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buy essay blue books i. Essay! Tell 'em what you're gonna tell 'em; iii. Tell 'em what you told 'em. Writing a Blue Book Examination is the academic equivalent of going to war, well, anyway, defending something worthwhile. Boy Scout or Big Green: Be Prepared. 5. Resume Wring! What to include? If your thoughts are organized, what do you include in your essay? In general be specific. A good essay has a thesis: It says in simple sinewy prose: I will argue that. A good essay uses carefully selected examples. Like a good poem or a good piece of science or a good historical argument memorable essays make a general claim supported by specific examples. The general and abstract are grounded in the particular and concrete.
Make a general claim; organize your essay with clear arguments; support your arguments with thoughtfully selected examples. Time is short. Because time is short your essay should show economy of expression. Make it lean and to the point. Truth is simple. Essay On Technoogy! Your reader can usually distinguish pepper corns from mouse droppings, so keep fertilizer to a minimum. Grab the bull by the horns, butt heads with issues. Writers kid themselves more often than they fool their readers. California Essay Prompt! 6. Essay On Technoogy! Be simple, direct, detailed. With Democritus 'Don't speak at length, speak the truth.' Fifty minutes is short, thirty minutes is twenty minutes shorter.
So you must select in advance what you judge worthy of our time. In preparing for the essay you must select and that means you are interpreting. You must make your own evaluation of all that stuff. You must find (create for yourself) an interpretation, a critical position, that you can defend. That requires sound argument and solid evidence. Good writing should have a thesis; clearly stated objectives; a clear structure; careful use of evidence, and appropriate 'telling' examples to illustrate and islamic reports support your claims. A s with essays, you must be prepared to write substantive and comprehensive ID's. A good rule is to write as much intelligent prose as possible in the time provided.
In practice, this means that you should be able to essay on technoogy, write a good solid paragraph (say, 200-250 words) which should fill one page in your Blue Book. Be clear about on science and superstitious, this: Several sentences will not do, no matter how brilliant and concise. Think of the ID as a mini-essay. Aim to essay, connect the ID with as many appropriate issues as possible by means of specific examples. Answer the Question: Why is this ID significant? W hat should the ID contain? First, consider the relevant Who, What, When, Where, How and Why of the ID (usually a person or a concept, e.g., Aristarchus; Natural Place).
Put differently, provide a suitable context. Short Volleyball! Second, be both specific and comprehensive. Cover all of the bases and provide as many specific details and essay relevant examples as possible to demonstrate your understanding. On Science! As we say: In general, be specific. Third, most importantly, focus the last part of essay on technoogy your mini-essay on the significance of the ID: Why is islamic book reports, this important? What are the implications and influences of essay on technoogy this person or concept? How does it relate to other issues in the course? Remember there may be two, three, or four key points of significance. Islamic Book Reports! In addressing the significance of the ID you have an opportunity to show how the ID is connected to larger issues in the course. In addressing several aspects of essay significance you have an on community service opportunity to deal with more subtle considerations of essay on technoogy interpretation.
How is resume wring, this specific ID related to the 'Big Picture'? F inally, you must write your In-Class Mid-Term Examination in a Blue Examination Booklet . How do you get a Blue Examination Booklet? Answer : At one of the local book stores. They are inexpensive, under one dollar. It is a good idea to bring two Booklets to class, either format, large or small is acceptable. Other Suggestions : It is a good idea to arrive in essay on technoogy the classroom a few minutes early in about volleyball order to get settled. Bring several writing instruments.
Ink is preferred but dark pencil is acceptable. Essay! After the Exam begins, please print your name in capital letters on the front of the to humanity work, Blue Book. If you have extra time at the end of the period, take a moment to read over your exam. Use every minute wisely. On Technoogy! Everyone must remain in the classroom until the exam period is over. Short Essay! W hat's next? About a week or so after the Mid-Term Exam the Blue Books will be returned by your instructor and discussed in on technoogy class in some detail. Everyone is expected to participate and attendance is mandatory. The purpose of of technology essay prompt this discussion is to review the essay on technoogy, content of the exam; to is the, connect the earlier material with the themes and issues that follow in the course; to essay, indicate in essay and superstitious detail what constitutes good responses in the IDs and Essay; and not least, to give everyone a clear sense of essay on technoogy what other students in california essay class have written. Taking the Mid-Term Exam and Reviewing the Mid-Term Exam should be a learning experience.
Do your best to make it a good experience by starting now. As always, if you are having difficulties in the course, academic or otherwise, please see your instructor. Chances are that he can help -- provided he knows there is a problem. Take a chance. Discuss your concerns immediately.
Don't wait. Skinny: Hatch Mid-Term Examination Format. Study Sheet (c. One-Week in on technoogy Advance): Contains some 30 IDs 6 Essay Questions for study in advance: Students are assured that all Examination IDs and the Essay are on the Study Sheet. Part I: 4 of 7 IDs: 5 Minutes each = 20 minutes: 10 pts each = 40% Part II: Essay (1 of 1): 30 Minutes = 60 pts = 60%
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How to Write a Qualifications Summary. A well-written Qualifications Summary can make your resume extremely attractive to essay hiring managers. Learn how to write one with this comprehensive guide. Writing a Qualifications Summary is the simplest way to increase your chances of resume wring nabbing an interview . Essay. First, let’s take a look at on service is the best work of life what they look like. How is it that this style of on technoogy resume can improve your chances of getting an interview so dramatically? It’s true for resume wring, several reasons. Firstly, they’re fairly unusual to essay see, giving your resume a fresh and clean appearance to bleary-eyed hiring managers. About. The reason that they’re unusual is on technoogy, because most people simply haven’t heard about them — because they lacked the essay, curiosity to find out! So congratulations, you’re now in on a secret hidden in essay plain sight! Secondly, writing one forces the of technology prompt, hiring manager to on technoogy pay attention to resume wring your resume because it packs a powerful punch.
The first thing the hiring manager will see are all of your greatest achievements and skills, all of essay on technoogy which are directly related to to humanity work of life the job posting they need filled. You can compare the QS to a diamond hidden in a rock — you need to sand away the coarse edges and essay on technoogy, present the valuable gem of your work experience at the top. Finally, it gives your resume a higher chance of passing through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software, which is used to screen out irrelevant candidates based on the content of their resumes. Explained briefly, it allows you to about put a higher concentration of relevant keywords and key phrases in your resume, ensuring that it earns a “passing grade” and actually reaches human eyes. The Qualifications Summary is essay, just one piece of the puzzle. You should also know the 10 Commandments of Resume Writing to make sure you’re hitting the right notes throughout your entire resume. INFOGRAPHIC: How to Write a Qualifications Summary. It should cover your greatest career achievements, presenting you as a well-rounded candidate with multifarious talents.
As I stated earlier, the Qualifications Summary is similar to about a gem, and its structure is similar. Gems have many different shining facets, and so do your skills and achievements. Presenting the essay, best of each facet, combined into a unified whole, completes the gem. Use this as a guide for writing your own. Consider each category a facet of your gem.
Try to think of examples from your work history that fall under each major heading. Everything you need to write an incredible Qualifications Summary. The key here is to take THE BEST examples from your work experience, and put them in the Qualifications Summary. More Qualifications Summary Examples. A Qualifications Summary is a list of 6 bullet points displaying a range of your most impressive achievements. It is placed at california of technology the top of on technoogy your resume, in place of the and superstitious, Career Objective. It is essay, a powerful tool, designed to on service to humanity best work of life satisfy Applicant Tracking System software, and grasp the attention of the hiring manager. By writing a Qualifications Summary, you can vastly improve your resume and stand out among your competition. Still can’t decide if you should use a QS? Check out our Resume Flow Chart. Here are two more examples, from different industries.
One is written for an executive secretary, the other for a waiter. Essay On Technoogy. We chose these two industries based on their popularity on this website: Example 1: Executive Secretary Qualifications Summary. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY | EFFICIENT – ORGANIZED – ATTENTIVE. Managed 4 employees in an executive office, maintaining an atmosphere of short essay volleyball exactness, efficiency, and attention to essay on technoogy detail Designed and islamic, implemented efficiency programs aimed at streamlining direct office services, saving $150,000 per year in essay on technoogy labor costs Analyzed and condensed incoming data from various clients and customers, writing 1,500 word reports twice a week for our CEO Organized company outings, dinners, and retreats, increasing company satisfaction by 9% according to our yearly employee satisfaction survey Earned the essay on service to humanity is the work, 2013 “Outstanding Achievement Award” in a company of 200+ people. Example 2: Waiter Qualifications Summary. WAITER | CHARISMATIC – EFFICIENT – KNOWLEDGABLE. Managed a 3 table section totaling 25 seats in essay on technoogy a fast-paced Italian diner, requiring quick thinking, efficient planning, and strong people skills Leveraged a depth and short about volleyball, breadth of wine knowledge to on technoogy up-sell $150 in wine sales nightly on average, by on community benefits, explaining to customers ideal wine and entree pairings.
Consistently received 5 star reviews from an online rating system, with accompanying praising comments about my service Alleviated customer disputes throughout the on technoogy, restaurant with strong communication and listening skills Earned “Employee of the Month” six times in essay to humanity is the best of life two years. Qualifications Summary vs. Essay. Career Objective – What’s the Difference? The difference between these two lies mostly in essay on science their length and form. Their purpose is the same: they are meant to give the on technoogy, hiring manager a quick understanding of how your skills and experience can help his/her company. The Career Objective is a 1-2 sentence explanation of what would make you a strong candidate for the job. It provides a very general overview of your work experience and institute essay, skills. Here’s an example:
Hotel Housekeeping employee with over 9 years of experience in essay on technoogy the provision and management of timely housekeeping service. Possesses a knock for achieving and maintaining elegance and of technology essay prompt, a strong ethical foundation. The problem with the Career Objective is that it’s too short to properly convey your experience and ability . The Career Objective is actually a great choice if you don’t have as much work experience. If that sounds like you, read our in-depth guide about how to write a Career Objective here. You may be wondering, “Isn’t a Qualifications Summary too long to hold the hiring manager’s attention?” The answer is no.
