism essays logic of the sacred, and the dual (or multiple) causation of a system that describes events as occurring for not one, but for two or more reasons, such as anger being produced by a man's emotions and by the influence of a god, or the combination of god-sent delusion and human folly leading to a disastrous action. Evocative Essays? Humans are most vulnerable to multiple or sacred causation when their passions are strong and discuss their self-control weak. In such a state, men may offend those who are close to the gods, priests and semi-divine heroes such as Achilles, who in turn may call down the gods into human affairs. This creates a state of imbalance in the entire cosmos, among the gods as well as among men. This imbalance not only causes human suffering, but discomfort to evocative, the gods, such as the wounding of Aphrodite and sexism essays Ares and the struggle between Hephaestus and Xanthus. It is the evocative role of Zeus to create plans to reestablish balance and the appropriate separation between gods and men. Human anger is the starting point for everything that happens in the Iliad . The anger of Agamemnon and the responsive angers of Chryses and Achilles are the events that initiate the plague and the wrath.

The Iliad was used for centuries much as the Bible has been used, as a source of service, historical information that provides sacred and moral instruction.18 At first this is difficult for us to essays, understand, as indeed it became difficult for some Greeks to understand by the time of Plato. Homer has been accused for a very long time of telling lies about the gods. But, considered as a sacred story, the message of the Iliad is extremely clear and deeply religious, although it expresses a religion very different from the Judeo-Christian heritage within which we are immersed. The Iliad instructs people in the profound and simple fact that if they do not control their passions, they will disrupt the balance between the human world and the gods and create a crisis, which can only be resolved by many deaths. Despite all the oxbridge reviews confusions of essays, multiple causations, the events of the Iliad happen because Agamemnon lost his temper and because Achilles, via Thetis, petitioned Zeus for revenge.19.

Both Agamemnon and Achilles learn, by means of the tragic results of their unleashed anger, that it is better for a man to exercise self-control. As early as book 9, Agamemnon recognizes his folly as Nestor points it out to him, and he attempts to make amends.20 Once Patroclus is dead, Achilles realizes that he was responsible for what has happened to his friend and to all of the Greeks, and he attempts to make amends ( Il . 18. 101-8). However, once the gods have been drawn in, once Zeus has made his plan, humans can no longer simply make amends. They must then act out the complex sorrows of passion and death until the plan of Zeus is fulfilled and normal life is restored.

The Iliad not only shows the catastrophic results of unleashed passion, but also gives clear examples of men exercising self-control and of an entire complex technology of correct behavior that serves to channel the sacred by means of proper rituals, thus keeping the gods at a safe distance from the writer and the essays humankind.21. Evocative Essays? Nestor and Diomedes provide models of religiously and socially correct behavior, which are much the same thing in the writer essays the Iliad , since anger can draw the gods down into human affairs. Both men know exactly how to behave in order to be excellent and yet not involve the gods in essays any improper and dangerous manner. Nestor gives correct advice to write customer, the quarreling Agamemnon and evocative Achilles in book 1. Agamemnon acknowledges that Nestor is correct, yet he ignores his advice, as does Achilles. Full? On the other hand, although Diomedes is able to fight almost like a god, he is always aware of exactly when to stop; he commits no offenses that might draw down divine reprisals upon the human community.22. The funeral games portray the reestablishment of correct and normal human community, after the violence of Achilles has been released by the deaths of Patroclus and Hector. Purified of the wrath, Achilles is the ideal leader who arranges games as a form of contained and peaceful competition, where conflicts can be resolved without violence. The gods are still present, but men now can control at least some of their own actions, using knowledge and skill. The interrelationship of human skill, passion, and the gods is set forth in the chariot race, which is an exemplum of correct behavior in a potentially dangerous situation. When Antilochus tries to claim the essays prize for second place in the chariot race, Menelaus angrily demands judgment from the leaders of the Greeks: `Come now, ye leaders and rulers of the Argives, judge ye aright betwixt us twain, neither have regard unto either, ( Il . 23.

583-84). The world is now sufficiently normalized that human judgment can be called for and applied effectively, which was definitely not the case during the wrath, when whatever men did merely fulfilled the plan of and the world, Zeus. When Menelaus demands that Antilochus swear an oath that he did not use trickery to evocative, pass him, instead of pursuing the conflict, Antilochus graciously backs down, which is prudent, since he had in fact used trickery to pass him. Men are now able to oxbridge dissertation reviews, compromise in a spirit of evocative essays, social righteousness, which is also religious righteousness. After Antilochus apologizes for being young and importunate, Menelaus graciously forgives him. This is the human social order, as it ought to function and can indeed function so long as men control their passions and barn burning full behave correctly and in a lawful manner. The gods are always present as a potential for disorder. Athena broke the chariot of one man in the race, and caused Diomedes' horses to win first place. This form of divine involvement, while important, need not be lethal. One man suffers a spill; no one dies.

However, had Antilochus and Menelaus not been able to compromise and control their anger, that escalation of evocative essays, anger from one to the other and back again could have built up tensions that might have again shattered the boundaries between men and the gods. The funeral games display a social order based on correct behavior, contained competitiveness and self-control. So long as these conditions are maintained, and they are maintained now largely because of the excellence of leadership provided by discuss, Achilles, human society will remain relatively safe from the affliction of the gods. 1. Homer, The Iliad , trans. A. T. Murray, 2 vols. Loeb Classical Library (1925; rpt. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U P, 1967). Cited as Iliad . All references are to the line numbers of the Greek text, although only the corresponding English translations will be quoted. 2. Evocative Essays? W. C. Greene comments that “This instinctive feeling of a barrier between man and god, this fear that any presumption on the part of man may cause the gods to take offence, lines behind not only the ethical ideas of the Homeric age but the prudential morality of the historic period.

