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bernard shaw essay A Note on the Text From Professor Rodgers: The following text is an excerpt from mobile thesis, Shaw's preface to R.A. Wilson's 1941 book. For the complete text of the symbology, preface, including graphics, see the thesis, following Web site: http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/vangogh/555/Spell/shaw-pref2.html. Please note that this excerpt is taken from a Web site that published the excerpt informally, meaning without any professional editorial supervision, there may be typos and other types of writing errors contained in it. George Bernard Shaw. On College Acceptance. Excerpted from the Preface to R.A. Wilson’s The Miraculous Birth of cloud computing thesis, Language (1941) Professor Wilson has shewn that it was as a reading and writing animal that Man achieved his human eminence above those who are called beasts. Well, it is I and-my like who have to do the writing. I have done it professionally for the last sixty years as well as it can be done with a hopelessly inadequate alphabet devised centuries before the English language existed to record another and very different language, Even this alphabet is reduced to absurdity by research working a foolish orthography based on the notion that the computing, business of spelling is to represent the battle essay gettysburg, origin and history of a word instead of its sound and cloud thesis, meaning. Thus an intelligent child who is bidden to spell debt, and very properly spells it d-e-t, is caned for not spelling it with a b because Julius Caesar spelt the Latin word for it with a b. Now I, being not only a scribe but a dramatic poet and therefore a word musician, cannot write down my word music for lack of an acceptance adequate notation. Composers of music have such a notation.
Handel could mark his movements as maestoso, Beethoven as mesto, Elgar as nobilemente, Strauss, as etwas ruhiger, aber trotzdem schwungvoll und enthusiastich. By writing the words adagio or prestissimo they can make it impossible for a conductor to mistake a hymn for a hornpipe. Cloud Computing Mobile Thesis. They can write ritardando, accellerando and tempo over this or that passage. But I may have my best scenes ridiculously ruined in performance for ny bar want of such indications. Cloud Computing Thesis. A few nights ago I heard a broadcast recital of The Merchant of Venice in which Portia rattled through How all the other passions fleet to air! exactly as if she were still chatting with Nerissa and had been told by the producer to get through quickly, as the news had to come on at nine o'clock sharp. If that high spot in her part had been part of an opera composed by Richard Strauss a glance at symbology essays the score would have saved her from throwing away her finest lines. (p. 24) These particular instances seem impertinent to Professor Wilson's thesis; but I cite them to shew why, as a technician, I am specially concerned with the fixation of language by the art of writing, and hampered by the imperfections of computing mobile, that art. The Professor's conspectus of the enormous philosophical scope of the subject could not condescend to my petty everyday workshop grievances; but I may as well seize the opportunity to ventilate them, as they concern civilization to art essay, an extent which no layman can grasp.
So let me without further preamble come down to certain prosaic technical facts of which I have to complain bitterly, and which have never as far as I know been presented in anything like their statistical magnitude and importance. During the last 6o years I have had to provide for publication many millions of words, involving for me the manual labor of mobile thesis, writing, and for the printer the setting up in type, of tens of millions of letters, largely superfluous. To save my own time I have resorted to lead resume sample, shorthand, in which the words are spelt phonetically, and the definite and indefinite articles, with all the prepositions, conjunctions and interjections, as well as the auxiliary verbs, are not spelt at all, but indicated by dots and cloud computing thesis, ticks, circles or segments of circles, single strokes of the pen and the like. Commercial correspondence is ny bar essay sample not always written: it is often spoken into Dictaphones which cost more than most private people can afford. But whether it is cloud dicta-phoned or written in shorthand it has to be transcribed in ordinary spelling on typewriters, and, if for publication, set up from the typed copy on conclusions, a printing machine operated by a stroke of the hand for cloud mobile every letter. (p.
25) When we consider the prodigious total of manual labor on literature, journalism, and commercial correspondence that has to be done every day (a full copy of the London Times when we are at resume sample peace and not short of computing mobile, paper may contain a million words) the case for reducing this labor to resume sample, the lowest possible figure is, for printers and authors, overwhelming, though for lay writers, most of whom write only an thesis occasional private letter, it is negligible. Writers' cramp is a common complaint among authors: it does not trouble blacksmiths. In what directions can this labor be saved? Two are obvious to anyone interested enough to give half hour's thought to the subject. Research Paper Working Outline. • 1. Discard useless grammar. 2. Spell phonetically. (p.
26) Ebonics Useless grammar is a devastating plague. We who speak English have got rid of a good deal of the grammatic inflections that make Latin and cloud computing thesis, its modern dialects so troublesome to learn. But we still say I am, thou art, he is, with the plurals we are, you are, they are, though our country folk, before school teachers perverted their natural wisdom, said I be, thou be, he be, we be, you be, they be. This saved time in writing and was perfectly intelligible in speech. Chinese traders, Negroes, and aboriginal Australians, who have to learn English as a foreign language, simplify it much further, and have thereby established what they call business English, or, as they pronounce it, Pidgin. The Chinese, accustomed to an uninflected monosyllabic language, do not say I regret that I shall be unable to comply with your request. Sorry no can is sample quite as effective, and saves the time of both parties. When certain Negro slaves in cloud computing thesis, America were oppressed by a lady planter who was very pious and very' severe, their remonstrance, if expressed in grammatic English, would have been If we are to be preached at let us not be flogged also: if we are to be flogged let us not be preached at also.
This is correct and elegant but wretchedly feeble. It says in twenty-six words what can be better said in essay, eleven. The Negroes proved this by saying If preachee preachee: if floggee floggee; but no preachec floggee too. They saved fifteen words of useless grammar, and said what they had to say far more expressively. The economy in words: that is, in thesis, time, ink and on college acceptance, paper, is enormous.
If during my long professional career every thousand words I have written could have been reduced to less than half that number, my working lifetime would have been doubled. Add to this the saving of cloud mobile thesis, all the other authors, the symbology, scribes, the printers, the paper millers, and the makers of the machines they wear out; and the figures become astronomical. However, the discarding of cloud computing mobile thesis, verbal inflections to indicate moods, tenses, subjunctives, and accusatives, multiplies words instead of paper working outline, saving them, because their places have to mobile thesis, be taken by auxiliaries in such a statement as By that time I shall have left England. The four words I shall have left can be expressed in more infected languages by hindu a single word. But the multiplication of cloud computing, words in this way greatly facilitates the acquisition of the language by foreigners. In fact, nearly all foreigners who are not professional interpreters or diplomatists, however laboriously they may have learnt classical English in school, soon find when they settle in England that academic correctness is quite unnecessary, and research paper working, that broken English, which is a sort of computing thesis, home made pidgin, is essay quite sufficient for intelligible speech. Instead of laughing at them and computing, mimicking them derisively we should learn from them. (p. 28) In acquiring a foreign language a great deal of trouble is caused by the irregular verbs. Research Working. But why learn them? It is easy to computing mobile, regularize them.
A child's I thinked instead of resume, I thought is perfectly intelligible. When anybody says who instead of whom nobody is the least puzzled. But here we come up against another consideration. Whom may be a survival which is already half discarded: but nothing will ever induce an archbishop to mobile, say at the lectern Who hath believed our report? and to who is the arm of the resume sample, Lord revealed? (p. 28) But it is not for the sake of grammar that the superfluous m is computing mobile retained. Art Essay. To pronounce a vowel we have to cloud computing, make what teachers of singing call a stroke of the glottis. The Germans, with their characteristic thoroughness, do this most conscientiously: they actually seem to like doing it; but the English, who are lazy speakers, grudge doing it once, and flatly refuse to do it twice in succession.
The Archbishop says To whom is instead of to who is for the same reason 'as the man in the street, instead of saying Maria Ann, says Maria ran. The double coup de glotte is too troublesome. No Englishman, clerical or lay, will say An ass met an obstacle. Symbology Other Essays. He says A nass met a nob-stacle. A Frenchman drops the cloud mobile, final t in working, s'il vous plait, but pronounces it in plalt-il ? Euphony and ease of utterance call for cloud computing mobile thesis such interpolations. I can give no reason for the Cockney disuse of final l. Acceptance. Shakespear, accustomed to be called Bill by Anne Hathaway, must have been surprised when he came to London to cloud computing, hear himself called Beeyaw, just as I was surprised when I came to London from Ireland to hear milk called meeyock. Lead Resume. Final r does not exist in southern English speech except when it avoids a coup de glotte.
In that case it is even interpolated, as in computing mobile, the idear of. French, as written and printed, is plastered all over with letters that are never sounded, though they waste much labor when they are written. Sample. The waste of time in spelling imaginary sounds and cloud mobile thesis, their history (or etymology as it is called) is monstrous in English and sample, French; and so much has been written on cloud mobile, the subject that it is quite stale, because the battle essay gettysburg, writers have dwelt only on mobile thesis, the anomalies of gettysburg, our orthography, which are merely funny, and on the botheration of cloud thesis, children by them. Nothing has been said of the colossal waste of time and material, though this alone is sample gigantic enough to cloud, bring about a reform so costly, so unpopular, and requiring so much mental effort as the introduction of a new alphabet and a new orthography. It is true that once the on college, magnitude of the commercial saving is grasped the cost shrinks into computing mobile thesis, insignificance; but it has not been grasped because it has never yet been stated in figures, perhaps because they are incalculable, perhaps because if they were fully calculated, the statisticians might be compelled to make the unit a billion or so, just as the astronomers have been compelled to make their unit of distance a light year. (p. 30) In any case the gettysburg, waste does not come home to the layman. For example, take the two words *tough and cloud computing thesis, *cough. He may not have to write them for years, if al all. Art Essay. Anyhow he now has tough and cough so thoroughly fixed in his head and cloud mobile thesis, everybody else's that he would be set down as illiterate if he wrote tuf and cof consequently a reform would mean for lead sample him simply a lot of trouble not worth taking. Consequently the layman, always in a huge majority, will fight spelling reform tooth and nail. As he cannot be convinced, his opposition must be steam-rollered by the overworked writers and printers who feel the urgency of the reform.
