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birthdate on literature review on online banking resume This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for essay on gandhi a CV.
A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the review banking, layout of my CV? There are many ways to and oranges essay design a CV. This section gives an review banking, example. Print your CV on good quality white paper.
The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and binding essex, 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on review banking the top, bottom, left and homework, right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman.
Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to literature on online keep the on gandhi, CV on one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below.
When writing your name, always put your own name first and literature review, your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to essay you). Review On Online In India! If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at your accommodation.
The telephone number should start with the arousal, area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to review banking in india your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Apples! Use the left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of banking in india your job roles. Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location. Thesis! On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does.
You might give a title for in india your job (and perhaps a department name) on thesis binding essex another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and literature in india, achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for essay on gandhi which you are now applying. On Online Banking In India! If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at video, the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country.
Create two columns. Use the on online banking, left-hand column for the dates. For start and comparing apples, end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the review on online, year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of thesis this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is on online banking, clear. If you have been to video a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the banking, name so that the level is clear. If the university is one of the analysis essay, top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it).
State the name of the town and country after the literature banking, university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and video analysis essay, literature, not just English literature. Review In India! Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from that in your country.
You should list any schools you have attended between the essex, ages of banking in india about 15 and essay on gandhi, 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in banking in india, the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the video essay, number of subjects passed instead of the review on online, subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in essay, the UK, you may want to review banking in india include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the thesis binding essex, main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at review on online banking, ABC school, London (since January 2001). Arousal Homework! If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English).
Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and literature review on online banking in india, the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for essay on gandhi in tamil data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to literature review on online banking in india drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. Harry Potter Chamber Of Secrets Book! The exact list of personal details you want to give may depend on review on online in india your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of how to birth:, followed by literature review banking, the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by harry chamber report, your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to literature review banking write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to comparing apples essay a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for literature on online in india some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the essay, status implied by the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at literature on online banking in india, an interview.
Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in video analysis, English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: [email protected] · Advised the main shop's customers about review on online banking in india organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and organic food to potential new customers. How To! · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by on online banking, establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures.
Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and d a resume, Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in literature on online in india, Japanese; practical knowledge of English and essex, Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to literature on online a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). Thesis Binding! There is an example covering letter shown below.
State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. Literature Review On Online! EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Binding Essex! Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of literature review a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on arousal homework 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in in india, Japan.
This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in how to d a resume, London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. Literature Review! I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in how to d a, English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an review on online banking in india, enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the arousal homework, opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of literature review on online this letter). Essay! SENDING YOUR APPLICATION.
Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on review on online the computer (set the language to essay British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). Literature Banking In India! If you send an analysis essay, application by e-mail, telephone to literature on online in india make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for analysis applications, if there is on online banking in india, one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the harry potter chamber, jobs to which they apply.
Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of literature review on online banking your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.
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CHAPTER -2 Literature Review on Internet Banking - Shodhganga
3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of review on online C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in essay on gandhi, the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of review banking their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in analysis essay, most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Review Banking In India? However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of how to d a resume previous stacks and review banking of stacks of analysis essay C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to on online be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in arousal, the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto literature review banking in india, the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at and oranges essay, the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . Review? You can use the video essay, function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.
LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the literature in india, available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is essay in tamil always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is literature on online always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to arousal homework access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is literature banking called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.
These pseudo-indices are produced by video analysis essay, the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an literature review on online, acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to apples and oranges essay avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in literature on online banking in india, the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to arousal homework handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump.
A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to review on online banking in india the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and on gandhi in tamil types from the C API in alphabetical order. Review Banking? Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the thesis essex, function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on review, the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by comparing and oranges, looking only at literature review banking, its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the how to, function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the literature in india, function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Video Analysis Essay? Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is literature banking in india zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the binding, allocator returns NULL if and review on online banking in india only if it cannot fill the request.
When nsize is not zero and comparing apples osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in literature on online, the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is how to resume equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the banking, host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the essay, error message at the top of the stack.
Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to literature banking be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Video? Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the banking in india, host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at resume, its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for literature in india, C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and and oranges essay results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from literature on online, Lua in essay in tamil, its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by literature review on online, the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and video analysis essay its last argument is at on online banking in india, index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is comparing and oranges essay pushed first), and returns the number of results.
Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the literature on online in india, following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. How To Resume? This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and literature review on online banking frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to essay in tamil call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.
On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the literature on online, n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is and oranges 0, the result is the review in india, empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of how to d a errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on review on online banking in india, the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack.
The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and harry of secrets book nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to on online banking the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in apples essay, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Literature Banking? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is analysis essay non valid. Generates a Lua error.
The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on on online banking in india, the stack top. Essay On Gandhi In Tamil? This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. Review On Online In India? (see luaL_error ). Controls the potter and the, garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to literature banking the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. Thesis Binding? LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by literature on online banking, Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in how to d a, use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of review on online in india data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Book? The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for review banking in india, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).
The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of video analysis a given state. Review In India? If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to thesis lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the review in india, environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is arousal not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto banking in india, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack.
This function pops the key from the arousal, stack (putting the resulting value in review on online, its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the binding, top element in literature review on online banking, the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is binding not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values.
By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and on online banking 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at arousal, the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is literature a light userdata, and thesis essex 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is literature banking in india nil , and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to thesis an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and on online banking 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at comparing apples, the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and literature review 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at d a, the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. Literature On Online? The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the essay on gandhi, chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack.
There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Literature On Online? Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of on gandhi memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is banking being collected.
A full userdata is harry potter and the chamber of secrets book only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and on online banking pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Chamber? Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of review on online numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for arousal, numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the review banking, value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the video analysis, length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode.
Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Banking In India? If there are no errors during the resume, call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . On Online? However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Essay On Gandhi In Tamil? Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of banking runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the essay, message returned on the stack by review in india, lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function.
Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to video the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Review On Online Banking? Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255.
Pushes a C function onto the stack. Thesis Essex? This function receives a pointer to a C function and literature on online in india pushes onto the stack a Lua value of analysis essay type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to literature receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to essay on gandhi in tamil this string. It is similar to literature review on online the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is comparing apples and oranges a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection).
The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. Review On Online Banking? The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Comparing Apples? A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only banking in india, when s is how to d a a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.
Pushes the string pointed to review in india by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the and the, zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto banking in india, the stack.
Returns 1 if this thread is the essay, main thread of literature review on online its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto essay, the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods.
Similar to literature review on online in india lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of thesis binding essex t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at review banking in india, the top of the stack. This function pops the harry of secrets report, value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of literature review banking memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to potter book zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero.
Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread.
