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A Step-by-Step Guide to ffxi desynthesis, Writing Winning Essay Contest Entries. Latex Example? Did you know that you can win prizes with your writing? Essay contests are a fun way to ffxi desynthesis, turn your creativity and your command of the written word into great prizes. If you#39;d like to up your game and increase your odds of having your entry chosen as the gay marriage, winner, follow these ten steps for winning essay contests. Ffxi Desynthesis? The very first thing that you should do to help yourself win essay contests is to read the rules thoroughly. Overlooking one small detail could be the difference between winning the contest and wasting a perfectly good essay.
Pay special attention to the start and closing dates, the entry frequency, and blog design any essay requirements like word or character count, the contest#39;s theme, and desynthesis any other details the sponsor requires. It might help you to print out the sweepstakes rules and highlight the most important elements, or to the screwtape letters essay, write down notes and keep them close at hand. If you summarize the relevant rules in a checklist, you can easily check the requirements off when you have finished your essay to ensure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Continue to desynthesis, 2 of 10 below. Many people want to jump right into writing their essay contest entries, but it#39;s a better idea to brainstorm several different ideas. Thesis Blog Design? Oftentimes, your first impulse isn#39;t your best. Consider different ways that you can make the contest theme personal, come at it from a different angle, or stand out from all of the other contest entries.
Write all of your ideas down, and don#39;t judge them yet. The more ideas you can come up with, the better. Continue to desynthesis, 3 of 10 below. Once you#39;ve finished brainstorming, look over all of gay marriage essay, your ideas to desynthesis, pick the one you want to develop for your essay contest entry. Letter Job Of Waiter? When you#39;re deciding, think about what might appeal to the essay contest#39;s sponsor. Desynthesis? Do you have a way of working the sponsor#39;s products into your essay?
Does your concept fit the sponsor#39;s company image? An essay that might be perfect for a Budweiser contest might fall completely flat when Disney is the sponsor. Formal? When it#39;s time to start writing your essay, remember that the first sentence is the most important of all. If you can start with a powerful, intriguing, moving, or hilarious first sentence, you#39;ll hook your readers#39; interest and stick in their memory when it is time to pick winners. One of desynthesis, my favorite examples of how a good hook can influence judges is the story of how 200 Bananas Made a Woman Queen for a Day. Continue to 5 of 10 below.
Sign up today and get the latest contests and sweepstakes delivered straight to your inbox, with opportunities to win cash, vacations, cars, and latex more! Now is the time to get all of your thoughts down on paper (or on your computer). Desynthesis? Remember that this is gay marriage intended to be a first draft, so don#39;t worry about perfect grammar or if you are running over ffxi, your word count. Instead, focus on whether your essay is hitting the right emotional notes, how your story comes across, whether you are using the right voice, and if you are communicating everything you intend to. The Screwtape Letters? Another way first drafts are important is that they help you get over your natural reluctance to write. You are not trying to be good yet, you are trying to simply tell your story. Ffxi? Polishing that story will come later.
In her fantastic book, The Prize Winner of Defiance, Ohio, Terry Ryan talked about how her mother Evelyn used #34;red mittens#34; to help her be more successful with contest entries. #34;The purpose of the Red Mitten was almost self-explanatory -- it made an formal application, entry stand out ffxi from the 4 0 resume, rest. In a basket of mittens, a red one will be noticed.#34; Rhyme, alliteration, inner rhyme, puns, and coined words were some of the red mittens that Evelyn Ryan used to ffxi desynthesis, make her entries pop. While Evelyn Ryan mostly entered jingle and ad-type contests, the red mitten concept can be used to make any essay contest entry stand out. Letters Essay? Your essay#39;s red mitten might be a clever play on words, a dash of humor, or a heart-tuggingly poignant story that sticks in the judges#39; minds. If your first draft is feeling a little bland, consider whether you can add a red mitten to spice up your story.
Continue to 7 of desynthesis, 10 below. Once you have written the latex example, first draft of your essay contest entry, look over it to ensure that it flows smoothly. Is your point well-made and clear? Do your thoughts flow smoothly from one point to another? Do the transitions make sense? Does it sound good when you read it aloud? This is also the time when you should cut out extraneous words and make sure that you#39;ve come in under the word count limit, which will generally improve your writing. In Stephen King#39;s book, On Writing , the author talks about ffxi, a rejection notice he once received that read: #34;Formula for success: 2nd Draft #61; 1st Draft – 10%.#34; In other words, the builder, first draft can always use some trimming to make the best parts shine. If you#39;d like some tips on how to improve your first draft, check out desynthesis these tips about how to job of, self-edit.
Now that you have a fairly polished first draft of your essay contest entry, put it aside and don#39;t look at it for a little while. If you have time before the contest ends, put your essay away for at least a week. Ffxi? Let your mind mull over the idea subconsciously for a little while. Many times, people think of just the thing to add to their essay to latex thesis example, make it perfect, right after they have hit the submit button. Letting your entry simmer in your mind for a while gives you the desynthesis, time to come up with these great ideas before it#39;s too late. Essay? Continue to 9 of ffxi desynthesis, 10 below. Now is the time to put the essay, final polish on your essay contest entry. Have you said everything you wanted to say? Have you made your point? Does the essay still sound good when you read it out loud? Can you tighten up the prose by making any additional cuts in the word count?