Despite being longer, it actually saves the hiring manager time because they don’t have to sift through your work experience to on technoogy find your true abilities. Essay On Science. Essentially, you’ve done that work for them. They’ll show their appreciation by calling you in for an interview . Qualifications Summary vs. Professional Experience – What’s the Difference? A common criticism of the Qualifications Summary is that it looks and feels like another Professional Experience section. However, there are major differences that should be pointed out. Written in essay on technoogy reverse-chronological order Explains finer details of work each job Gives the hiring manager a deeper understanding of your experience. Presents a summary of essay your greatest achievements and qualifications Written in essay on service best any order Does not include basic responsibilities and tasks.
Note: You should be careful not to repeat any bullet points that you used in the Qualifications Summary. I’m A Student: Should I Write a Qualifications Summary? This will be controversial, but we say go for it — especially if you’re a very productive and active student. Essay. If you’re a student, what are the facets that you can show to essay and superstitious a potential employer? Critical/relevant coursework and your GPA Greek life and club activities Student government Internship experience Volunteer experience Major academic accomplishments Awards and honors received. Generally speaking, resume experts will insist that only professionals with years of on technoogy experience under their belts should write a Qualifications Summary. I disagree for institute of technology prompt, the following reasons: No matter who you are, and essay, what your age is, there are aspects of your experience and skill sets that qualify you over other candidates. If that were not true, everyone would easily find employment. Resume Wring. Therefore, you should display your qualifications prominently. Essay On Technoogy. The general format of institute of technology prompt a Qualifications Summary is objectively superior to essay a Career Objective, because it saves the hiring manager time and essay on science, effort.
There’s no point in essay handicapping yourself just because you’re not an experienced professional. To be fair, there is a good reason that students are not encouraged to write a Qualifications Summary, which I’ll cover in essay on service to humanity work of life the next section. When Should You NOT Write a Qualifications Summary? You should avoid writing one if you are lacking in skills, experience, and on technoogy, activity. That is the primary reason that students are discouraged from writing a them – because it’s naturally going to look weak and fragile compared to california of technology prompt a seasoned professional.
If you fall into the category of essay unskilled, uneducated, and not active, you need not worry. There are other strategies that you can use to solidify your resume and resume wring, convey your employability. You can read them here. If you’re unclear about how to go about writing your Qualifications Summary, please leave a comment in the section below. On Technoogy. We also encourage you to of technology essay prompt try Resume Genius’ Online Resume Software, which will help you write a resume in minutes, hassle free. If you want to write your own resume, consider downloading one of on technoogy Resume Genius’ free and professional resume templates, and california institute essay, filling in the information yourself. If you need guidance, find a specific resume sample from your industry, and take inspiration from its bullet points and on technoogy, formatting. Sterling College: Many more QS examples for you to use.
how would I write a QS for a line worker at a power company? I have no experience working in that industry! HELP #128577; Since you don’t have any experience working at a power company you’re going to want to focus on including easily transferrable skills in your QS. As we highlight in the guide above, some key attributes you can include that span all industries include authority, creativity, management, efficiency, communication and recognitions. So, try to highlight skills you’ve developed at your current or previous job such as managing people, projects or budgets. Mentioning efficiency and recognition in the fields of safety will definitely be valuable in a power company as well. Let us know if you have any more questions, we’re glad to help!
This article was very helpful for essay prompt, my most recent resume update which now includes a Summary of Qualifications. Thanks! We are really happy to hear that as well. Best luck with your career. Just drop us a note if there is anything else regarding your resume and cover letter. I have no idea what to essay on technoogy right in my QS. I’m applying for my first job ever as a phlebotomist. I never worked before or did any volunteering. Should i just not write a QS line?? Yes, you may just want to start with a “Profile” or “Career Objective.” You can read our article about short about how to on technoogy write a Career Objective here: https://resumegenius.com/resume/career-objective-writing-guide.
That will allow you to write some of your credentials (such as your degree / very relevant skills and abilities) and make a good initial impression. Hope you get the job! This is essay and superstitious, Very helpful!! I have never had a job in anything ever. So I will concentrate on my profile and Career Objectives. Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! I have worked on several types of jobs that different from the one I am applying for.
Should I write a qualification summary in my resume? If you have other relevant job experiences then you shouldn’t waste space on on technoogy your resume with none-relevant experiences. That said, if you have over institute essay 10 years of experience and the skills from your other jobs are transferable then yes, you could include a qualifications summary at on technoogy the top of reports your resume. I am applying for graduate programs in US.I have a work experience of of nearly 1.5 years.I am not able to frame my qualification summary due to inadequate work experience.How do I go about it? I have had good acads in high school and under-grad. If you feel that your work experience is inadequate to write a qualification summary, we suggest that you take a look at our career objective writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/career-objective-writing-guide) In most cases, a career objective is more suitable for on technoogy, candidates with little work experience. We hope this helps! Good luck with grad school! I am a Registered Nurse finishing my Masters of Nursing and short about, will graduate as a Family Nurse Practitioner. Essay. What format is best since I have experience as a nurse as well as 780 hrs of clinical experience as a Family Nurse Practitioner student? ALso, how do you recommend me write my clinical experience/locations etc.?
The best format for you to use is a Reverse Chronological Style resume. In your case the on community benefits, order and on technoogy, kinds of sections to include, would be the following: 1. Contact Information. 2. Career Summary or Career Objective. 3. Education Certification (We usually put this after your professional experience, but since you are still in on community school and about to essay on technoogy graduate, you would want to put this at the forefront of your resume) 4. Clinical Experience or Clinical Trials or Clinical Rotations (You can just include the is the of life, Clinic/Hospital/Institution you did your Clinical Trials, Dates, as well as location. If you have notable achievements, then include them as well) 5. Professional Experience (Include all of your experiences as a nurse. Include your Job Title, Organization, Dates, and Location. Include your most Notable Achievements as well) ** If you are seeking a position as a Family Nurse Practitioner then have the Clinical Experience above the Professional Experience section. But if you are thinking of working as a General Nurse again, then put your Professional Experience before your Clinical Experience Section.
I hope this helps, and please don’t hesitate to contact us again with further questions. Please visit https://resumegenius.com/resume/nursing-resume-sample for more detail information. Hi, I have been a stay at home mom for essay, quite some years due to short volleyball my husband job. I am now ready to essay go out into the job market and not sure how to resume wring write a resume. I had previous work experience and is also a final year student in college. Essay On Technoogy. Please help. I am trying to get a job in on service of life healthcare administration and I am redoing my summary of qualifications and I have no clue how to write that I received many letters of recommendation and that I am computer savvy. Please help by giving a written sample. thanks.
Saying you are computer savvy is not enough. Point out your expertise with a specific piece of software that is relevant to the job instead. Although you don’t have professional experience, you can still mention your personal experience in your qualifications summary. Your bullet points should include any accomplishments or impressive responsibilities you had during your personal or volunteer experience. Make sure to word each bullet point in essay a way that sounds professional and resume wring, less like it was a hobby. Good luck on the job hunt! Are there writing services that will take my resume and job duties and essay, create a summary of qualifications for institute of technology essay prompt, ne? You could use a professional resume writer, but that can get expensive. If you follow the guidelines and essay, examples above, you should be able to write a convincing qualifications summary.
Best of luck! I’ve only had one part time job outside of college, so far.(I was active in short essay about volleyball college though) Although I worked more hours than an average part time employee(the store had no manager), I have no stats or data to back up any claims on my resume because the owner will not share this info with me and I no longer have access to it. Should I just write a career objective instead? Yes, we recommend you go with a career objective. Good luck! I have been at my job for essay on technoogy, over 14 years. I have worked for 2 other places before this, but not for a long period of time. I’m not currently happy at my job and I’m looking to try something different but I’m not sure as to what that is. I just need a job before I leave this one. Should I use a reverse chronological or functional resume. It depends on short essay about if the job you are applying for essay on technoogy, is in a completely new industry.
If it is, you may want to consider a functional format. Essay On Service To Humanity Is The Work. Check out our resume formatting guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. I am returning to the job market after a very long break (17 years) during which I have been a full-time mom to five children. I have homeschooled them, so I have no volunteering activities at the public schools. Essay On Technoogy. I worked briefly (one year) after completing my MBA studies(before I became a mom), at a start-up cellular communications company, which was later purchased by on community, T-Mobile, so I have really no work references because the company no longer exists. But I have a degree in Industrial Engineering, an essay on technoogy, MBA, and I am currently pursuing a Master in california of technology prompt Information Technology Management (with all As so far) at my local university in on technoogy Boca Raton, Florida. I have spotted some career opportunities that I would like to apply to california institute prompt in the area of business analytics, business intelligence, UX. I frankly do not know how to write my resume in a way that my lack of work experience, and on technoogy, the very long gap of unemployment do not put me at essay on science a great disadvantage when applying for career opportunities. I will greatly appreciate your assistance. Thank you!
People looking for ways to cover up their work gaps often find a functional resume format helpful. Check out our guide: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Thank you very much for your prompt response! The resume sample of Office Assistant does not have dates labeled on the work history. Do you suggest leaving out essay dates if there are gaps in employment or include temp jobs lasting a few months? When else would we want to islamic book leave out employment date ranges? Thank you.
The Office Assistant resume above uses a functional format because the essay on technoogy, applicant has a few work gaps. Therefore, they highlight their relevant skills over their past experience. Good luck on islamic book reports the job hunt! The difference is on technoogy, that the essay on science and superstitious, qualifications sections includes a range of information including achievements, awards, and skills. On Technoogy. If you have several relevant skills (with 8 years experience you probably do), then you should definitely consider adding a skills section to your resume. The Summary of Qualifications is meant to focus on your relevant skills rather than your job titles.
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The Lancet Flubs PACE Letter: Exposes Journal to Ridicule. “…science has taken a turn towards darkness” Richard Horton, editor of the on technoogy Lancet. The latest PACE controversy started with a simple invitation from Richard Horton, the editor of The Lancet – to 42 signers of a letter requesting that an independent analysis of the PACE trial be done. Horton’s history with the PACE trial had seemed one-sided to many in essay service benefits the ME/CFS camp. Horton could have simply dismissed the essay on technoogy criticisms of the trial but he went a step further characterizing the essay on service to humanity best of life critics complaints as “vexatious”, and essay on technoogy, characterizing them as.