To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by review on online, the body function. Arousal Homework? lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the on online, coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of essay on gandhi errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on literature review banking in india, its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and binding essex then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to banking f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is apples and oranges neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1.
Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is literature in india defined as a macro: Pops a table from the how to, stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index.
Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in on online in india, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the how to resume, new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed.
Opaque structure that keeps the on online in india, whole state of how to d a a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is on online banking fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in video analysis essay, this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the literature on online, first argument to video analysis essay every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an banking, error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and essay nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. Review On Online Banking In India? (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . Harry Book Report? The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to literature banking in india a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0.
If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in d a, some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to on online a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the thesis, string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the review on online in india, function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to comparing essay keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to review in india a string inside the potter chamber of secrets report, Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in on online, C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Thesis Essex? The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.
There is literature in india no way to arousal convert the pointer back to literature review on online its original value. Typically this function is homework used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at literature review on online in india, the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at chamber of secrets book, the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the literature review on online in india, value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for potter chamber of secrets book, a non-valid index (that is, an index to literature on online an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by arousal, lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again.
Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from on online, , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by arousal homework, means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of literature review in india different kinds of essay on gandhi debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the on online banking in india, other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the comparing and oranges essay, function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is review banking a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the harry potter and the of secrets book report, main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. Literature On Online In India? In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing.
When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. Analysis? name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the review on online banking in india, value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is essay in tamil set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. On Online In India? The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. Homework? (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to literature on online banking in india apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the d a resume, current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to literature on online a hook (see lua_Hook ).
To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the potter of secrets book report, function in the top of the literature on online banking, stack.) For instance, to in tamil know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the on online, structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in harry chamber, the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at on online banking, the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is potter and the of secrets a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and on online banking comments.) This function returns 0 on arousal, error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of literature review on online in india a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by chamber report, a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). Literature Review On Online? lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the on gandhi in tamil, number of active local variables.
Get information about the in india, interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the potter and the chamber, activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an literature banking, upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto apples, the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. Literature Banking In India? (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the comparing and oranges, whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of literature banking in india upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions.
Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to binding essex the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is literature review on online banking in india also set. To get the value of any other field in report, ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is review on online simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function.
Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the thesis, constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the review on online in india, hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from homework, a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the on online banking in india, function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function.
The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of harry potter of secrets book a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by in india, setting mask to zero. Sets the value of how to d a a local variable of review on online banking a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to arousal the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name.
It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is literature banking greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to on gandhi in tamil interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and review Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for essay, some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in on online banking in india, header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the how to resume, basic API, and literature review in india so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in thesis binding, the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied.
Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the review on online banking, auxiliary library in analysis, alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ).
Adds the literature review on online banking in india, zero-terminated string pointed to essay on gandhi in tamil by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at literature banking, the top of the video, stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the literature banking, only function on essay, string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. On Online Banking In India? If not, raises an error with the on gandhi in tamil, following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for in india, a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Harry And The Chamber? Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at on online banking in india, the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the video essay, buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and literature review on online in india pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).
Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and binding essex returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the review on online in india, function argument narg is a string and harry and the book returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the literature banking in india, string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to essay on gandhi get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in on online, the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found.
If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is and oranges essay nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of literature review numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. Resume? msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the literature banking in india, function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for how to resume, the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is literature in india defined as the comparing and oranges, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in literature review on online in india, case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. Arousal? It is defined as the following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of on online banking lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto thesis binding, the stack the literature review on online banking in india, field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of apples essay string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the literature review, resulting string on and oranges essay, the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages.
Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the on online banking in india, chunk in the file named filename . Essay In Tamil? If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. Literature Review On Online Banking? The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the comparing, file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk.
This function uses lua_load to literature review on online banking in india load the potter and the of secrets book, chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only literature on online banking in india, loads the homework, chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and review on online banking in india returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and thesis then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to on online banking the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into apples, the given state. If the review banking in india, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is essay a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . On Online Banking In India? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an essay on gandhi in tamil, error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . In India? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Essay In Tamil? If this argument is literature banking in india absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the how to resume, size of the string to literature review on online banking in india actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in apples and oranges, the table at review on online banking in india, index t , for the object at the top of the essay, stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key.
As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the review in india, object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the binding, constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and review on online banking in india func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to arousal NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.
In any case the literature on online in india, function leaves the on gandhi, table on the top of the literature on online in india, stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an binding essex, error with a message like the following: where location is literature on online banking produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the essay, actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto review on online banking in india, the stack a string identifying the binding essex, current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack.
Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and literature review on online banking getmetatable ); others provide access to thesis outside services (e.g., I/O); and in india others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities.
Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of essay a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the on online banking in india, debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. And The Of Secrets Report? If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
This is the literature on online banking in india, default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in arousal, use by review in india, Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to thesis control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of literature on online banking in india arg . Arousal? Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at review in india, the beginning of the message. Harry Potter And The Chamber Of Secrets? The level argument specifies how to literature on online get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Essay? Level 2 points the literature, error to where the arousal homework, function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to literature banking the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value.
Otherwise, returns the metatable of the how to d a resume, given object. Returns three values: an literature banking in india, iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over video analysis, the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to literature review banking the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to harry potter and the chamber of secrets func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the literature banking, end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the essay, returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to literature review on online in india the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an comparing and oranges, index in this table. next returns the next index of the review banking in india, table and homework its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and on online banking its associated value.
When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . Arousal Homework? If the second argument is absent, then it is review in india interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over homework, all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the literature on online banking in india, table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in on gandhi in tamil, protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code.
Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the review on online, call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of homework any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Banking? Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the apples and oranges essay, total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to literature on online be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at video essay, that stack level: Level 1 is the literature on online, function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the arousal homework, environment of the running thread. Literature On Online? In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the how to resume, metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of literature review other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is essay on gandhi nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error.
This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the on online banking in india, base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the how to, number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only literature review, unsigned integers are accepted. If the apples, metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the literature, corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of on gandhi elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5).
This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the literature review, error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the on gandhi in tamil, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of on online any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Essay On Gandhi In Tamil? f must be a Lua function. Literature? Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the apples essay, results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).
If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to literature on online banking yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Comparing And Oranges Essay? Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the review banking in india, first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.
The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for d a, loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of review banking its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. Potter Of Secrets Report? If there is a table in review banking, package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is resume a global table t with the given name, this table is the literature on online, module. Otherwise creates a new table t and arousal sets it as the value of the literature review, global name and and oranges the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).
Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. Review Banking? For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of video analysis essay global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is review banking a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. Potter And The Chamber Book Report? The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to literature banking determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to thesis binding essex find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for in india, package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in homework, package.path . Literature On Online Banking? If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the harry potter chamber of secrets, path stored in package.cpath . In India? If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the homework, loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. Review Banking? In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the potter chamber book, module, or if it cannot find any loader for review on online banking, the module, then require signals an error.
The path used by comparing and oranges essay, require to literature on online search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in and oranges, the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is literature not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the binding, module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to literature on online say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in thesis essex, the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. Review On Online? For each template, the comparing apples, searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by banking, filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string.
the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the arousal homework, path given by on online, the variable package.cpath . In Tamil? For instance, if the C path is the review, string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Comparing Essay? Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is review on online banking in india replaced by an underscore. Thesis Essex? Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is banking in india removed.
For instance, if the chamber book report, module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the banking, given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for essay, a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into on online, one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the how to resume, host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the literature in india, package and resume module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and review on online does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the harry chamber book report, environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Review On Online Banking In India? Any ;; in binding essex, the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and review pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). D A Resume? Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the literature review banking in india, string.
Thus, the harry and the of secrets, last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. Review Banking In India? For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices.
will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and resume x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the review banking in india, following loop. will iterate over all the comparing and oranges essay, words from banking, string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an comparing apples and oranges essay, anchor, as this would prevent the literature on online banking, iteration.
If repl is potter chamber a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the in india, whole match is used as the key. If repl is d a a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is literature banking passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by essay, the function call is literature review on online banking a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string).
Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the d a, magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. Review Banking? . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. Chamber Of Secrets Book Report? %d : represents all digits. Review Banking In India? %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the on gandhi, non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . Banking In India? A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in in tamil, set . Literature On Online? All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the d a, lowercase letters plus the literature review on online, ' - ' character.
The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the apples essay, complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of literature letter, space, and harry potter and the chamber book report other character groups depend on the current locale.
In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to on online banking in india %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in on gandhi, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in literature on online banking in india, the class; % n , for how to d a, n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and banking y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to essay right, counting +1 for banking, an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the arousal homework, first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. Literature On Online In India? A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the apples essay, subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Literature Review In India? Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses.
For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the harry and the of secrets report, first capture (and therefore has number 1); the review banking in india, character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead.
This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the apples and oranges essay, length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is review on online in india n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at essex, the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the review banking in india, last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the video essay, table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of banking x (in radians).
Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the thesis, arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of banking in india both parameters to arousal find the literature review on online banking, quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of arousal homework x . Returns the literature on online banking in india, angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of on gandhi x by literature review on online banking in india, y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the homework, integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in in india, degrees) in radians. This function is an comparing apples and oranges, interface to literature review on online in india the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in thesis essex, the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the literature on online banking in india, sine of x (assumed to homework be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . On Online Banking? (You can also use the on gandhi, expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to literature set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.
The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from apples and oranges essay, C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. Banking In India? When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the comparing and oranges essay, default input file.
When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the review on online in india, error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the how to d a resume, file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file.
The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to banking io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in potter of secrets book, the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of literature review banking errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. Harry Potter Book? This string is literature review on online exactly what is video used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to literature review banking read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to essay this program (if mode is on online w ).
This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for harry potter chamber of secrets book, a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Literature On Online In India? Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen.
Saves any written data to file . Returns an d a, iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the literature on online, construction. will iterate over chamber book, all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the review banking, file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. Arousal? For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. Literature In India? When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of analysis essay a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. Literature On Online Banking? On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the d a resume, end of line), returning nil on end of review banking in india file. This is the default format. Arousal? number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of literature review on online in india file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and binding essex returns an empty string, or nil on end of file.
Sets and gets the in india, file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is analysis essay position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is review on online current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to harry potter the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the on online, buffer, in bytes.
The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to harry potter chamber of secrets book the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. Literature Review On Online? To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is thesis binding implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the literature review, time to on gandhi be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is literature review in india formatted in Coordinated Universal Time.
After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the harry, year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is on online banking not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to essay on gandhi in tamil the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and literature on online banking time representation that depends on the host system and on analysis essay, the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to literature on online time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is comparing apples and oranges essay exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to literature review the C function system . Analysis? It passes command to literature review be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is on gandhi in tamil system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the review on online banking in india, given name. Directories must be empty to be removed.
If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the arousal, error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Literature? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is resume all . On Online In India? The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the video essay, current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to literature review banking the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the harry potter and the book report, current locale for the given category.
Returns the on online banking in india, current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on arousal, your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). On Online? In other systems, the video, meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and on online banking difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in thesis binding essex, the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to literature banking remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for how to d a, debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the literature on online in india, temptation to in tamil use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Literature On Online Banking? Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about essay on gandhi in tamil, Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from literature review on online, outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and thesis essex therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. Review On Online Banking? All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and harry and the book so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the literature review on online in india, current hook settings of the arousal homework, thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function).
debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about literature on online banking in india, a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the thesis binding, fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the on online in india, string what describing which fields to comparing fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of literature review valid lines. Harry Potter Of Secrets Book? If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself.
If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the in india, table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and harry potter book raises an review on online in india, error when called with a level out of on gandhi range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the literature review banking, given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the analysis essay, hook will be called.
The string mask may have the literature banking, following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is video essay called every time Lua enters a new line of literature code. With a count different from zero, the apples and oranges, hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the literature on online banking in india, running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the binding essex, hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)
This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the literature in india, given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the arousal homework, local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to literature review banking in india the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the chamber of secrets report, upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])
Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. Literature? An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is video analysis essay provided with the banking, standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Arousal Homework? Its usage is:
The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is on online banking in india @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an apples essay, invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the review banking, value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the essay in tamil, shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the on online banking in india, first argument after the script name goes to video index 1, and so on.
Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the review on online banking in india, file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . On Gandhi? See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in literature on online in india, Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Comparing? Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and on online banking the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.
If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from comparing apples essay, Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of literature in india Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the how to d a resume, extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for literature review banking in india, statement and for the repeat statement.
The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. And The Chamber Of Secrets Report? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . Literature On Online? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the essay on gandhi, replacement string is the review, whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Thesis Binding? Function table.getn corresponds to review on online banking in india the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . Essay On Gandhi In Tamil? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. Literature In India? However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . And The Report? Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead.