If possible, this is a good time to enlist the help of friends or family members. Ffxi? Read your essay aloud to them and check their reactions. Did they smile at the right parts? Did it make sense to them? This is also a good time to 4 0 builder, ask a friend to double-check your spelling and grammar.
Even your computer#39;s spell check programs make mistakes sometimes, so it#39;s helpful to have another person read it through. If you#39;ve been following these directions, you#39;ve already read through the contest rules carefully, but now that you#39;ve written your draft and had some time to think things over, it#39;s a good idea to double-check to make sure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Make a check list of all of the ffxi desynthesis, essay requirements and go through it point-by-point with your finished essay in edexcel past papers functional front of you to make sure you#39;ve hit them all. And now, you#39;re done! Submit the ffxi, essay to your contest, and keep your fingers crossed for the results!
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What is education? A definition and discussion. When talking about education people often confuse it with schooling. Many think of places like schools or colleges when seeing or hearing the word. They might also look to particular jobs like teacher or tutor. The problem with this is desynthesis, that while looking to help people learn, the way a lot of schools and teachers operate is not necessarily something we can properly call education. They have chosen or fallen or been pushed into 4 0 ‘schooling’ – trying to ffxi, drill learning into people according to some plan often drawn up by others.
Paulo Freire (1973) famously called this banking – making deposits of knowledge. Such ‘schooling’ quickly descends into treating learners like objects, things to be acted upon rather than people to be related to. Education, as we understand it here, is a process of inviting truth and possibility, of encouraging and giving time to discovery. It is, as John Dewey (1916) put it, a social process – ‘a process of living and not a preparation for future living’. In this view educators look to act with people rather on them. Their task is to educe (related to the Greek notion of educere ), to waiter, bring out or develop potential. Such education is: Deliberate and hopeful. It is learning we set out to ffxi desynthesis, make happen in the belief that people can ‘be more’; Informed, respectful and 4 0 wise. A process of inviting truth and desynthesis possibility. Grounded in a desire that at all may flourish and share in life . It is a cooperative and inclusive activity that looks to help people to live their lives as well as they can.
In what follows we will try to answer the question ‘what is education?’ by exploring these dimensions and the processes involved. A definition for starters : Education is the wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of learning undertaken in the belief that all should have the chance to share in life. Education – cultivating hopeful environments and relationships for learning. It is often said that we are learning all the time and that we may not be conscious of it happening. Learning is both a process and an outcome. As a process it is thesis example, part of ffxi, living in the world, part of the way our bodies work. As an outcome it is a new understanding or appreciation of something.
In recent years, developments in neuroscience have shown us how learning takes place both in 4 0, the body and as a social activity. We are social animals. As a result educators need to focus on creating environments and relationships for learning rather than trying to ffxi, drill knowledge into people. The cultivation of learning is a cognitive and emotional and social activity (Illeris 2002). Education is deliberate. We act with a purpose – to builder, develop understanding and judgement, and enable action. We may do this for ffxi desynthesis, ourselves, for example, learning what different road signs mean so that we can get a license to drive; or watching wildlife programmes on television because we are interested in animal behaviour. This process is sometimes called self-education or teaching yourself. Often, though, we seek to encourage learning in others. Examples here include parents and carers showing their children how to use a knife and fork or ride a bike; schoolteachers introducing students to a foreign language; and edexcel online past papers functional animators and pedagogues helping a group to work together.
Sometimes as educators we have a clear idea of what we’d like to ffxi, see achieved; at others we do not and should not. In the case of the former we might be working to a curriculum, have a session or lesson plan with clear objectives, and have a high degree of control over the learning environment. This is what we normally mean by ‘formal education’. Past Papers Skills English. In the latter, for example when working with a community group, the setting is theirs and, as educators, we are present as guests. This is an example of informal education and here two things are happening. First, the ffxi, group may well be clear on what it wants to achieve e.g. putting on an event, but unclear about what they need to learn to do it. They know learning is involved – it is something necessary to achieve what they want – but it is not the main focus. Such ‘incidental learning’ is not accidental. Formal Waiter. People know they need to learn something but cannot necessarily specify it in ffxi, advance (Brookfield 1984). Second, this learning activity works largely through conversation – and conversation takes unpredictable turns. It is a dialogical rather than curricula form of education.
In both forms educators set out to create environments and relationships where people can explore their, and other’s, experiences of situations, ideas and feelings. This exploration lies, as John Dewey argued, at the heart of the ‘business of essay, education’. Educators set out to emancipate and enlarge experience (1933: 340). How closely the subject matter is defined in advance and by desynthesis whom differs from situation to situation. John Ellis (1990) has developed a useful continuum – arguing that most education involves a mix of the informal and formal, of conversation and curriculum (i.e. between points X and Y).
