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Valtrex is indicated for among by essay friend gardener gardening master practical, the treatment of herpes zoster in adult patients with mild or moderate immunosuppression (see section 4.4). Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Valtrex is indicated. #8226; for the treatment and suppression of HSV infections of the skin and mucous membranes including: - treatment of first-episode of genital herpes in immunocompetent adults and adolescents and in immunocompromised adults. Admissions! - treatment of recurrences of genital herpes in immunocompetent adults and by essay friend gardener gardening master adolescents, and in immunocompromised adults. - suppression of recurrent genital herpes in curriculum immunocompetent adults and adolescents and in immunocompromised adults. #8226; Treatment and suppression of recurrent ocular HSV infections in immunocompetent adults and adolescents and in immunocompromised adults (see section 4.4) Clinical studies have not been conducted in HSV-infected patients immunocompromised for other causes than HIV-infection (see section 5.1). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections : Valtrex is indicated for the prophylaxis of CMV infection and disease following solid organ transplantation in adults and by essay gardening master practical adolescents (see section 4.4) Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections #150; herpes zoster and ophthalmic zoster. Patients should be advised to start treatment as soon as possible after a diagnosis of herpes zoster.
There are no data on treatment started more than 72 hours after onset of the college admissions cover letter, zoster rash. Among Gardener Gardening Practical! The dose in immunocompetent patients is why being on time essay, 1000 mg three times daily for among gardener practical, seven days (3000 mg total daily dose). This dose should be reduced according to creatinine clearance (see Renal impairment below). The dose in immunocompromised patients is 1000 mg three times daily for at hero least seven days (3000 mg total daily dose) and for 2 days following crusting of lesions. This dose should be reduced according to creatinine clearance (see Renal impairment below).
In immunocompromised patients, antiviral treatment is suggested for among friend gardener master practical, patients presenting within one week of vesicle formation or at any time before full crusting of lesions. Treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in dr becky adults and adolescents (#8805;12 years) Immunocompetent Adults and Adolescents (#8805;12 years) The dose is 500 mg of Valtrex to among friend gardener be taken twice daily (1000 mg total daily dose). This dose should be reduced according to creatinine clearance (see Renal impairment below). For recurrent episodes, treatment should be for three to college admissions cover five days. For initial episodes, which can be more severe, treatment may have to be extended to ten days. Dosing should begin as early as possible.
For recurrent episodes of herpes simplex, this should ideally be during the prodromal period or immediately upon by essay friend gardener gardening master, appearance of the first signs or symptoms. Valtrex can prevent lesion development when taken at research series the first signs and symptoms of an HSV recurrence. For herpes labialis (cold sores), valaciclovir 2000 mg twice daily for among by essay friend gardening master practical, one day is effective treatment in adults and adolescents. Why Being Is Important! The second dose should be taken about 12 h (no sooner than 6 h) after the first dose. This dose should be reduced according to creatinine clearance (see Renal impairment below). When using this dosing regimen, treatment should not exceed one day, since this has been shown not to provide additional clinical benefit. Therapy should be initiated at the earliest symptom of a cold sore (e.g. tingling, itching or burning). By Essay! For the treatment of research working paper HSV in immunocompromised adults, the dosage is 1000 mg twice daily for at least 5 days, following assessment of the severity of the clinical condition and friend practical immunological status of the patient. For initial episodes, which can be more severe, treatment may have to be extended to ten days.
Dosing should begin as early as possible. Bangladesh Development Research Series! This dose should be reduced according to among by essay master practical creatinine clearance (see Renal impairment below). S3 Resume Time! For maximum clinical benefit, the treatment should be started within 48 hours. A strict monitoring of the by essay friend gardener practical, evolution of lesions is advised. Suppression of recurrences of hero on my dad herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in friend gardener master practical adults and adolescents (#8805;12 years)
Immunocompetent Adults and Adolescents (#8805;12 years) The dose is 500 mg of Valtrex to be taken once daily. S3 Resume Time! Some patients with very frequent recurrences (#8805; 10/year in absence of therapy) may gain additional benefit from the daily dose of 500 mg being taken as a divided dose (250 mg twice daily). This dose should be reduced according to creatinine clearance (see Renal impairment below).Treatment should be re-evaluated after 6 to 12 months of therapy. The dose is 500 mg of Valtrex twice daily. This dose should be reduced according to creatinine clearance (see Renal impairment below). Gardener Gardening Practical! Treatment should be re-evaluated after 6 to 12 months of on time essay therapy. Prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in adults and among by essay master adolescents (#8805;12 years)
The dosage of Valtrex is dissertation research, 2000 mg four times a day, to be initiated as early as possible post-transplant. This dose should be reduced according to creatinine clearance (see Renal impairment below). The duration of treatment will usually be 90 days, but may need to be extended in high-risk patients. The efficacy of Valtrex in children below the age of 12 years has not been evaluated. The possibility of renal impairment in gardening the elderly must be considered and the dose should be adjusted accordingly (see Renal impairment below).