Fear of overstepping barriers is the element common to the Homeric Aidos and driving the sanctity of oaths…” ( Moira: Fate, Good and Evil in Greek Thought [1942; rpt. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1968], 20). Walter Otto remarks of Homer that “There is no doubt that all excess was repellent to him, and most of all where it seemed to achieve its greatest miracle: the removal of the bounds between the evocative essays finite and the infinite, between man and god” ( The Homeric Gods , trans. Moses Hadas [1954; rpt. New York: Octagon Books, 1978], 158-159). 3. There is much debate as to what are the causes of human behavior in the Iliad . Gods as well as daimons can affect, and at times control what humans perceive and do. E. R. Dodds, in The Greeks and the Irrational (1951; rpt.

Berkeley: U of California P, 1973), 13, comments that in Homer, “all departures from normal human behavior whose causes are not immediately perceived, whether by the subject’s own consciousness or by the observation of others, are ascribed to a supernatural agency, just as is any departure from the normal behaviour of the weather or the normal behaviour of a bowstring.” According to Greene, Homer recognizes two reasons for excessive human behavior, or hybris : “…the abuse of essay on usage of cellphones while, human freedom of the will, resulting in a hardened character, which is atasthalie ; and … the heaven-sent power of evil, which is Ate …” (20-21). Since self-control is praised and rewarded, while excessive behavior precipitates disasters in the Iliad , it is reasonable to suppose that human beings were considered capable of self-control, at least under normal circumstances. 4. Evocative Essays? If restraint and barn full self-control were not deemed possible, the Iliad would be a bitter tale indeed. Evocative Essays? Helen North comments in Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in sexism in language essays Greek Literature (Ithaca: Cornell U P, 1966), 6-7: “That the poet of the Iliad was himself keenly sensitive to evocative essays, the need for such restraint, both to essay on usage, avert disaster in the life of the individual and to prevent a society made up of evocative, self-assertive heroes from and the destroying itself, is evident from the content of many individual episodes and from the very pattern of the poem, determined as it is by the sequence of essays, cause and effect, beginning with the hybris of dissertation, Agamemnon and evocative the unbounded wrath of Achilles, and culminating in the scene where Achilles achieves a kind of tragic self-knowledge in response to oxbridge, Priam’s appeal to his aids ( Il. 24. 503).” 5. Evocative? C. Customer? M. Bowra, in Heroic Poetry (1952; rpt. New York: St. Martin’s, 1966), 87, comments that the evocative “… gods are regarded not as types of goodness but simply as embodiments of power who govern human affairs. Summary? There is nothing wrong in opposing them, but it is extremely dangerous.” If there is essays a wrong in this opposition, it lies not in a sin against the gods, but in the damages the gods may wreak, if angered, upon ones fellow men.

6. A. W. Adkins remarks in From the the writer essays Many to the One, Studies in the Humanities, ed. Max Black (Ithaca: Cornell U P, 1970) that “…in Homeric society … the most powerful terms of evocative essays, denigration are applied quite simply to failure to ensure the safety and well-being of the members of the group of which one is the of cellphones head. It makes no difference to the evaluation of the evocative situation whether the failure results from cowardice, or from mistake or force majeure: only the result is taken into account” (29). In these terms both Achilles and Agamemnon are very much to essays, blame for the deaths that follow their anger. 7. R. Girard, in Violence and the Sacred (1972, trans. Patrick Gregory [Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U P, 1977]), commenting on the qualities of Greek tragedy, points out essays, that the symmetrical equality of the protagonists is a crucial quality: “Whether the violence is physical or verbal, the suspense remains the same.

The adversaries match blow for blow . . . it is impossible to predict the outcome of the battle. Essay? … Tragedy is the balancing of the scale, not of justice, but of violence” (44-45). One can easily imagine that if Hera had not loved Agamemnon and Achilles equally, the outcome of the evocative essays quarrel would have quickly been settled by the victory of her favorite. The very equality of discuss an essay, Agamemnon and Achilles in the eyes of the gods increases their ability to precipitate a state of sacred crisis. 8. The deaths of masses of Greeks in the Iliad have a sacrificial quality, as do the evocative essays more important deaths of Patroclus and Hector. This is especially suggested by the extensive use of fire imagery in sexism in language essays the Iliad , which has been examined by Cedric Whitman in Homer and evocative the Heroic Tradition (1958; rpt. And The? New York: Norton, 1965) 129-30: “…fire itself, or comparisons of things to fire, forms a remarkable pattern of association, all centering around the theme of heroic passion and death. … It begins naturally enough, with sacrifices and funeral pyres. The first fire we hear of is in the prayer of Chryses, who reminds Apollo of the evocative sacrifices he has burned. Shortly thereafter the pyres of the dead blaze in the Greek camp. Dissertation Reviews? …” Fire, especially the fire of funeral pyres, provides a nexus of the relationship between men, death, and the gods. 9. An example of this occurs in books 3 and 4 of the Iliad , when the Greeks and Trojans try to end the war reasonably, by evocative essays, means of a judicial combat between Paris and Menelaus, the contending parties in the war.

But Aprhrodite snatches Paris out of danger and full the council of the gods reinitiates fighting by sending Athene to provoke Pandarus, a Trojan, into shooting an arrow, thus breaking the truce. Evocative Essays? During the sacred crisis, men’s wisest and best efforts are liable to fail completely, because they do not fit the intentions of the gods. 10. Heroes are extremely dangerous, in life and in the writer and the world essays death. Martin Nilsson remarks: “The hero-cult … is designed to appease the evocative essays mighty dead, who are by no means slow to wrath. … It is the rule, even in historical examples, that the [dead] hero’s wrath sends disasters, plague, and famine, and that he is discuss appeased according to the instructions of Delphi” ( A History of Greek Religion , trans. F. J. Fielden, 2nd ed [1925; rev. ed. 1952; rpt. New York: Norton, 1964], 194). 11.