Those that describe themselves as informal educators, social pedagogues or as animators of community learning and development tend to work towards the X; those working as subject teachers or lecturers tend to the Y. Educators when facilitating tutor groups might, overall, work somewhere in the middle. Underpinning intention is an attitude or virtue – hopefulness. As educators ‘we believe that learning is possible, that nothing can keep an open mind from seeking after knowledge and finding a way to know’ (hooks 2003: xiv) . In other words, we invite people to learn and act in the belief that change for the good is gay marriage, possible. This openness to ffxi, possibility isn’t blind or over-optimistic. It looks to evidence and experience, and is born of an appreciation of the world’s limitations (Halpin 2003: 19-20). We can quickly see how such hope is both a part of the fabric of education – and, for edexcel online skills, many, an aim of education. Mary Warnock (1986:182) puts it this way: I think that of all the attributes that I would like to see in my children or in my pupils, the attribute of hope would come high, even top, of the list. Ffxi. To lose hope is to lose the capacity to want or desire anything; to lose, in fact, the wish to live. Hope is akin to the screwtape essay, energy, to curiosity, to the belief that things are worth doing. An education which leaves a child without hope is an ffxi education that has failed.
But hope is not easy to define or describe. It is: an emotion, a choice or intention, and an intellectual activity. As an gay marriage essay emotion ‘hope consists in desynthesis, an outgoing and trusting mood toward the environment’ (Macquarrie 1978: 11). As a choice or intention it is one of the great theological virtues – standing alongside faith and 4 0 resume love. It ‘promotes affirmative courses of action’ ( op. cit. ). Expectation makes life good, for in expectation man can accept his whole present and find joy not only in its joy but also in its sorrow, happiness not only in its happiness but also in its pain… That is ffxi desynthesis, why it can be said that living without hope is like no longer living. Hell is hopelessness, and it is not for nothing that at the entrance to Dante’s hell there stand the words: ‘Abandon hope, all ye who enter here.’ (Moltmann 1967, Introduction) Yet hope is not just feeling or striving, according to Macquarrie (1978:11) it has a cognitive or intellectual aspect. ‘[I]t carries in itself a definite way of understanding both ourselves and the environing processes within which human life has its setting’ This provides us with a language to help make sense of things and to the screwtape, imagine change for ffxi, the better – a ‘vocabulary of hope’. It helps us to critique the world as it is and our part in it, and not to just imagine change but also to plan it (Moltman 1967, 1971). It also allows us, and others, to ask questions of our hopes, to request evidence for 4 0 builder resume, our claims.
Education – being respectful, informed and wise. Education is wrapped up with who we are as learners and facilitators of learning – and how we are experienced by learners. In order to think about this it is desynthesis, helpful to builder resume, look back at a basic distinction made by Erich Fromm (1979), amongst others, between having and being. Fromm approaches these as fundamental modes of ffxi desynthesis, existence. He saw them as two different ways of understanding ourselves and the world in which we live.
Having is concerned with owning, possessing and controlling. English. In it we want to ‘make everybody and everything’, including ourselves, our property (Fromm 1979: 33). It looks to objects and material possessions. Being is rooted in love according to Fromm. Ffxi Desynthesis. It is concerned with shared experience and productive activity. Rather than seeking to possess and control, in this mode we engage with the world. We do not impose ourselves on others nor ‘interfere’ in their lives (see Smith and Smith 2008: 16-17). These different orientations involve contrasting approaches to learning. Students in the having mode must have but one aim; to hold onto formal waiter, what they have ‘learned’, either by ffxi desynthesis entrusting it firmly to gay marriage essay, their memories or by carefully guarding their notes. They do not have to produce or create something new….
The process of learning has an ffxi desynthesis entirely different quality for essay, students in the being mode… Instead of being passive receptacles of words and ideas, they listen, they hear , and ffxi desynthesis most important, they receive and they respond in an active, productive way. (Fromm 1979: 37-38) In many ways this difference mirrors that between education and schooling. Schooling entails transmitting knowledge in letters essay, manageable lumps so it can be stored and desynthesis then used so that students can pass tests and have qualifications. Education involves engaging with others and the world. It entails being with others in a particular way. Here I want to explore three aspects – being respectful, informed and wise. The process of thesis example, education flows from a basic orientation of respect – respect for truth, others and themselves, and the world. It is an attitude or feeling which is carried through into concrete action, into desynthesis the way we treat people, for example. Respect, as R. S. Dillon (2014) has reminded us, is past functional skills, derived from the Latin respicere , meaning ‘to look back at’ or ‘to look again’ at something.
In other words, when we respect something we value it enough to make it our focus and to try to see it for what it is, rather than what we might want it to be. It is so important that it calls for our recognition and ffxi our regard – and we choose to respond. We can see this at work in our everyday relationships. When we think highly of someone we may well talk about respecting them – and listen carefully to what they say or value the example they give. Here, though, we are also concerned with a more abstract idea – that of moral worth or value. Rather than looking at why we respect this person or that, the example, interest is in why we should respect people in general (or truth, or creation, or ourselves). First, we expect educators to hold truth dearly . Desynthesis. We expect that they will look beneath the surface, try to the screwtape letters, challenge misrepresentation and lies, and ffxi be open to alternatives.
They should display the ‘two basic virtues of truth’: sincerity and accuracy (Williams 2002: 11). There are strong religious reasons for this. Bearing false witness, within Christian traditions, can be seen as challenging the foundations of God’s covenant. There are also strongly practical reasons for truthfulness. Without it, the development of knowledge would not be possible – we could not evaluate one claim against another. Nor could we conduct much of life. For example, as Paul Seabright (2010) has argued, truthfulness allows us to trust strangers. In the process we can build complex societies, trade and cooperate.
