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Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education. I want my children to understand the world, but not just because the how long essay have to be world is high graduation fascinating and the human mind is curious. How Long A College Essay Have To Be? I want them to understand it so that they will be positioned to make it a better place. Knowledge is not the same as morality, but we need to understand if we are to high school graduation speech essay avoid past mistakes and move in productive directions. An important part of that understanding is does essay to be knowing who we are and what we can do… Ultimately, we must synthesize our understandings for ourselves. The performance of on what our national, understanding that try matters are the ones we carry out as human beings in an imperfect world which we can affect for good or for how long does a college to be ill. (Howard Gardner 1999: 180-181) Howard Earl Gardner’s (1943- ) work has been marked by a desire not to just describe the world but to help to essay our national game hockey create the conditions to change it. How Long Essay Have? The scale of Howard Gardner’s contribution can be gauged from love eyes watching following comments in his introduction to the tenth anniversary edition of his classic work Frames of Mind. To Be? The theory of multiple intelligences : In the questions tale heyday of the psychometric and behaviorist eras, it was generally believed that intelligence was a single entity that was inherited; and that human beings – initially a blank slate – could be trained to learn anything, provided that it was presented in an appropriate way. Nowadays an increasing number of how long does, researchers believe precisely the opposite; that there exists a multitude of intelligences, quite independent of each other; that each intelligence has its own strengths and constraints; that the mind is far from unencumbered at birth; and that it is unexpectedly difficult to teach things that go against early ‘naive’ theories of that challenge the natural lines of force within an intelligence and its matching domains. (Gardner 1993: xxiii) One of the main impetuses for this movement has been Howard Gardner’s work.
He has been, in Smith and in their were watching Smith’s (1994) terms, a paradigm shifter. Howard Gardner has questioned the idea that intelligence is a single entity, that it results from a single factor, and that it can be measured simply via IQ tests. He has also challenged the cognitive development work of Piaget. Bringing forward evidence to show that at any one time a child may be at very different stages for example, in number development and spatial/visual maturation, Howard Gardner has successfully undermined the idea that knowledge at any one particular developmental stage hangs together in a structured whole. In this article we explore Howard Gardner’s contribution and the use to how long does a college essay to be which it has been put by educators. Howard Gardner was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania in 1943. His parents had fled from Nurnberg in Germany in 1938 with their three-year old son, Eric. Just prior to Howard Gardner’s birth Eric was killed in a sleighing accident. These two events were not discussed during Gardner’s childhood, but were to have a very significant impact upon of two cities his thinking and development (Gardner 1989: 22). The opportunities for how long does a college essay risky physical activity were limited, and creative and intellectual pursuits encouraged.
As Howard began to discover the family’s ‘secret history’ (and Jewish identity) he started to recognize that he was different both from his parents and writing business law essays from his peers. His parents wanted to send Howard to Phillips Academy in Andover Massachusetts – but he refused. Instead he went to a nearby preparatory school in Kingston, Pennsylvania (Wyoming Seminary). Howard Gardner appears to have embraced the does a college essay to be opportunities there – and to high speech essay have elicited the support and interest of some very able teachers. From there he went to Harvard University to study history in readiness for a career in the law. However, he was lucky enough to how long a college have to be have Eric Erikson as a tutor. In Howard Gardner’s words Erikson probably ‘sealed’ his ambition to be a scholar (1989: 23). But there were others: My mind was really opened when I went to Harvard College and had the opportunity to study under individuals—such as psychoanalyst Erik Erikson, sociologist David Riesman, and cognitive psychologist Jerome Bruner—who were creating knowledge about human beings. That helped set me on the course of love in their god essays, investigating human nature, particularly how human beings think. (Howard Gardner quoted by Marge Sherer 1999) Howard Gardner’s interest in psychology and the social sciences grew (his senior thesis was on a new California retirement community) and he graduated summa cum laude in how long does to be, 1965.
Howard Gardner then went to medical tourism in india work for a brief period with Jerome Bruner on the famous MACOS Project (‘Man: A course of study’). Bruner’s work, especially in The Process of how long does a college have to be, Education (1960) was to make a profound impact, and the questions that the programme asked were to find an echo in Gardner’s subsequent interests. During this time he began to read the work of Claude Levi-Strauss and Jean Piaget in more detail. He entered Harvard’s doctoral programme in 1966, and in the following year became part of the Project Zero research team on arts education (with which he has remained involved to the present). Howard Gardner completed his PhD in 1971 (his dissertation was on style sensitivity in children). He remained at Harvard. Alongside his work with Project Zero (he now co-directs it with David Perkins) he was a lecturer (1971-1986) and essay on what our national then professor in education (1986- ). His first major book, The Shattered Mind appeared in 1975 and some fifteen have followed. Howard Gardner is currently Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of how long does, Education and adjunct professor of in india paper, neurology at the Boston University School of have to be, Medicine. Project Zero provided an environment in which Howard Gardner could begin to explore his interest in human cognition. He proceeded in a very different direction to the dominant discourses associated with Piaget and with psychometric testing. Project Zero developed as a major research centre for education – and provided an medical tourism in india research paper intellectual home for a significant grouping of researchers.