“a fairly small, but highly organized, very vocal and resume wring, very damaging group of on technoogy individuals who have, I would say, actually hijacked this agenda and distorted the debate so that it actually harms the overwhelming majority of short essay patients.” Vexatious complaints are simply attended to annoy; they indicate that no real grounds for the complaint exist. Horton appeared to listen when 43 professionals submitted a letter to Lancet but then mysteriously disappeared again. When forty-two researchers, academics and clinicians signed off on essay on technoogy a letter stating they believed that the flaws in the PACE trial “have no place in published research” Horton couldn’t ignore them. So he did what a good editor should do: he promised to give them space in the journal to air their concerns.
He replied to their email: “Many thanks for your email. In the essay and superstitious interests of transparency, I would like to invite you to on technoogy, submit a letter for publication–please keep your letter to essay, around 500 words. We will then invite the authors of the study to on technoogy, reply to your very serious allegations.” His reply suggested that the letter would be published with a response from the authors of the essay trial, but then Horton shelved the letter.. Months later, after some digging, the authors learned that The Lancet had rejected the new letter without explanation. Since contents of the essay on technoogy new letter closely followed the short about volleyball contents of the original letter; i.e. On Technoogy. Horton knew exactly what he was going to get – they were thoroughly confused. The Lancet’s latest reply came not from Horton but from Audrey Ceschia, the california prompt Lancet’s correspondence editor. She explained “that the Lancet editorial staff decided, after discussing the matter with the PACE authors, that the letter did not add anything substantially new to the discussion.” The fact that Horton had used the same authors who’d publicly stated that they believed the continuing controversy put their careers in risk to rule on essay the letter’s veracity seemed not to bother Ceschia or Horton at all.
Lancet appears to be either so blind to the issues of journalistic integrity that they don’t realize how crazy this looks, or they simply don’t care.. Racaniello was shocked by Horton’s “unprofessional” behavior. Horton’s attempted burial of the letter prompted Vincent Racaniello, the researcher running the Virology blog website, to take off the on community gloves. Racaniello flatly accused The Lancet’s chief editor of “highly unprofessional” behavior and trying to bury the issue. Essay On Technoogy. He asserted that Lancet simply could not be trusted to act in an objective manner anymore. “The reasons given for the rejection are clearly specious. The letter for publication reflected the matters addressed in essay on science the open letter that prompted Dr. Horton’s invitation in the first place, and essay, closely adhered to his directive to outline our “serious allegations”. If outlining these allegations was not considered publication-worthy by The Lancet, it is and superstitious, incomprehensible to us why Dr. Horton solicited the essay on technoogy letter in the first place. Racaniello.
The sequence of events suggested that Horton had initially been persuaded by the letter; he did, after all, ask the islamic book reports 42 authors for essay on technoogy another letter but something – probably his conversations with the PACE trial authors – persuaded him to essay on community benefits, attempt to bury the matter. One might be inclined to essay, lump The Lancet into essay about, the buddy-buddy basket of medical journalism except for two things. The Lancet is essay on technoogy, genuinely thought of of technology as one of the top medical journals in the world, and on technoogy, Lancet’s editor, Richard Horton, has portrayed himself as a kind of white knight of journalistic integrity. Last year he penned a startling op ed suggesting that perhaps half of the published scientific literature is on community, simply wrong. The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. On Technoogy. Afflicted by california of technology, studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. Essay On Technoogy. As one participant put it, “poor methods get results”. Horton also slammed the islamic book reports peer review system as “biased, unjust, unaccountable…occasionally fooling and frequently wrong”. Yet, Horton apparently took the “peer” out of the essay peer review by giving the PACE researchers a say in essay prompt whether a letter raising concerns about the validity of essay on technoogy their own research should be published.
The Lancet at this point is looking more like the Keystone Kops than a serious medical journal. If Horton believes that perhaps half the scientific literature – ninety-nine percent of which is published without controversy – is essay on science, untrue, where does that leave the PACE trial? How unlikely is it that the PACE trial, which has generated enormous controversy amongst both researchers and essay, patients, doesn’t have a serious problem? Horton is clearly invested emotionally in the issue. He surely exaggerated when he told Australian radio that the Lancet paper, which he had fast-tracked and published within four weeks of being submitted, had gone through “endless rounds of peer review”. Horton also probably exaggerated when he reported that FOIA requests concerning the PACE trial had cost the islamic reports British taxpayers over on technoogy, a million dollars (U.S.) It’s not clear how much of benefits a hit to Lancet’s reputation Horton is on technoogy, willing to take, or Lancet is essay, willing to take on behalf of him. The Lancet has been described as one of the most prestigious medical journals in the world. Wikipedia. Andrew Gelman pointed that The Lancet’s impact factor was recently ranked second among general medical journals. Two months ago, though, a presentation at an international statisticians conference asserted that the PACE data was so “highly flawed” as to be “uninterpretable.” The American Statistical Association actually urged its delegates to attend the essay talk to hear how “how bad statistics harm patients and our profession”.Bruce Levin, a biostatistician at Columbia University, told Julie Rehmeyer that “The Lancet needs to stop circling the essay on science wagons and be open.
One of the tenets of essay on technoogy good science is short, transparency.” In a piece titled “PACE study and the Lancet: Journal reputation is a two-way street”, statistician Andrew Gelman pointed to past journals which lost their reputations because of similar situations. He suggested that The Lancet could be playing with fire. He imagined a conversation like this occurring: Scientist A: My new paper was published in the Lancet! Scientist B: The Lancet, eh? Isn’t that the journal that published the on technoogy discredited Iraq survey, the Andrew Wakefield paper, and that weird PACE study?
A: Ummm, yeah, but my article isn’t one of those Lancet papers. It’s published in the serious, non-politicized section of the essay on community magazine. B: Oh, I get it: The Lancet is essay, like the Wall Street Journal—trust the articles, not the opinion pages? A: Not quite like that, but, yeah: If you read between the on service is the best work of life lines, you can figure out which Lancet papers are worth reading. B: Ahhh, I get it. For now The Lancet has the essay upper hand. Getting published on The Lancet is so sought after that researchers create their submissions solely based on how they think The Lancet will view them. Given that kind of influence, who, outside of the chronic fatigue syndrome community, wouldn’t give The Lancet the essay benefits benefit of the doubt against the much maligned ME/CFS community? A reputation can be a slippery slope – gained with difficulty and essay on technoogy, easily lost. The Lancet probably doesn’t feel it needs to play fair with under-served disorders like ME/CFS, but a reputation is best work of life, more easily lost than won. It’s often in these seemingly small, David vs Goliath type battles where the arrogance endemic in an institution (or an editor) gets fully exposed, that institutions can take their biggest hits.
Horton nixed his chance to get ahead of the curve for once, and acknowledge the PACE study might have some problems. After a judge ruled in favor of an on technoogy ME/ CFS patient the raw data from the PACE trial data is of technology essay prompt, being independently assessed. Essay On Technoogy. We’ll see what happens, but if the on service to humanity is the data suggests that changes to on technoogy, the trial’s protocols benefited the researchers, the PACE trial will take a big hit – and so will Horton. Horton should probably note what happened to on service to humanity best work, Queen Mary University of London in its efforts to suppress the PACE data. It floundered about so much it was made to look ridiculous. The Tribunal ruling on the case called some of the QMUL’s arguments “wild speculation” and accused one its defendants of on technoogy lacking the objectivity demanded by his profession. It asserted that he was unable to distinguish “legitimate ethical and political disagreement”, and that his reports of hostile activist behavior were “grossly exaggerated”.
It basically accused one of the QMUL’s main witnesses of an over-reach unbecoming of academia. In the short essay volleyball Dr. Seuss story “Horton Hears a Who” Horton can hear a world that no one else can see. On Technoogy. Right now Richard Horton seems to be living in a world of his own – a world where it’s OK to castigate critics and play waiting games instead of responding to inquiries, and allow the plaintiffs to play judge, etc. He and The Lancet may be in for islamic book reports a surprise.
Join Health Rising's ME/CFS, FM and Chronic Pain Forums! Share your pain, make friends, find new treatment options, check out recovery stories and more in the Health Rising ME/CFS, FM and Chronic Pain Forums here. Like this blog? Make sure you don’t miss another by registering for our free ME/CFS and Fibromyalgia blogs here.. Horton’s history with the PACE trial had seemed one-sided to many in the ME/CFS camp. Horton could have simply dismissed the criticisms of the trail… I think that should be trial, not trail. On Technoogy. Though the PACE trial did lead down a long rabbit trail. (: Truth in the medical field, as well as in all fields of inquiry, will out — sooner, during these quickly accelerating evolutionary times, rather than later. Coverups never really expected to be publicly disclosed will widely see the light of day.
Horton indeed hears a Who, and the Emperor/s of this medical-industrial power game are seen as they are, more butt-naked by the day. Chronic illness experiencers are waking up exponentially and will act, speak out, educate with much greater results. This is short, just the beginning of justice for the worldwide neuroendocrine immune/CIR disease communities. This is not the only subject on which I have heard The Lancet accused of non-objective bias. I like the satirical suggestion about “the opinion pages”, The Lancet certainly seems to be infested with politically correct, progressively left-liberal views just as a lot of “media” are – but bias in actual medical research as it affects the suffering victims of a condition, is on technoogy, a more serious issue. Hmmm…blaming the victims rather than taking responsibility?
I’ve never heard of such a thing. Is there something in the British water supply that causes the essay on community service benefits doctors over there to be so insufferably stupid? I think I’d rather have ME than be as smug, idiotic, backward, and obtuse as most of them appear to be. Racist comments like this do not help our cause. Racist?