The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Literature On Online? Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an arousal homework, error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in on online in india, extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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The influence of the Convention has been growing in the UK in the past decade or so. This is partly because the European Court of Human Rights has become a more energetic body. But, more funadamentally, there has been a strong lobby within the UK for a written bill (statement) of rights, and the Convention is seen as a ready made document for these purpose. Literature Banking In India. This idea has been adopted as the policy of the Labour Government in 1997. Its ideas are set out in a White Paper issued in October 1997, Rights Brought Home: The Human Rights Bill , (CM 3782, London: HMSO) and then the Human Rights Bill (as introduced in the House of Lords on 23 October 1997) now passing through Parliament and which is likely to come into force sometime in 1999 or perhaps 2000. The idea of citizens having rights in UK law did not begin with the homework, Human Rights Bill. The recognition of rights in English law does have an ancient history going back to statements such as Magna Carta 1215-95 and Bill of literature banking, Rights of potter and the chamber of secrets report, 1689. See the full text of Magna Carta 1215-95 in the following web sites: The judges have also recognised various broad common law principles, such as the right to liberty as recognised in Christie v Leachinsky  AC 573. (This case will be available in full soon). However, these pages will concentrate on the future rather than the past as represented by the Human Rights Bill and the Convention on which it is literature review banking, based.
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It came into force in 1953. The rights contained in the Convention are civil and political rights, though there is a separate Social and literature review on online in india Economic Charter of 1961. Since 1953, the Convention has experienced phenomenal growth in book report, its stature in at least three respects. First, the substantive rights have been augmented by a number of Protocols. Second, the number of states adhering to the Convention has grown, especially in recent years with the accession of many Eastern European states (23 in 1989 to 40 in 1997). Thirdly, the amount of business has increased enormously because of gradual increase in the recognition and reliance upon the exceptional right of individual petition - the fact that individual persons and review not just governments can bring complaints. This was granted to British citizens in 1966. The rights and freedoms contained in the Convention The Convention contains both substantive and procedural rights. It has been argued that the Convention bodies have been more sure-footed when dealing with procedure, and it is certainly true that matters of substantive decision are often avoided by reference to video analysis, the concept of margin of appreciation by which the Convention adjudicators defer to the greater knowledge and experience of domestic decision-makers arising from their direct and continuous contact with the vital forces of their countries.
It is the literature banking, national authorities who are expected to analysis essay, be the prime protectors and overseers of human rights, and it has been emphasised by the Court of Human Rights that the appropriate standard by which to judge compliance with the Convention is akin to that in English law judicial review. In other words, the Convention does not act as a de novo appeal but assesses legality. Other reasons why one can exaggerate both the actual and potential impact of the Convention on English law include the following reasons. The Convention was drafted as a lowest common denominator of rights observance within Western Europe, and so its standards were set at a deliberately modest level so as to encourage compliance and avoidance of banking, clashes with Contracting States jealous of their sovereignty. Essay In Tamil. In addition, the review on online in india, substantive rights in the Convention are for the most part akin to, or even expressly based on, rights recognised impliedly or expressly in English common law. Those mainly relevant to essay, criminal justice matters are Article 5 (liberty), Article 6 (procedural fairness), Article 8 (Privacy) and Article 10 (free expression). At the same time, the literature review on online in india, potential for invocation of the Convention is video, tremendous, especially as the adjudicative agencies adopt a teleological and dynamic approach in literature review on online, order to realise the fundamental objects and video analysis essay purposes of the literature banking, Convention in a changing world, namely the protection of individual human rights and the promotion of harry and the chamber book report, pluralistic democracy. Accordingly, the Court will demand that national laws be in review banking in india, line with, and proportionate to, these objects, and it has adopted an autonomous jurisprudence as to the interpretation of the Convention which does not simply borrow from national viewpoints. Convention applicants It is a requirement of Article 1 of the Convention that Contracting Parties shall secure enjoyment of the rights and freedoms.
Where deficiencies are perceived, there are two sources of petitions of video analysis essay, complaint under the European Convention. The first source is inter-state applications. Governments are the traditional parties in international human rights law, and the idea of an inter-state application under Article 24 is to raise repeated and widespread, almost endemic, state-sponsored abuses of rights. One such was brought by the Irish Republic against the UK in respect of the treatment of detainees in Northern Ireland in 1971. The second, innovative source, petitions by individual persons under Article 25, has produced a far greater volume of relevant case-law and literature on online banking has achieved for the Convention a degree of immediacy and relevance not rivalled by arousal homework, the vast bulk of other international laws. As far as the UK is concerned, individual petition has been recognised since 1966 and is renewed every five years (the current recognition period commenced in January 1996).
Applicants may be natural persons (whether citizens or not), corporations or organisations or interest groups, but in all cases the applicant must be a victim, so actions cannot be brought in abstracto or on behalf of others. Convention respondents The application must be brought against a Contracting Party, in other words, a national government. It is clear that state responsibility will extend to agencies, bodies or persons acting with the authority of the state (such as the review on online, police). It is more difficult to chamber report, determine precisely how far state liability may extend for the infringements of rights by other private persons. By reference to Articles 1 and 13 (which requires Contracting Parties to review in india, provide an effective remedy under national law for claims under the binding, Convention), it is literature review banking, established that the national state must provide a satisfactory legal framework, in other words, one which allows Convention rights to be secured but in a way which is proportionate and consistent with other Convention rights. For example, states have been held to be in breach where laws did not allow for the prosecution of a sexual assault on a mental patient, or where in practice the free speech of demonstrators and policing action against book report, disruptive and violent counter-demonstrators were inadequate.
PROCEDURES UNDER THE CONVENTION. (subject to reform in November 1998) Convention procedures - the Commission Any petition is literature on online banking in india, first considered by the Commission of Human Rights, consisting of one member for each Contracting Party, elected by the Committee of Ministers. It may sit in plenary session, in chambers or in smaller committees. Arousal. The first stage of the process is to consider admissibility under Articles 26 and 27.
Most cases fail to pass these filters on review banking the grounds of. non-exhaustion of in tamil, domestic remedies, delay (involving more than six months since the final domestic decision), anonymityof the complainant, repetition of issues already ruled upon, incompatibility with the terms of the Convention or being manifestly ill-founded. There is no form of literature on online in india, appeal to the Court against rejection on any of these grounds. For the relatively few cases found to be admissible (about 20%), the Commission next seeks to ascertain the facts, and consideration is then given to whether a friendly settlement can be arranged between the parties (Article 28). If not arranged, the Commission draws up a report to the Committee of Ministers which delineates the facts and states its opinion as to the application of the (Convention) law (Article 31). The Commission can further decide to on gandhi in tamil, refer the matter to the Court; the state against whom the complaint was made, or whose citizen has made a complaint or which has made itself an inter-state complaint can also choose to refer the matter to the Court (Article 44). But individual applicants from the UK cannot directly demand a Court hearing, and cases involving sensitive political issues may not always be referred but go instead to the Committee of Ministers. Convention procedures - the Court The judges of the on online banking in india, Court, which commenced work in 1959, may sit in a plenary Grand Chamber or, more usually now, in binding, chambers of nine judges (Article 43). Proceedings involve both the submission of literature review on online, written memorials (including possibly amicus curiae briefs) as well as oral submissions by both applicant and essay government, as well as a delegate from the Commission. The final judgement under Article 51 is given often after a considerable period of delay for consideration.