Though I am an author, I also am left cold by *tough and *cough; for I, too, seldom write them. Thesis. But take the words *though and *should and *enough: containing eighteen letters. Heaven knows how many hundred thousand times I have had to write these constantly recurring words. Figure 1. Spell: though (with 2 letters) should (with 3 letters) enough (with 4 letters) Shaw. Unigraf spellings xO Scd Enuf So.
Figure 1. 9 letters instead of 18, a 100% savings. Unigraf converts the upper case letters into new sound signs S=sh, E=ee, O=oa. The C is redefined as a lazy U providing the symbols for ny bar sample /u/ as in hck (hook) and /u:/. U=/yu/ x=/dh/ With a new English alphabet replacing the old Semitic one with its added Latin vowels I should be able to spell t-h-o-u-g-h with two letters, s-h-o-u-l-d with three, and e-n-o-u-g-h with four: nine letters instead of eighteen: a saving of a hundred per cent of my time and my typist's time and the printer's time, to say nothing of the thesis, saving in paper and essay gettysburg, wear and mobile, tear of machinery. As I have said, I save my own time by shorthand; but as it all has to research paper, go into longhand before it can be printed, and computing mobile thesis, I cannot use shorthand for my holograph epistles, shorthand is no remedy. I also have the personal grievance, shared by all my namesakes, of having to spell my own name with four letters instead of the two a Russian uses to spell it with his alphabet of 35 letters. (See Fig. 1) All round me I hear the corruption of our language produced by the absurd device of essay, spelling the first sound in my name with the cloud mobile thesis, two letters sh.
London is research working outline surrounded by populous suburbs which began as homes or hams and grew to be hamlets or groups of hams. One of them is cloud computing thesis still called Peter's Ham, another Lewis Ham. But as these names are now spelt as one word this lack of a letter in our alphabet for the final sound in working, wish, and our very misleading use of mobile thesis, *sh to supply the deficiency, has set everyone calling them Peter Sham and Louis Sham. Further off, in Surrey, there is a place named Cars Halton. Now it is art essay called Car Shallton. Cloud Mobile Thesis. Horse Ham is paper called Hor-shm. Cloud Mobile Thesis. Colt Hurst, which is good English, is called Coal Thirst, which is symbology nonsense.
For want of a letter to indicate the final sound in Smith we have Elt Ham called El Tham. We have no letter for the first and last consonant in church, and cloud mobile, are driven to the absurd expedient of representing it by ch. Someday we shall have Chichester called Chick Hester. A town formerly known as Sisseter is so insanely mis-spelt that it is now called Siren. But the lack of consonants is outline a trifle beside our lack of vowels. Cloud Mobile. The Latin alphabet gives us five, whereas the least we can write phonetically with is eighteen. I do not mean that there are only battle essay gettysburg eighteen vowels in daily use: eighteen hundred would be nearer the truth. When I was chairman of the Spoken English Committee of the British Broadcasting Corporation it was easy enough to get a unanimous decision that exemplary and cloud computing mobile, applicable should be pronounced with the stress on the first syllable, though the announcers keep on lead resume, putting the stress on the second all the same; but when the cloud computing thesis, announcers asked us how they should pronounce cross or launch there were as many different pronunciations of the vowels as there were members present. I secured a decision in favor of my own pronunciation of launch by the happy accident that it was adopted by King George the on college acceptance, Fifth when christening a new liner on the Clyde.
But the members were perfectly intelligible to one another in spite of their ringing all the possible changes between crawz and cross, between lanch and lawnch. Computing Mobile. To get such common words as son and science phonetically defined was hopeless. In what is called the Oxford accent son and sun became san; sawed and sword are pronounced alike; and my native city becomes Dab-blin. On College Acceptance. In Dublin itself I have heard it called Dawblin. Cloud Computing. 'The Oxford pronunciation of science is sah-yence: the Irish pronunciation is shi-yence. Shakespear pronounced wind as wined; and other essays, as late as .the end of the eighteenth century an mobile attempt to correct an actor who pronounced it in this way provoked the retort ! cannot finned it in resume sample, my mirreed to call it winned. Rosalind is on cloud mobile thesis, the stage ridiculously pronounced Rozzalinned though Shakespear called her Roh- za-lined, rhyming it to If a cat will after -kind. Essay. Kind, by the way, should logically be pronounced kinned. Cloud Computing. The word trist is again so far out of use that nobody knows how to essays, pronounce it.
It should rhyme to triced, but is mostly supposed to rhyme to kissed. The first vowel in Christ and Christendom has two widely different sounds, sometimes absurdly described as long i and short i; but both are spelt alike. (p. Cloud Computing Thesis. 33) I could fill pages with instances; but my present point is not to make lists of anomalies, but to shew that. (a) the English language cannot be spelt with five Latin vowels, and (b) that though the vowels used by English people are as various as their faces yet they understand one another's speech well enough for all practical purposes, just as whilst Smith's face differs from Jones's so much that the paper working outline, one could not possibly be mistaken for the other yet they are so alike that they are instantly recognizable as man and man, not as cat and dog. In the mobile, same way it is found that though the number of different vowel sounds we utter is practically infinite yet a vowel alphabet of eighteen letters can indicate a speech sufficiently unisonal to be understood generally, and to preserve the language from the continual change which goes on at present because the written word teaches nothing as to the pronunciation, and frequently belies it. Absurd pseudo-etymological spellings are taken to be phonetic, very. soon in the case of words that are seldom heard, more slowly when constant usage keeps tradition alive, but none the less surely. When the masses learn to read tay becomes tee and obleezh becomes oblydge at the suggestion of the essay gettysburg, printed word in spite of usage.
A workman who teaches himself to read pronounces semi- as see my. I myself, brought up to imitate the French pronunciation of envelope, am now trying to say enn-velope like everybody else. Sometimes the change is an aesthetic improvement. My grandfather swore be the computing mobile thesis, varchoo of his oath: I prefer vert-yoo. Edge-i-cate is less refined than ed-you-cate.
The late Helen Taylor, John Stuart Mill's stepdaughter, who as a public speaker always said Russ-ya and Pruss-ya instead of Rusher and Prussher, left her hearers awestruck. The indefinite article,[a], a neutral sound sometimes called the obscure vowel, and the commonest sound in our language though we cannot print it except by sample turning an e upside down, was always pronounced by Mrs. Annie tiesant, perhaps the greatest British oratress of her time, as if it rhymed with pay. In short, we are all over the shop with our vowels because we cannot spell them with our alphabet. Like Scott, Dickens, Artemus Ward and other writers of dialect I have made desperate efforts to represent local and class dialects by the twenty-six letters of the Latin alphabet, but found it impossible and had to cloud mobile thesis, give it up. A well-known actor, when studying one of my cockney parts, had to copy it in hindu other, ordinary spelling before he could learn it. (p. Thesis. 35) My concern here, however, is not with pronunciation but with the saving of time wasted.
We try to extend our alphabet by writing two letters instead of one; but we make a mess of this device. Gettysburg. With reckless inconsistency we write sweat and sweet, and then write whet and wheat, just the thesis, contrary. Consistency is sample not always a virtue; but spelling becomes a will o' the wisp without it. I have never had much difficulty in spelling, because as a child ! read a good deal, and my visual memory was good; but people who do not read much or at all, and cloud mobile, whose word memory is aural, cannot spell academically, and art essay conclusions, are tempted to write illegibly to conceal this quite innocent inability, which they think disgraceful because illiteracy was for centuries a mark of class. But neither speech nor writing can now be depended on as class indexes. Oxford graduates and costermongers alike call the sun the san and cloud computing, a rose a rah-ooz. The classical scholar and on college, Poet Laureate John Dryden said yit and git where we say yet and cloud computing mobile, get: another instance of spelling changing pronunciation instead of simply noting it. The Duke of Wellington dropped the h in humble and hospital, herb and hostler. So did ! in my .youth, though, as we were both Irish, h- dropping as practised in England and France was not native to us. I still say onner and our instead of honour and art essay conclusions, hour.
Everybody does. Probably before long we shall all sing Be it ever so umbl there's no place like ome, which is easier and prettier than Be it evvah sah-oo hambl etc. Cloud Computing Mobile. (p. 36) I have dealt with vowels so far; but whenever an Englishman can get in an extra vowel and make it a diphthong he does so. When he tries to paper working outline, converse in French he cannot say coupd or entrez: he says coopay and ongtray. When he is in the chorus at a performance of one of the great Masses--say Bach's in B minor--he addresses the computing mobile, Almighty as Tay [Awl-mie-tay] instead of making the Latin e a vowel. [Awl-mie-tee] He calls gold gah-oold. I pronounce it goh-oold. Price, a very common word, is sometimes prah-ees, sometimes prawce, sometimes proyce, and sometimes, affectedly, prace. That is why our attempts to lead, express our eighteen vowels with five letters by 'doubling them will not work: we cannot note down the diphthongal pronunciation until we have a separate single letter for every vowel, so that we can stop such mispronunciations as reel and ideel for real and ideal, and write diphthongs as such.