According to Whitman: “There can be little doubt that the change in Patroclus’ character and characteristic epithets is essays not due simply to his presence in a battle scene. … Patroclus is playing the role of Achilles. For the moment he has become Achilles, and acts much more like the great hero than like himself” (200). While Driving? 12. R. Lattimore comments on the disparity between Hector’s glory and his actual deeds: “the reputation of Hektor continually surpasses his achievement. … his only really great victim is Patroklos; and from Patroklos he runs, and must be rallied to fight him…. Evocative? Much of what he does is by divine favour. Apollo picks him up when he is discuss down, and evocative essays Zeus is behind his charges” ( The Iliad of Homer , trans. and intro. by R. Lattimore [1951; rpt. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1961]. 35). 13.

Dodds would use the word “shame” to describe the essay of cellphones while driving state of having done something wrong, rather than the word “guilt.” He argues that Homer’s society was a “shame-culture,” not a “guilt-culture” (17). Whatever the essays term used, the negative qualities of Achilles’ wrath are partially transferred onto Patroclus and Hector, as a part of their deaths. 14. These obscure “guilts” or “shames” are the write a letter good service source of evocative essays, a long and confusing tradition of the genteel or minor faults of Hector, which are those of an otherwise blameless man, who yet consistently commits major errors producing woes for the Trojans in many future Troy stories. 15. A Letter About Good Customer Service? Patroclus had advanced killing Trojans three times.

On the evocative essays fourth advance, Apollo struck him ( Il . 16. 783-89). 16. Balance is a critical structural property of the entire Iliad . Whitman has shown how the Iliad is organized according to geometric principles of opposition and barn burning balance: “Concentric circles are a universal device in Geometric art…and the principle of evocative, balance around a central point which is implied in concentric circles is far and away the dominating formal principle in the Iliad . Discuss An Essay? The poem as a whole forms one large concentric pattern, within which a vast system of smaller ones … gives shape to the separate parts” (97). These principles of balance seem to extend beyond the poetics of the Iliad to its view of the cosmos as in a state of evocative essays, complex balance until disturbed. 17.

Agamemnon too is responsible for the deaths of many Greeks because of his sacrilege against Chryses and his uncontrolled anger against Achilles. Agamemnon, like Achilles, received no direct punishment within the context of the dissertation Iliad , but there are many stories outside of the Iliad that describe his death, rather like the slaughter of an evocative essays, animal, at the hands of Clytemnestra and her lover. Agamemnon was really the starting point of all the murderous wrath of the Iliad , but he was too powerful to kill, so others died for him. The same is true for Achilles, the next in the chain of essays, power and anger. 18. Whitman remarks: “To the ancient Greeks, Homer enjoyed a reputation as something between Holy Writ and an encyclopedia of universal knowledge…” (15). 19.

Greene comments that “the Hybris and evocative essays still more the Atasthalie of Homer represent the idea of write good customer, sin, with the emphasis … on innate and growing proneness to mischief, no a deliberate choice of evil. They are the result of an essays, aggravated willfulness, of a failure to observe Aidos ; and they lead to Nemesis and the punishment of the gods” (24). Cause and effect, human misconduct and divine reaction, are the reasons why events happen in the Iliad. 20. Agamemnon tells Nestor: “’Blind I was, myself I deny it not.… Yet seeing I was blind and yielded to my miserable passion, I am minded to the writer and the world, make amends and to give requital past counting’” ( Il . Evocative Essays? 9. 116-20).

There is discuss an essay a real question of evocative, whether Agamemnon’s excuse that he was “blind” is meant to actually excuse him of responsibility for what he did, or merely to represent his version of why he behaved as he did according to sexism in language, his best self-interest. Dodds calls this blindness ( ate ) “…a partial and evocative essays temporary insanity…ascribed…to an external ’daemonic’ agency” (5). Discuss An Essay? Greene points out “…that if Agamemnon is merely seeking to excuse himself, let it be remembered that elsewhere Zeus is represented by the poet as willfully deceptive” (21). Yet Agamemnon and Achilles are not represented in their original quarrel as being victims of externally produced behavior, but as men unleashing their own rage, and Agamemnon does indeed learn that it is better to essays, exercise self-control, if possible. 21.

Hugh Lloyd-Jones remarks: “If we strike a proper balance, we must acknowledge that Homer’s gods are effective and his religion real, but that his human characters are free to the writer and the world, decide and are responsible for their decisions” ( The Justice of evocative essays, Zeus , Sather Classical Lectures, Vol. Of Cellphones While Driving? 41 [1971; rpt. Berkeley: U of California P, 1973] 10). This freedom and responsibility are most critical when dealing with the gods, where any error can produce catastrophic results. 22. Nilsson comments that Homer deliberately contrasted “…the self-assertion and obstinacy of Achilles with the loyalty of Diomedes to his suzerain and to essays, the gods” ( Homer and Mycenae [1933; rpt.

New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1968] 259).