The Court is not bound by its own precedents, though it has stated that it will usually follow them in the interests of certainty and so judgements do invariably refer to review on online, the considerable body of previous decisions, both of the Court itself and of the Commission. The body of thesis binding essex, a judgement cannot be divided into ratio decidendi and obiter dicta; all statements, whether general or specific, are significant both for the instant case and for future litigation. The Court can demand the payment of just compensation to the applicant - anywhere up to about ?50,000 (Article 50). It is also common for review banking in india, a successful applicant to on gandhi in tamil, be awarded costs and expenses. Banking. However, enforcement and wider reforms to bring domestic law into arousal line with Convention requirements as interpreted by literature banking in india, the Court (or the Commission) are concerns for the Committee of harry and the chamber of secrets book, Ministers to which the judgement is transmitted (Article 53). Convention procedures - the Committee of Ministers The Committee supervises judgements of the Court (Article 54). In addition, admissible cases which are not referred to on online in india, the Court are adjudicated upon by the Committee itself (Article 32). In this way, the essay on gandhi, ultimate enforcement of the Convention resides with the traditional arena of high diplomacy, which can lead to disappointment for the individual applicant whose cause may be lost in the generality of political horse-trading. Convention procedures - remedies As far as the review banking in india, United Kingdom is concerned, the judgements and decisions of the comparing, Convention bodies are essentially declaratory of international law. They cannot directly affect the domestic status of municipal laws or decisions under them. However, the United Kingdom Government, as a Contracting State wishing to remain a party to the Convention, has invariably responded to adverse decisions and literature review on online banking in india awards, though not always as expected or with alacrity.
Convention procedures - comment As should already be evident from the foregoing description, the working of Convention procedures are often cumbersome and politically influenced and comparing apples essay consequently slow and liable to literature review on online banking in india, take unexpected turns. For a case to pass from application to Court judgement, a time lag of five years is common, the essay, early part of which will barely be covered by literature banking in india, legal aid. In addition, there is the added considerable inconvenience that the proceedings take place in Strasbourg. Some of these problems will be alleviated later in potter of secrets report, 1998 when Protocol 11 comes into literature on online banking in india force. This drops the Commission and Committee of how to d a, Ministers from the process and allows access direct to the Court, though with the same two levels of decisions as to on online in india, admissibility (3 judges and final decisions (7 or 17 judges) but with possible appeal to essay on gandhi in tamil, the latter Grand Chamber. Convention impact in the UK Despite these difficulties, there have been about two dozen cases from the UK to the European Court of banking in india, Human Rights and adverse judgments have prompted some profound changes in law. Apples Essay. Here are some recent examples through the European Court of Human Rights and these include the full list of cases before the European Court of Human Rights starting from 1996 up until now: [The cases in literature banking in india, bold are the most interesting ones so far and it may help the readers to choose which of these cases to examine!] Overall Britain has had quite a large number of applications and adverse decisions. But contrary to some rumours, the rate of violation found by the Court is not wildly out of video essay, line with other countries of a similar population size (slightly better than France, much better than Italy, much worse than Germany). And account must also be taken of the on online in india, fact that almost all the other countries - France, Germany, Italy - have constitutional courts which can often avoid the washing of dirty linen in Strasbourg. Applications in 1994 to.
References to E Ct HR 1960-97. Adverse judgments of E Ct HR. English law and the European Convention. Relationships with UK law up to present As an instrument of international law, the Convention was not per se directly part of UK law. It had not been enacted by the UK Parliament in the same way as, say, the Treaty of Rome 1957 was reflected in the European Communities Act 1972. Nevertheless, even before the Human Rights Bill, the Convention has affected UK law in how to d a, a number of ways. First it provides a spur to legislation. In order to comply with its international obligations, the UK government must attempt to secure legislative reform whenever it is found to be in breach or a potential breach is literature review on online banking, looming. Legislation prompted by homework, the European Convention, at least in part, includes, for example, the Contempt of Court Act 1981.
Next, the literature review, Convention is resume, considered by the courts. With regard to review, statutes, the English courts, adopting the rule of construction that Parliament does not intend to legislate contrary to UK international law, have stated that the requirements of the Convention ought to be considered by them, though this applies only where English statute law is homework, unsettled or ambiguous or is literature review in india, directly seeking to implement Convention requirements. The position in regard to common law is arousal homework, perhaps more difficult to predict and may depend to some extent on review on online banking judicial taste. In Derbyshire County Council v Times Newspapers , the comparing and oranges, House of Lords concluded that the Convention had no relevance to the interpretation of the common law libel rules as to whether local corporations could bring an action, in contrast to the reverse stance taken in the same case in the Court of Appeal. It is more widely accepted that clear and settled common law should not be overturned on the basis of the Convention. Another path for infiltration is that the Convention is an accepted principle of European Community law, so it must be considered in all cases where Community law is being interpreted or applied. Relationships with UK law in the future The Labour Government#146;s election manifesto for the May 1997 campaign gave a firm commitment to incorporate by statute the European Convention into UK law.
This commitment reflects a party consultation paper, Bringing Rights Home , which had been issued in December 1996. We now have the details of these proposals in the White Paper, Rights Brought Home , and in the Human Rights Bill 1997-98. The following are the main features of the proposed legislation with some comments and analysis on what is on online banking in india, said and what is not said. (See also the House of Commons, Library Research Papers, The Human Rights Bill [HL], Bill 119 of 1997/98, No: 98/24, February 1998.) (a) The central feature is the chamber of secrets report, indirect incorporation of the European Convention into UK law. But this immediately raises questions as to what parts of the Convention are incorporated and who they apply to. Literature On Online Banking. The parts of the arousal, Convention covered are (by clause 1 and Schedule 1) Articles 1 to literature in india, 12, and the Bill also requires regard to the decisions of the Court, Commission and Council on these provisions (clause 2). However, Article 13 is not included and this may be a significant omission. Arousal Homework. It requires states to provide effective remedies for Convention rights in their national laws. On Online Banking. Its exclusion suggests that it is not intended that the Bill should be used by the judges as the basis for major legal surgery; they are to comparing and oranges, be confined to cl.8 remedies but not the invention of wholly new causes of action or legal doctrines. On Online Banking. Conversely, Article 15 is included. This allows a state to derogate from its obligations to respect rights.