That is essay on technoogy, labeling and maybe name-calling, not racist. I won’t be back to essay, read your reply but if you feel you need to go ahead. But what Rick stated is essay on technoogy, NOT RACIST! Just saying “British water supply” is not a racist remark. I suspect you maybe meant “Xenophobic comments like this do not help our cause”, and I agree. Morgan and PamJ Consider this definition: “Racism is an ideology that gives expression to myths about book reports other racial and ethnic groups, that devalues and renders inferior those groups, that reflects and is perpetuated by deeply rooted historical, social, cultural and power inequalities in society.” Unfortunately, it does not define race but there are various definitions around, one of the on technoogy simplest being a group of people sharing history, nationality and/or geographic distribution. Under this definition “British” is a race.
To suggest that British doctors in general are “insufferably stupid” and that most of essay on science them appear to be “smug, idiotic, backward, and obtuse” most certainly constitute unwarranted and essay on technoogy, demeaning assertions. By the way I left the resume wring grossly politicized British health service in 1982 to essay, work as a doctor in Australia. It was more the system that was the problem and little seems to have changed. I’m British and so far as the PACE trial goes I agree with you wholeheartedly. Most of our doctors are very dedicated and do their level best, but have to follow national guidelines … which PACE essentially hijacked and distorted. Really hoping that will change in due course now. Resume Wring. Maybe something trumps the PACE stupidity. Doctors tried to bully my proudly ill daughter into GET and CBT because the essay on technoogy evidence saying it helped was published in The Lancet. It appears extremely negligent of Richard Horton to allow the reputation of The Lancet, to be used as a shield to protect Peter White, Trudy Chalder et al….
Gelman suggests that Horton is using the Lancet’s and his reputation as a sort of shield to stop further inquiry. Resume Wring. My guess is that Horton feels he can do this because he feels that ME/CFS is kind of weak opponent that he can bully with success. I think he’s going to be wrong and he and essay on technoogy, Lancet will come out of this looking really bad. I’m having trouble wrapping my mind around what his motivation might be, especially after his OpEd on rampant fauly scientific literature. Was he saying that the literature is faulty everywhere else, but NOT at the Lancet?
Then, what is his connection to the PACE researchers that would give them so much sway, and why would he backtrack as you talked about? Hmmm. I may be going to far out on a limb with this one, but I’ll say it anyway. I ask myself, who has the most to lose if the california institute Lancet allows for the PACE trials to essay on technoogy, be fully deligitimized by giving critics such a “well-respected” forum? Who could get Horton to change his position, and put him in a tough enough spot where he would shut down any futher conversation by resorting to name calling and deflection? Surely, it can’t really be the institute of technology essay PACE researchers? I hate to sound like a conspiracy theorist, but I wonder if the British government is somehow involved? Maybe the health ministry has its own agenda when it comes to all this. There’s a lot of money tied up in benefits and essay, services given to ME/CFS patients.
Budgets are tight these days. Then, maybe there are people in charge there who still buy in to the faulty belief that ME/CFS is a psychological problem, and we somehow must be protected from ourselves. Whether the study is essay on science, accurate or not, we’d have to BELIEVE the methods work, or else we’ll never recover. Blame the victim sort of stuff. I don’t live in the UK, so I don’t know all the on technoogy ins and outs, but I suspect there are bigger fish involved somehow. Great questions. In fact Horton, believe it or not, has called for essay about more researchers to release their raw data!
Horton has been so over on technoogy, the top on the PACE study that I suspect he must have some connections to the researchers. Book. After all, he fast-tracked the study. Why fast-track a CBT study (dozens have been done) which had really moderate results? One would think that fast tracked studies would be of real import – provide information that it was important for researchers or the essay public to quickly hear but this was not a ground-breaking study in essay on service is the any way…. Horton appears to have a stick up his you know what regarding CGT/GET and ME/CFS. The PACE study was co-funded by essay, the DWP (Department of Work and Pensions). They have NEVER done this before. They are currently cutting benefits (especially in the disability sector) quite ruthlessly. Essay On Service To Humanity Of Life. This whole affair strikes me as being politically motivated.
Ah, now it makes much more sense, Lidia. Is that common knowledge in essay on technoogy the UK? Has anyone written anything in the news media making that connection? When do we stop using the PACE definition of normal range and recovery when NOBODY recovered or obtained normal range? If we don’t call it as it is who will? I agree. At least put in something in essay is the parenthesis (Recovery nor normal range was ever obtained). Just something. We have to use their original definitions just to essay, point the reader in the right direction but some sort of challenge to resume wring, that definition should be made right next to on technoogy, their definition. “The Lancet” – not “Lancet”. Extremely distracting omission.
Great article Cort – you’re doing an awesome job covering all this! Why did Horton fast-track the paper? If he was induced to do so in some shady way then I imagine he’s keen not to have light shone on that. BTW – Very good article. If Horton believes that the essay on service to humanity of life problem is “Much ado about nothing”, why is HE being so vexatious? I think that Horton must be the meat in essay a much bigger sandwich than we are as yet to recognise. It is amazing to california institute of technology prompt, see to what lengths Horton is willing to go to protect his brotherhood in arms (and presumably other characters in this Shakespearean Drama). Essay On Technoogy. He is willing to even sacrifice the pride of one of the once most prestigious British medical journals to cover up an of life even bigger picture. What else lurks? This is not the essay kind of sacrifice that Winston Churchill was talking about.
The end result is essay, that we now see the Lancet as no longer a Journal but a magazine! Horton Fears the Poo. Wasn’t the PACE trial government funded? And isn’t The Lancet first and essay on technoogy, foremost a British publication? And wouldn’t it cost the government a lot more money if ME/CFS was looked upon as a disease of physiology (not psychology)? I don’t know what if any behind-the-scenes connection Horton has to is the best, the PACE study authors, but I do know that most editors are loath to on technoogy, admit they’ve made a big mistake.
I’m thinking the to humanity is the work only way The Lancet will print a retraction is on technoogy, if many other publications cover this story, showing the PACE results for what they were, practically nil. Saw this on yahoo… Subscribe To Health Rising’s Free Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia Information.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. On Technoogy! When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and essay best of life accomplishments should you include for on technoogy, the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and essay trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. On Technoogy! Read on islamic reports for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on essay on technoogy it.
Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to book, highlight only the essay, accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about essay on science what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out essay on technoogy, depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on resume wring a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together.
Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the essay, Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to essay on science, what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in essay on technoogy, the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of on science, a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on essay reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to short essay volleyball, get your resume noticed . Essay! According to Zhang , the about volleyball, only occasion when an essay on technoogy objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the short essay volleyball, get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for on technoogy, you —or just nix it altogether to save space and essay focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to essay on technoogy, organize the essay, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is essay on technoogy, listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to resume wring, force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it.
But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out essay, these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in islamic reports, less space. Can’t figure out essay, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to on service to humanity is the best, be able to essay on technoogy, include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.
You can use a different font or typeface for benefits, your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and essay keep it consistent. Resume Wring! Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to on technoogy, make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to islamic book, include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the on technoogy, hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Of Technology Essay! (Implicit in on technoogy, this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of resume wring, time on each individual resume.
So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Essay! This is arguably the resume wring, most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the essay on technoogy, experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14.
No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on essay on science your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to essay, pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them.
Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Essay Service! Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is essay on technoogy, readable, relevant, and interesting to essay, all of them. On Technoogy! Use as many facts, figures, and essay on science numbers as you can in on technoogy, your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to on science and superstitious, your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only essay on technoogy, what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into book reports, accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. Essay On Technoogy! But being a “strong leader” or an resume wring “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across.
Think about essay how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on benefits your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in essay, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems.
Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and islamic book spit out the essay on technoogy, most used keywords. Reports! What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and on technoogy hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Of Technology! We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the essay, job than where you went to college. 25. Institute Of Technology! Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.
Usually, you should lay down your educational background by essay on technoogy listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. Essay And Superstitious! But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Essay! Don’t list your graduation dates. Essay On Science And Superstitious! The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. Essay On Technoogy! If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.
While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the and superstitious, fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. On Technoogy! Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for resume wring, your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and on technoogy Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word.
Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on california prompt its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and essay on technoogy detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for islamic book, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on essay on technoogy your resume, but only add those that are relevant to resume wring, the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company?
Don’t even think about it. 32. Essay On Technoogy! Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on institute of technology essay the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Essay On Technoogy! Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by on service is the best work someone who disagrees with the cause. Essay! Zhang explains here how to weigh the benefits, decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. On Technoogy! Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them.
Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. Resume Wring! If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for on technoogy, only a matter of resume wring, months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to essay, The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Essay On Service Is The! Use years only essay, (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work.
See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on essay on science your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on essay on technoogy your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to benefits, take this section of essay, your resume seriously. On Science And Superstitious! 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them.
There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is essay on technoogy, free and clear of typos. Essay On Service Best Work Of Life! And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an essay on technoogy editor on how to perfect your own work ). Resume Wring! If emailing your resume, make sure to essay, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on essay on community his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to on technoogy, save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.
When your resume is updated on to humanity of life a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of on technoogy, Hero Images / Getty Images . And Superstitious! Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about essay elevating the standard of resume wring, writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and on technoogy led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com.
Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. Resume Wring! While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Copying Machines Used to Make One or a Few Copies of New Documents, Mainly Outgoing Letters. Letter Copying Presses. Squeezed Out, Gov. Tilden's Message to the Legislature, Albany, NY, Mar. 19, 1875, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , April 1875.
James Watt copying press, 1780 patent diagram. Dolphin Arch Copying Press. A number of US manufacturers, including E.W. Frost, New York, NY, and essay, John Alexander, New York, NY, offered Dolphin letter copying presses in 1866-68. Prices at that time were $6.50 for islamic reports 9x12 to $105 for on technoogy 10.5x16.
Plates 4 - 6 show letter copying presses that were displayed at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition in London. Along with typewriters, letter copying presses are the most common machines found in photographs of late 19 th century and very early 20 th century offices. Essay To Humanity Work? Yates (Ch. 4-5) reports that the Illinois Central Railroad used copying presses to make copies of outgoing letters in essay on technoogy, press books at least from the late 1850s to benefits 1896, that the Repauno Chemical Co. stopped using press books in 1901 (p. On Technoogy? 226), that the institute of technology Scoville Manufacturing Co. was still using copy presses and press books for outgoing letters in 1913 (p. 181), and that the Hagley Museum and Library has press books that were used in essay on technoogy, the 1930s (p. 283). The last U.S. President whose official correspondence was copied on a copying press was Calvin Coolidge (1923-29). (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug.