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comparation essay A TRADUO LITERRIA:UM CAMPO INTERDISCIPLINAR. Alba Olmi (USCS/RS) A traduo “feliz” aquela que, embora mantendo inevitveis diferenas com o original, preserva a energia do seu imaginrio, ativando-a num contexto histrico especfico, vencendo o tempo, a distncia ideolgica, epistmica e cultural, produzindo aquela emoo que deriva do dilogo tornado possvel entre indivduos diversos, lnguas, culturas, pocas e povos. Na diversificao das abordagens tradutrias da obra literria, toma forma e ganha peso o enfoque orientado para o texto-alvo (TA), conforme Toury (1980, 1981, 1982, 1984) e Lefevere (1970, 1971, 1982, 1983, 1992, 1993), cuja justificativa assenta na teoria da recepo e coloca em relativo segundo plano o original, posto que a obra traduzida se situaria no contexto da lngua e da cultura-alvo. Evocative! As teorias tradicionais, que enfocam o texto-fonte (TF) como ponto de partida, pareceriam, portanto, inadequadas, para alguns tericos, porque centradas no autor e na obra, levando em conta apenas o valor intrnseco da obra, em detrimento dos polissistemas literrios e da importncia da traduo no incremento e na renovao da literatura como um todo. A qualidade de uma traduo. Defendemos que no campo da anlise tradutria parece haver lugar para uma enfoque de cunho estilstico, centrado no TF que, embora no negue a validade das teorias que privilegiam o TA, demonstra ser capaz de dar conta de diversos aspectos envolvidos na traduo e de desmentir, pelo menos em parte, a crtica que se faz hoje a esse tipo de abordagem. A estilstica comparada, sustentada pela teoria e pela crtica da traduo, demonstrou-se um procedimento-instrumento adequado para a avaliao da traduo literria, proporcionando tambm o surgimento de propostas alternativas, com o intuito de desvendar alguns processos tradutrios e, dessa forma, sugerir caminhos para uma melhoria da traduo literria. A literalidade, a fidelidade ao TF, consideradas por muitos tericos as vils da histria da traduo, em determinado tipo de texto, tendo em vista determinado objetivo, e seguindo determinada metodologia, podem revelar-se uma opo vivel que deve ser considerada, e no descartada a priori. A abordagem orientada para o TF.

Tendo em vista que ainda no se “construiu” um modelo definitivo, e sobretudo operacional, para a traduo literria, a minha proposta a de uma abordagem lingisticamente orientada. Discuss! Nesse enfoque, o TF, sua estrutura lingstico-textual e seu potencial significativo em vrios nveis, incluindo o nvel do contexto situacional numa estrutura sistmica, considerado como o mais importante e, inclusive, fator constitutivo da traduo. Embora essa abordagem tenha sido criticada por diversos tericos, segundo observa House (1997:16-24), por considerarem que dessa forma se focaliza apenas um aspecto da traduo, ou seja, o aspecto semntico, no se pode negar que a abordagem lingstico-textual capaz de cobrir tanto o carter semntico quanto o pragmtico; tanto o sociocomunicativo como tambm o discursivo. Por essa razo, ao analisar os aspectos estilsticos que envolvem a conotao - mas tambm a denotao - parece possvel dar conta de aspectos estritamente relacionados ao estilo e, ao mesmo tempo, analisar aspectos sociolingsticos com funo pragmtica que o texto literrio pode deixar filtrar - sutil ou claramente - atravs das funes da linguagem predominantes no texto e pelas eventuais variantes de registro presentes na narrativa, dependendo do contexto e da situao narrativa, ou pela fala dos personagens, pelas intenes implcitas nas suas falas ou comportamentos. Na teoria da traduo literria, e portanto na anlise do texto literrio, em sua descrio/avaliao, os pressupostos pragmticos e sociolingsticos parecem importantes, pois estabelecem a relao entre forma e funo dentro de um contexto. Evocative Essays! Temos assim a dimenso semntica e pragmtica imbricadas entre si, auxiliando na compreenso dos significados explcitos e dos implcitos do enunciado (Ducrot, 1977) e, conseqentemente, na avaliao de sua equivalncia tradutria. A possibilidade de alcanar objetivos comunicativos pelos implcitos do enunciado parece constituir-se num dos universais da linguagem, sendo portanto passveis de “traduo”, embora sua performance e interpretao estejam sujeitas a diversas condies, desde os universais at oxbridge dissertation reviews a cultura e linguagem/lngua especfica. Evocative Essays! De modo que a qualidade da traduo de um ato de fala implcito estar ligada natureza das condies que subjazem a seu desempenho e interpretao. Blum-Kulka (1981: 89-95) apresenta uma proposta para o estudo da traduo, ao sugerir que a teoria dos atos de fala seja aplicada tanto teoria como ao estudo da traduo, posto que o ato tradutrio pode ser visto tambm como uma tentativa de alcanar um desempenho satisfatrio dos atos de fala, para que haja equivalncia de significado.

Ampliando a teoria de Austin (1974) para o mbito do texto, a autora enfatiza o fato de que qualquer elocuo - seja oral ou escrita - desempenha trs atos ao mesmo tempo: o ato locutrio, o ilocutrio e o perlocutrio. In Language Essays! Por isso, sustenta a autora, na tentativa de encontrar “igualdade de significado”, a traduo torna-se uma tentativa de “re-executar atos locutrios e ilocutrios que devero ter (isso, de fato, embora desejvel, ocorre muito raramente) a mesma fora ou o mesmo efeito perlocutrio que tero na lngua-alvo sobre os destinatrios, como ocorreu na lngua-fonte.” A autora acrescenta que “Uma teoria adequada da traduo deveria tentar formular as condies que estipulam a realizao bem-sucedida (ou no bem-sucedida) desses atos de fala na traduo” (id., ibid., p.89-90). Evocative Essays! A verdadeira equivalncia se daria assim por meio da interpretao do tradutor que consegue extrair de cada realidade dada, de cada experincia, de cada leitura, algo mais, algo novo, que ainda precisa desenvolver-se e crescer. An Essay! Essa seria a garantia de uma traduo “criativamente fiel”. Essays! Diante da amplitude do processo tradutrio, que abrange todos os nveis discursivos, ser preciso fazer uma breve retomada do conceito de equivalncia funcional. Equivalncia funcional e tipologias textuais. O conceito de “equivalncia” entre o texto traduzido e o original sempre foi e continua sendo o problema central da traduo tanto no campo terico como na prxis. Discuss An Essay! A questo cardinal, qual se tentou e se continua tentando responder de forma definitiva, interessa e preocupa no somente os estudiosos da atualidade, mas procede j da velha distino entre traduo literal e traduo livre. Evocative Essays! Ela procura desvendar a natureza da relao que se deve estabelecer entre o aspecto “produto” e o aspecto “processo” que lhe deu origem.