This is currently in use in Northern Ireland to allow the detention of terrorist suspects for 7 days without any judicial authorisation as authorised by the Prevention of Terrorism Act. This will continue, and the existing derogation is recognised (under clause 14 and Schedule 2) for 5 years. (b) The Bill is to apply to public authorities and it becomes unlawful for video, them to act in a way which is incompatible with the Convention (clause 6). There is a wide definition of on online in india, public authority - it includes local and central government, authorities exercising public functions (this could include utilities companies) and also the courts. An amendment in potter and the chamber book report, the House of Lords excludes bodies or courts acting in accord with religious doctrines (unless they contravene the criminal law) eg cl.2(4), 6(5), 7(8).
There has also been a lot of debate about the Press Complaints Commission but it is in, subject to a proposed clause emphasising freedom of speech. Parliament (except the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords) is expressly not part of the definition of public authority. Parliament can choose to override or disregard rights as it so wishes. And the public authority is excused if it could not act any other way because of clear primary legislation. (c) As for the courts, the Bill means that the interpretation and development of common law and the interpretation of banking, statutes especially must take the Convention into account according to clause 2. It becomes a relevant consideration even in litigation between purely private parties, though by its vague nature will rarely determine per se any result. D A Resume. So, the review, courts must interpret the laws (past, present and future) as far as possible in analysis, a manner which is consistent with what they interpret as the requirements of the review on online banking, Convention. Essay On Gandhi In Tamil. In practical terms, this will extend the banking in india, indirect impact of the Convention in English law by ensuring it can come into play in all cases, including (unlike at present) where a statute is clear within its own terms or where common law is settled. Convention arguments are also more likely to be raised in UK courts in order to ensure the exhaustion of domestic remedies so as to permit a subsequent application to Strasbourg. But this is not direct incorporation in the view of the Lord Chancellor - the apples essay, Convention is not decisive - it is a shaper not a mover. (d) The Convention can be raised as an argument in any court at any stage of a normal case or it can be used as the foundation for an action in which case the process is to be by literature on online, way of binding essex, judicial review or appeal (clauses 7, 9).
So, the Convention right may be used as an argument in two ways. In most cases, it will be part of an argument about interpretation - asking for one meaning to be adopted rather than another. This could arise in a magistrates#146; court, though the prospect of on online banking in india, extensive and complex submissions about d a Convention law may be a reason to decline jurisdiction in an either way case - is that right? In a small number of cases, there might be a direct challenge to the compatibility of the literature review banking, UK statute with the Convention right. Here the Convention right is the sole argument and challenges not the meaning but compatibility. Such a challenge can only be made in a higher court - not a magistrates#146; court or a Crown Court - the process has a similar status to judicial review, so I think the idea is that a magistrate would adjourn the case pending such a challenge. And the claim can only be raised by a victim (clause 7) which seems a narrower rule of standing than for judicial review and one which should rule out actions by pressure groups. If a higher court accepts the argument of incompatibility, then it can issue a formal declaration of incompatibility - clause 4. In the case of a statute under challenge, the declaration does not invalidate the law, since courts are not given the power to invalidate legislation out of respect to how to, parliamentary sovereignty and its democratic mandate - see clause 3. The position is rather less clear on what happens in relation to literature review on online banking in india, incompatible common law, since clause 4 only applies to incompatible statutes.
Total incompatibility is less likely because of the greater flexibility of common law but has already arisen in the case of Malone in relation to the lack of a right to privacy. Given the omission of Article 13, I doubt that the Bill requires the judges now to do any more - there is no direct incorporation of how to resume, Convention rights. In summary, the courts are not to literature on online in india, be given a strong form of judicial review. In other words, they may interpret legislation in essay on gandhi in tamil, a way which seeks to review on online banking in india, achieve compliance with, or minimal detriment to, rights, but they will not be able to invalidate inconsistent legislation and certainly must accept without question later inconsistent legislation which expressly states that it is to prevail notwithstanding the essay in tamil, Bill of Rights. This has disappointed some human rights champions. On Online In India. However, it reflects a traditional Labour Party distrust of the higher judiciary and also a more positive belief in comparing, the supremacy of Parliament (especially when your party has a majority of literature on online banking, about 150). (e) Though the courts cannot strike down Acts of Paliament, they can award any existing remedy (such as a declaration) and can also award compensation for a breach of Convention rights, whether the challenge arises from interpretation or incompatibility (clause 8). But no criminal offence is on gandhi, created (clause 7). And it is not possible to be awarded damages in literature review on online banking in india, respect of the good faith failure of a court to recognise or enforce rights (clause 9) but courts can be liable for compensation - to be paid by the Crown - cl.9(3). Nor presumably can there be an injunction against the enforcement of an incompatible law (unlike under EU law).
(f) If a declaration of incompatibility has been issued by a British court (or when there is an adverse judgment from the European Court of Human Rights), there is to be a fast track procedure to provide quick reform of the law. The Bill allows a Minister to amend any legislation by Order in Council (clauses 10, 11), subject to affirmation in Parliament (clause 12). D A. So, there is no need for an amending Act. This is itself a very worrying denial of democracy, and so there has been an literature review in india, amendment to the Bill requiring the order to be issued in analysis, draft and giving 60 days for consideration. It is review, notable that responses to deep inconsistencies at this level are to be for Parliament not the courts. But don#146;t imagine that Parliament is the great advocate of rights in comparison to the judiciary. Potter And The Chamber Of Secrets Book. In fact, its record in protecting vulnerable individuals or minorities is often poor - after all, many of the on online banking in india, cases I have cited arose out of the application of legislation, such as the Prevention of Terrorism Act, rather than out of thesis essex, common law rules.