The middle sound in beat, spelt with two letters, is a single pure vowel. The middle sound in bite, also spelt with two letters, is a diphthong /ai/. The spelling 1- i- g- h- t is simply insane. The worst vulgarism in English speech is a habit of prefixing the neutral vowel, which phoneticians usually indicate by e printed upside down, to cloud computing mobile thesis, all the vowels and diphthongs. The woman who asks for e kapp e te-ee is at once classed as, at best, lower middle. When I pass an elementary school and hear the research, children repeating the alphabet in unison, and chanting unrebuked Ah-yee, Be-yee, Ce-yee, De-yee I am restrained from cloud mobile, going in and shooting the teacher only by the fact that ! do not carry a gun and by my fear of the police.
Not that I cannot understand the children when they speak; but their speech is ugly; and euphony is essay very important. By all means give us an adequate alphabet, and let people spell as they speak without any nonsense about bad or good or right or wrong spelling and speech; but let them remember that if they make ugly or slovenly sounds when they speak they will never be respected. This is so well known that masses of our population are bilingual. They have an official speech as part of their company manners which they do not use at home or in conversation with their equals. Sometimes they had better not. It is extremely irritating to a parent to be spoken to by a child in a superior manner; so wise children drop their school acquirements with their daddies and mummies. All such domestic friction would soon cease if it became impossible for us to cloud computing mobile thesis, learn to read and write without all learning to speak in the same way. And now what, exactly, do ! want done about it? I will be quite precise. I want our type designers, or artist-calligraphers, or whatever they call themselves, to design an alphabet capable of representing the research, sounds of the following string of nonsense quite unequivocally without using two letters to represent one sound or making the same letter represent different sounds by diacritical marks. The rule is to be One Sound One Letter, with every letter unmistakably different from all the mobile, others.
Here is the string of nonsense. Essay On College. An alphabet which will spell it under these conditions will spell any English word well enough to cloud computing, begin with. .. Chang at leisure was superior to Lynch in his rouge, munching a lozenge at the burial in Merrion Square of Hyperion the Alien who valued his billiards so highly. Quick! quick! hear the queer story how father and son one time sat in the house man to man eating bread and telling the tale of the acceptance, fir on the road to the city by the sea following the coast to its fall full two fathoms deep. Cloud. There they lived together served by the carrier, whose narrower mind through beer was sore and whose poor boy shivered over the fire all day lingering in acceptance, a tangle of tactless empty instinct ineptly swallowing quarts of stingo. 372 sounds should require 372 symbols (letters) not 504.
1. Unigraf transcription 2. Chkt Spel transcription. Cloud Thesis. KaG at lEZr woz supErior tu LinK in hiz rUZ, munKiG u loZenZ at Du beriul in merion skwer ov hYperion Du Alien hu valUd hiz bilyards so hYli. kwik kwik hir Du Kwir stori hV fothr and sun wun tYm sat in Du hVs man tu man EtiG bred and teliG Du tAl ov Du fR on Du rOd tu Du siti bY Du SE falON Du kOst tu its fol fcl tu fathMz dEp. Lead Sample. Der DA livd tugethr sRvd bY Du keriR, hCz nero mYnd thrC bir woz sor and hCz pCr bQ Sivrd ovr Du fYr ol dA liGRiG in u tangl ov takles empti instinkt ineptli swqlOiG kwqrts of cloud mobile thesis, stiGO. Unigraf Speling - one symbol per sound. Chang (Ca3) at lee2r woz supirior tu Linch in hiz ruu2, munching a' lo2en2 at x beria'l in merion skwer of hyperia'n x eilia'n hu valuud hiz bilyardz so hyli. Kwik! kwik! hir x kwir stori hau fothr and sa'n wa'n tym sat in x haus man tu man eeting bred and teling x teil ov x fir on x ro'd tu x siti by x si folo'ing x co'st tu its fol fu.l tu fathomz deep. Ny Bar Essay Sample. Ther thei livd tugethr s'rvd by x kari'r, huuz naro'r mynd thru bir woz sor and huuz puur boi shiv'rd ovr x fyr ol dei ling'ring in a' tangl ov tacles empti instinkt swalo'ing kwartz ov stingo' Chkt Speling.
Figure 2. Cloud. Nonsense with 372 sounds: Should require 372 symbols not 504 letters as it does in TO. As well as I can count, this sample of English contains 372 sounds, and as spelt above requires 504 letters to print it, the loss in paper, ink, wear and tear of machinery, compositors' time, machinists' time, and author's time being over. 6 ? (amount did not scan), which could be saved by the use of the alphabet I ask for. The potential savings with any unigraphic phonemic writing system would be 20%. [400 letters instead of 500]. Research Paper Working Outline. If the new script had narrower letter forms, the savings would be more. I repeat that this figure, which means nothing to the mass of people who, when they write at all, seldom exceed one sheet of cloud computing, notepaper, is conclusive for reform in the case of people who are writing or typing or printing all day. Calligraphers intelligent enough to grasp its importance will, if they have read these pages, rush to their drawing boards to resume sample, seize the opportunity. Call for computing mobile thesis new 42 character non-Roman alphabet for English. (p. 39) The first question that wi11 occur to them is how many letters they will have to design; for lead resume it will seem only commonsense to retain the 26 letters of the existing alphabet and invent only the mobile, ones in which it is deficient. Essay Acceptance. But that can only serve if every letter in the 26 is mobile thesis given a fixed and invariable sound.
The result would be a spelling which would not only lead the first generation of its readers to dismiss the writers as crudely illiterate, but would present unexpected obscenities which no decent person could be induced to write. The new alphabet must be so different from the old that no one could possibly mistake the new spelling for the old. Art Essay Conclusions. This disposes of all the attempts at simplified spelling with the old alphabet. There is nothing for it but to mobile, design 24 new consonants and 18 new vowels, making in all a new alphabet of 42 letters, and use it side by resume side with the present lettering until the cloud mobile, better ousts the worse. The artist-calligraphers will see at first only an opportunity for 42 beautiful line drawings to make a printed book as decorative as a panel by Giovanni da Udine, and a handwritten sonnet as delightful visually as one by Michael Angelo, the most perfect of essay, all calligraphers. But that will never do. The first step is to settle the alphabet on cloud computing thesis, purely utilitarian lines and then let the artists make it as handsome as they can.
For instance, a straight line, written with a single stroke of the research working, pen, can represent four different consonants by varying its length and computing mobile, position. Put a hook at the top of it, and you have four more consonants. Put a hook at the lower end, and resume sample, you have four more, and put hooks at cloud both ends and you have another four; so that you have 16 consonants writable by one stroke of the pen. (Fig. 2. Sweet's Shorthand from M.K.C. MacMahon) The late Henry Sweet, still our leading authority on British phonetics, begins his alphabet in art essay conclusions, this way, achieving at computing mobile thesis one stroke p, t, k, and ch; b, d, g (hard) and j; m, n, ng and the ni in companion; kw, r, Spanish double 1 and the r in superior. He takes our manuscript e and 1 (different lengths of the lead sample, same sign) and gets f, s, and zh. Turning it backwards he gets v, z, and sh. He takes our c and o, and mobile, gets dh and essay, th. Cloud Computing Thesis. A waved stroke gives him I; and thus, borrowing only four letters from hindu, our alphabet, he obtains the required 24 consonants, leaving 22 of our letters derelict.
For vowels he resorts to long and cloud mobile thesis, short curves at two levels, with or without little circles attached before or after, and thus gets the requisite 18 new letters easily. Thus the utilitarian task of inventing new letters has already been done by a first rate authority. The artists have only to on college, discover how to make the strokes and curves pleasing to the eye. At this point, however, the guidance of Henry Sweet must be dropped; for when he had completed his alphabet he proceeded to bedevil it into an instrument for verbatim reporting, which is the art of jotting down, not all the sounds uttered by a public speaker, which is beyond manual dexterity, but enough of them to mobile thesis, remind the paper working, practiced reporter of the entire words. Cloud Computing Mobile. He writes zah and art essay conclusions, depends on his memory or on the context to determine whether this means exact or example or examine or exasperate or what not. After seven years' practice Sweet became so expert at this sort of guessing that the specimens he gives in his Manual of Current Shorthand (published by the Clarendon Press) are unreadable by anyone lacking that experience. (p. 41) This is true of all reporting systems. There are dozens of computing, them in existence; and they are all efficient enough; for the debates of resume, Cromwell's Ironsides and the cross-examinations of St. Joan are on record.
Charles Dickens was a competent verbatim reporter before any of the systems now in use were invented. Sweet's contractions and guessings were therefore quite superfluous: what was needed from him was an alphabet with which the English language could be unequivocally spelt at computing mobile thesis full length, and not a new reporting shorthand. Now Sweet, being a very English Englishman, was extremely quarrelsome. Being moreover the brainiest Oxford don of his time, he was embittered by the contempt with which his subject, to say nothing of himself, was treated by essay his university, which was and computing thesis, still is full of the medieval notion, valid enough for King Richard Lionheart but madly out of date today, that English is no language for a gentleman, and is tolerable only as a means of communication with the lower classes. Symbology Other Essays. His wrath fell on his forerunner Isaac Pitman, whose shorthand he called the computing, Pitfall system.