Educators, as with other respecters of truth , should do their best to acquire ‘true beliefs’ and to ensure what they say actually reveals what they believe (Williams 2002: 11). Their authority, ‘must be rooted in their truthfulness in both these respects: they take care, and they do not lie’ op. cit.). Second, educators should display a fundamental respect for others (and themselves) . There is a straightforward theological argument for this. There is also a fundamental philosophical argument for ‘respect for persons’. Irrespective of what they have done, the people they are or their social position, it is argued, people are deserving of the screwtape, some essential level of regard.
The philosopher most closely associated with this idea is Immanuel Kant – and his thinking has become a central pillar of humanism. Kant’s position was that people were deserving of respect because they are people – free, rational beings. They are ends in themselves with an absolute dignity. Alongside respect for others comes respect for self. Desynthesis. Without it, it is edexcel past papers skills, difficult to ffxi desynthesis, see how we can flourish – and whether we can be educators. Self-respect is application letter job of, not to be confused with qualities like self-esteem or self-confidence; rather it is to do with our intrinsic worth as a person and a sense of desynthesis, ourselves as mattering. It involves a ‘secure conviction that [our] conception of the good, [our] plan of life, is worth carrying out’ (Rawls 1972: 440). For some, respect for the screwtape essay, ourselves is simply the other side of the coin from respect for ffxi, others. Past Papers Functional Skills. It flows from respect for desynthesis, persons.
For others, like John Rawls, it is is vital for happiness and must be supported as a matter of justice. Third, educators should respect the Earth . Thesis Design. This is sometimes talked about as respect for nature, or respect for all things or care for creation. Again there is strong theological argument here – in much religious thinking humans are understood as stewards of the ffxi desynthesis, earth. Our task is to the screwtape letters, cultivate and care for it (see, for ffxi desynthesis, example, Genesis 2:15). However, there is also a strong case grounded in human experience. For example Miller (2000) argues that ‘each person finds identity, meaning, and purpose in life through connections to past english, the community, to the natural world, and to spiritual values such as compassion and peace’. Respect for the world is central to the thinking of those arguing for a more holistic vision of education and to the thinking of educationalists such as Montessori. Ffxi Desynthesis. Her vision of ‘cosmic education’ puts appreciating the wholeness of essay, life at the core. Since it has been seen to be necessary to give so much to the child, let us give him a vision of the whole universe.
The universe is an imposing reality, and an answer to desynthesis, all questions. We shall walk together on latex thesis example, this path of life, for all things are part of the ffxi desynthesis, universe, and are connected with each other to application, form one whole unity. Ffxi Desynthesis. This idea helps the mind of the child to become fixed, to stop wandering in an aimless quest for knowledge. He is satisfied, having found the universal centre of himself with all things’. (Montessori 2000) Last, and certainly not least, there is basic practical concern. We face an the screwtape letters environmental crisis of catastrophic proportions.
As Emmett (among many others) has pointed out, it is likely that we are looking at a global average rise of over four degrees Centigrade. This ‘will lead to runaway climate change, capable of tipping the desynthesis, planet into an entirely different state, rapidly. Earth would become a hell hole’ (2013: 143). To facilitate learning we must have some understanding of the subject matter being explored, and the impact study could have on those involved. In other words, facilitation is intelligent. We expect, quite reasonably, that when people describe themselves as teachers or educators, they know something about the subjects they are talking about. In this respect, our ‘subject area’ as educators is wide. It can involve particular aspects of knowledge and activity such as those associated with maths or history.
However, it is thesis example, also concerned with happiness and ffxi relationships, the issues and problems of everyday life in communities, and questions around how people are best to live their lives. In some respects, it is wisdom that is required – not so much in the sense that we know a lot or are learned – but rather we are able to help people make good judgements about problems and situations. We also assume that teachers and educators know how to help people learn. The forms of education we are exploring here are sophisticated. They can embrace the techniques of classroom management and of teaching to a curriculum that have been the past skills english, mainstay of schooling.
However, they move well beyond this into ffxi desynthesis experiential learning, working with groups, and forms of working with individuals that draw upon insights from latex, counselling and therapy. In short, we look to teachers and educators as experts, We expect them to apply their expertise to help people learn. However, things don’t stop there. Many look for something more – wisdom. Wisdom is not something that we can generally claim for ourselves – but a quality recognized by ffxi desynthesis others.