A key moment came with the does a college essay have to be establishment of the Project on Human Potential in the late 1970s (funded by writing business, Bernard van Leer Foundation) to ‘assess the state of scientific knowledge concerning human potential and its realization’. The result was Frames of Mind (1983) Howard Gardner’s first full-length statement of his theory of multiple intelligences. Howard Gardner on multiple intelligences – the initial listing. Howard Gardner viewed intelligence as ‘the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting’ (Gardner Hatch, 1989). He reviewed the literature using eight criteria or ‘signs’ of an intelligence: Potential isolation by brain damage.The existence of idiots savants, prodigies and other exceptional individuals. An identifiable core operation or set of operations. A distinctive development history, along with a definable set of how long does a college essay have to be, ‘end-state’ performances. An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility. Support from experimental psychological tasks. Support from tale cities psychometric findings.
Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system. How Long A College Essay? (Howard Gardner 1983: 62-69) Candidates for medical research paper the title ‘an intelligence’ had to how long to be satisfy a range of these criteria and must include, as a prerequisite, the ability to resolve ‘genuine problems or difficulties’ ( ibid .: 60) within certain cultural settings. Making judgements about school graduation this was, however, ‘reminiscent more of an artistic judgement than of a scientific assessment’ ( ibid. : 62). Howard Gardner initially formulated a list of seven intelligences. His listing was provisional. The first two have been typically valued in schools; the next three are usually associated with the arts; and the final two are what Howard Gardner called ‘personal intelligences’ (Gardner 1999: 41-43). Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and does a college have to be written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to / essay writing students effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence. Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to how long have analyze problems logically, carry out writing business mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically.
In Howard Gardner’s words, it entails the ability to does a college essay have to be detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. Musical intelligence involves skill in love were watching god essays, the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one’s whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. How Long A College Have To Be? Howard Gardner sees mental and essay questions cities physical activity as related. Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and how long to be use the patterns of wide space and in their god essays more confined areas.
Interpersonal intelligence is how long does essay have to be concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counsellors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence. Intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to on what is ailing hockey understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner’s view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to a college essay have use such information to regulate our lives. In Frames of Mind Howard Gardner treated the personal intelligences ‘as a piece’. Because of their close association in most cultures, they are often linked together. Love In Their God Essays? However, he still argues that it makes sense to think of a college have, two forms of writing, personal intelligence. Gardner claimed that the seven intelligences rarely operate independently.
They are used at the same time and tend to complement each other as people develop skills or solve problems. In essence Howard Gardner argued that he was making two essential claims about multiple intelligences. That: The theory is an a college to be account of human cognition in questions of two, its fullness. Does A College Have? The intelligences provided ‘a new definition of human nature, cognitively speaking’ (Gardner 1999: 44). Human beings are organisms who possess a basic set of intelligences. People have a unique blend of essay of two cities, intelligences. How Long Does A College Have? Howard Gardner argues that the big challenge facing the deployment of human resources ‘is how to research paper best take advantage of the how long a college uniqueness conferred on us as a species exhibiting several intelligences’ ( ibid. : 45). These intelligences, according to Howard Gardner, are amoral – they can be put to constructive or destructive use. The appeal of business law essays, multiple intelligences to educators. Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences has not been readily accepted within academic psychology.
However, it has met with a strongly positive response from many educators. It has been embraced by a range of educational theorists and, significantly, applied by teachers and policymakers to the problems of schooling. A number of schools in North America have looked to structure curricula according to the intelligences, and to design classrooms and even whole schools to reflect the understandings that Howard Gardner develops. The theory can also be found in use within pre-school, higher, vocational and how long have to be adult education initiatives. This appeal was not, at high school essay first, obvious. At first blush, this diagnosis would appear to sound a death knell for formal education. It is hard to teach one intelligence; what if there are seven? It is hard to enough to teach even when anything can be taught; what to do if there are distinct limits and strong constraints on human cognition and learning? (Howard Gardner 1993: xxiii)
Howard Gardner responds to how long essay to be his questions by first making the point that psychology does not directly dictate education, ‘it merely helps one to understand the conditions within which education takes place’. What is more: Seven kinds of intelligence would allow seven ways to teach, rather than one. And powerful constraints that exist in the mind can be mobilized to introduce a particular concept (or whole system of thinking) in a way that children are most likely to learn it and least likely to distort it. Paradoxically, constraints can be suggestive and ultimately freeing. ( op. cit. Stewart / Essay For Canadian Students? ) Mindy L. Kornhaber (2001: 276), a researcher involved with Project Zero, has identified a number of reasons why teachers and policymakers in does a college, North America have responded positively to Howard Gardner’s presentation of multiple intelligences. Among these are that: … the theory validates educators’ everyday experience: students think and learn in many different ways. It also provides educators with a conceptual framework for organizing and reflecting on curriculum assessment and pedagogical practices. In turn, this reflection has led many educators to develop new approaches that might better meet the needs of the range of learners in their classrooms. The response to Howard Gardner is medical in india paralleled by the adoption of Kolb’s model of experiential learning by adult and informal educators. While significant criticism can be made of the formulation (see below) it does provide a useful set of a college essay, questions and ‘rules of thumb’ to help educators to think about their practice.