Pitman had anticipated Sweet's strokes; but he made their interpretation depend on their thickness and the direction in which they were written. Conclusions. Thus a horizontal stroke meant k, and a vertical one t. The strokes slanting halfway between meant p and ch. The same strokes thickened gave him g, d, b, and j, with the addition of r for cloud thesis ch written upward instead of downward. Resume. Thus he got nine letters from the computing thesis, single stroke, and would have got ten if an upstroke could be thickened, which is not possible as a feat of research, penmanship. Sweet discarded these distinctions because, as no two people write at the same slant, the stroke shotfid have only one meaning no matter at what slant it is written. Making strokes at different slants is drawing, not writing; and Sweet insisted that writing must be currente calamo: hence he called his script Current Shorthand. Thick and thin he discarded as unpractical for upstrokes and cloud computing mobile, pencil work. His getting rid of these elaborations was an important improvement. The distinctions he substituted were those to which the old printed alphabet has accustomed us. In it the stroke projects sometimes above the line of writing as in research paper working, the letter 1, sometimes below it as in the letter j, sometimes neither above nor below as h the cloud mobile, letter i, sometimes both above and resume, below as h our manuscript p, f and capital j. Computing Thesis. This gave Sweet only four letters per simple stroke instead of Pitman' nine; but four are more than enough. Essays. Also much o the pen work imposed by our alphabet is unnecessary: for instance, 'm and w take twice as long t, write as 1 though they can be indicated quite a briefly; and p and cloud mobile, q could be indicated by their projecting strokes alone without attaching an lead sample n to the p and an o to the q. (p.
43) I take it then that the new English alphabet will be based on Sweet, and not on computing mobile, Pitman, though I am writing this preface in Pitman's shorthand and research working outline, not in Sweet's, having discarded Sweet's reporting contractions as unnecessary for computing mobile my purpose and battle essay gettysburg, puzzling for my transcriber. The designer of the new alphabet will find that Sweet has done all the cloud mobile, preliminary. study for him, and solved its utilitarian problems. What remains to essay, be done is to make the stroke and hooks and curves and circles look nice. If very young, the designer may ask me indignantly whether I think of the beauty sought by artists as something to be stuck on to the inventions of the pedant. In this case it is. An architect has to make a house beautiful; but the house, if it is to computing, be lived in, must b, dictated by acceptance the needs of its inhabitants and not by the architect's fancies. The great printers, Jensen, Caslon, Morris, did not invent letters: they made the old ones pleasing as well as legible, and made books worth looking at as well as reading. What they did for cloud computing mobile the old alphabet their successors must do for the new. There is plenty of scope for invention as well as for symbology essays decoration: for instance, Sweet's alphabet has no capitals nor has Pitman's.
Neither has any italics. Cloud Computing. Since Morris revived printing as a fine art, scores of new types have come into the market. Morris himself designed several. The superior legibility of lower case forms over all upper case. (p. Research Outline. 44) The new alphabet, like the cloud computing mobile thesis, old, will not be written as printed: its calligraphers will have to provide us with a new handwriting. Our present one is so un-writable and illegible that I am bothered by official correspondents asking me to write my name in block letters, please, though a good handwriting is on college more legible and far prettier than block, in which the letters, being the same height, cannot give every word a characteristic shape peculiar to itself. Shakespeare's signature, though orthographically illegible, is, when once you have learnt it, much more instantaneously recognizable and readable than SHAKESPEARE, which at a little distance might be CHAMBERLAIN or any other word of eleven letters. Computing. Other changes and developments in the use of language and the art of writing may follow the essay gettysburg, introduction of an English alphabet.
There is, for instance, the Basic English of the Orthological Institute at 10, King's Parade, Cambridge, by cloud mobile which foreigners can express all their wants in England by learning 8oo English words. It is battle a thought-out pidgin, and gets rid of computing mobile thesis, much of our grammatical superfluities. The Institute is, as far as I know, the best live organ for all the cognate reforms, as the literary Societies and lead resume sample, Academies do nothing but award medals and read historical and critical lectures to computing mobile thesis, one another. (p. 45) The various schools of shorthand teach new alphabets; but they are wholly preoccupied with verbatim reporting, which is a separate affair. Essay Gettysburg. Their triumphs are reckoned in words per minute written at speeds at which no language can be fully written at all. They train correspondence clerks very efficiently; but they should pay more attention to authors and others whose business it is to write, and who cannot carry secretaries or dictaphones about with them everywhere. Such scribes can write at their own pace, and need no reporting contractions, which only waste their time and thesis, distract their attention, besides presenting insoluble puzzles to the typist who has to transcribe them.
I have long since discarded them. On these terms shorthand is very easy to learn. On reporting terms it takes years' of practice to acquire complete efficiency and then only in symbology, cases of exceptional natural aptitude, which varies curiously from individual to individual. The only danger I can foresee in the establishment of an thesis English alphabet is the danger of civil war. Hindu Symbology. Our present spelling is incapable of indicating the sounds of our words and does not pretend to; but the computing mobile, new spelling would prescribe an official pronunciation. Nobody at present calls a lam a lamb or pronounces /wawk/ and /tawk/ as *walk and *talk. Art Essay Conclusions. But when the cloud, pronunciation can be and is indicated, the conclusions, disputable points will be small enough for the stupidest person to understand and fight about. And the cloud mobile, ferocity with which people fight about words is astonishing. Hindu Symbology Essays. In London there is mobile thesis a street labeled Conduit Street. When the word conduit, like the thing, went out of use, cabmen were told to drive to Cundit Street.
They are still so told by elderly gentlemen. When modem electric engineering brought the word into common use the engineers called it con-dew-it. A savage controversy in the columns of The Times ensued. I tried to restore good humor by resume sample asking whether, if the London University decided to pay a compliment to cloud thesis, our Oriental dominions by art essay calling one of its new streets Pundit Street it would be spelt Pon-duit Street. I had better have said nothing; for I was instantly assailed as a profane wretch trifling with a sacred subject.
Englishmen may yet kill one another and bomb their cities into rain to decide whether v-a-s-e spells vawz or vahz or vaiz. Cawtholic or Kahtholic may convulse Ireland when the cloud computing, national question is dead and essay, buried. We shall all agree that h-e-i-g-h-t is an cloud orthographic monstrosity; but when it is abolished and we have to research, decide whether the official pronunciation shall be hite or hyth, there will probably be a sanguinary class war; for in this case the proletarian custom is more logical than the Oxford one. (p. 47) Still, we must take that risk. If the introduction of an English alphabet for the English language costs a civil war, or even, as the introduction of summer time did, a world war, I shall not grudge it.
The waste of war is negligible in mobile thesis, comparison to art essay, the daily waste of trying to communicate with one another in English through an alphabet with sixteen letters missing. That must be remedied, come what may.
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MAUPASSANT (de), Guy, Le Papa de Simon. Edern, Juliette, Camille, Aurelien, Mathilde, Lilou, Oceane 30 Novembre 2016 M. Guy de Maupassant est l'auteur de cette nouvelle, il l'a écrite le 1 er décembre 1879. Cloud Computing Mobile Thesis? Cette époque n'est pas particulière, il a aussi écrit Aux champs Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy. Lead Resume? Philippe ramasse le petit Simon en larmes au bord de l' étang, il le ramène chez sa mère.
Cela se passe chez Simon . Simon est un garçon qui va à l' école pour la première fois mais à la sortie ses camarades de classe le battent car il n' a pas de papa. Cloud Mobile Thesis? Il va alors à la rivière pour se noyer. Sample? Heureusement Philippe Remy le forgeron le ramène chez sa mère. Cloud Computing Mobile Thesis? Ensuite Simon demande à Philippe de devenir son père et celui-ci accepte puis demande la mère du petit garçon en mariage. Art Essay? Les garçons de sa classe se méfient maintenant qu' ils ont appris la nouvelle. J' ai de la pitié pour le garçon qui est harcelé. Computing Thesis? J’ai compris ce texte et l’histoire me révolte. Lead? De la même manière, lorsque l' on cloud, perd un proche, on research, a plutôt besoin de quelqu'un qui nous aide à surmonter la douleur. Ce texte est destiné aux collégiens et à tous les lecteurs, il veut nous dire d'arrêter le harcèlement contre ceux qui n'ont pas de père, l'auteur nous émeut en nous touchant et nous affecte. Cloud Computing? Ses intentions sont faciles à percevoir car il insiste à plusieurs reprises : démentir cette chose affreuse qu' il n' avait pas de papa. C’est Guy de Maupassant l’auteur de ce texte.
Je connais aussi une autre nouvelle de cet auteur : Aux Champs , écrit en 1882. Cette nouvelle a été écrite en 1879. Gettysburg? Une période de réforme politique, littéraire, philosophique, scientifique et économique. Cloud Thesis? C’est aussi l’année de mort de Napoléon Bonaparte. Essay? Ce texte a bien été écrit en français à l’origine. Cloud Computing Thesis? Ce texte est une nouvelle. Je pense à un petit garçon qui court dans les champs en été. On College? Je ne pense pas à des souvenirs, à des expériences personnelles. Cloud? Je ne pense pas à des livres, des tableaux, des photos, de la musique . Paper Working Outline? Le mot que je retiens est Simon , le prénom du petit garçon dans cette nouvelle. C’est Simon le personnage principal, il se défend au près de ses camarades qui l’insultent en disant qu’il n’a pas de papa. Cloud Thesis? Lui veut se noyer car ils se moquent de lui.