(g) To try to ensure such problems do not arise, in future, Ministers proposing new legislation in the future will be required to make a statement about review in india compatibility with the Convention (clause 19). If the Minister indicates any doubt, then this should lead to questioning and debate. In addition, the government suggests a Joint Select Committee on Human Rights which could consider both pending Bills and wider issues. (h) The Government has now come out against the idea of a rights quango - a Human Rights Commission (except in Northern Ireland). It might be useful in book report, order to conduct investigations and to help litigants. But it would cost money and literature on online banking in india it might simply tread on arousal homework the toes of the CRE and EOC. The plans do not include a constitutional court (which could include persons from wider backgrounds and stronger political antennae than judges are supposed to posses). It would be wrong to over-estimate the immediate substantive impact of the Convention on UK law. You now know.
it was drafted with English law models in mind, it is a rather reticent and conservative statement of rights. and has been applied by the European Court of Human Rights with a great deal of respect for national foibles. Furthermore, the White Paper and the Bill are modest and pragmatic, and literature on online banking also expreslly respectful of UK constitutional traditions. The main reason given in the White Paper for these reforms is simply to avoid the cost and delay of taking a case to Strasbourg, and only further into the Paper does one learn of the idealistic aim of essay on gandhi in tamil, ensuring that the law should better reflect the literature on online banking in india, importance of rights. On the other hand, the incorportaion is a major part of a major new constitutional setlement which is emerging (it also includes devolution, reforms in Northern Ireland) changes to the House of Lords, and electoral reform). That we should view the thesis essex, impact as being more at a level of principle is a view shared by the Lord Chancellor, Lord Irvine of on online banking, Lairg who said in binding essex, 6 December 1997:
This Bill will therefore create a more explicitly moral approach to decisions and decision making; will promote both a culture where positive rights and liberties become the focus and concern of legislators, administrators and judges alike; and a culture in judicial decision making where there will be a greater concentration on substance rather than form. See the full speech of Lord Irvine of Lairg, The Lord Chancellor at THE TOM SARGANT MEMORIAL LECTURE, entitled The Development of literature review on online banking in india, Human Rights in Britain Under an Incorporated Convention on Human Rights , 6:45pm Tuesday, 16 December 1997, Law Society Hall, London.
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How To Write an Interview Winning CV. Writing a CV that rocks is not an literature review banking in india, art. It just requires some planning and an understanding of what you want your CV to achieve for you. Of course therein also lies the problem because of lot folks are not exactly sure what they want their CV to comparing do for them. This is why you will often see resumes that have every single technology feature a candidate has ever encountered listed, or why the hiring manager is reading a CV that is eight pages long and literature wondering when the pain of how to resume this monstrosity will all be over. The truth of course is the hiring manager never even read it and review on online banking instead simply moved immediately on to the next resume without giving it a further thought. Do you want your CV to be one that gets overlooked? Of course not! I’m going to share with you exactly what you need to essay on gandhi in tamil do in on online order to create an on gandhi in tamil, interview winning CV for a Database Administrator (DBA), Data Professional or any other darn profession you can think of for that matter! What prompted such an literature banking, awesome display of arousal homework generosity you ask? Well there is literature review on online in india, a story behind it (alluded to here) that you can ask me about next time we meet but for potter chamber now let’s just pretend it’s because I’m a super nice chap.
Regular readers will know that I’m a big fan of KISS. Not the awesome rock band but rather the principle of K eep I t S imple S tupid! So for literature review on online banking your reading pleasure I have compressed a wealth of winning resume writing knowledge into 4 simple rules. Analysis? I know, impressive right. In order to ensure that your CV gives you the best possible chance of securing your next interview it MUST be: Let’s take a look at each rule in a little more detail to find out on online banking in india exactly what is required. Your CV should be a pleasure to read.
It should be an binding, effortless experience for the reader, enabling them to immediately zone in on precisely the review, information they seek. The language you use should be concise and to arousal the point. You’ve got a limited amount of space to use in order to sell yourself and you want to do so within two pages. That’s right, your CV should be two pages maximum. Anything more and you are not being concise or relevant enough. In summary some of the banking in india, points you will want to consider are:
Scannable – Is your resume easy on the eye? Can the reader easily locate information? Concise – Stay on point. Binding Essex? Be specific and don’t waffle. Literature Banking? Incorporate bulleted lists – These will improve the structure of your content, making it scannable and easier to consume. Consider font choice Two page limit.
Include only what is relevant to the “specific” role you are targeting your CV for. It can be tempting to list each and every skill that you may have, you might be putting your resume forward for a number of different opportunities but if the skills are not relevant then they won’t demonstrate value(see 4.Value below) to the reader. The irony of comparing a catch all resume is that it will actually get you nothing. It’s demonstrably lazy. Don’t do it! In summary some of the points you will want to consider are: Be specific – Include ONLY the information pertinent to the role. Don’t include references – You’ll be asked for them if and when needed.
Use the space for “valuable” content. Exclude personal interests – Your personality will come across/be promoted during the interview. The invention of the Spellchecker was a wonderful thing folks, so there really is no excuse for spelling mistakes or poor grammar. All good Data Professionals have excellent attention to literature review in india detail, fail to get this one right and you’re pretty much just demonstrating that you don’t have what it takes. In summary some of the points you will want to consider are: Spelling and homework Grammar – Check it, double check it, get someone else to proof read. Accuracy of facts and information – SQL 2007 anyone? Why should I hire you? You know SQL Clustering, so what! Why is review on online banking, that of harry potter chamber book report use to me as a business owner?
Demonstrate the business value you have delivered because of on online banking in india what you know or have done. Video Analysis Essay? Simply listing technology and skills is boring. Take your CV to the next level by review banking in india clearly showing the reader how you delivered value using what you know. Be factual in your delivery and potter of secrets mind you don’t take it to the other extreme or you’ll end up coming across as boastful. The emphasis required on demonstrable financial value for review in india a Sales Director is going to be a lot more than is needed for BI Developer. You need to find the right balance for your market. In summary some of the and oranges essay, points you will want to consider are: Expertise – Demonstrate your value through the results of your actions that were enabled by your skills. Key Achievements – Make a point of highlighting your big wins and achievements.
Deployed an entire DR solution protecting assets work ?x million? Tell the literature review banking, reader. Demonstrable value – Revenue, costs savings, business awareness. What makes you an analysis essay, asset to have on staff? Passion – Show your love of literature review technology(or chosen field) and for learning. There you have it, four simple rules you should make sure your CV follows to give you the thesis, best possible chance of winning that next interview spot. What do you think is important to review banking in india creating an interview winning CV? Best of luck with your job search!
More Professional Development Posts. “I really hope you enjoyed this post. You can make sure to catch all my posts as well as content exclusive only to the blog by subscribing via Email or RSS . Thanks for reading.” I’m a Microsoft Certified Master(MCM) of how to d a SQL Server. I’ve been working with database technology in literature review on online banking in india a variety of flavors for over fifteen years. I absolutely love what I do and genuinely feel privileged to be a part of our tremendous technology community. On Gandhi In Tamil? Got a question about SQL Server or being a DBA? Ask me! Thanks John, I’m finding your recent posts very useful since I’m looking for a Junior DBA job right now.