Para explicar qual dos dois aspectos supracitados preciso enfrentar, as correspondncias lingsticas, limitadas estrutura de superfcie dos segmentos textuais da LF, demonstraram-se inadequadas e/ou limitadas. The Writer World Essays! De fato, o conceito de equivalncia no de natureza esttica e definitiva, mas relativo e dinmico. Ivir (1981:51-59) considera que, embora a correspondncia formal e a equivalncia em traduo pertenam a atividades diferenciadas, e a reas e disciplinas lingsticas diversas, elas se relacionam e so por isso necessrias tanto no mbito tradutrio como tambm na anlise contrastiva. Evocative Essays! A argumentao de Ivir baseia-se no fato de que correspondncia formal e equivalncia tradutria representam muito mais do que mera terminologia, posto que discutir correspondncia formal implica discutir unidades lingsticas na traduo e o papel da lingstica na teoria da traduo, ao passo que, em se tratando de equivalncia tradutria em relao anlise contrastiva, a discusso se desloca para o campo da anlise contrastiva. In Language! Para o autor, o conceito de equivalncia depender da orientao que se tenha da traduo. Evocative Essays! Se o enfoque for sexism voltado traduo como resultado ou produto, diante de dois textos, um dos quais a traduo do outro, poder-se-ia concluir que a traduo, conforme Catford, citado por Ivir, a mera transferncia de material textual de uma lngua-fonte (LF) para o material equivalente na lngua-alvo” (LA). Nesse enfoque, argumenta Ivir, tanto a equivalncia como a traduo assumem um carter esttico que leva a concluir que para cada unidade lingstica do TF (ou de um fragmento do TF) existe um equivalente no TA, e cabe ao tradutor encontrar essa unidade, donde decorre a necessidade de diferenciar tipologias textuais e suas caractersticas nas diferentes lnguas (id., ibid., p.51-52). Parece evidente que o enfoque de Catford no se coaduna com o de Ivir.

Conforme este autor, para obter-se uma outra viso de equivalncia preciso atentar para seu carter dinmico, vendo a traduo como processo e no como resultado. Evocative Essays! Nesse caso a traduo se constituiria na substituio de mensagens de uma lngua para outra, a fim de reproduzir no destinatrio a forma de equivalncia mais prxima da mensagem contida no TF, de acordo com a teoria de Nida e de Nida e Taber (1964, 1969). Barn Full! Nessa abordagem revela-se o aspecto comunicativo e dinmico da traduo que envolve emissor e destinatrio, adquirindo relevo as mensagens. Evocative! O que permanece constante, portanto equivalente, no o texto em questo, mas a mensagem (ou mensagens) e “ a essas mensagens que os participantes [do processo comunicativo] voltam a cada etapa do processo [. A Letter About Service! ]” (1969: 52). Ao levar em conta os aspectos comunicativos e os lingsticos, e sendo estes ltimos de natureza contrastiva, Ivir v a equivalncia como um produto derivado do “contraste entre as formas realizadas textualmente pelo TF e a LA e a realizao comunicativa dos contedos extralingsticos do original na LA” (id., ibid., p.59). Num trabalho posterior, Ivir (1996:155) evidencia a relatividade inerente relao de equivalncia, afirmando que “a equivalncia relativa, no absoluta, ela emerge do contexto e da situao definidos pelo inter-jogo de todos os fatores descritos aqui, e no possui existncia fora desse contexto; em particular, [ . Essays! ] no definido a priori por um algoritmo que converte as unidades da LF em unidades da LA.” Ivir evidencia assim uma clara retomada de seus posicionamentos anteriores que estabelecem a equivalncia em nvel de mensagens e em nvel de ato comunicativo, e no em nvel de unidades lingsticas. Bell (1991:3-30), por sua vez, apresenta importantes pontos de contato com Koller (1995) e Etkind (1967), ao sustentar que textos em lnguas diferentes podem receber um certo grau de equivalncia no plano semntico, sinttico, estilstico e pragmtico, de acordo com o segmento textual que o tradutor pretende considerar (palavra, sintagma nominal ou verbal, frase, pargrafo, texto) e do tipo de texto que ele est traduzindo. A relatividade do conceito de equivalncia, no entanto, deve ser relacionada no s ao tipo de escolha/deciso individual de cada tradutor, mas tambm ao ambiente sociocultural no qual ele opera, posto que a lngua um fenmeno varivel, que sofre as presses da sociedade, por ser sistema arbitrrio e tambm convencional, portanto sujeito a mudanas. nesse sentido que se pode (ou se deve) interpretar a “equivalncia na diferena” postulada por Jakobson, para quem, assim como numa mesma lngua a sinonmia no significa equivalncia absoluta entre dois termos, tambm a equivalncia tradutria no corresponde necessariamente a uma equivalncia plena do contedo semntico, posto que cdigos lingsticos diferentes podem conceituar uma mesma realidade extra-lingstica de forma diferente. Discuss! Jakobson (1959:232-239) fornece o exemplo da palavra “queijo” e do seu heternimo russo syr (significando tambm queijo).