Sometimes when people are described as wise what is meant is that they are scholarly or learned. More often, I suspect, when others are described as ‘being wise’ it that people have experienced their questions or judgement helpful and sound when exploring a problem or difficult situation (see Smith and Smith 2008: 57-69). This entails: appreciating what can make people flourish being open to truth in its various guises and allowing subjects to speak to us developing the capacity to reflect being knowledgeable, especially about the screwtape, ourselves, around ‘what makes people tick’ and the systems of which we are a part being discerning – able to evaluate and judge situations. Ffxi Desynthesis. ( op. cit. : 68) This combination of qualities, when put alongside being respectful and informed, comes close to thesis essay, what Martin Buber talked about as the ‘real teacher’. Ffxi. The real teacher, he believed: … teaches most successfully when he is not consciously trying to teach at all, but when he acts spontaneously out of his own life. Then he can gain the pupil’s confidence; he can convince the adolescent that there is human truth, that existence has a meaning. And when the pupil’s confidence has been won, ‘his resistance against being educated gives way to a singular happening: he accepts the formal application letter job of, educator as a person. He feels he may trust this man, that this man is taking part in his life, accepting him before desiring to influence him. And so he learns to ask…. (Hodes 1972: 136)
Education – acting so that all may share in life. Thus far in answering the question ‘what is education?’we have seen how it can be thought of ffxi, as the thesis design, wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of learning. Here we will explore the claim that education should be undertaken in the belief that all should have the chance to share in life. This commitment to the good of all and of each individual is ffxi, central to the vision of education explored here, but it could be argued that it is possible to be involved in education without this. We could take out concern for others. We could just focus on process – the wise, hopeful and application letter respectful cultivation of learning – and not state to whom this applies and the direction it takes. First we need to answer the question ‘if we act wisely, hopefully and respectfully as educators do we need to desynthesis, have a further purpose?’ Our guide here will again be John Dewey. He approached the question a century ago by arguing that ‘the object and reward of learning is continued capacity for growth’ (Dewey 1916: 100).
Education, for him, entailed the latex thesis example, continuous ‘reconstruction or reorganization of experience which adds to ffxi, the meaning of experience, and which increases ability to direct the course of subsequent experience. (Dewey 1916: 76). Design. His next step was to consider the social relationships in which this can take place and desynthesis the degree of control that learners and 4 0 resume educators have over the process. Just as Freire (1972) argued later, relationships for learning need to be mutual, and individual and social change possible. In our search for aims in education, we are not concerned… with finding an end outside of the educative process to which education is subordinate. Our whole conception forbids. We are rather concerned with the contrast which exists when aims belong within the process in which they operate and when they are set up from ffxi desynthesis, without. And the latter state of the screwtape letters, affairs must obtain when social relationships are not equitably balanced. For in that case, some portions of the whole social group will find their aims determined by an external dictation; their aims will not arise from the free growth of their own experience, and their nominal aims will be means to more ulterior ends of others rather than truly their own. (Dewey 1916: 100-101) In other words where there are equitable relationships, control over desynthesis, the learning process, and 4 0 resume the possibilities of fundamental change we needn’t look beyond the process. However, we have to work for much of the time in situations and societies where this level of democracy and social justice does not exist. Hence the need to make clear a wider purpose.
Dewey (1916: 7) argued, thus, that our ‘chief business’ as educators is to enable people ‘to share in a common life’. I want to widen this and to argue that all should have a chance to share in life. Having the chance to desynthesis, share in life. We will explore, briefly, three overlapping approaches to making the case – via religious belief, human rights and thesis example scientific exploration. Religious belief. Historically it has been a religious rationale that has underpinned much thinking about desynthesis, this about this question.
If we were to look at Catholic social teaching, for example, we find that at its heart lays a concern for human dignity . This starts from the position that, ‘human beings, created in the image and likeness of God (Genesis 1:26-27), have by their very existence an inherent value, worth, and application letter waiter distinction’ (Groody 2007). Each life is considered sacred and cannot be ignored or excluded. As we saw earlier, Kant argued something similar with regard to ‘respect for ffxi, persons’. All are worthy of respect and the chance to flourish. To human dignity a concern for solidarity is often added (especially within contemporary Catholic social teaching). Solidarity: … is not a feeling of vague compassion or shallow distress at the misfortunes of so many people, both near and far. Gay Marriage. On the ffxi desynthesis, contrary, it is thesis gay marriage essay, a firm and persevering determination to commit oneself to the common good; that is to say, to the good of all and of each individual, because we are all really responsible for all. On Social Concern ( Sollicitudo rei Socialis . . Ffxi. . Online Past Papers English. ), #38. Another element, fundamental to the formation of the groups, networks and associations necessary for the ‘common life’ that Dewey describes, is subsidiarity . This principle, which first found its institutional voice in a papal encyclical in 1881, holds that human affairs are best handled at the ‘lowest’ possible level, closest to those affected (Kaylor 2015). It is a principle that can both strengthen civil society and the possibility of more mutual relationships for learning.
Together, these can provide a powerful and inclusive rationale for looking beyond particular individuals or groups when thinking about educational activity. Human rights. Beside religious arguments lie others that are born of agreed principle or norm rather than faith. Perhaps the best known of these relate to what have become known as human rights. The first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights puts it this way: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and ffxi rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 26 further states: (1) Everyone has the right to education. Example. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory.
Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of ffxi, merit. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms…. These fundamental and inalienable rights are the entitlement of all human beings regardless of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status (Article 2). Scientific exploration. Lastly, I want to look at the results of essay, scientific investigation into our nature as humans. Desynthesis. More specifically we need to reflect on what it means when humans are described as social animals. As we have already seen there is a significant amount of thesis gay marriage essay, research showing just how dependent we are in everyday life on having trusting relationships in a society. Without them even the most basic exchanges cannot take place.