The way in which Howard Gardner’s theory of our national, multiple intelligences has been translated into policy and practice has been very varied. Howard Gardner did not, initially, spell out the essay to be implications of his theory for educators in any detail. Subsequently, he has looked more closely at what the theory might mean for schooling practice (e.g. in The Unschooled Mind , Intelligence Reframed , and The Disciplined Mind ). From this work three particular aspects of essay our national game, Gardner’s thinking need noting here as they allow for hope, and an alternative way of thinking, for those educators who feel out of step with the current, dominant product orientation to a college to be curriculum and educational policy. The approach entails: A broad vision of education . All seven intelligences are needed to speech live life well. Teachers, therefore, need to attend to all intelligences, not just the first two that have been their tradition concern. As Kornhaber (2001: 276) has noted it involves educators opting ‘for depth over breadth’. Understanding entails taking knowledge gained in one setting and using it in another. ‘Students must have extended opportunities to how long does a college to be work on a topic’ ( op. cit. ).
Developing local and flexible programmes . Howard Gardner’s interest in ‘deep understanding’, performance, exploration and creativity are not easily accommodated within an orientation to the ‘delivery’ of medical tourism in india, a detailed curriculum planned outside of the immediate educational context. ‘An “MI setting” can be undone if the curriculum is how long too rigid or if there is but a single form of school graduation speech, assessment’ (Gardner 1999: 147). In this respect the educational implications of Howard Gardner’s work stands in a direct line from the work of John Dewey. Looking to morality . ‘We must figure out how intelligence and morality can work together’, Howard Gardner argues, ‘to create a world in which a great variety of people will want to live’ (Gardner 1999: 4). While there are considerable benefits to developing understanding in relation to the disciplines, something more is needed. Are there additional intelligences? Since Howard Gardner’s original listing of the intelligences in Frames of Mind (1983) there has been a great deal of discussion as to other possible candidates for inclusion (or candidates for exclusion).
Subsequent research and reflection by Howard Gardner and how long a college essay have to be his colleagues has looked to writing business three particular possibilities: a naturalist intelligence, a spiritual intelligence and an existential intelligence. He has concluded that the first of how long does a college have to be, these ‘merits addition to writing law essays the list of the original seven intelligences’ (Gardner 1999: 52). Naturalist intelligence enables human beings to recognize, categorize and how long does essay draw upon certain features of the high environment. It ‘combines a description of the core ability with a characterization of the role that many cultures value’ ( ibid. : 48). The case for inclusion of naturalist intelligence appears pretty straightforward, the position with regard to spiritual intelligence is far more complex. According to Howard Gardner (1999: 59) there are problems, for a college to be example, around the ‘content’ of spiritual intelligence, its privileged but unsubstantiated claims with regard to truth value, ‘and the need for it to be partially identified through its effect on other people’. As a result: It seems more responsible to writing law essays carve out that area of spirituality closest ‘in spirit’ to the other intelligences and how long does a college essay to be then, in the sympathetic manner applied to naturalist intelligence, ascertain how this candidate intelligence fares. In doing so, I think it best to put aside the term spiritual , with its manifest and problematic connotations, and to speak instead of an intelligence that explores the nature of existence in its multifarious guises.
Thus, an explicit concern with spiritual or religious matters would be one variety – often the most important variety – of an existential intelligence. Existential intelligence , a concern with ‘ultimate issues’, is, thus, the next possibility that Howard Gardner considers – and he argues that it ‘scores reasonably well on the criteria’ ( ibid .: 64). However, empirical evidence is essay tale of two sparse – and although a ninth intelligence might be attractive, Howard Gardner is not disposed to add it to the list. ‘I find the phenomenon perplexing enough and the distance from the other intelligences vast enough to dictate prudence – at least for now’ ( ibid. Does Essay To Be? : 66). The final, and obvious, candidate for inclusion in love eyes watching, Howard Gardner’s list is how long does a college have to be moral intelligence . In his exploration, he begins by medical tourism, asking whether it is how long have to be possible to were watching god essays delineate the ‘moral domain’. He suggests that it is difficult to does to be come to any consensual definition, but argues that it is possible to come to an understanding that takes exploration forward. Central to a moral domain, Howard Gardner suggests, ‘is a concern with those rules, behaviours and stewart for canadian attitudes that govern the how long a college have sanctity of life – in particular, the sanctity of human life and, in many cases, the sanctity of any other living creatures and watching god essays the world they inhabit’ ( ibid. : 70). If we accept the existence of how long does essay have, a moral realm is it then possible to speak of moral intelligence? If it ‘connotes the adoption of high school graduation essay, any specific moral code’ then Howard Gardner does not find the a college term moral intelligence acceptable ( ibid .: 75). Furthermore, he argues, researchers and writers have not as yet ‘captured the questions tale cities essence of the moral domain as an instance of human intelligence’ ( ibid .: 76). As I construe it, the central component in the moral realm or domain is a sense of personal agency and personal stake, a realization that one has an irreducible role with respect to other people and that one’s behaviour towards others must reflect the results of contextualized analysis and the exercise of one’s will…. The fulfilment of key roles certainly requires a range of human intelligences – including personal, linguistic, logical and a college essay to be perhaps existential – but it is hockey fundamentally a statement about the kind of person that has developed to be.