2004, p. 92) Screw model letter copying presses were still marketed in 1950, and Proudfoot reports that an organization in London, England, was still using press books in the late 1950s. Short Essay? (W. B. Proudfoot, The Origin of essay Stencil Duplicating , 1972, p. Volleyball? 32) Because of the essay size and weight of letter copying presses, numerous portable methods for essay is the work pressing loose copies and on technoogy, copy books were also marketed during the 19th century. In a review of office equipment at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition, Granville Sharp recommended that when an short essay office was selecting a press like those in Plates 1-3, it should make sure that the handle was heavily weighted at the ends to insure proper spinning. “This is essential to on technoogy a screw copy press; for unless one pull will serve to raise or to depress the about volleyball plate, much time is on technoogy, lost.” In addition to the press, offices needed to buy copying books that contained up to essay volleyball a thousand pages of tough tissue paper, copying ink, copying paper dampers, oiled paper, and blotting paper. Sharp explained that before using the new press, the office had to decide how to organize its letters. Production of copies was easiest if the user copied its letters into on technoogy a single letter book in chronological order. In that case, the user needed to about volleyball make an index so that letters of interest could later be retrieved. Essay? Alternatively, the office could organize its correspondence by client, which avoided indexing but made it necessary to use numerous copying books on a given day.
Although copies could be made up to twenty-four hours after a letter was written, copies made within a few hours were best. A copying clerk would begin by counting the number of resume wring letters to be written during the next few hours and by preparing the copying book. Suppose the essay on technoogy clerk wanted to copy 20 one-page letters. In that case, he (copying clerks were men) would insert a sheet of oiled paper into the copying book in front of the first tissue on essay which he wanted to on technoogy make a copy of a letter. He would then turn 20 sheets of tissue paper and insert a second oiled paper. Sharp advised that “Success in copying letters depends almost entirely upon the damping of the paper. The paper should be saturated and damp, not wet.” To dampen the short essay about tissue paper, the essay on technoogy clerk used a brush or copying paper damper. The damper had a reservoir for on community water that wet a cloth, and the clerk wiped the cloth over the tissues on which copies were to be made. Essay On Technoogy? (See Plate 5A ) As an alternative method of dampening the tissue paper, in 1860 Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, advertised Lynch's patent paper moistener ( Plate 5B ) with the claim that it does away with the use of the resume wring brush, wet cloths and dipping bowls, and dampens the essay on technoogy paper sufficiently by a single roll of the machine. Next, letters were written with special copying ink, which was not blotted. The copying clerk arranged the portion of the letter book to be used in the following sequence starting from the on science and superstitious front: a sheet of oiled paper, then a sheet of on technoogy letter book tissue, then a letter placed face up against essay on science, the back of the on technoogy tissue on which the copy was to be made, then another oiled paper, et cetera , “oiled paper being in all cases placed next the damp paper, to prevent the ink forcing beyond the paper intended to receive it.”
Finally, “Close the book, put it into the press, and screw tightly down, letting it remain a minute or two under pressure, when the copy will be properly taken, and may be dried with blotting paper, or held near the fire.” Based on experience, the clerk could adjust the press time. If he made a copy soon after a letter was written, only a second or two was needed to make a good impression. When the letter book was pressed, some of the ink transferred from the letters to the moist tissues in the book. Because the ink penetrated the tissues, copies could be read from the front sides of the of technology tissues. Prior to the introduction of essay inks made with aniline dyes, the quality of copies made on letter copying presses was limited by essay on service work of life the properties of the available copying inks. The first aniline dye was invented in 1856, and numerous aniline dyes were invented in the following two decades. Bedini (p. Essay? 193) reports that The growth of the aniline dye and ink manufacturing industries in essay of life, Germany, which coincided with the essay on technoogy earliest importation in on service to humanity is the work of life, 1868 of essay on technoogy thin papers manufactured in Japan, brought a new popularity to the bound letter book. Plates 6AB and institute prompt, AC, Racine Automatic Copying Press, Racine Mall and Wrought Iron Co., Racine, WI, advertised 1901-05.
On the Racine press, the screw wheel was used only to adjust for the thickness of the book. Pressure was applied with the essay lever. Plate 6B , Wells Fargo Co. Essay To Humanity Is The Of Life? Copying Press. Wells Fargo Museum, San Francisco, CA. Plate 4, Coalbrookdale Press 1851.
Plate 5, Imperial Press 1851. Plate 5A , Shriver's Copying Brush with Reservoir Handle holding water enough to dampen one hundred leaves of letter paper, T. Shriver Co., New York, NY, patented 1867, advertised 1868-86. Plate 5B , Lynch's Patent Paper Moistener, Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, 1860. Plate 6, Barrett Co. Press 1851. Plate 6A, Lightning Copying Press, R E Kidder, Worcester, MA, patented Nov 4,1884, advertised 1887. Plate 6AA , Very Large Copying Press, Standard Oil of Ohio, c. Essay On Technoogy? 1900. By the to humanity is the best work of life late 1870s, an improved method for essay moistening pages in copying books had been invented, and by the late 1880s it had been widely adopted. Rather than using a brush or damper to wet the tissues, the clerk inserted a thin moist cloth or pad between each oil paper and the following tissue.
A supply of moist pads was prepared in advance using a copying bath, such as Hill's Blotter Bath, patented in 1879 ( Plate 6B ), or Tatum's Ideal Copying Pad Bath, patented in 1887 ( Plate 7 ). Tatum also produced larger copying tanks that included wringers to remove excess water from copying pads. Essay? The Globe Roller Copying Bath ( Plate 8 ), which was marketed by Globe-Wernicke Co. in the early 1900s, is an example of a copying tank. To prepare a supply of moist pads using the Ideal bath, the clerk removed the tray from the bath, poured water into the pan, and replaced the tray. Also, the clerk sprinkled a set of on technoogy pads, let them stand overnight, and then placed them in the tray. “The evaporation from the water underneath will generally be sufficient to keep pads damp enough for ordinary work.” Plate 8A shows an 1886 Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with a Moistening Attachment on top. Plate 8D shows a Little Giant Copying Tank, which was priced at $9. Plate 8A , Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with Moistening Attachment, 1886 ad. Plate 8B , Office with Copying Pad Bath in front of resume wring Letter Copying Press. Plate 8C , Office with Large Letter Copying Press and Sink with Wringer for Preparing Moist Pads.
Plate 6B, Hill's Blotter Bath, B.B.Hill, Springfield, MA, patented 1879. See U.S. Patent No. On Technoogy? 216,738. Plate 7, Ideal Copying Bath and Instructions, Samuel C. Tatum Co., patented and advertised in 1887. Plate 7A, Williams Copying Bath, Williams Typewriter Co., patented 1891, advertisement with instructions. Courtesy of the service benefits Museum of Business History and Technology. Plate 8, Globe Copying Bath 1909 ad. Plate 8D , Little Giant Copying Tank, The Sam'l C. Tatum Co.,
Cincinnati, OH, 1898 ad. Plate 9 , Letter Copying Book, 1905. Plate 10 , Atmospheric Letter Copying Press, 1881. Plate 10A , Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Books, 1895 ad. Plate 10A2, Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Book, copyright 1885, cover and instructions. Courtesy of the Museum of Business History and Technology.
Plate 10B , Cylindrical Copying Press, 1888. Plate 10C , Patent Simplex Copying Press, John Morris Co., Chicago, IL. Plate 10G , Book Copying Press, advertised c. 1920s, Germany. Plate 11A , Rapid Roller Damp-Leaf Copier, Office Specialty Manufacturing Co., Rochester, NY, c. 1889 ad.
Plate 11B , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating Copying Machine Co., NY., NY, 1887 ad. The Process Letter Machine Co., Muncie, IN, offered the essay on technoogy New Rotary Copying Press, a loose-leaf copier, in 1902. This machine was similar to california institute of technology essay prompt roller copiers but copied onto loose-leaf paper . The Cylinder Letter Press Co., Chicago, IL, and The Easy Machine Co., Marion, IN, offered different loose-leaf copier, the Cylinder Letter Press and on technoogy, the Quick Easy Copying Press, respectively, in 1903 and 1905, respectively. Plate 11E , Cylinder Letter Press, Cylinder Letter Press, Co., Chicago, IL, 1903 ad. Plate 11C , The New Rotary Copying Press, Plate 11D , Quick Easy Copying Press, Plate 12A , Polygraph 1803, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, on short about loan from the Franklin Institute. Carbon Paper, Manifold Books and Typewriters.
Nevertheless, use of carbon paper was modest until the on technoogy 1870s. Early carbon paper was messy, carbon paper did not make a satisfactory copy when the original was written with a pen, there was concern that carbon copies could be altered or forged, and carbon copies were not admissible in court. Carbon paper became more important after the islamic book late 1870s because of the introduction of the typewriter and greaseless carbon paper. Unlike the earlier carbon papers, the new ones were coated on only one side. Typewriters were able to on technoogy produce up to ten carbon copies along with an original.
Carbon paper for use with typewriters, available from John Underwood Co. among others, was advertised in 1886 (A.C. Islamic Book Reports? Farley Co., The Purchaser , Philadelphia, PA, Feb. 1886. Hagley Museum and Library). Yates reports that in 1912 a government report stated that by the almost universal practice of business concerns, the carbon copy has supplanted the essay press copy as a record of outgoing correspondence. According to Yates (p. 48), This statement was based primarily on large businesses: many smaller companies continued to use the rolling copier and even press books for some years. Plate 13 , Agate-Tipped Stylus. Plate 13A , Lightning Copying Book and Lightning Pen, 1879. Plate 13B , Stylograph or Rapid Letter Copying Book, 1883 ad. Machines Used to Make Many Duplicates.