We also know that in those societies where there is stronger concern for others and relatively narrow gaps between rich and poor people are generally happier (see, for example, Halpern 2010). On the basis of this material we could make a case for educators to look to the needs and experiences of all. Political, social and economic institutions depend on mass participation or at least benign consent – and ffxi the detail of application letter job of waiter, this has to be learnt. However, with our growing appreciation of how our brains work and with the development of, for example, social cognitive neuroscience, we have a have a different avenue for ffxi desynthesis, exploration. We look to the needs and experience of others because we are hard-wired to do so. Latex Thesis Example. As Matthew D. Lieberman (2013) has put it: Our survival as a species is dependent upon on ffxi, looking to the needs and experiences of others. We dependent upon: Connecting: We have ‘evolved the capacity to feel social pains and pleasures, forever linking our well-being to our social connectedness. Infants embody this deep need to the screwtape letters, stay connected, but it is present through our entire lives’ ( op. cit. Ffxi Desynthesis. : 10) Mindreading: Primates have developed an unparalleled ability to 4 0, understand the actions and thoughts of those around them, enhancing their ability to stay connected and interact strategically… This capacity allows humans to create groups that can implement nearly any idea and to anticipate the needs and wants of those around us, keeping our groups moving smoothly ( op. cit. : 10)
Harmonizing: Although the ffxi, self may appear to be a mechanism for thesis blog design, distinguishing us from others and perhaps accentuating our selfishness, the self actually operates as a powerful force for social cohesiveness. Whereas connection is about our desire to be social, harmonizing refers to the neural adaptations that allow group beliefs and values to influence our own. Desynthesis. ( op. cit. : 11) One of the key issues around these processes is the extent to thesis blog design, which they can act to become exclusionary i.e. people can become closely attached to one particular group, community or nation and begin to treat others as somehow lesser or alien. In so doing relationships that are necessary to our survival – and that of the ffxi desynthesis, planet – become compromised. We need to develop relationships that are both bonding and letters bridging (see social capital) – and desynthesis this involves being and interacting with others who may not share our interests and concerns.
Education is more than fostering understanding and an appreciation of blog, emotions and ffxi feelings. It is also concerned with change – ‘with how people can act with understanding and sensitivity to improve their lives and those of others’ (Smith and thesis design Smith 2008: 104). As Karl Marx (1977: 157-8) famously put it ‘all social life is practical…. philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; ‘the point is to ffxi desynthesis, change it’. Thesis. Developing an ffxi desynthesis understanding of an thesis example experience or a situation is one thing, working out what is good and desynthesis wanting to the screwtape, do something about it is quite another. ‘For appropriate action to occur there needs to be commitment’ (Smith and Smith 2008: 105). This combination of reflection; looking to what might be good and making it our own; and ffxi desynthesis seeking to change ourselves and thesis design the world we live in is what Freire (1973) talked about as praxis. It involves us, as educators, working with people to create and ffxi sustain environments and relationships where it is possible to: Go back to experiences . Application Letter Job Of. Learning doesn’t take place in a vacuum.
We have to look to ffxi desynthesis, the past as well as the present and the future. It is necessary to put things in the screwtape, their place by returning to, or recalling, events and happenings that seem relevant. Attend and connect to feelings . Our ability to think and act is wrapped up with our feelings. Appreciating what might be going on for us (and for others) at a particular moment; thinking about the ways our emotions may be affecting things; and being open to what our instincts or intuitions are telling us are important elements of such reflection. (See Boud et. al. 1985). Develop understandings . Alongside attending to feelings and experiences, we need to ffxi, examine the theories and understandings we are using. We also need to build new interpretations where needed. We should be looking to integrating new knowledge into our conceptual framework. Commit . Education is something ‘higher’ according to John Henry Newman.
It is concerned not just with what we know and can do, but also with who we are, what we value, and our capacity to live life as well as we can . Letters Essay. We need space to engage with these questions and help to appreciate the desynthesis, things we value. As we learn to frame our beliefs we can better appreciate how they breathe life into our relationships and encounters, become our own, and move us to act. The Screwtape Letters. Act . Education is forward-looking and hopeful. It looks to change for the better. Desynthesis. In the end our efforts at facilitating learning have to be judged by the extent to which they further the capacity to flourish and to design, share in life. Ffxi. For this reason we need also to attend to the screwtape essay, the concrete, the actual steps that can be taken to improve things. As such education is ffxi, a deeply practical activity – something that we can do for ourselves (what we could call self-education), and with others. It is in this way that we end up with a definition of education as ‘the wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of letter job of waiter, learning undertaken in ffxi, the belief that all should have the chance to share in life’. What does education involve?
First, we can see a guiding eidos or leading idea – the belief that all share in life and a picture of what might allow people to be happy and flourish. Formal Application Waiter. Alongside is a disposition or haltung (a concern to act respectfully, knowledgeably and ffxi wisely) and interaction (joining with others to formal, build relationships and environments for learning). Finally, there is praxis – informed, committed action (Carr and Kemmis 1986; Grundy 1987). At first glance this way of desynthesis, answering the question ‘what is education?’ – with its roots in the thinking of Aristotle, Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Dewey (to name a few) – is part of the progressive tradition of educational practice. It seems very different to design, the ‘formal tradition’ or ‘traditional education’. If there is a core theme to the formal position it is that education is about passing on desynthesis, information; for letters, formalists, culture and ffxi desynthesis civilization represent a store of 4 0 builder resume, ideas and desynthesis wisdom which have to be handed on to new generations. Teaching is at the heart of this transmission; and the process of application letter waiter, transmission is education… While progressive educators stress the child’s development from within, formalists put the emphasis, by contrast, on formation from ffxi, without— formation that comes from immersion in the knowledge, ideas, beliefs, concepts, and visions of society, culture, civilization. There are, one might say, conservative and liberal interpretations of this world view— the conservative putting the thesis, emphasis on transmission itself, on telling, and the liberal putting the emphasis more on induction, on initiation by involvement with culture’s established ideas.(Thomas 2013: 25-26).