Le petit Simon demande finalement au forgeron si il veut bien être son papa et celui-ci accepte. Research Working Outline? Alors, il dit fièrement à ses camarades que son papa est Philippe Remy, un forgeron du village. Le texte parle d’un petit garçon, Simon, élève de 8 ans allait pour la première fois à l’école. Mobile Thesis? Ses camarades étaient méchants avec lui car il n’avait pas de papa. Lead Resume Sample? Un jour, il décida de se noyer dans une rivière car il en avait assez des insultes. Mobile? Mais heureusement, Philippe Remy, un forgeron, le vit à temps et le ramena chez sa maman. Resume? Ensuite le petit garçon demanda au forgeron s’il voulait bien être son papa, ce qu’il accepta. Computing Mobile? A la fin de la nouvelle, le forgeron prit pour femme la maman de Simon, surnommée la Blanchotte. J’ai bien aimé cette nouvelle, je l’ai trouvée intéressante. Battle Essay? Je l’ai comprise facilement. Thesis? Je suis d’accord avec l’auteur qui dénonce ceux qui maltraitent Simon.
Je suppose que l’auteur a écrit ce texte pour montrer qu’il ne faut pas se moquer des autres juste parce qu’ils sont différents de nous.Je suppose que ce texte est destiné aux lecteurs/public et aux enfants qui peuvent être moqueurs. Lead Resume Sample? Dans cette nouvelle, l’auteur sensibilise le lecteur. Mobile Thesis? Ses intentions sont faciles à percevoir. Essay Acceptance? Nous ne pouvons pas hésiter sur le sens du texte de cette nouvelle. Guy de Maupassant a écrit Le papa de Simon . Computing? Il a aussi écrit Aux champs . Art Essay? Le texte a été écrit le 1 er décembre 1879, cette époque n’est pas particulière. Cloud Mobile Thesis? Ce texte est écrit en français, c’est une nouvelle. Je vois une image de plusieurs élèves qui sont en train de harceler un petit garçon, sans père.
Je n’ai pas de souvenirs particuliers ni d’expériences particulières en rapport avec cela mais je pense à la musique papaoutai de Stromae. Essay Acceptance? Les mots que je retiens sont pas de papa . Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy le forgeron. Computing? Philippe récupère au bord de l’étang, Simon en pleurs. Essay On College Acceptance? Il le ramène à sa mère. Cloud Computing Mobile? Philippe devient alors le père de Simon. Resume Sample? Cela se passe chez Simon, à la fin de l’histoire. Le texte parle de Simon un jeune garçon faisant sa rentrée, dans une école primaire, il se fait harceler par ses camarades car il n’a pas eu de papa, alors le garçon se défend comme il peut. Mobile? Simon part se réfugier au bord d’un étang, il joue avec une grenouille ensuite un homme s’approche de lui, ils discutent ensemble puis l’homme se prénommant Philippe Rémy, le ramène chez lui. Lead Sample? Alors Simon demande à Philippe de devenir son papa.
Sur le coup, il ne répond rien puis après voyant que le jeune garçon est impatient, il dit oui. Cloud Mobile? Le lendemain Simon annonce à ses camarades qu’il a un papa mais ils lui répondent que si c’est son vrai papa il doit être marié à sa maman. Essay? Alors Simon va voir Philippe pour lui demander. Cloud Computing Mobile Thesis? Philippe lui répond qu’il est à son travail et qu’il va discuter avec sa mère ce soir. Essay? Le soir même, Philippe et Blanchotte, la mère de Simon, discutent puis s’embrassent. Mobile Thesis? Philippe lui demande de devenir sa femme. Other Essays? Il dit à Simon qu’il le protégera de tous harcèlements. Computing Mobile? Donc le lendemain, Simon, heureux, va dire à ses camarades qu’il a un vrai père et a compter de ce jour là plus personne ne l’embête. J’éprouve des émotions de tristesse face à ce texte.
J’ai compris le texte et je ne suis pas d’accord avec le harcèlement. Ce texte est destiné aux collégiens, l’auteur veut nous dire d’arrêter le harcèlement au collège. Art Essay? L’auteur décrit les scènes pour interpeller les lecteurs et les affecter. Computing? Ses intentions ne sont pas faciles à percevoir mais nous ne pouvons pas hésiter sur le sens de son texte. Le papa de Simon a été écrit par Guy de MAUPASSANT le 1 er décembre 1879 publié d’abord dans la revue La Réforme politique et littéraire du 1 er décembre 1879 puis intégrée au recueil La Maison Tellier en 1881. J’ai étudié la biographie de Guy de MAUPASSANT : Il est né le 5 août 1850 près de Dieppe et meurt en le 6 juillet 1893. Maupassant, écrivain naturaliste de référence, vécut son enfance en Normandie, seul avec son frère, sa mère et Gustave Flaubert, ami d'enfance de cette dernière. Essay On College? En effet, suite à de violentes disputes entre ses parents, le père quitta à jamais la maison.
Le fameux auteur réaliste, prenant finalement la place du chef de famille, initia alors à sa vocation l'enfant qui bénéficiera, grâce aussi à sa rencontre quelques années plus tard avec Zola, d'un double héritage littéraire. Cloud Computing? Les habitants de Normandie, sa région d’origine, inspirent certaines de ses œuvres. Symbology Essays? Soutenu et conseillé par Flaubert, dont il est le disciple, Maupassant rencontre les principaux écrivains du XIXe siècle, dont Émile Zola. Thesis? Il écrit des nouvelles, des romans, des récits de voyage, des contes fantastiques : Boule-de-suif (1880), La maison Tellier (1881), Mademoiselle Fifi (1882), Une vie (1883), Contes de la Bécasse (1883), Une vendetta (1883), La parure (1884), Toine (1885), Bel-Ami (1885), Le Petit Fût (1886), Le Horla (1887), Le rosier de Mme Husson (1887), Pierre et Jean (1888). Art Essay Conclusions? Je connais les œuvres suivantes : Bel-ami , Pierre et Jean , et celles présentées dans la collection des nouvelles que vous nous avez envoyée sur le padlet Bonnes nouvelles à lire. Les romans de Maupassant comprennent des descriptions très réalistes.
Ses livres sont souvent pessimistes. Cloud Computing Mobile Thesis? Il meurt à un peu moins de 43 ans des suites d'une syphilis. Le genre littéraire du Papa de Simon est la nouvelle réaliste. Art Essay? C’est un récit court et vivant qui a été écrit en français. L’histoire se déroule à la campagne et les personnages sont : des écoliers, le petit Simon, sa maman célibataire, la Blanchotte, et l’ouvrier Philippe. Un jour, les enfants de l’école s’en prennent au petit Simon parce qu’il n’a pas de père. Mobile? Leur comportement n’est que le reflet de ce que pensent leurs mères : la Blanchotte s’est livrée à un homme sans être mariée, et c’est honteux. Ny Bar? Cette situation rend Simon très triste. Cloud? Heureusement, il croise la route de Philippe, un homme bon qui choisit de ne pas s’arrêter au qu’en dira-t-on et sait analyser la situation avec son cœur en lui proposant d’être son papa.
La phrase du texte qui m’a le plus marqué est : - Vous savez. Lead Resume Sample? Simon. Thesis? eh bien, il n'a pas de papa. Sample? Cette nouvelle présente un tableau du monde rural et de la mentalité de ces gens qui sont méprisants et cruels envers ceux qui sont différents d’eux. Cloud Computing Mobile? Le vocabulaire utilisé est ordinaire ( exemple : garnement ) et le rythme du récit est marqué par des actions par la présence d’un dialogue et l’utilisation du passé simple même si l’imparfait est également utilisé pour la description. Les intentions de l’auteur sont faciles à percevoir. Il critique la société et met en valeur l'influence des rumeurs sur une personne et l'attitude au milieu d'un groupe.
Il désire nous faite réfléchir et traite ici des sujets tels que : l'éducation des parents, des rumeurs, les effets sur les enfants. Resume Sample? Il intervient afin de donner son avis au sujet de la façon dont les gamins accueillent quelqu'un de différent : il montre leur méchanceté et jusqu’où ils peuvent aller pour être cruels. Aussi, j’ai remarqué que dans sa biographie, l’auteur a perdu son père car il a divorcé. Mobile? On peut penser qu’il a pu vivre la même histoire ou similaire à celle de Simon. Je suis d’accord avec les idées de l’auteur car moi aussi, je trouve injuste de se moquer en groupe de quelqu’un qui n’est pas comme les autres quelle que soit sa différence. On College Acceptance? On ne méprise pas un enfant parce qu’il n’a pas de père. J’éprouve de la colère envers les enfants qui se moquent et de la pitié pour Simon. Computing Thesis? Je serais prêt à l’accueillir dans mon groupe à l’école. Guy DE MAUPASSANT est l’auteur de la nouvelle le papa de Simon . Hindu Other Essays? Il est aussi l’auteur de nombreuses autres œuvres comme : Boule de suif, Aux champs, la Ficelle, le Horla Ce texte a été écrit le 1 er Décembre 1879, lors de cette époque rien de particulier ne se passe. Thesis? À l’origine cette nouvelle a été écrite en Français. Je vois l’image d’une ronde avec au milieu le petit Simon qui se fait harceler, qui subit les moqueries sans pouvoir s’échapper. Lead? Je n’ai jamais vécu de moments pareil dans ma vie.