It is not, in itself, an intelligence. ‘Morality’ is then properly a statement about personality, individuality, will, character – and, in the happiest cases, about the highest realization of how long have to be, human nature. ( ibid .: 77) So it is, that Howard Gardner has added an eighth intelligence – naturalist intelligence – to his list. He has also opened the writing business door to another possibility – especially that of existential intelligence – but the court is out on that one. Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences – some issues and problems. There are various criticisms of, and problems around, Howard Gardner’s conceptualization of multiple intelligences. Indeed, Gardner himself has listed some of the main issues and his responses (1993: xxiii-xxvii; 1999: 79-114). Here, I want to focus on a college have to be, three key questions that have been raised in debates. High School? (There are plenty of other questions around – but these would seem to a college essay have to be be the / essay writing w/readings most persistent):
Are the does criteria Howard Gardner employs adequate? John White (1997) has argued that there are significant issues around the criteria that Howard Gardner employs. There are questions around the individual criteria, for example, do all intelligences involve symbol systems; how the tourism in india criteria to be applied; and why these particular criteria are relevant. In respect of the last, and fundamental question, White states that he has not been able to find any answer in does a college, Gardner’s writings ( ibid .: 19). / Essay Writing For Canadian Students W/readings? Indeed, Howard Gardner himself has admitted that there is an element of subjective judgement involved.
Does Howard Gardner’s conceptualization of a college, intelligence hold together? For those researchers and scholars who have traditionally viewed intelligence as, effectively, what is research measured by intelligence tests – Howard Gardner’s work will always be problematic. They can still point to a substantial tradition of research that demonstrates correlation between different abilities and argue for the existence of a general intelligence factor. Howard Gardner (1993: xxiv) disputes much of the how long a college have evidence and high speech essay argues that it is not possible, as yet, to know how far intelligences actually correlate. More recent developments in thinking around intelligence such as Robert Sternberg’s (1985, 1996) advancement of a ‘triarchic model’ have shared Gardner’s dislike of such standard intelligence theory. However, in contrast to Howard Gardner, Robert Sternberg does not look strongly at the particular material that the person is processing.
Instead he looks to what he calls the componential, experiential and contextual facets of how long does have to be, intelligence. A further set of criticisms centre around the specific intelligences that Howard Gardner identified. For example, it can be argued that musical intelligence and essay tale bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are better approached as talents (they do not normally need to adapt to life demands). Is there sufficient empirical evidence to essay support Howard Gardner’s conceptualization? A common criticism made of Howard Gardner’s work is that his theories derive rather more strongly from his own intuitions and reasoning than from a comprehensive and full grounding in empirical research. For the moment there is not a properly worked-through set of tests to essay questions tale identify and a college have measure the different intelligences. I once thought it possible to create a set of eyes were watching god essays, tests of each intelligence – an how long a college essay have to be intelligence-fair version to be sure – and then simply to determine the correlation between the scores on the several tests.
I now believe that this can only essay questions tale of two, be accomplished if someone developed several measures for each intelligence and then made sure that people were comfortable in does a college essay to be, dealing with the materials and methods used to measure each intelligence. (Gardner 1999: 98) Howard Gardner himself has not pursued this approach because of a more general worry with such testing – that it leads to on what is ailing game labelling and stigmatization. It can be argued that research around the functioning of the how long essay brain generally continues to support the notion of multiple intelligence (although not necessarily the essay questions cities specifics of Howard Gardner’s theory). There are further questions around the notion of selfhood that Howard Gardner employs – something that he himself has come to recognize. In the early 1990s he began to look to the notion of distributed cognition as providing a better way of approaching the area than focusing on what goes on in the mind of a single individual (Hatch and Gardner 1993) (see the discussion of social/situational orientations to learning). While there may be some significant questions and a college issues around Howard Gardner’s notion of multiple intelligences, it still has had utility in education. It has helped a significant number of educators to question their work and to questions tale cities encourage them to look beyond the narrow confines of the dominant discourses of skilling, curriculum, and testing. For example, Mindy Kornhaber and have her colleagues at the Project SUMIT (Schools Using Multiple Intelligences Theory) have examined the performance of a number of schools and concluded that there have been significant gains in respect of SATs scores, parental participation, and discipline (with the schools themselves attributing this to MI theory). To the extent that Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory has helped educators to w/readings reflect on their practice, and given them a basis to broaden their focus and to attend to a college have to be what might assist people to writing business live their lives well, then it has to be judged a useful addition. Project SUMIT (2000) uses the metaphor of Compass Points -‘routes that educators using the theory have taken and which appear to benefit students’.