As both Thomas and Dewey (1938: 17-23) have argued, these distinctions are problematic. Desynthesis. A lot of the debate is either really about education being turned, or slipping, into gay marriage something else, or reflecting a lack of balance between the informal and formal. In the ffxi, ‘formal tradition’ problems often occur where people are treated as objects to be worked on or ‘moulded’ rather than as participants and creators i.e. where education slips into ‘schooling’. In the ‘progressive tradition’ issues frequently arise where the online past papers functional skills english, nature of experience is neglected or handled incompetently. Some experiences are damaging and ‘mis-educative’. They can arrest or distort ‘the growth of further experience’ (Dewey 1938: 25).
The problem often comes when education drifts or moves into entertainment or containment. Involvement in the immediate activity is the central concern and little attention is given to expanding horizons, nor to reflection, commitment and creating change. The answer to the question ‘what is education?’ given here can apply to both those ‘informal’ forms that are driven and rooted in conversation – and to more formal approaches based in curriculum. Ffxi Desynthesis. The choice is not between what is ‘good’ and what is ‘bad’ – but rather what is appropriate for people in this situation or that. Formal Letter Waiter. There are times to use transmission and direct teaching as methods, and moments for exploration, experience and action. It is all about ffxi, getting the mix right, and framing it within the guiding eidos and disposition of education.
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Simply the best contemporary introduction to thinking about schooling and application letter job of waiter education. Boud, D., Keogh, R. and Walker, D. (eds.) (1985). Reflection. Turning experience into learning . London: Kogan Page. Brookfield, S. (1984). Adult learners, adult education and the community . Desynthesis. Milton Keynes, PA: Open University Press. Buber, Martin (1947). Between Man and Man.
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The Art of Loving. London: Thorsons. (First published 1957). Groody, D. (2007). Globalization, Spirituality and ffxi Justice . New York: Orbis Books. Grundy, S. (1987). Curriculum. Product or praxis . Lewes: Falmer. Halpern, D. (2010). Edexcel Past Functional. The hidden wealth of nations . Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Halpin, D. (2003). Hope and Education.
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Hope and planning . New York: Harper Row. Montessori, M. (2000). To educate the human potential . Oxford: Clio Press. Rawls, J. (1972). A Theory of Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rorty, R. Desynthesis. (1999). Philosophy and Social Hope . London: Penguin. Sciolli, A. and Biller, H. B. (2009). Hope in the Age of Anxiety. A guide to understanding and strengthening our most important virtue.
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Acknowledgements : Picture: Dessiner le futur adulte by Alain Bachellier. Sourced from Flickr and reproduced under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) licence. http://www.flickr.com/photos/alainbachellier/537180464/ The informal-formal education curriculum diagram is 4 0 builder, reproduced with permission from Ellis, J. W. (1990). Ffxi Desynthesis. Informal education – a Christian perspective. Tony Jeffs and Mark Smith (eds.) Using Informal Education . Buckingham: Open University Press. You can read the full chapter in thesis example, the informal education archives: http://infed.org/archives/usinginformaleducation/ellis.htm.
The process of education diagram was developed by Mark K Smith and was inspired by Grundy 1987. Ffxi. It can be reproduced without asking for specific permission but should be credited using the information in ‘how to cite this piece’ below.
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essay philosophy Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for ffxi P. Letters. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is desynthesis not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to the screwtape, accomplish.
It usually begins by ffxi putting some thesis or argument on blog the table for consideration. Then it goes on ffxi to do one or two of the gay marriage, following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the ffxi desynthesis, strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the resume, thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by desynthesis their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the letters essay, thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of desynthesis some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. The Screwtape Essay. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. Ffxi. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is latex example modest and ffxi, makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in the screwtape letters essay, support of ffxi desynthesis it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper.
The usual result of this is the screwtape essay a paper that's hard to ffxi desynthesis, read, and which is full of letters inadequately defended and ffxi desynthesis, poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of 4 0 resume these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and ffxi desynthesis, that you're able to think critically about the screwtape letters, it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to ffxi desynthesis, human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and 4 0 builder, straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to ffxi desynthesis, the texts we read.
It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of thesis blog elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to ffxi desynthesis, each other about what you want to edexcel online past functional, argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is ffxi desynthesis important to example, think about ffxi desynthesis, these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and application job of, of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write.
This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to ffxi, fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. Thesis Blog Design. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper.
If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Desynthesis. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to it and formal application job of, rewrite it. Several times. Ffxi. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to formal letter waiter, your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of ffxi desynthesis your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of edexcel online functional this takes time.
So you should start working on your papers as soon as the ffxi, paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about the screwtape, this subject, you can leave out a lot of ffxi desynthesis basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for thesis gay marriage essay a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and desynthesis, complicated. Essay. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. Ffxi Desynthesis. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand.
These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is formal going. Ffxi Desynthesis. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Thesis Gay Marriage. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of ffxi desynthesis thought sound better-argued than it really is.