Je pense à la musique de Stromaé papaoutai où il raconte la perte de son père. Computing Thesis? Je retiens une phrase en particulier Il restait là, planté au milieu d'eux, surpris et embarrassé, sans comprendre ce qu'on allait lui faire. Research Outline? Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy le forgeron du village. Computing Thesis? Simon et Philippe font connaissance quand il le ramasse en pleurs au bord l’étang et au fil de l’histoire ils apprennent à se connaitre de jour en jour chez Philippe et il devient son papa. Résumé: Simon fait aujourd’hui sa première rentrée à l’école, à la fin de la journée tous ses camarades le regardent bizarrement car un grand leur a dit qu’il n’a pas de papa. Hindu Other Essays? Simon commence à se faire harceler alors, pour se réfugier il court jusqu’à l’étang d’à côté pour pleurer mais il ne reste pas longtemps tranquille car un monsieur vint le déranger, c’est Philippe le forgeron du village. Mobile Thesis? Il lui demande pourquoi il pleut comme ça, Simon lui explique.
Ensuite, ils se revoient tous les jours. On College? Un jour le forgeron décide d’aller voir la mère de Simon pour la demander en mariage et Philippe devient le père de Simon. Quand je lis ce texte que j’ai aimé, je ressens de la pitié pour le petit Simon. Mobile? J’ai très bien compris l’histoire et je ne suis pas du tout d’accord avec le harcèlement qu’il subit. Cette nouvelle est destinée aux collégiens comme aux lycéens car le harcèlement se passe plus souvent au collège et au lycée. On College? L’auteur veut nous faire passer une morale concernant le harcèlement, comme quoi le harcèlement peut pousser certaines personnes à commettre l’irréparable. Mobile? Ses intentions ne sont pas très faciles à percevoir mais on on college acceptance, comprend très bien le texte. La nouvelle a été écrite par Guy de Maupassant. Cloud Thesis? Je connais une autre œuvre de l’auteur qui est Aux Champs . Art Essay Conclusions? La nouvelle à été écrite le 1er décembre 1879.
Cette époque n’a pas été particulièrement importante. Cloud Mobile Thesis? Ce texte a été écrit en français à l’origine. Hindu? Il appartient à un genre dont je connais les caractéristiques, c’est une nouvelle. Quand j’ai lu Le Papa de Simon je voyais des images et parfois des sons : Je pensais à une histoire qui a duré tout le temps de l’école primaire et qui était dure. Computing Mobile Thesis? Je pensais aussi à des films d’actions. Ny Bar? La phrase que je retiens est -Vous voyez bien qu'il n'a pas de papa. Les personnages principaux sont Simon, il fait son premier pas à l’école.
Simon se fait embêter dès son premier jour d’école car il n’aurait pas de papa. Cloud Thesis? Vexé il va demander à un homme, s’il veut bien être son papa et depuis il dit que c’est son papa. Conclusions? Blanchotte, la mère de Simon, on cloud computing mobile, ne sait pourquoi, n’est pas aimée des autres femmes. La nouvelle se passe à la campagne, elle se passe à l’époque de l’auteur, XIXe siécle. Research Paper? L’action commence dès la 2eme phrase. Simon est un petit garçon qui vit seul avec sa mère (La Blanchotte), il n'a pas de père . Cloud Computing Thesis? Il arrive dans une nouvelle école et tous ses camarades se moquent de lui, le tapent, une bagarre éclate. Battle Gettysburg? Simon, va pleurer au bord de la rivière avec l'intention de se noyer . Computing Mobile Thesis? Mais un ouvrier passe dans les parages et aperçoit le petit garçon, le forgeron lui demande ce qui ne va pas et Simon lui raconte son histoire. Conclusions? Le forgeron, qui se nomme Philippe, décide de ramener le garçon chez lui car il se fait tard. Cloud Computing Mobile? Le lendemain soir, avant que le forgeron rentre chez lui Simon lui demande s’il accepterait d'être son père. Research Outline? Philippe, sans vraiment prendre la proposition de Simon au sérieux, accepte et lui dit de dire à tous ses camarades qu'il a un père et qu'il s'appelle Philippe.
Le lendemain Simon arrive fier à l'école en disant à tout le monde qu'il a un père et que c’est Philippe Remi, le forgeron. Au début je trouve la nouvelle un peu triste, j’éprouve de la pitié pour Simon. Mobile? Mais après, Simon partage sa joie. J’ai très bien compris la nouvelle. Ny Bar Essay Sample? Je suis d’accord avec la morale de cette nouvelle, car Philipe fait tout pour aider Simon et la relation entre Philippe et Simon devient fusionnelle. Ce texte est destiné à tout le monde.
Le message que veut nous faire passer Guy de Maupassant est que le harcèlement n’est pas bien même si une personne aune différence. Cloud Computing Mobile? Guy de Maupassant dans sa nouvelle m’a émue. C'est Guy de Maupassant qui a écrit ce texte. Symbology Other? Il a été écrit le 1er décembre 1879. Thesis? Ce texte est français. Lead Sample? Il appartient au genre de la nouvelle. Je pense à des images, à des sons. Les personnages principaux sont le forgeron, la Blanchotte et Simon. Mobile? L'action se passe à l'ecole et aussi chez Simon. Battle Essay Gettysburg? Elle se passe la semaine.
Le texte parle d'un enfant, Simon, qui se fait battre à l'école car il n'a pas de papa. J'aime beaucoup l'histoire, j'éprouve de la joie, de la pitié et de la tristesse. Ce texte est destiné à tous les lecteurs et particulièrement aux papas. Cloud Mobile Thesis? Il veut nous dire qu'il ne faut pas se montrer méchant envers les enfants auxquels il manque un membre de leurs familles. Art Essay Conclusions? L'auteur émeut et nous fait éprouver de la tristesse.
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14 Marketing Skills to computing thesis, Add to resume sample, Your Resume This Year. Digital marketing moves very quickly, and cloud computing mobile thesis as a modern marketer, you’re probably gaining new skills by the handful. Lead Sample? But what marketing skills capture an employer’s eyes in 2015? What sets their hearts a-thumping? What makes them say, “We need to hire this one!” Today we’re sharing 14 enticing marketing skills to add to your resume in 2015! (And if you're looking for a job now, check out our jobs page.
We're hiring!) Content marketing is inescapable in today’s digital marketing landscape. It’s like what the Spice Girls was to the 90’s. Brands have realized that they need to be producing a steady stream of high-quality content in order to attract their audiences. We’re in a pretty frightening content whirlwind; with many blogs pushing out several posts a day, there’s zero chance we will ever read most of what is published on the web. Still, you can capitalize on cloud thesis this mighty content race by marketing yourself as a content mastermind. (If you're in the B2B aka business-to-business world, check out our seriously comprehensive guide to B2B content marketing.) Since nearly all businesses publish content with the ny bar essay, help of a Content Management System (CMS) , noting some CMS experience on your resume is always a smart move, especially if you're applying for computing, a content marketing job. WordPress and Drupal are two common examples of research outline content management systems you may want to get you hands dirty with.
Put this on your marketing skills list and you'll be sure to computing, get noticed. Businesses are also looking for experts in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software , which serves as an essential tool for virtually any company. CRM software is used to organize and manage customers’ various interactions with a company. Essay? CRM software helps bridge the gap between sales, marketing, and cloud computing mobile customer service. Popular CRM software includes Salesforce and Oracle. Mobile is on the rise and no one is powerful enough to stop it. If mobile marketing were Godzilla, we’d be pretty screwed right about now. It’s estimated that 60% of acceptance mobile consumers use their mobile phone as their primary (or only) device for mobile thesis, accessing the internet, and over resume sample, half of e-commerce traffic is driven by mobile devices! Understanding the mobile marketing landscape will make you a hero in the eyes of employers , so be sure to show this off on your resume. As companies say sayonara to hard sales tactics and cold calls, they increasingly look to cloud mobile thesis, lead nurturing as a better sales solution.
In the B2B world, most customer relationships today begin with content offers, then continue on art essay with lead nurturing through the sales funnel. Lead nurturing is in cloud thesis super high demand, so employees with experience in hindu other essays this area should be sure to note it on their resume's marketing skills list and LinkedIn profiles. Show that you understand the lead nurturing model and cloud thesis that you have some knowledge of research paper working outline how various types of content (from ebooks to webinars) can be crafted to cloud mobile, serve specific audience needs. Learning PPC? Check out our free guide, PPC 101! Email marketing isn’t new, but it’s still one of the most effective ways to market products and battle services. Newsletter signup boxes are commonplace on nearly all blogs, and brands are hungry for employees who can help them grow, retain, and delight email subscribers . They’re looking for employees who understand open rates, A/B testing, and email lead nurturing. If you can get practice with email marketing, wear these skills like badges of thesis honor. 7. Mastery of a Full Marketing Arsenal of Tools. Businesses are looking for marketers who are masters of conclusions industry tools.
You need to know which weapons will help you conquer any given space, making you as powerful as Robert Baratheon with his warhammer (give me a break, the new season is just a couple weeks away). Brush up on your marketing weapon arsenal with tools like: Social Media Marketing Tools. Tools that can help manage your various social media accounts and measure your effectiveness. Popular examples include HootSuite, Buffer, and cloud mobile Facebook/Twitter/Google/Pinterest built-in analytics. (Check out our mega-list of ny bar essay sample 99 online marketing tools here!) Productivity Tools. A healthy knowledge of cloud productivity tools shows that you’re motivated and skilled at time management. Popular tools include: Evernote, IFTTT, and Google Alerts. For more, check out our list of awesome productivity tools. SEO Tools. Resources to help you target relevant keywords and measure your link-building efforts. Some popular tools include Google Keyword Planner, Open Site Explorer, Ahrefs, and lead sample of course our own keyword tools.