They have identified the following markers that characterize schools with some success in implementing practices that attend to multiple intelligences theory. Culture: support for diverse learners and hard work. Acting on a value system which maintains that diverse students can learn and succeed, that learning is exciting, and that hard work by teachers is necessary. Readiness: awareness-building for implementing MI. Building staff awareness of MI and of the different ways that students learn. Tool : MI is a means to foster high quality work. Using MI as a tool to promote high quality student work rather than using the have theory as an end in and of itself. Collaboration : informal and writing law essays formal exchanges. Sharing ideas and constructive suggestions by the staff in formal and informal exchanges. Choice : meaningful curriculum and assessment options. Does Essay To Be? Embedding curriculum and assessment in activities that are valued both by students and the wider culture.
Arts . Employing the arts to develop children’s skills and understanding within and is ailing our national hockey across disciplines. Informal educators can usefully look at this listing in respect of their projects and agencies. The multiple intelligences themselves also provide a good focus for reflection. Arguably, informal educators have traditionally been concerned with the how long does a college have to be domains of the interpersonal and the intrapersonal, with a sprinkling of the intelligences that Howard Gardner identifies with the arts. Business Law Essays? Looking to naturalist linguistic and does have logical-mathematical intelligences could help enhance their practice. The main Howard Gardner writings on multiple intelligences are as follows: Gardner, Howard (1983; 1993) Frames of high school speech, Mind: The theory of to be, multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books. The second edition was published in essay is ailing game, Britain by Fontana Press. Does A College Essay Have? 466 + xxix pages. Law Essays? (All references in this article refer to this second, 10th Anniversary, edition). A major addition to the literature of cognitive psychology being the first full length explication of multiple intelligences. Gardner, Howard (1989) To Open Minds: Chinese clues to the dilemma of contemporary education , New York: Basic Books.
This book includes a significant amount of material on Gardner’s early life. Gardner, H. (1991) The Unschooled Mind: How children think and a college essay to be how schools should teach , New York: Basic Books. Gardner, Howard (1999) Intelligence Reframed. Multiple intelligences for the 21st century , New York: Basic Books. 292 + x pages. Useful review of Gardner’s theory and essay on what our national discussion of issues and additions. Gardner, Howard (1999) The Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts And Standardized Tests, The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves , New York: Simon and Schuster (and New York: Penguin Putnam). Brualdi, A, C. (1996) ‘Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Theory. ERIC Digest’, Eric Digests , [http://www.ericdigests.org/1998-1/multiple.htm. Accessed June 15, 2008]
Bruner, J (1960) The Process of Education , Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Gardner, Howard (1975) The Shattered Mind , New York: Knopf. Gardner, Howard (2006) Changing Minds. The art and science of changing our own and how long a college essay have to be other people’s minds . Boston MA.: Harvard Business School Press. Gardner, H., Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Damon, W. (2001) Good Work: Where Excellence and Ethics Meet , New York: Basic Books. Gardner, H., Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the business theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher , 18 (8), 4-9. T. Hatch and H. Gardner (1993) ‘Finding cognition in the classroom: an expanded view of human intelligence’ in G. Salomon (ed.) Distributed Cognitions.
Psychological and educational considerations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kornhaber, M. L. How Long Essay To Be? (2001) ‘Howard Gardner’ in J. A. Palmer (ed.) Fifty Modern Thinkers on essay on what is ailing game hockey, Education. From Piaget to how long essay to be the present , London: Routledge. Project SUMIT (2000) SUMIT Compass Points Practices. Love Were? [http://pzweb.harvard.edu/Research/SUMIT.htm. Accessed June 15, 2008] Scherer, M. (1999) ‘The Understanding Pathway: A Conversation with Howard Gardner’, Educational Leadership 57(3) [www.georgejacobs.net/MIArticles/Gardner%20ASCD%201999.doc. Accessed June 15, 2008]. Smith, L. G. and Smith, J. K. (1994) Lives in Education. A narrative of people and ideas 2e, New York: St Martin’s Press. Sternberg, R. J. How Long Does A College Essay To Be? (1985) Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence . New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sternberg, R. J. Essay Is Ailing Game Hockey? (1996) Successful intelligence . New York: Simon Schuster. White, J. (1998) Do Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences add up? London: Institute of essay to be, Education, University of London. Williams, W. Writing? M., Blythe, T., White, N., Li, J., Sternberg, R. To Be? J., Gardner, H. (1996). Practical intelligence for school. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers.
Acknowledgement : The picture of essay on what game, Howard Gardner is reproduced here under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) Licence. It is part of the a college essay have Aspen Institute’s photostream at Flickr.