Neither letter copying presses nor carbon paper could be used to make numerous copies of a document. Until the mid-1870s, offices had two options for essay to humanity is the work making many copies. Essay? They could go to a commercial printer, or they could buy a small printing press. In the 19th century, commercial printers used platen presses for job work such as business cards, envelopes, billheads, and circulars. (Harold E. Sterne, Catalogue of Nineteenth Century Printing Presses , 1978, p. Islamic Book Reports? 217) Yates (Ch. 4) indicates that until 1876 the Illinois Central Railroad used commercial printers when it needed large numbers of copies of essay on technoogy items such as circulars, and that it continued to islamic use commercial printers after 1876 when it needed multiple copies of documents to be distributed to the public rather than for internal use. The online Briar Press reports that small table top printing presses were made in the US as early as the essay 1830s. In the 19th century, commercial printers used lithographic presses to print such things as labels, stock certificates, bank notes, maps, insurance policies, and business stationery. Sterne (p.
203) reports that The fine detail and california institute of technology essay, unusual calligraphy needed in this work was beautifully reproduced through the lithographic technique. In lithography, an image is created on or transferred to a flat polished stone, which serves as a printing plate. The image is created on the stone using a greasy crayon, or alternatively is created on a sheet of paper using greasy lithographic ink and then transferred to essay the stone. Next, printers ink is applied to the stone. This ink adheres only to the crayon or lithographic ink. The stone is then covered with a sheet of paper, and on science and superstitious, the stone and essay on technoogy, paper are run through a press to on science make a lithograph. In England, small lithographic presses were marketed to offices in the 1850s. One example that was exhibited in 1851 is the S. Mordan Co. Combined Lithographic and Copying Press ( Plate 14 ). Essay? To use this as a lithographic press, it was necessary to transfer a document image to a smooth limestone block. A second example that was exhibited in 1855 and described as suitable for the Counting House, Office, or Library was exhibited by Waterlow and Son of London in 1855 ( Plate 14AAA ). Waterlow's advertisement stated: Nearly One Thousand of these Presses have now been sold, and are being successfully used in all Her Majesty's Government Offices, Public and Private Schools, Railway Companies, Assurance Offices, and also by essay about the most influential Bankers, Merchants, Clergymen, c., in on technoogy, the United Kingdom. The available evidence suggests that such lithographic presses were not used widely, if at all, in offices in the US.
William Tuttle and Benjamin O. Woods produced small lever presses in resume wring, Boston, MA, by 1857. A lever press is a table-top hand-operated version of the larger foot-operated platen press used by essay on technoogy commercial printers. Woods advertised small Novelty printing presses in on service is the, 1870 and on technoogy, exhibited them at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. Book? The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Woods Novelty presses (1,2). W. A. Kelsey Co. Essay On Technoogy? began to book market small lever presses in 1872 and continued to sell them for essay on technoogy over a century. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Kelsey presses (1,2,3,4). Short Volleyball? To the left is an illustration of a Kelsey Excelsior printing press from a broadside distributed at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. Plate 14A shows a later Excelsior. Small lever presses were sold in a wide range of sizes by numerous companies. Lever presses that printed items measuring 1.5 x 2.5 were as little as $2 while larger ones with the capacity to on technoogy print items as large as 11 x 16 were as much as $160. Plate 14, Mordan Co.
Press, 1851. Plate 14AAA , Patent Improved Autographic Press or Portable Printing Machine, Waterlow and Sons, London, 1855. Plate 14AA, Dunkerly Self-Inking Press, Providence, R.I.,1876 ad. Plate 14A , Kelsey Co. Excelsior Printing Press, model patented 1893. Plate 14B , Patent Lever Self-Inker Press No. 2, 1889 ad. 14B2 , Printing Press, Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Stencil Duplicating Machines.
Plate 14C , Zuccato's Papyrograph, The Papyrograph Co., Norwich, CT, 1878 a. Plate 15, Edison Electric Pen Stand 1876. Plate 16, Battery for islamic reports Edison Electric Pen 1876. By early 1876, Edison’s copying system, which was produced by the Edison Electric Pen and Duplicating Press Co., was a commercial success. It was exhibited at the 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia.
In 1876, the Edison electric pen with the duplicating press was advertised for $35 by Charles Batchelor, New York, NY. ( Publishers' Weekly , Vol. 10, 1876, p. 109) According to the Smithsonian Institution, approximately 60,000 were sold. However, sales were constrained by the fact that many office clerks did not have the skill or motivation to maintain the complicated battery. A battery was necessary because central electric power systems were not introduced until the 1880s. Late in essay, 1876, Edison licensed his copying system to the Western Electric Co., which manufactured it for resume wring several years. By 1880, however, sales were in decline because of the development of competing technologies, including the Trypograph, Cyclostyle and Hektograph.
There were, however, some people who preferred the Edison system. According to an 1885 testimonial, It may be of interest for one who has used the papyrograph and essay on technoogy, the hektograph, but with no great satisfaction, to state that every other system always drives me back to Edison's electric pen as the resume wring neatest, readiest, and in essay on technoogy, every way the most satisfactory copying system. An experience of eight years with it has always been very satisfactory. Of Technology Essay Prompt? ( Christian Union , June 4, 1885) A number of other companies marketed similar systems, including some with pneumatic perforating pens driver by foot-powered bellows. According to on technoogy one contemporary account, a pulsating pen, driven by the foot like a sewing machine, rivals the Edison electric pen.
It is certainly lighter to write with, and requires no battery, with its acids, to essay on community benefits spoil clothing. This is on show by Ward Drummond. ( Christian Union , Oct. 29, 1879) According to an 1885 trade press discussion referring to the Edison electric pen, Other perforating pens working pretty much upon the same principle, with the exception that the essay motive power is supplied by clockwork, have made their appearance in England. while a far more expensive and complicated method consisted of an induction coil which can produce a spark of benefits sufficient power to on technoogy perforate paper, which is institute of technology essay prompt, made to pass continually between a pen of metal partially insulated and a metallic plate upon which is laid the perforated paper. On Technoogy? ( Geyer's Stationer , 1885) Plate 17, Edison Duplicating Press. Plate 18, Edison Press Electric Pen 1876. Plate 19 , Trypograph marketed by book Zuccato Wolff, London. Plate 19A, Edison Stencil Perforation 1880. Image 1, Neostyle Wheel Pen, 1888.
Image 2, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 3, Cyclostyle, 1885. Image 4, Cyclostyle 1884. Image 5, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 6, Cyclostyle, 1884. The Stygmograph (Plate 21A) was advertised in 1884 as a copying pen for writing by hand on essay duplicating stencils. To prepare a handwritten stencil, A sheet of Mimeograph stencil paper is placed over the finely grooved steel plate and written upon with a smooth pointed steel stylus, and in the line of the writing so made, the essay on community benefits stencil paper will be perforated from the essay on technoogy under side with minute holes, in such close proximity to on service to humanity of life each other that the dividing fibers of essay paper are scarcely perceptible. After the operator has written a few lines, the operator moves the stencil upward over the writing plate so that a new portion of the stencil is on top of the california institute essay prompt writing plate. After the stencil is completed it is placed in the printing frame, by on technoogy which the stencil is firmly held taut and in a position for rapid printing. California Prompt? After inking the roller on the slate furnished for that purpose, pass it over the stencil sheet and a correct reproduction of the matter stenciled will appear on the paper which has been previously placed underneath. Ads claimed that these Mimeographs could make over essay on technoogy, 1,500 copies from a stencil.
A. B. Dick claimed to have sold over islamic book, 80,000 Edison Mimeographs by 1892 and over 200,000 by 1899. In 1889, Mimeographs were $12-$29.50, depending on on technoogy size and whether they included the items needed for handwritten, typewritten, or both types of stencils. Edison Mimeographs continued to be sold in resume wring, the early decades of the 20th century. The model numbers denote different sizes and features. In 1889, the models used for handwritten stencils were identified as No. 0 to No. 5; the on technoogy model for typewritten stencils only resume wring was No. 12; the models for both types of on technoogy stencils were No.
20 to No. 25. Plate 21B , Edison Mimeograph, A.B. Dick Co., Chicago, IL, 1889 ad. Plate 22, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 23, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 24 , Edison Mimeograph Typewriter 1894. According to an 1887 product review, the Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., New York, NY, produced a Rapid Duplicator machine that could produce close to essay service benefits 200 copies from a set of two or three stencils that had been produced simultaneously with a typewriter or by hand.
The Rapid Duplicator is essay on technoogy, illustrated in the top image to the right. The operator began with two or three sheets of very thin paper resting on top of each other. Behind each of these sheets he then put a sheet of essay on science and superstitious carbon paper with the carbon side facing up. He then typed or wrote on this sandwich, thereby producing 2 or 3 paper stencils, each with a mirror-image of the on technoogy writing, formed by transferred carbon paper ink, on to humanity is the best its back. Next, he fastened one of the stencils on essay on technoogy the large roller on the machine, with the carbon paper ink facing the outside. He inserted at the left end of the machine blank sheets of paper that were to be printed. These blank sheets were automatically dampened and fed toward the on community service benefits right. A special roller squeezed excess moisture out of the dampened sheets.
The blank sheets passed between rolls where they were printed by being pressed against the stencil. The printed sheets exited at the right end of the machine. If three stencils were made, the first was able to print around 75 sheets, the essay on technoogy second between 50 and 75 sheets, and about, the third around 50 sheets. Plate 26, Mimeograph Presses 1896. Plate 24A , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., NY, NY, 1887 ad. Automatic Cyclostyle, 1899 ad. Plate 25 , Automatic Cyclostyle. Plate 25A , Diagraph Stencil Printing Machine, 1895 ad. Plate 27A, Rotary Neostyle, Neostyle Co., NY, NY, 1898 ad.
Plate 27 , Rotary Neostyle, electric model, 1899. Plate 30, Edison Rotary Mimeograph No. 75, 1904. Plate 30A . On Technoogy? Edison Mimeograph No. 78 with automatic feed, 1929 ad. Plate 30A1, Roneo Rotary Copying Machine, 1913 ad.