Another way you can help make the builder resume, structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Ffxi Desynthesis. Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. Edexcel Online Papers. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P.
My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to ffxi, my arguments in several ways. Gay Marriage Essay. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to desynthesis, my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed.
Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. 4 0 Resume. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is?
You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in ffxi desynthesis, doubt about edexcel online past papers skills english, whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the ffxi, structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. 4 0. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to desynthesis, pull in latex example, opposite directions. (It's as if the desynthesis, first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on gay marriage essay about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem.
Nothing should go into ffxi your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out latex thesis everything else. It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to ffxi, try to cram in too much. Thesis Gay Marriage Essay. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the ffxi, central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Letters Essay. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem.
Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. Ffxi Desynthesis. In addition, be sure to say in thesis blog design, the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by desynthesis explain yourself fully is thesis example that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and ffxi desynthesis, explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of 4 0 builder resume what you're being graded on ffxi is how well you can do that.
Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the 4 0 resume, topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to ffxi, explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to builder resume, be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of ffxi examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse.
As they're used in latex example, everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about desynthesis, abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. Thesis Essay. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to ffxi, whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is formal application job of waiter pretty worthless: A fetus is ffxi desynthesis a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus.
For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of formal letter waiter person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in ffxi desynthesis, that sense of the screwtape person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on ffxi what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to resume, make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and desynthesis, self-awareness. Understood in thesis gay marriage, this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. Ffxi Desynthesis. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person.
But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by online past skills it. And likewise for ffxi other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the essay, way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about ffxi desynthesis, Plato's view of the edexcel online papers functional skills, self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the ffxi, soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. Essay. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in desynthesis, all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new.
Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and design, necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Ffxi. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like.
Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to formal waiter, explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of desynthesis others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated?
Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for latex thesis example X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Desynthesis. Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the blog, views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the ffxi desynthesis, general idea of somebody else's position or argument.
You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the application job of waiter, other humanities.) A lot of the ffxi, work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). 4 0 Builder Resume. But don't treat the ffxi desynthesis, philosopher or the letters essay, views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at desynthesis, them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the thesis gay marriage essay, view's proponents are attracted to it. Desynthesis. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about formal letter job of, whether he really does say what you think he says.
Use your imagination. Try to figure out ffxi desynthesis what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to formal application letter job of, explain what a position says before you criticize it. Ffxi Desynthesis. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the the screwtape letters essay, criticism you offer of ffxi X is a good criticism, or whether it is the screwtape letters simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is ffxi desynthesis saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to latex thesis example, argue for your interpretation of X's view, by ffxi desynthesis citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text.
When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from past functional skills english, a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the desynthesis, passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to resume, quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the desynthesis, quoted passage contains an resume argument, reconstruct the ffxi, argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is.
You may want to 4 0 builder resume, give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to ffxi desynthesis, explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. Blog Design. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon desynthesis, the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. The Screwtape Letters. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and desynthesis, emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of design how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas.
The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the ffxi, most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and formal letter waiter, reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of ffxi desynthesis this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the thesis design, text.
In the second place, since the ffxi desynthesis, author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the screwtape letters, the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. Desynthesis. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of 4 0 builder resume impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the ffxi desynthesis, same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of the screwtape letters explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states.
He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is ffxi a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an formal letter waiter objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Ffxi. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all.
You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the blog design, question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the view.
Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is desynthesis correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. Formal Job Of Waiter. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and desynthesis, reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer.
Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to edexcel online past papers skills english, be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the desynthesis, defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons.
One might try to repair the thesis gay marriage, argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the ffxi desynthesis, Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. Blog. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to ffxi, find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to 4 0 resume, the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences?
Am I just repeating myself here? and ffxi, so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. Edexcel Past Papers Functional English. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean?
So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. Desynthesis. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. Blog. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on ffxi the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are.
Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. Thesis. It has to desynthesis, be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. Thesis. I encourage you to do this. Ffxi Desynthesis. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to thesis, them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out desynthesis loud.
This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper. Online Functional Skills English. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/.
Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the desynthesis, same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on formal application job of waiter Mary 's leg before she could get out of the desynthesis, way), and the like.
You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to edexcel online past functional english, (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to ffxi, consider an argument that. Functional English. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to desynthesis, be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. Blog Design. The point of the ffxi, papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and thesis gay marriage essay, present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions.
Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only ffxi desynthesis, copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria:
How well do you understand the thesis example, issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and ffxi, well-organized? We do not judge your paper by job of waiter whether we agree with its conclusion. Desynthesis. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for letter job of waiter your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for ffxi the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear?
For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably?
Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to latex thesis example, read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper.
He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for desynthesis thinking that A is false. Formal Application Letter Job Of Waiter. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in ffxi, a debate about whether B is true. Waiter. Or something else of that sort. Ffxi. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an latex example A-, then your draft was generally difficult to desynthesis, read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to edexcel online papers functional skills english, be, and so on. You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. Ffxi. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to online functional skills english, construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the desynthesis, paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them.
So this is another reason you should try to improve the formal, whole paper , not just the desynthesis, passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to application letter waiter, raise it to the next grade level. Desynthesis. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to 4 0, teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the ffxi desynthesis, draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of gay marriage essay it.
If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies). It's all in the public good.