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an essay review Here's a sample of an essay which reviews a film. It was written by Adrienne who took this class several years ago. Dances With Wolves Essay. No matter how you choose to categorize human beings, whether by race or religion, nationality or gender, the resultant categories will display at least one immutable constant. Each group, no matter how diverse their beliefs or how dissimilar their behaviors, will contain men of honest and peaceful natures as well as men of divisive and violent natures. In the how long a college to be, film Dances With Wolves, we are exposed to two distinct categories of people inhabiting post civil war America, the white man and the Native American. We, most likely, begin the movie with defined ideas as to which group contains honest, peaceful men and which group contains violent and savage men. We are, however, exposed to behaviors which are in opposition to the accepted stereotypes associated with these groups. As we move through the film we are taken from the comfortable starting point of our existing stereotypes into new territory, both literally and philosophically.
The film accomplishes this by high graduation essay, allowing us to journey with John Dunbar, a man who is does as open minded and free of preconceived notions as the originally empty journal on which his new ideas and understandings are written. Through his experiences we are exposed to the sharp contrast between the essay questions, violent and crude, as well as the peaceful and thoughtful natures of men. With every exposure we are purposefully moved further and further away from what may have been our preconceived notions regarding these groups of people. Through John's eyes we are first exposed to the world of the how long does essay to be, white man embroiled in the carnage and butchery of the Civil War. The gruesome hospital scene only emphasizes the fact that life in the civilized world can be anything but. A brief contrast is made when the compassionate officer who believes John to be a hero, rescues him from the violence and makes it possible for his leg to be saved and for him to begin his journey. But, compassionate, thinking white men are definitely in the minority in this film. When John begins his Westward move, the crude, maniacal white man makes his reappearance. The officer who gives John the information about getting to stewart / essay writing for canadian students w/readings his new post appears to does essay have be downright insane and apparently kills himself. The guide who accompanies John to tourism in india paper his post is does a college also no prize. John refers to him as the essay on what is ailing game, foulest man alive(Dances with Wolves).
This constant exposure to the violent and how long have to be crude men who make up the white race is an effective first step in shifting our sympathies. We want to distance ourselves from these shameful characters. We don't want to essay of two cities identify with them. Our first exposure to Indians is a mere suggestion of the expected stereotype. We are shown a skeleton on the ground with an arrow stuck through it. So far so good. We are accustomed to that image. Dunbar's guide states that Indians are nothin' but thieves and beggars and essay have to be that you only want to high graduation essay see them when they are dead (Dances with Wolves).
He, of course, is how long a college essay such an exemplary man that it's not ironic at all to hear him degrading someone else. From the on what is ailing our national game, beginning of the film we are given hints that Dunbar is how long does have not like his fellow ugly Americans. When John and his guide arrive at the deserted Fort, the questions of two cities, guide is in does a college have to be, a hurry to be away. He is nervous and uncomfortable and thinks nothing of leaving without accomplishing what he was sent to do. John wants to stay, not only is ailing our national because he feels honor bound to reestablish his post, but also because he is drawn to the land itself. He states, The country is everything I dreamed it would be.
There can be no more beautiful place on earth (Dances with Wolves). After being forced to help unload the wagon at gunpoint, John's guide begins his return trip. At this time we see our first Indians. They are the Indians we expect, the painted, violent takers of scalps. It is interesting that these were also the kind of Indians the guide expected, and they were the kind he met. How Long Does A College Essay To Be? He is killed and medical in india research scalped and does a college have we say to tale cities ourselves, we were right, Indians are evil. This picture is immediately contrasted with the Indians who approach Dunbar's Fort.
They are curious and although they leave when Dunbar first shows himself they discuss him later in their camp. We get our first glimpse of the white man through an Indian's eyes. They describe the white men as being dirty men who ride and how long a college essay have shoot poorly. Their meeting shows them to be contemplative and tourism in india paper intelligent. They are respectful of essay their elders and obey the cities, Chief when he decides the how long does a college essay have, matter needs to be discussed more before any action is taken. Dunbar, being a man who chooses to act rather than react, decides to present himself to the Indians as an Ambassador. His desire is to create a channel of high graduation speech essay communication with the Indians that will, in the future, benefit both groups. On his way, he meets Stands With A Fist, who has, in her mourning ritual, injured herself. She passes out and have to be John returns her to the Indian camp.
When he first sees the school essay, camp, he is impressed by it. He hands the woman over and is does a college essay have allowed to leave in peace. The Indians visit him in return, and a sort of communication is attempted. Writing Business Law Essays? Dunbar is forming an opinion of these people based on knowledge and personal experience rather than generalizations. He reveals the feelings he is having when he states, Nothing I have been told about a college these people is correct. They are not beggars and thieves. They are not the bogeymen they have been made out to be. On the essay is ailing, contrary, they are polite guests and have a familiar humor I enjoy (Dances with Wolves). A College Essay Have To Be? A friendship begins to grow out of this ability to communicate and learn about one another. This progresses more quickly as Stands With a Fist is students w/readings enlisted as a translator. The Indians seem to be open minded enough to judge John on how long essay to be the basis of writing law essays his own behavior, and not on does a college essay their past experiences with white men.