Plate 30B , Roneo Copier, 1906. Plate 30B2 , Office with Roneo Copier, Norway, 1914. On Service Of Life? Courtesy of Harald Bohne. Plate 30C , Soennecken Copying Machine, 1913. Cyclostyle No. 6. Plate 32, Mimeoscope, patented 1914-16, advertised 1920-30. Les Newcomer reports that the Heyer Hectograph Co. sold a Hectograph kit as late as 1974 (tray, gelatin, a few sheets of essay on technoogy purple inked paper, and that thick cover.
The tray was only 1/4 deep). I bought one from McCauley's Office supplies in Livonia, Mich., in that year to run a classroom newspaper. California Institute Of Technology Prompt? It was a whopping one column, one page. I ran it weekly for three months, until I ran out of gelatin and couldn't get a refill. In 1901, a different hektograph duplicating process was introduced in the U.S. (W. H. Leffingwell, The Office Appliance Manual , 1926, p. 378.) Rather than using a gelatin pad, this process, which was invented in Germany in 1880 and marketed as the Schapirograph, used a roll of on technoogy paper coated with gelatin, glue, and glycerin.
This paper was feed from one roller over a flat surface to another roller ( Plate 34 ). The portion of the paper resting on the flat surface played the short essay about volleyball same roll as the gelatin pad in the hektograph. The paper roll was reusable because after a time any remaining ink would sink below the surface. These were advertised as late as 1922. Essay? The Commercial Duplicator, advertised by essay on community Duplicator Mfg. Co. during 1913-17 (and probably longer), appears to essay have used a similar technology to produce up to 100 copies of a document from the original itself written in duplicator ink. Essay On Community Benefits? ( System , Sept. 1913, front advertising section) Beginning in 1910, Ditto, Inc., sold gelatin duplicators that were essentially large mechanical versions of the Daus Tip-Top Duplicator pictured to the right. The Ditto process could be used for up to 100 copies. Plate 34A is a 1925 Ditto machine.
When preparing the original, hard bond paper and a special kind of ink [containing aniline dyes] are used. This may be in essay, the form of a duplicating typewriter ribbon, a duplicating ink, or even an indelible pencil. Essay On Science And Superstitious? The original is placed face down on the copying surface and smoothed with the palm of the essay on technoogy hand or a roller. It is then lifted off, having left its impression on on science and superstitious the gelatin. The blank sheets are placed one at on technoogy a time on is the work of life the gelatin surface and allowed to remain a few seconds until the imprint is essay on technoogy, made. The Ditto machine in Plate 34A was $200. In 1925, other models were $117 to $395. The spirit duplicator, which was introduced in institute, 1923 and which was marketed for essay several decades, evolved from the hektograph and Ditto machines described above. The best-known spirit duplicator company was Ditto, Inc. The Ditto process involved the creation of masters and the transfer of ink from california institute of technology prompt, masters to copies.
A Ditto carbon consisted of on technoogy a sheet of essay slick, impermeable paper (the master) attached to the front of a second sheet that had on on technoogy its face a coating of about paste-like ink. When one typed or drew on the front of the master, a reverse image in heavy ink was transferred to the back side of the essay on technoogy master. The master was then detached from the second sheet and attached to on community the drum of a rotary press with the inked surface outward. Essay On Technoogy? When the drum was rotated, the inked surface of the master was wiped with a solvent such as spirit ether to wet the ink, and until the ink was exhausted impressions were made on papers that were fed under the drum. Plate 33 , J. Resume Wring? R. Holcomb Co. Transfer Tablet Hektograph, Plate 33B, Lawton Simplex Printer, 1895 ad. The illustration shows three gelatin trays.
Plates 33C-D , Bottle for Composition for Hall's Patent Simplex Hektograph, England. Photo below shows instructions on back of bottle. Plate 34 , Daus Tip-Top Duplicator, advertised 1901. Plate 34A , Ditto Standard No. 2, as of 1925 Ditto Inc.'s most popular model. Plate 34AA , Model E-41, Ditto Division of Bell Howell, c. 1950s. The Cylinder Duplicator Co., Philadelphia, PA, offered a cylinder duplicator in 1905. The duplicator was a cylinder 9 long and 12 in circumference, containing a composition to receive a negative of pen or typewritten matter made with a duplicating ink. Duplicate copies were mae by running the roller over blank papers. The maker claimed that the essay on technoogy device would make 50 to 75 copies of essay on community benefits letters written with a typewriter and 100 to 125 copies of letters written with a pen. Plate 34B , Cylinder Duplicator,
In the 1880s, a number of office duplicators were introduced that used lithographic processes, but the stone was generally replaced by a zinc plate or even parchment. According to essay an 1880 description, the process of to humanity best of life using Anderson's New Auto-Lithograph consists in writing the original document with chemical writing fluid with any pen on ordinary writing paper, and when dry this original is placed ink-side downward upon [a sensitive plate], and on technoogy, left for california essay two or three minutes. It is then removed and a negative impression, in perfect and essay, beautiful relief, will be found on the plate. The roller having been previously inked with copying ink is now passed over the negative, and on community, it will be seen that all the lines will have taken the ink. A sheet of on technoogy paper being laid upon california institute of technology essay prompt this impression is smoothed over essay, with the hand, and on removing it a perfect copy in permanent jet black will be obtained.
This may be repeated for a number of copies, and when they become faint the impression may be re-inked with the roller and resume wring, the copies will be as at first. When the requisite number of copies are taken, the impression may be washed off with water and on technoogy, a sponge. ( Geyer's Stationer , Oct. 7, 1880, p. 2) Black's Autocopyist ( Plate 35 ), which was introduced by 1887, used parchment secured in a printing frame. To use the Autocopyist, one wrote on a sheet of paper with lithographic ink. This paper was then laid face down on the dampened parchment, and pressure was applied to the back of the paper, causing the lithographic ink to transfer to essay on community service the parchment. Essay? Printing ink was then rolled onto on science the parchment, where it adhered only to the lithographic ink. Next, a sheet of paper was pressed onto the parchment to make a lithographic copy. Ca.
1887, Autocopyists were $11 to $37, depending on size, and an ad claimed that 50,000 Autocopyists are already being used. Using a lithographic duplicator, one could make copies not only of handwritten documents and drawings but also of documents that were typed using a lithographic ribbon. Essay? Nevertheless, the market for islamic book these lithographic duplicators was limited because stencil duplicators and hektographs were superior for most office applications, the exception being in reproduction of drawings. An 1887 review of the Columbia No. 2 index typewriter indicates the variety of duplicating processes that were available: In writing [with the Columbia typewriter] on prepared paper the writing can be transferred to a lithograph-stone, from which any quantity of copies may be secured. The writing may also be copied in an ordinary letter-book or transferred to on technoogy a gelatine pad. ( The Office , July 1887, p. 130)
In 1932, the Addressograph-Multigraph Corp. introduced the Multilith printing process (1932 Annual Report), a simple, revolutionary process of of technology prompt lithography which brings, to large and small users alike, the advantages of office lithographic reproduction. The sale of Multilith machines began in 1933. (1933 Annual Report) Early in on technoogy, 1939, the company reported that its Multilith line had developed into a large and important part of the company's business. (1938 Annual Report) Plate 34C , The Wonder Lithograph, The Wonder Lithograph Co., Corning, NY, 1887 ad. The Autocopyist Co., NY, NY, Multigraph Printing Duplicators.
Form letters were more likely to be read if they were individually addressed and were, or appeared to be, typewritten, rather than produced using a stencil duplicator or conventional printing press. The first commercially successful machine to resume wring produce form letters that appeared to be typewritten was the Gammeter Multigraph, which was introduced by on technoogy American Multigraph Co. in 1902. The next machine that produced such form letters with a distinct technology was the Hooven Automatic Typewriter, which is discussed in this Museum's exhibit on Special-Purpose Office Typewriters. A third technology that was used to produce such form letters was embodied in the Addressing Multigraph and california institute, the Addressograph Dupligraph. In 1907, ads claimed that Multigraphs could produce 3,000 to 6,000 letters per hour, depending on the skill of the operator.
A Multigraph used by students is pictured in the 1911 catalog of Hesser Business College, Manchester, NH. Plate 36, Multigraph Printer No. 40, American Multigraph Co. Plate 36A , Multigraph Typesetter No. 59. Plate 36B , Multigraph Printer (left) and Typesetter, 1916. 1915 Price for these two machines was $200. ( System , Jan. 1915) Plate 36C , Woman with Multigraph Typesetter (left) and Printer, Duplication Dept., Denver Public Library, Denver CO, c. 1930s. Denver Public Library, Western History Collection, X-27483. Plate 36E , Multigraph System, 1930 ad.
Plate 36F , Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad. Plate 38 , Printograph, 1909. Plate 38A , Writerpress. Plate 38B, Writerpress, Writerpress Co., Buffalo, NY, 1908 ad. Image shows one woman operating the press and two others composing form letters by on technoogy manually arranging type in a holder. In 1924, the American Manicopy Typewriter Co. California Institute? attempted to raise capital to produce the Manicopy Machine. The machine was based on essay US patents No. 1,301,146 and No 1,452,945 awarded to Chester A. Macomic, and essay on service best work, was also called the Macomic Typesetting and essay on technoogy, Type Distributing Machine. A photograph of one of these machines is immediately to the left. Miss Stenographer merely sets a standard keyboard typewriter on the Manicopy Machine. She places a piece of resume wring paper in the typewriter and starts to write.
Plungers underneath the typewriter keys are depressed every time a key on the typewriter is struck, thus setting the type on the Manicopy. When she has completed writing the letter or circular, she turns a lever and the type which has been set on the line bars are conveyed automatically to essay on technoogy the printing surface where the desired number of copies is essay on community, printed automatically. After the job is completed, these line bars are returned to their original positions automatically by on technoogy turning a lever, and by turning another lever the type is islamic reports, instantly and on technoogy, automatically returned to its proper position without the type being touched by short volleyball hand. Essay On Technoogy? The company planned to produce 12,000 Manicopy Machines a year and to sell them for $1,250 each.. We have found no evidence that the company raised the capital necessary to go into commercial production. In 1924, American Multigraph introduced the Multigraph Keyboard Compotype, a complicated machine that enabled the resume wring operator to set Multigraph type by essay on technoogy working at a typewriter-style keyboard. The Compotype composed the body of the form letter by stamping characters on strip aluminum and automatically assembling the reports strips of type--a line at a time--on a flexible sheet metal blanket. This blanket was then clamped on the drum of a Multigraph printer in order to essay produce form letters. The Compotype also produced address plates.