Aparentemente sinnimos, os dois vocbulos no correspondem semanticamente, posto que syr obtido pela coagulao do leite somente quando se usa um fermento especial, ao passo que o “queijo” qualquer tipo de produto derivado do leite coagulado, com ou sem o acrscimo de coagulante. Essays! Parece evidente que, enquanto Jakobson aborda o problema da equivalncia sob o ngulo estritamente lingstico, a abordagem de E. Essay On Usage While! Nida (1964) de cunho essencialmente comunicativo. Essays! Em sua traduo da Bblia, Nida opera uma distino entre “equivalncia formal” e “equivalncia dinmica”, esta alicerada no princpio do “efeito equivalente” no leitor do TA. Write A Letter Good! Uma posio criticada por House entre outros, como G. Essays! Toury, que no v como esse efeito possa ser testado no enfoque denominado Response-Oriented, Behavioural Approaches to a letter service, Evaluating Translations. Apesar dos problemas que as orientaes de Nida apresentam, possvel afirmar, argumenta Federica Scarpa, que elas representam um passo importante para o debate sobre a equivalncia tradutria, pelo menos por dois motivos: “em primeiro lugar, a antiga dicotomia traduo literal versus traduo livre substituda pela dicotomia fidelidade ao autor versus fidelidade ao destinatrio; em segundo lugar, ao introduzir a variante dos efeitos sobre o destinatrio, na equivalncia dinmica, Nida confere uma dimenso pragmtica ao processo da traduo” (Scarpa, 1997:4). Evocative! Em outras palavras, o tradutor se v pressionado por uma escolha/deciso voltada equivalncia formal, em nvel semntico-referencial, ou equivalncia funcional, em nvel comunicativo e pragmtico (ou em ambos os nveis). On Usage While! A diferena parece importante, porque no primeiro caso o contexto excludo, enquanto no segundo caso o contexto essencial: surge assim uma linha divisria entre lngua como cdigo e lngua como sistema comunicativo. Se levarmos em conta, junto ao conceito de equivalncia, o de funo (ou funcionalidade) e contexto, talvez seja necessrio relembrar esses conceitos em vista da diferena de objetivos que caracterizou as duas grandes linhas na histria da lingstica do sculo XX: a) a linha formalista, cujo objetivo o estudo da lngua como forma, sistema, fora do seu contexto de uso, e. b) a linha funcional - representada pelo Crculo de Praga, e ainda por Firth, Halliday, entre outros - preocupada com a funo sociocultural da lngua enquanto instrumento que evoluiu para satisfazer as necessidades comunicativas concretas de seus usurios, que devem ser interpretadas em seu contexto extralingstico (que inclui, portanto, uma situao). Dessa dicotomia que nasce uma realidade situacional e contextual cujo efeito condicionante sobre o significado de importncia cardinal no processo tradutrio, e suas variveis devero ser consideradas pelo tradutor em suas escolhas: contedo, inteno, momento, nvel, lugar e participantes do ato comunicativo.

Teremos assim a equivalncia como adequao situao e ao contexto lingstico e extra-lingstico. O conceito de equivalncia funcional constituiu o princpio fundamental para a abordagem da traduo adotado por House (1997, op. Evocative Essays! cit.). Discuss An Essay! A autora considera o texto traduzido equivalente ao original se este preencher a mesma funo (ou funes), e uma traduo ser adequada quando semntica e pragmaticamente equivalente a seu original, ou seja, quando apresentar a aderncia mais prxima possvel ao significado e funo do TF. A transferncia do valor comunicativo e situacional/contextual do TF para o TA ocorreria exclusivamente no tipo de traduo que a autora denomina covert , isto , um texto no-marcado do ponto de vista pragmtico, posto que receber na cultura-alvo o mesmo status que teria se tivesse sido criado na LA. Evocative Essays! Na traduo manifesta, evidente, overt , pelo contrrio, a equivalncia funcional stricto sensu seria praticamente impossvel, devido s diferenas socioculturais entre os destinatrios das duas lnguas, que, quando muito amplas, so difceis de ser preenchidas, razo pela qual preciso recorrer a adaptaes de diversos nveis. O modelo housiano, embasado na equivalncia funcional, possui o mrito de ter indicado a direo que o debate sobre a equivalncia tradutria tomou nesta dcada. A Letter About Good Customer Service! A proeminncia do objetivo da traduo, s vezes em detrimento da inteno comunicativa do TF, retomada e ampliada por Hatim e Mason (1998), segundo os quais o nvel de interveno do tradutor depende em grande escala das exigncias dos destinatrios. Evocative Essays! O mrito desses autores terem aliado traduo as ramificaes da Lingstica que sustentam a traduo, conferindo-lhe no apenas o status de trabalho tcnico, mas tambm uma dimenso social e pragmtica. uma orientao lingstica semelhante que encontramos em Bell (1991), Gutt (1991) e Baker (1992), os quais colocam a traduo na perspectiva de uma ampla concepo integrada de pesquisas lingsticas recentes na sociolingstica, na teoria dos atos de fala, na anlise do discurso e na pragmtica.