Kicking Bird is heard telling Stands With a Fist that John has a good heart. Essay Questions Of Two? More and more we are exposed to positive traits about these Indians. When camp is broken in order to follow the buffalo, John thinks to himself that the efficiency of the people and the speed at which they move was enough to impress any military commander (Dances with Wolves). How Long A College To Be? However, to medical tourism in india research keep us from a college have to be forgetting that there is still a conflict brewing, we are exposed to the brutal, wasteful white man once again. As the Indians, along with John, are travelling in pursuit of the buffalo, a sickening sight shocks us. We see hundreds of buffalo left to rot out on love in their eyes were god essays the open prairie. Killed solely for their skins and their tongues, everything that remains is abandoned without a thought. We are offended right along with John and his companions. Our allegiances are shifting. Does A College To Be? The once firm footing we possessed in regards to identifying the good guys and writing business the bad guys is shifting beneath our feet.
Maybe we can't make sweeping generalizations. John's bravery during the hunt draws him even more deeply into the heart of the Indian community. He had piqued their curiosity, experienced their tolerance and now, earned their respect. We smile with him as he tells his battle story over and over. We are warmed by the glow of does have his acceptance as evidenced by the trade that he makes with the writing business, once belligerent Wind in His Hair, who goes as far as ensuring that other trades made with John are equitable and fair. When John returns to his Fort he fondly reflects that he has never known a people so eager to laugh, so devoted to family, so dedicated to each other.
The only word that came to mind was harmony (Dances with Wolves). Dunbar has chosen them and it is difficult not to how long does essay agree with his choice. He preferred their world and their ways to the world he has come out of, the world of high essay white men we have been exposed to earlier in the film. Even their wars are contrasted with the a college essay to be, wars of the white man. After the for canadian students w/readings, battle with the Pawnee, Dunbar states, I'd never been in a battle like this one. There was no dark political objective.
This was not a fight for territory or riches or to make men free. It had been fought to preserve the food stores that would see us through the how long does, winter, to protect the lives of questions tale of two women and children and loved ones only a few feet away (Dances with Wolves). Before, Dunbar had viewed war as another example of wastefulness and violence. It had been so meaningless to him that he hadn't wanted to live anymore. Does A College Essay Have To Be? Yet, with the Sioux he had found meaning, even in battle. He stated, I gradually began to look at it [the battle with the Pawnee] in a new way. I felt a pride I had never felt before.
I'd never really known who John Dunbar wasI knew for the first time who I really was (Dances with Wolves). Our National Hockey? Who John Dunbar really is, is now plain to see. He is dressed as an Indian. He speaks their language. He is married to a college to be Stands With a Fist. On What Our National Hockey? He has found peace and happiness. He considers the Sioux his people. His desire to protect them from what he knows is coming takes him back to the Fort to retrieve his journal. What he thought would be a tool to help facilitate communication between his people (the white men) and the Indians has become a tool that the adversaries (the white men) could use to hurt his people (the Sioux). Does A College Essay To Be? The ultimate contrast is now revealed. John returns to his Fort to questions of two cities find it inhabited by white men.
The same white men who have referred to the Indians as savages and godless barbarians set out to kill John on sight because they believe him to be an a college essay have, Indian. They don't wait to see if he comes in peace. They don't give him a chance to identify himself. They see what they think is an Indian and they purpose to kill him. They mortally wound his faithful horse. High School Speech? They attack him and knock him out. When he regains consciousness, we are once again able to see the civilized white man through the eyes of an Indian. What we are shown is primarily a group of dirty, crude, brutal and stupid men. We see that they don't possess the wisdom of Kicking Bird or the Bravery of Wind in His Hair. They do have a Lieutenant that seems to a college essay to be be a man of thought and reason, but unlike the discipline that existed in the tribe, the men under the were watching, officer's authority do not respect his wishes or listen to how long does a college to be his commands when his back is turned.
John has made his final break with his past. He looks at the men he used to be one of, and essay on what hockey realizing he was never really one of them, he speaks to them in Sioux. He tells them they are not worth talking to. They have failed to realize that it is just as much of an injustice to define all Indians by the behaviors of the violent and a college essay savage tribes as it would be to define all white men by the ignorant and repulsive examples they themselves portray. They personify what they claim to despise: savagery, cruelty, thievery, and violence. We, along with Dunbar, separate ourselves from love eyes were watching god essays them. The film Dances with Wolves provides us with an opportunity to journey out of a comfortable world which may be founded on hastily established stereotypes, into a world of a college truth. It begs us to deal with people from love in their eyes were god essays a position of knowledge and understanding, rather than one of ignorance clothed in superiority. It shows us enough of our own shortcomings to make us see that we could also be the victims of generalizations made by others based on the behaviors of the few. It presents us with a poignant example of what can be lost when people become what they claim to be fighting. It is a message that is as applicable today as it was in the time of the American West.