Image and computing mobile Design Tools. Apps and software that can help you create blog images and essay sample valuable visual content to cloud computing thesis, capture the essay sample, attention of your audience. Popular tools include Canva, Piktochart, SlideShare, Adobe Photoshop, and Adobe Illustrator. Email Tools. Programs that can help you manage email more effectively and measure open rates, clicks, and cloud mobile thesis conversions for various email lists. One popular example would be MailChimp. If you have experience with these tools (or tools that are similar), be sure to research working, add it to your marketing skills resume. Employers want new hires who know how to cloud computing thesis, use the ny bar essay, tools they love. There has been a huge upsurge recently with video production. Brands are recognizing that video is cloud computing thesis a very engaging and compelling form of content that can be used to a company’s advantage. Any experience in video production, editing, and even video animation is paper working outline highly coveted.
Best of all, you can brush up on some of these skills yourself if you’ve got a bit of spare time. Set up your own YouTube channel and get filming! In an age when you can pay for likes and promote your Twitter posts, competition is heating up in the social arena, and businesses know that working with paid opportunities is the best (and quickest) way to get ahead. Mobile Thesis? They need experts in sample paid social advertising – and their need is your opportunity! How do you get these skills? Experiment with your own paid social media campaigns . If you have your own blog or website, use them as social advertising guinea pigs (although you’ll have to deal with the smell). You can start mini-campaigns for relatively cheap, and it will get you familiar with all the ins and outs of computing mobile paid social advertising. This experience looks stellar on your marketing skills list. User experience design (UXD or UED) is another one of those fast-growing fields where employees are constantly in hindu demand.
Businesses know that their product needs to be smooth and cloud computing mobile thesis streamlined, and working outline they are chomping at the bit for skilled UX designers who can help create an intuitive, natural product experience for users. Whether for apps, software, or site design, UX is X marks the spot on your search for prime marketing skills! Businesses are beginning to get freaked out by how much data they have at their disposal. From conversion tracking cookies, social media responses, and video views to GPS data and app activity, the mobile, sheer quantity of big data companies have access to battle essay gettysburg, is mind-boggling. Cloud Computing Mobile Thesis? That’s where you come in – the essays, data analysis expert who can help sort, organize, and, most importantly, extract meaning and cloud computing actionable insights from symbology essays, these huge data landfills. In order to be a data scientist, you’ll need to be madly in love with math and be a true numbers guy. If you’ve got the goods, you can be sure businesses will be knocking at your door (or even breaking it down). Cloud Computing Mobile? Scary, scary math – not for data scientists though! Going hand in hand with the statistical analysis crew, brands also want to be able to share some of their data insights with their key target audiences.
However, most of us don’t perk up at the thought of combing through spreadsheets for that eureka moment. That’s where data visualizers come in – they help reformat valuable, insightful data into visual graphs, charts, and other essays graphics that make those numbers easier to digest. Data visualizers are utilized to thesis, create powerful, data-driven content that is resume appealing to computing thesis, users (infographics are a prime example). Data visualization mastery is in high demand, so be sure to detail your knowledge on your marketing skills resume. Infographics from Visual.ly. 13. HTML, CSS, and lead sample Other Coding Languages. Knowing some basic coding has always been valuable, but today you’ll get a big bonus as a marketer with a little coding skill. Engineers and coders are valuable commodities, and cloud computing mobile thesis they won’t gladly be spared to fix the padding on your tables and essay sample align your text properly. Mobile Thesis? Proving you know at least some very basic HTML and CSS skills shows that you can self-correct your own hiccups with a bit of finagling.
If you’re beyond the basics, even better! Brands realize that individuals make purchasing decisions based off of their feelings and emotional cues. It’s why advertisements like the Budweiser Super Bowl puppy ads are so successful. Lead Resume Sample? As businesses seek to amp up the emotional storytelling and thesis strengthen consumer bonds to brands, they want experts who understand consumer behavior and can help figure out what makes their key audiences tick. What marketing skills do you think will provide major brownie points in 2015? If you’re an employer, what skills are you looking for in a new hire?
Here's a summary of the paper working outline, top 14 marketing skills we think you should add to your resume: Content marketing skills Content management system (CMS) experience Customer relationship management (CRM) skills Mobile marketing skills Lead nurturing skills Email marketing skills Experience with a host of marketing tools Video production and editing skills Social media advertising skills UX design Data science Data visualization Coding skills Consumer behavior insights.
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Literature Search Methods for the Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ione Auston, MLS, Marjorie A. Cahn, MA, Catherine R. Selden, MLS, National Library of Medicine, Office of Health Services Research Information. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Office of the cloud mobile thesis Forum for Quality and Effectiveness in hindu other essays, Health Care, Forum Methodology Conference. In December 1989, Title IX amendments to Public Health Service Act established the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) and required AHCPR and the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to enter into an agreement to improve information services for cloud computing mobile thesis health services researchers. As part of this effort, NLM has: Provided literature searching and back-up document delivery services for 13 AHCPR- sponsored guideline development panels; and resume sample, Analyzed references actually incorporated into AHCPR-sponsored guidelines to identify any patterns that suggest ways to streamline the computing thesis literature search and review process for future guideline panels (Cahn, Selden, Auston, 1992). Based on these experiences, this paper provides NLM's suggested methodology for identifying, retrieving, and managing literature that forms the basis of a clinical practice guideline. To search efficiently for all known scientific evidence on a particular clinical topic, it is important to understand the literature search process and to plan well. Lead Resume. The following model has been developed to assist Guideline Development Panels in planning and organizing the literature search process.
Panels will need to adapt these procedures according to their goals, available resources, and time constraints. A literature search is a systematic and explicit approach to mobile the identification, retrieval, and bibliographic management of independent studies (usually drawn from published sources) for acceptance the purpose of cloud computing locating information on a topic, synthesizing conclusions, identifying areas for resume sample future study, and developing guidelines for clinical practice. Computing Mobile. Computer database searches are the most efficient way to identify published studies. Computer searches may be supplemented with manual searches of print sources. Also, it is art essay conclusions expected that Guideline Development Panel members will bring to the literature search process their subject expertise and thesis, knowledge of studies completed and forthcoming. Literature identification and management, the essay on college search process, is distinguished from (but key to the integrity of) the literature review process. A literature review involves analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing scientific evidence derived from studies identified through the search process and is the topic of cloud other papers commissioned by gettysburg the Forum. However, it should be noted that search process tools may also be applied to literature review tasks.
For example, specialized bibliographic management software used in mobile, the literature search process (see Step 1.3, below) may also be used for inserting data extracted from studies or codes keyed to data extraction tables into bibliographic records. Research Paper Working Outline. Such use will assist panels in reviewing large numbers of studies and documenting each by cloud computing stated relevancy criteria. The 6 general steps in acceptance, the literature search process, and the individuals critical to mobile thesis implementing these steps, are described below and presented in Figure 1. Before the lead resume sample first panel meeting, a planning and coordination meeting is usually held to mobile discuss the guideline development process. Topics covered typically include development of guideline concepts, organizing the literature search process, and selection of working methodology(ies) for literature review. This meeting should include the Panel Chair(s), AHCPR Panel Manager(s), Panel Methodologist(s), Literature Review Coordinator and cloud mobile, Literature Searcher(s) (see 1.2, below), and any other individuals who will be actively involved in managing the guideline development process. Discussion concerning the literature search process should focus on art essay the overall direction of the searches, specific guidance for preliminary computerized searches, literature management tasks (e.g., processes for obtaining documents for cloud computing mobile review, photocopying, distributing to reviewers, tracking review status), and assigning responsibilities for tasks. 1.2 Select Literature Review Management, Searching, and Document Delivery Staff. Literature Review Coordinator.
Because the guideline development process is art essay conclusions literature dependent, each panel needs a Literature Review Coordinator (LRC) responsible for the management of the literature review process. The LRC should be experienced in computerized literature searching and/or managing computer reference services. In the search process, LRCs act as liaisons between panel members and professional Literature Searcher(s). Literature searching is a dynamic and iterative process; there is no one way to conduct a search and there are many variables involved. Panels typically need two preliminary computerized literature searches, a comprehensive search, and periodic searches to update the material. Further, the guideline development process demands searching on a much larger scale than is computing usually done by most researchers or librarians. Therefore, panel staff should include experienced, professional-librarian searcher(s). Panels also require consistency in the construction of search strategies and documentation of essay all searches for their final Guideline Report. To control variation in the searching process, it is recommended that arrangements be made to have the same searcher(s) work with the LRC throughout the life of the panel. Panels often decide to cloud obtain hundreds to thousands of essays articles and documents for review and evaluation. Retrieval and copying requires a high level of effort.
Since most panel members' institutions can't absorb such effort into their normal routine, it is recommended that panels negotiate arrangements for cloud thesis document delivery with a local medical library. This library should be a member of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) and located close to the Literature Review Coordinator and/or Panel Chair(s) who must consult with the local library throughout the document delivery cycle. 1.3 Obtain Computer Equipment and Reference Management Software. In order to manage the literature search and review processes, the Panel Chair and/or Literature Review Coordinator should have a personal computer (PC) with sufficient hard drive capacity to easily store and manipulate a very large bibliographic database. This PC should be equipped with reference management software and DOS. Additionally, a printer and a modem are essential. ProCite is the art essay reference management software we chose to support AHCPR-sponsored guideline panels. It has a very fast and accurate feature for eliminating redundant records, and it can handle many thousands of citations in a master database. It eliminates the cloud mobile need for research paper working outline multiple entry and reverification of references. ProCite provides for the easy downloading and importing of cloud citations into a formatted database. ProCite also allows for editing of conclusions records so that codes indicating document status can be inserted during the literature retrieval and review phases.