Esse enfoque, embora no trate explicitamente da avaliao da traduo, se torna potencialmente vlido para essa finalidade, conforme argumenta House (1997, op. Full! cit., p.19). Evocative! De fato, a linha encabeada por Hatim e Mason, Bell, Gutt e Baker extrai a essncia de diversas e complexas reas recentes da lingstica, ampliando o conceito tradicional de intertextualidade para a cadeia intertextual, isto , para aquelas relaes referenciais cuja coerncia constri o conhecimento para alm do texto. Sexism In Language Essays! O que Baker argumenta sobre o enfoque de Hatim e Mason que a abordagem dos estudiosos da Universidade de Edimburgo, embora teoricamente vlida, pode ser bastante difcil de aplicar, posto que a nfase excessiva no texto e no contexto pode levar a ignorar o fato de que, embora um texto seja uma unidade semntica e no gramatical, os significados se realizam atravs do wordings , e sem uma teoria baseada no wordings , no h como tornar explcita a interpretao dos significados de um texto. A distino de House entre traduo encoberta ( covert ) e manifesta ( overt ) abre caminho para que Gutt (1991:54-57) estabelea sua diferenciao entre “uso descritivo” e “uso interpretativo”. Evocative Essays! Para Gutt, no primeiro caso, a relao entre TA e TF incidental e no tem grande importncia para o sucesso da traduo (por exemplo no discurso publicitrio e na traduo tcnica), ao passo que no uso interpretativo do TF a semelhana entre TA e o original extremamente importante, razo pela qual necessrio que o TA mantenha a equivalncia com o contedo semntico e com o estilo do TF. Tomando emprestada essa distino entre semelhana interpretativa e descritiva da teoria psicolgica da pertinncia ou relevncia, que visa a explicar a comunicao em termos de interao entre contexto, estmulo e interpretao, Scarpa (1997, op. Reviews! cit., p.9) infere que Gutt considera a traduo como uma aplicao da teoria da pertinncia. Evocative Essays! Dessa forma, fica evidente que para Gutt um TA deve possuir sua prpria pertinncia e no pode, pelo contrrio, “ser pertinente apenas em virtude de sua semelhana interpretativa com o TF.”

A dissidncia entre Gutt e House reside basicamente na abordagem da equivalncia funcional: a permanncia da mesma funo na passagem de um texto a outro (TF para TA). Discuss! Na opinio de Gutt, a manuteno da funo no garante que a traduo seja equivalente em termos funcionais, porque, na passagem de uma lngua a outra, as funes textuais so variveis enquanto dependem do objetivo da comunicao. A posio de Gutt, claramente propensa ao uso interpretativo como base da traduo, e fortemente impregnada pela teoria da relevncia, considerada por House demasiado genrica e muito estreita, pois essa tentativa, afirma House (1997, op.cit., p.20-21) , incorpora a teoria da traduo teoria cognitivo-comunicacional e, por outro lado, se alinha basicamente com a abordagem orientada para o destinatrio. Sejam quais forem as posies tericas do momento, evidente que os conceitos situacional e cultural parecem ter-se tornado centrais na discusso do processo tradutrio, e nesses conceitos que o debate sobre equivalncia funcional est embasado. Evocative Essays! A discusso no pode, pois, prescindir de uma abordagem que leve em considerao os modelos funcionais de Bhler e Jakobson que possuem aquela agilidade necessria para determinar as tipologias textuais com base nas funes lingsticas predominantes que se realizam na atualizao da linguagem. Write About Customer Service! A atividade do tradutor ter assim parmetros suficientemente cientficos para tomar suas decises e fazer suas escolhas: traduo literal ou livre, orientada ao leitor, orientada ao texto, orientada ao cdigo, etc. Essays! Por outro lado, a avaliao da traduo poder valer-se com proveito desses parmetros, considerando categorias ou tipologias textuais, a partir das quais ser possvel alcanar uma equivalncia relativizada, isto , relacionada ao tipo de texto em questo, entre outros fatores. Embora considerando que, em sua grande maioria, os textos de gneros diversos no possuem claras e absolutas delimitaes e portanto podem apresentar sobreposies, haver sempre a possibilidade de definir qual ou quais so as funes da linguagem predominantes no texto e dessa forma detectar a intencionalidade do texto. Essays! Portanto, tendo em vista um determinado objetivo tradutrio, ser possvel proceder s escolhas adequadas para alcanar a equivalncia que, embora podendo ser formal, no exclui a funcional. Evocative! De fato, as tipologias textuais funcionais, centradas na funo de um texto, em dado contexto situacional, permitem decidir quais sero as diversas metodologias tradutrias. a K. Burning Summary! Reiss (1981) que devemos o mrito da adoo do tipo de classificao textual embasada nas trs macrofunes de K. Essays! Bhler.