Costner, Kevin, dir. Dances with Wolves. Perf. Kevin Costner, Mary McDonnell, Graham Greene, and essay have to be Rodney A. Grant. 1990. Videocassette. Orion, 1991.
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essay gcse examples How to a college have to be, write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for eyes were watching, each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is how long a college have, probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an writing effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an does to be essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to writing business law essays, be an easy task, even for the best writers.
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This is a kind of have 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay game hockey essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by does have point, argue the case for questions, what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to how long a college essay have, have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the of two, text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted!
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There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. Writing Business Law Essays? There are wrong answers, of does a college essay to be course - caused through, for essay is ailing our national, example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is how long does a college, looking to essay questions tale cities, read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and does your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and essay on what far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting!
The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to a college, open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the essay on what our national game, major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the how long essay have to be, situation you feel brought the writer to were, want to a college have to be, write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on game hockey, the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of how long have paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and high speech essay which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and a college to be every paragraph in a way that is writing law essays, clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in does essay to be your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to graduation speech, write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to does a college essay have to be, the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that?
Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an tourism research paper analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the how long does essay to be, text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the medical in india research paper, essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and have to be the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and love were watching its themes (e.g. Does Have? 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the medical in india paper, writer's purpose )? E.g. Does Essay Have To Be? 'At this point on the story the author wants to medical tourism in india, gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the how long a college have, overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1!
Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and essay on what is ailing our national its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and does essay have avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of tale of two cities a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to how long does, it - the school graduation essay, main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of does essay this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and writing business law essays supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is how long does essay to be, your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in essay on what is ailing Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the how long essay, theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on.
Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for law essays, writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the how long essay have, text you are studying directly into in their eyes, your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). How Long Does To Be? Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to law essays, his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is how long does to be, a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste':
Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to high school graduation essay, 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is how long does a college, a lack of understanding of the text on on what is ailing game hockey, which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well.
You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the essay have, text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and essay on what why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and how long a college essay effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to tourism in india, use at least one quotation - or reference to how long have, the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure.
Consider discussing, for essay on what is ailing game hockey, example, how the does, quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and eyes style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is how long does a college, your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is high school speech, called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the does essay to be, text is high school graduation, asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the a college essay to be, text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the in india paper, overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to how long a college have to be, help with this or write the school speech essay, aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay.
This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the a college have to be, text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of w/readings his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and does essay - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of essay questions tale analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the how long a college have to be, English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of essay tale context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by how long essay have merely discussing aspects of in india context; in other words allow the how long essay, text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and in india Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of how long a college waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay.
4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Medical In India Research Paper? Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in how long essay your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and / essay writing for canadian students w/readings provide support from the text for how long a college to be, this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. Medical Tourism In India? or P.Q.C. For more on how long does to be, this see here ; work through the medical research, text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in does essay have this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the questions of two, text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text;
CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to how long does a college essay have, develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is business law essays, developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on how long does essay, the essay question, it will keep your writing on of two cities, track; Always aim to a college have to be, provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the high school graduation, EXAMPLE part of how long does a college essay to be P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from / essay students w/readings a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an a college essay to be event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the graduation speech, story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the have to be, method the writer used, the effect the love in their eyes were watching god essays, language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is how long does a college essay have, also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE.
Always work in business law essays a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to how long a college have, develop an effective structure to tourism in india paper, their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to does essay have, an essay is important but causes problems for many students. On What Is Ailing? It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of a college have 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and writing business law essays authoritative . It's crucial to does a college, keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all.
ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is stewart writing, a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the how long does have to be, play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of medical tourism in india what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark?
STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about how long does have, a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and on what our national hockey effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of how long does a college essay form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and in india paper use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is does a college have to be, received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of tourism in india research form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for how long does a college, example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the stewart for canadian w/readings, use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the how long does a college to be, use of form.
A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the research paper, poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at a college essay to be the end of essay is ailing game hockey a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and essay have so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. Questions? In a play, much of the how long does essay to be, 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. On What Is Ailing Our National Hockey? This includes not just what the to be, actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning.
It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of tale meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and essay to be feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and on what represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is how long does a college, taking over writing business law essays, the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of how long does evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Speech Essay? Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an how long ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning.
Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is eyes, one of the how long does to be, most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is high school essay, a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of does a college meaning created by the irony. Creating an school speech 'ironic tone of voice' in does a college essay to be writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the essay on what our national, speaker are absent.
To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is how long does have, a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is in their eyes were watching god essays, taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the does a college essay, boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of essay of two real excitement and how long have to be mystery'.
Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to is ailing our national hockey, comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to how long does essay have, achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and essay questions tale content of a writer's language, you are commenting on how long does, the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and high school graduation speech always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to how long essay, write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the medical tourism in india paper, texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the how long does a college essay, number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to love were watching, give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.
This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.