In 1927, American Multigraph introduced the Addressing Multigraph, which typewrites a letter, signs a signature, fills in essay on service best work, the address and typewrites the envelope, all at a single revolution of the drum. The Addressing Multigraph used plates made with the on technoogy Keyboard Compotype. Like Hollerith tabulating machines, Addressing Multigraphs were leased rather than sold to users. In 1947, Multigraph machines were sold to offices for a wide range of duplicating purposes, e.g., production of large quantities of blank business forms and promotional materials. Institute? (Addressograph-Multigraph, 1947 Annual Report) Plate 38D , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 38E, Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad. Photocopying Machines Used to Copy Existing Documents. One result of the difficulty of copying incoming documents is that offices maintained central files. Everett Alldredge of the National Archives in Washington, DC, stated: Before the Xerox era [which began in essay on technoogy, 1960], every government agency had one central filing system. When anybody needed information he went to resume wring that central file.
But today, with the copying of essay on technoogy documents made so easy, many a government executive prefers to maintain files in his own office. (John H. Dessauer, My Years with Xerox, 1971, p. xiv) The blue process was a contact printing technology: photosensitive paper was placed in contact with the document that was being copied. A clerk began by using paper and chemicals (potassium ferrocyanide and ferric citrate) to institute of technology essay prepare photosensitive paper. A draftsman used opaque ink to draw on paper that was translucent or that was subsequently made translucent with oil, melted wax, or various chemicals. Alternatively, a junior draftsman copied original drawings onto essay tracing paper with black India ink. The clerk then put a sheet of on science and superstitious photosensitive paper in the tray of a blue printing frame, covered this with the translucent original or India ink tracing, and on technoogy, covered this with a heavy glass plate that pressed the short volleyball papers together.
The blue printing frame was installed so that the prepared tray could be pushed out essay a window into the sunlight ( Plate 39 ). Resume Wring? The clerk exposed the tray for essay on technoogy anywhere from several minutes to an hour, depending on california institute prompt the brightness of the day, and essay, used chemicals to fix the print. On Science? The result, a blue print, had a blue background where the essay on technoogy photosensitive paper had been exposed to light and white lines where the resume wring paper had not been exposed. The blue process was time consuming and impractical for duplication of typical office documents, however, even though by 1881 commercially prepared photosensitive paper for on technoogy use in the blue process was available. Frames for use in exposing blue prints to volleyball the sun were still advertised in 1913. However, after the essay development of electric illumination and essay, installation of electrical distribution systems, blueprint machines were developed that operated indoors with carbon arc lamps. On these machines, the essay on technoogy frames that held the photosensitive paper and the original were in a vertical rather than horizontal plane. About Volleyball? For an early photograph of one of essay these machines, click on resume wring the link to essay on technoogy B. L. California Essay? Makepeace, Inc., scroll down, and on technoogy, then click on the link to first blueprinting machines in New England . On Community Service? See also Plate 39A to essay the right.
In the late 19th century and essay, early 20th century, a number of contact printing processes similar to the blue process but employing different chemicals were used to produce prints that differed in appearance, e.g., colored lines on white backgrounds. Plate 39A , Electric Blue Printing Machine, Vertical Type, 1913. Camera-Based Photocopying Machines. The Rectigraph Co. introduced camera-based photocopying machines in 1906 or 1907, and the Photostat Corp. (an affiliate of Eastman Kodak) did so at some point during 1907-11. Rectigraph and Photostat machines ( Plates 40-42 ) combined a large camera and a developing machine and used sensitized paper furnished in on technoogy, 350-foot rolls. Resume Wring? The prints are made direct on sensitized paper, no negative, plate or film intervening.
The usual exposure is essay on technoogy, ten seconds. After the essay on science and superstitious exposure has been made the paper is cut off and carried underneath the exposure chamber to on technoogy the developing bath, where it remains for 35 seconds, and is then drawn into a fixing bath. While one print is being developed or fixed, another exposure can be made. When the copies are removed from the resume wring fixing bath, they are allowed to dry by exposure to on technoogy the air, or may be run through a drying machine. The first print taken from the original is a 'black' print; the whites in the original are black and the blacks, white. Resume Wring? ( Plate 43 ) A white 'positive' print of the original is made by rephotographing the black print. As many positives as required may be made by continuing to on technoogy photograph the black print. Resume Wring? ( The American Digest of Business Machines , 1924.) Du Pont Co. files include black prints of graphs dating from essay on technoogy, 1909, and the company acquired a Photostat machine in 1912. California Institute Essay? (Yates, p. 248, n. 81) A System , Sept. 1913 ad stated 20 Photostats used by the U.S. Government.
In 1911, a Photostat machine was $500. On Technoogy? (Yates, p. 54.) In 1924, Photostat machines were $650 to $1,050, depending on maximum print size and attachments. The cost of materials per print was $.06 for an 11.5 x 14 print. Similar Rectigraph machines were $500 to $850. Plates 43A, B, C D , Large Photocopying Machines, including Agfa Repromaster 1600 on right. Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Plate 40 , Photostat Machine, 1918 photo. Plate 40A , Photostat Machine, 1924. [Leffingwell 1926, p. 401] Plate 40B , Photostat Machine, Plate 40C , Photocopying Machine at Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Co. Photograph by Theodor Horydczak (c.
1890-1971) Repro. No: LC-H814-T-1578-067. Library of resume wring Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Good Old Things. Plate 42 , Rectigraph with Copy Board, Rectigraph Co., Rochester, NY.
Plate 43 , Photostat black print. Library of Congress, American Memory, An American Time Capsule. While invented in 1896, reflex copying technologies became significant during the 1920s and 1930s. Like the blue process, reflex copying was a contact printing technology. In reflex copying, a sheet of photosensitive paper was placed face down on an original, and essay, the back of the photosensitive paper was exposed to light. Light reflected from the original exposed the emulsion on the front of the photosensitive paper.
In the 1930s, Remington Rand sold Dexigraph reflex copying machines. In the 1950s, several companies, including Apeco, 3M, and Kodak sold desktop reflex copying machines. Typically, an original to be copied was placed face-up. It was covered with a sheet of translucent paper with a heat-sensitive coating. On Science? This is the sheet on which the copy would appear. Infrared light went through the on technoogy translucent paper, was reflected from the white portions of the book original, and was absorbed by the black portions of the original. The light that was absorbed by the black portions heated relevant portions of the heat-sensitive coating on the copying paper, and this created the copy. This technology had numerous problems, according to Owen. It required expensive chemically treated papers, and copies smelled bad, were hard to read, were not durable, and tended to on technoogy curl up into tubes. (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. 2004, pp. 91-97.)
For a history of Apeco and the photocopying industry of essay about volleyball which it was a part, see the Harvard Business School discussion. Plate 44 , Apeco Auto-Stat, 1954 ad. Plate 44A , 3M Thermo-Fax, 1956 aa. Plate 44B , Kodak Verifax, 1958 ad. Electrostatic Photocopying Machines: Xerography. The first experimental electrostatic photocopy was made by Chester F. Carlson in on technoogy, 1938. Carlson patented the xerography process, which was further developed by resume wring the Battelle Memorial Institute and essay, the Haloid Co. The first commercially successful machine to use the technology was Haloid's Model A Copier , which was introduced in 1950 (Dessauer). Essay Is The? The Model A was not a plain paper copying machine. It was widely used to make paper master plates for offset duplicating with machines made by essay on technoogy the Addressograph-Multigraph Co. and others. The Haloid Co. was renamed Haloid-Xerox Inc. in 1958.
The first plain paper office copying machine, the on service to humanity of life Xerox 914 , was introduced in early 1960 (Dessauer). The Xerox 914 produced 400 copies an hour. After 1960, sales of the 914 increased rapidly and essay, Xerox copying machines quickly became important in resume wring, offices. In 1963, the company introduced its first desktop plain paper copier, the Xerox 813 . In 1965, the essay on technoogy company introduced the Xerox 2400 , a large machine that produced 2400 copies an hour. (For a history, see Dessauer 1971 and short essay about, Owen 2004.) Plates 45 through 45C: Courtesy of Xerox Corporation. Plate 45 , Haloid Model A Copier. First manually operated commercial xerography printer. First automatic office copier to. make copies on plain paper. First desktop copier to make.
copies on plain paper. First Xerox high volume copier. (1) Granville Sharp’s advice comes from The Gilbart Prize Essay on the Adaptation of essay Recent Discoveries and Inventions in Science and Art to the Purposes of california institute of technology Practical Banking , Groombridge and essay on technoogy, Sons, London, 1854, including exhibits. (2) The Edison electric pen in Plate 15 is on california institute essay prompt display in the Information Age exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History in essay, Washington, DC. The Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, also has an electric pen.
The Science Museum in London has a number of early copying machines, including a Watt portable copying press, a Trypograph, and a Cyclostyle. (3) W. B. Proudfoot, The Origin of Stencil Duplicating , Hutchinson, London, 1972, and book reports, B. Rhodes W. W. Streeter, Before Photocopying: The Art and essay on technoogy, History of Mechanical Copying, 1780-1938 , Oak Knoll Press, 1999, are excellent illustrated histories of essay on community benefits early copying technologies. J. S. Dorley, The Roneo Story , Roneo Vickers Ltd., 1978, provides an illustrated history of the Roneo Co. (4) T. Essay On Technoogy? A. Russo, Office Collectibles: 100 Years of Business Technology , Schiffer, 2000, pp. 93-98, has a copy of Watt’s patent and photographs of short essay about a Watt portable copying machine and other early duplicating machines.
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