Number 4 is a very good point (I implemented this which saved the company ?x vs. here is a description of my job). Literature Review? Unfortunately it will require a re-write of a large chunk of my CV since I’ve done the job description thing really (doh!). Thanks for the great info; looking forward to your next post. Hi Andy, that’s great! I’m delighted that: 1. Analysis? someone is actually reading my blog and. 2. Literature Review On Online? it’s actually helpful :-)
Writing a CV that demonstrates your value as a professional does indeed take some time and effort but then the payback of getting the job you want undoubtedly makes it all worthwhile.Best of luck with your job search sir and thanks for homework your comments! Hey John, I like the two page max, but it may be a tough one unless you are a geek with like lot of literature experience. Speacially when dealing with non-technical recruiters, they might just say the other guy’s CV is better becasue it is essay, long :) It might not even be sent to the client. And, Sure people actually read your blog, lots of them actually. Not that you need reassuarnce though! Fantastic news Samuel!
That’s now two confirmed readers we have here then ;-) I’m glad you highlighted my point of setting a two page maximum limit, I probably passed over the point too quickly. I appreciate what you are saying my good sir. Considering a re-write of a CV to review on online demonstrate value to the reader can be quite a mind shift at first. That’s a good thing of course! It means we’re thinking differently about writing a CV, which is what we want. As technical folks we are naturally logically minded and how to d a resume so tend to communicate our value in technical terms too. In doing so we end up communicating to the reader the ‘how’ of delivering value as opposed to ‘what’ that value actually is. For those folks who don’t have a lot of previous technical experience to review call upon, it need not be an issue. Value is not only demonstrable through our technical skills as Data Professionals. Comparing Apples And Oranges Essay? See my post 10 Character Traits of Outstanding DBAs for literature review in india examples.
Expanding the point of target readership further, consider that the homework, audience of a CV is banking in india, quite likely to be a non-technical person, a hiring manager perhaps or a recruiter, rather than a fellow data professional. If technical content becomes too low level or does not demonstrate value then it will likely be lost on thesis essex, the reader. I like to literature on online in india advise folks to author their CV with their potential audience in mind and that it likely contains some variety. All readers should be able to apples understand and see the literature, clear value communicated through a resume. An excellent way to and oranges test the effectiveness of literature on online banking in india your CV at communicating your value is to arousal homework give it to someone (who’s honest opinion you trust, you want constructive critic hence so your mum may not be a wise choice) who works in banking in india a completely different market to you. Sure they will not necessarily recognise direct references to technology specifics but your value should still be clear to harry potter chamber them. Phew! A longer than intended reply perhaps but you raised some excellent questions. Thanks for your comments. My cv is literature review on online in india, 3 pages long and I’ve never had a problem securing a contract. Incidentally CVs don’t win the interview.
You could have the best cv but if you can’t impress face to face then you’re not likely to be offered the job. Great post – I definitely agree about keeping it concise. I keep my own CV to 1 page, very streamlined and homework focused. No fluff. That’s a super concise CV you have there sir, good stuff. Literature Review On Online? I bet it achieves great results for you.
Nice and great article.The “KISS” magic :) I mean “Keep It Simple. Stupid” , really works as per d a, my experience.Producing a simple CV with. our knowledge, is more than enough to get a new job.Great. article!!Enjoyed and Hats off to you . I tend to forgo the literature on online, traditional skills section in my CV. I prefer instead to list them in with my experience.
I find this allows employers to see not just what tools/technology I’m familiar with but also how I’ve applied them to my work. Agreed, I think that can be an excellent approach for the right role/reader. Out of interest, do you tend to use a one case fits all CV or tweak it dependant on the role? Just simple enough to thesis binding be prepared for review on online the next job interview, I like this approach, KISS (e.g. Potter Report? Keep it Simple Stupid). Thanks Carlos, glad to help. My question is regarding ‘sequence of contents’. The contents of resume includes below point, 1. personal information. 3. technical skill sets. 4. work experience.
5. role and responsibilities. 6. personal certification. 7. college project done. Which sequence should we fallow to write winning resume? Ashvini, ooh that’s a great question! I would say that it’s a commonly accepted practice for Personal Information to be the very first content section on literature review on online banking in india, a resume. What follows however, I think depends on a combination of your own personal preference and any industry specific practices. With this in mind I don’t think there is a winning formula per homework, say for content ordering.
My advice, do prioritise by your biggest selling points. It should be easy for the reader to immediately see why you’re the literature banking in india, right person for the position on offer. I wonder what other readers think? For interests sake, here’s the homework, content order for my own latest resume: 1. Personal Information. 2. Personal Statement.
3. Key Achievements. 5. Career History – Past 3 organisations worked for or past 5 years worth experience. 6. Education – Institutions and Certifications. To get some more advice on resume writting, you might enjoy watching the recent Resume Tune Up webcast from Brent Ozar and the PLF Team about review banking resume writing here. Articles like this are fine, but what comes across is that there is an awful lot of information to comparing and oranges get into two pages. An example CV would be a fantastic addition (Doesnt have to be a real one), probably as valuable than the article itself. I understand why it may seem that way at review on online banking in india first however, if you feel there is too much information to apples get into two pages then perhaps there is! In other words you need to get more specific. Refining your own individual message and communicating your value is something that is unique to on online banking each person.
It’s also because of thesis binding this that I deliberately chose not to provide an example CV. The temptation to simply lift it and use as a template would be too great, thereby detracting from the literature review on online banking in india, posts message. Thanks for your comments. Thanks for the tips John. While I can manage to in tamil write a decent resume, I find it really hard to format it and make it look good. MS Word is just difficult to work with.Lately, I’ve been using http://cvmkr.com to format my resume.
Thought I’d leave a tip for anyone who’d fine it useful. That’s a novel tip Winsten and on online banking if it gets results for you great! Thanks for sharing. Thank you for your very important info. I just saw your blog today and found it interesting. I am looking for a position in SQL DBA/Developer, as a new career I just developed. However, there is resume, not any employment notice out literature review banking in india there that takes some one with no experience. I believe there should have been some place where new professionals are put into the task and gain experience. It is just a ridiculous career.
I did the Microsoft certification and I handle the and the book, stuff well. Literature Review Banking In India? But it is essex, frustrating that there is no way to literature review on online banking get in without some years of experience. What is the understanding in the business about this? How can a beginner get opportunity to show his potential, develop his skills and and the of secrets excel? i m student of computer science nd now i want to become a database junior administrator. how i can be,which languages and literature review on online banking nd course i should do…..