It can easily export data to a word processor for computing mobile thesis desktop publishing of references. STEP 2: PRELIMINARY LITERATURE SEARCHING. 2.1 Conduct Content and Volume Searches. Following Step 1, panel staff (i.e., the LRC and Literature Searcher(s)) should complete two preliminary searches of the literature. The strategy for the first preliminary search should be quite detailed but have a limited time frame (e.g., six months). Citations should be downloaded, imported into reference management software, arranged by author, and printed out for review. Reviewing this sample literature gives the paper outline panel an opportunity to scan for missing citations and to see if the search strategy pulled a high proportion of relevant citations. Panel Chair(s) may review this search themselves, or they may send it to mobile panel members. The second preliminary search is to research paper outline determine the universe (volume and distribution) of literature available on the broad topic of the guideline.
The second search strategy, therefore, should reflect the widest possible interpretation of the guideline topic and consist only of the cloud mobile counts (number) of citations retrieved from working outline several key databases. This broad search graphically illustrates to mobile panel members the general volume of literature and its distribution among databases. In our analysis of the research first three AHCPR-supported panels (Acute Pain, Urinary Incontinence, and computing thesis, Pressure Ulcers), it was found that MEDLINE was the source for between 77 and 91 percent of the literature used in these guidelines. Further, all NLM sources combined provided 91 to 94 percent of research outline all the literature cited in these guidelines' reports. Thesis. Thus, it is recommended that MEDLINE and two to three other databases deemed most relevant to the specific topic be selected for battle the second preliminary search. As panels are interdisciplinary, members may only be familiar with the subset of the literature related to thesis their specialty. The Panel Chair(s) and members need to obtain a clear picture of overall volume and content in order to research determine the level of effort and resources required for reviewing the literature. They will then be able to weigh the available time (e.g., 12 months) against the quantity of the literature and assess whether all specific issues within the broad guideline topic can reasonably be addressed. STEP 3: COMPREHENSIVE LITERATURE SEARCHING. As suggested above, the panel should review and assign priorities to possible guideline topics and subtopics.
That is, panels should consider defining a series of separate guideline topics which may be undertaken as resources allow. Then, if needed, some topics can be deferred to cloud mobile thesis a subsequent guideline panel. This will help to ensure that questions to be addressed by research paper a panel can be developed within the timeframe specified for that panel. Based on the results of this prioritization, at its first meeting the panel can define the specific aspects of the guideline topic(s) it will develop. The panel should clarify the topic(s) to be addressed in terms of the cloud computing mobile condition and types of patients for which the acceptance guideline is intended, the clinical interventions that will and will not be considered, and the type of provider and practice setting to which the guideline will apply. 3.2 Define Parameters of the Comprehensive Literature Search. While defining their guideline topic(s), the panel must also define the parameters of the comprehensive literature search by constructing statements or questions to be answered using the literature and by preparing lists of specific topics (e.g., a list of diagnostic tests) to be considered. The panel should also develop general inclusion/exclusion criteria for studies it will or will not consider. Specific criteria include: time period, age groups, languages, geographic areas (e.g., developing countries), animal studies or human studies, type of published material (e.g., peer reviewed publications, dissertations, meeting abstracts, books, patient education materials, laws). Some exclusion criteria can be handled in cloud mobile thesis, the search strategies (e.g., languages).
Other exclusion criteria must be applied by sample the panel members as they review the citations retrieved (e.g., case reports involving fewer than 10 subjects). Once the panel reaches consensus on cloud mobile thesis the foci of the symbology guideline, it is recommended that all topics be combined into one broad statement that can be used as the basis for the comprehensive literature search. Computing Thesis. Searching a series of separate statements would result in much duplication among topics in the literature retrieved. Panel members would have to conclusions review the same article for more than one question resulting in their being able to review fewer articles overall. 3.3 Determine Sources of Information. The foci of the guideline topic and the timeframe and resources available for cloud computing mobile completing the battle gettysburg guideline should determine the sources of information. Panel members will be familiar with many literature sources and may also refer to NLM's Health Services: Sources of Information for thesis Research 1 . As noted above, experience shows that limiting computerized searches to sample MEDLARS databases will retrieve upwards of 90 percent of the material needed (see Table 1 following). It is therefore recommended that Literature Searcher(s) access MEDLARS first.
Panel members should identify and discuss other available data sources and select for additional searching those few key databases that most comprehensively cover the topic area. The Literature Searcher(s) should develop search strategies appropriate for computing mobile thesis each database to be searched. Terminology or keywords must be selected. Since the guideline topics are usually quite complex, search strategies will involve a combination of controlled vocabulary and free-text words or phrases (words appearing in titles or abstracts of articles) to essay on college acceptance narrow or broaden the scope. Cloud Computing Mobile Thesis. The Panel Chair(s) or LRC should consult with the librarian searcher(s) throughout the literature search process to discuss refinements or modification to search strategies. Initial computerized literature searching generally should take approximately two months to gettysburg complete Figure 1; the timeframe must be set with advice from the Literature Searcher(s). The total time required will depend on the complexity of the subject area and cloud computing mobile thesis, the comprehensiveness desired.
If needed, periodic updates should be planned within the context of the essay acceptance guideline development schedule. Broad searching of numerous databases is neither needed nor efficient. However, after careful review of comprehensive retrieval, additional, more narrow searches of targeted databases may be done, if necessary. In addition, after reviewing the citations from computerized searches, panel members often have suggestions concerning literature not retrieved. This might include documents not published in the open literature, or articles from relatively obscure or new publications that are not routinely indexed or included in cloud computing thesis, computerized abstracting services. When such studies are identified, panel members can usually provide copies from personal files or direct the LRC to the authors or other sources for sample obtaining them. It is computing thesis recommended that the search results be merged into one large master bibliographic database. Further, all literature records should be maintained in the master database throughout the guideline development process. That is, in addition to art essay the retrieval from the cloud computing mobile initial computerized literature searches, as other references are identified, they should be merged electronically or typed into the master file.
Having a master database gives the panel flexibility in its literature review process and aids in ny bar, efficiently managing the citations throughout the literature review and report writing phases. For example, the Literature Review Coordinator might search the master database and create topic-specific subsets of studies for individual panel members or subgroups of mobile thesis panel members to review. Further, to facilitate managing the literature, panels should develop schemes for coding records in lead sample, the master database. For example, panels may want to develop quality scores for study design or some other type of computing mobile thesis weighting criteria and input these into bibliographic records as literature is reviewed. Administrative data (e.g., initials of reviewers, review dates) may also be inserted into master database records and used for tracking document review status. Additional codes may be inserted into records to correspond to sections of the guideline or scientific evidence tables in which the lead sample literature will be cited. Such coding is critical for sorting references for computing mobile guideline publications (see also Step 6 below). As noted above, in addition to developing criteria for determining which studies out of the other essays citations retrieved from the comprehensive search they want to obtain for review, the panel should arrange with a local library for document delivery. Typically, this will require the local library to provide one photocopy of each article that is to be reviewed. Cloud. For items it does not hold, the local library may utilize the resources of the National Network of paper working Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) as well as other resource libraries to which it has access. Again, any literature that is mobile not available through library mechanisms may often be obtained by the Literature Review Coordinator from on college panel members or their colleagues.
In addition to computing mobile thesis being key to essay managing the cloud computing mobile literature review, the master database is the best source for the final bibliography. For example when using ProCite, records in the master database may be coded for specific chapters or sections of the Guideline, the evidence table(s), and the Guideline Report. In this way, a record is sample entered in the database once but may be sorted for use in many sections of the guideline publications. Since ProCite allows for easy exportation of records to a word processor, these sorted references may be incorporated into cloud computing thesis, the guideline text and appendices without re-entry or the need for reverification. Regardless of the bibliographic management software used, NLM recommends that panels standardize and edit all references to conform to the style presented in NLM Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation 2 . NLM no longer provides extensive literature searching and document retrieval to hindu symbology essays Guideline Development Panels. However, NLM will provide limited support of guideline panels to mobile the extent appropriated resources permit. This may include: Consulting on literature searches; Providing tutorials on art essay Grateful Med , ProCite, and thesis, DOCLINE; and Providing back-up document delivery service through the NN/LM. Guideline panels should contact their AHCPR Panel Manager(s) to access such services from NLM's Office of Health Services Research Information.
Table 1. Citations in AHCPR-sponsored Guidelines, by Source and Topic. Source: Cahn, Marjorie A., Selden, Catherine R, Auston, Ione. Summary report on analysis of art essay AHCPR guideline panel literature. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1992 August. 5 p. Note: 1. Unverified citations are items not found in any of the NLM databases, non-NLM databases, or the NLM collection. These are largely panel-supplied items not available in traditional published sources (e.g., working papers, meeting presentations, or other gray literature) or forthcoming publications. Cahn, Marjorie A.; Selden, Catherine R.; Auston, Ione. Summary report on mobile analysis of AHCPR guideline panel literature. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1992 Aug. 5 p.
National Library of Medicine (US). Health Services: sources of information for research. Bethesda, (MD): NLM; 1992 Aug. Report No.: NLM-PSD-92-01. 201 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: PB92-221175. Patrias, Karen. National Library of Medicine recommended formats for bibliographic citation. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1991. Report No.: NLM-LO-91-01. 248 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: PB91-182030.
1. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, (703) 487-4650; publication number PB92-221175. 2. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, (703) 487-4650; publication number PB91-182030.