Partindo do tipo de texto, Reiss prope os critrios da traduo, a fim de alcanar a equivalncia necessria e adequada. Essays! Para o texto expressivo, centrado na funo expressiva de Blher, (funo emotiva de Jakobson), em que a forma, sua dimenso estilstica e esttica predominam, haver critrios diferentes dos que se aplicam a um texto conativo, por exemplo, centrado na persuaso, ao passo que o texto informativo (referencial) ser centrado no contedo (o referente). Em relao tipologia de Reiss, a classificao textual realizada por Newmark (1988), embora tambm pautada em Bhler, acrescenta e integra as funes de Jakobson, mantendo-lhe no entanto o mesmo esprito, e se apresenta mais flexvel, posto que a sua abordagem da traduo no considera o texto como um bloco monoltico: o texto possui a multifuncionalidade. Evocative! Em outras palavras, a maioria dos textos realiza as trs macrofunes buhlerianas, embora haja uma dominante. Reviews! De fato, sabemos que as funes dialogam entre si, no texto, e uma rgida hierarquia no pode ser estabelecida de forma absoluta. A contribuio de Newmark vai alm da identificao da funo dominante do texto - para a finalidade da anlise textual - com vistas traduo, considerando tambm a inteno do autor, o tipo de destinatrio e o contexto de origem do TF e do TA, e ainda o estilo, relacionado ao tom do texto. Evocative Essays! Tendo em vista que em nvel programtico Newmark pretende fornecer solues concretas para os problemas que o tradutor tem que enfrentar, utilizando em sua atividade tambm os instrumentos da anlise comparativa entre diversas lnguas, que lhe so oferecidos pela estilstica comparada, ele detalha a estreita relao entre a tipologia textual e os traos lingsticos que o definem. Barn Summary! Por exemplo, o emprego no convencional da lngua, caracterizado pelas expresses metafricas criativas, pelos neologismos, arcasmos, uma sintaxe de exceo ou uma pontuao ousada, anticonvencional, configuram claramente o elemento expressivo (emotivo, pessoal) de um texto. Com a finalidade de relacionar os tipos de texto s diversas intervenes/decises/escolhas do tradutor, Newmark utiliza duas metodologias de traduo: a) semntica, realizada tendo em vista o autor do TF e sua linguagem, adequada aos textos expressivos; b) comunicativa, realizada tendo em mente o destinatrio e adequada aos textos informativos e conativos. Essays! Segundo Scarpa, “as caractersticas que diferenciam os dois plos, representados pelas duas metodologias, representam sem dvida a contribuio terica mais original de Newmark disciplina da traduo” (Scarpa, op.cit., p.18).

Afinada com a posio de Newmark, a traduo dos textos expressivos ter como unidade e centralidade a expresso lingstica, a palavra, porque nesse nvel que esto contidas as nuanas de significado to sexism essays, relevantes para esse tipo de texto, e a abordagem dever ser semntica para dar conta desses valores e alcanar a equivalncia funcional mais prxima do original e, portanto, mais adequada. A tarefa da teoria e da crtica da traduo. De acordo com Popovic (1973:161-165), a tarefa da teoria colocar disposio do tradutor e de seu crtico instrues utilizveis e um aparato que especifique a atividade da crtica da traduo em relao sua finalidade original, isto, , pragmtica. Evocative Essays! O autor observa que na prtica tradutria existem duas formas bsicas de crtica: uma crtica que trabalha sobre um modelo direto e a crtica que se realiza sem o original de uma traduo. Para Popovic, a autntica crtica da traduo, que corresponde aos princpios de uma teoria da traduo, a que trabalha a obra que o crtico tem realmente em mos. Dissertation! Trata-se, segundo a classificao do autor, de uma “funo analtica” da traduo, que se relaciona diretamente ao texto.

Por funo analtica da crtica da traduo, Popovic entende “uma complexa anlise do estilo, na busca de um tertium comparationis entre original e traduo”, para verificar at essays que ponto o tradutor compreendeu a linguagem do modelo original, tendo por rbitro desse aspecto a lingstica contrastiva ou a lingstica da traduo. A “funco postuladora”, por outro lado, segundo Popovic compreende a escolha de textos para a traduo e est relacionada ao tradutor, enquanto a “funo operativa” orienta-se para o receptor (leitor), constituindo-se num fator importante para a naturalizao de uma obra oferecida recepo do leitor [meus grifos]. O confronto e a anlise avaliativa da traduo pode partir de uma perspectiva prevalentemente emprica, pautada na funo analtica de Popovic, nos postulados funcionais de Bhler e Jakobson - elaborados e aperfeioados por Newmark, nos postulados da estilstica comparada e na anlise dos atos de fala, atravs dos quais foram observados os complexos fenmenos da traduo literria. Summary! Alm das questes tericas, ser necessrio que se privilegiem os problemas da prxis hermenutica concreta, buscando descrever as tcnicas e os procedimentos formais prprios de uma atividade interlingstica aplicada ao texto literrio, tentando resgatar o que ele possui de estilstico, de pragmtico e de funcional; como esses aspectos “reagem” na traduo e quais foram os recursos utilizados pelos tradutores para preserv-los, isto , qual foi a formulao de sua potica, devido importncia das funes que eles desempenham. Posto que a crtica da traduo se movimenta nos vrios nveis das operaes tradutrias, em funo dessa mobilidade no se poder realizar tudo numa crtica: alguns aspectos recebero mais relevncia, ao passo que outros ficaro subsumidos. Evocative Essays! Conforme Popovic, concretamente, isso significa que a crtica dever subordinar suas informaes organizao da expresso do original e da traduo, bem como suas instrues para o leitor, funo esperada de uma determinada traduo dentro do contexto da evoluo e do leitor da obra [. Burning Full! ] (id., ibid., p.164). AUSTIN, John L. Evocative Essays! Quando dire fare. The Writer And The World! Torino: Marietti, 1974.

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Traduzione di Silvia Campanini. Burning Full! Torino: UTET, 1998. Evocative! p. Dissertation! 11-25. Evocative! Traduo de: Translation, rewriting and the writer and the essays, the manipulation of evocative literary fame , 1992. NEWMARK, Peter. Sexism In Language Essays! A textbook of essays translation . Oxbridge Dissertation Reviews! London: Prentice-Hall, 1988. NIDA, Eugene A. Evocative! Toward a science of world translating. Evocative! Leiden: E.J. Burning Summary! Brill, 1964. NIDA, Eugene A., TABER, Charles R. Evocative Essays! The theory and write a letter good customer, practice of evocative translation.

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Comparation Criticism, p.73-85, 1984. Evocative Essays! seu quadro etiolgico. Sexism In Language! O prprio Freud fiaria pirado se fosse atend-lo.