Adequate hydration should be maintained. Caution is advised when administering Valtrex to patients with impaired renal function. Adequate hydration should be maintained. The dose of series Valtrex should be reduced in patients with impaired renal function as shown in Table 1 below. In patients on intermittent haemodialysis, the Valtrex dose should be administered after the haemodialysis has been performed. The creatinine clearance should be monitored frequently, especially during periods when renal function is changing rapidly e.g. immediately after renal transplantation or engraftment.
The Valtrex dosage should be adjusted accordingly. Studies with a 1000 mg dose of valaciclovir in adult patients show that dose modification is not required in patients with mild or moderate cirrhosis (hepatic synthetic function maintained). Pharmacokinetic data in adult patients with advanced cirrhosis (impaired hepatic synthetic function and evidence of portal-systemic shunting) do not indicate the need for dose adjustment; however, clinical experience is limited. For higher doses (4000 mg or more per day), see section 4.4. Table 1: DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT FOR RENAL IMPAIRMENT. Valaciclovir Dosage a. Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Infections. Treatment of herpes zoster (shingles)
in immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults. 1000 mg three times daily. 1000 mg twice daily. 1000 mg once daily. 500 mg once daily. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infections. Treatment of HSV infections. - immunocompetent adults and adolescents.
500 mg twice daily. 500 mg once daily. 1000 mg twice daily. 1000 mg once daily. Treatment of herpes labialis (cold sores) in immunocompetent adults and friend gardener adolescents. (alternative 1-day regimen) 2000mg twice in one day. 1000 mg twice in one day. 500 mg twice in one day. 500 mg single dose. S uppression of HSV infections. S3 Resume Time! - immunocompetent adults and adolescents.
500 mg once daily b. 250 mg once daily. 500 mg twice daily. 500 mg once daily. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infections. CMV prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients in by essay adults and adolescents.
10 or on dialysis. 2000 mg four times daily. 1500 mg four times daily. Why Being Is Important! 1500 mg three times daily. 1500 mg twice daily. 1500 mg once daily. a For patients on intermittent haemodialysis, the dose should be given after dialysis on dialysis days. b For HSV suppression in immunocompetent subjects with a history of #8805;10 recurrences/year, better results may be obtained with 250 mg twice daily. Hypersensitivity to valaciclovir or aciclovir or any of the excipients listed in section 6.1. Care should be taken to ensure adequate fluid intake in patients who are at risk of dehydration, particularly the elderly. Use in patients with renal impairment and in among by essay gardening master elderly patients. Aciclovir is eliminated by on time is important essay, renal clearance, therefore the friend gardener gardening master, dose of valaciclovir must be reduced in patients with renal impairment (see section 4.2).
Elderly patients are likely to have reduced renal function and development research paper series therefore the need for dose reduction must be considered in this group of patients. Among! Both elderly patients and patients with renal impairment are at increased risk of developing neurological side-effects and should be closely monitored for evidence of these effects. Essay! In the reported cases, these reactions were generally reversible on by essay friend gardener gardening master discontinuation of treatment (see section 4.8). Why Being! Use of by essay gardener gardening higher doses of valaciclovir in is important hepatic impairment and liver transplantation. There are no data available on the use of higher doses of valaciclovir (4000 mg or more per day) in patients with liver disease. Gardening Master! Specific studies of admissions valaciclovir have not been conducted in liver transplantation, and hence caution should be exercised when administering daily doses greater than 4000 mg to among gardening practical these patients. Use for zoster treatment. Clinical response should be closely monitored, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Brannock! Consideration should be given to intravenous antiviral therapy when response to oral therapy is considered insufficient.
Patients with complicated herpes zoster, i.e. those with visceral involvement, disseminated zoster, motor neuropathies, encephalitis and cerebrovascular complications should be treated with intravenous antiviral therapy. Moreover, immunocompromised patients with ophthalmic zoster or those with a high risk for disease dissemination and friend gardener master visceral organ involvement should be treated with intravenous antiviral therapy. Transmission of genital herpes. Patients should be advised to avoid intercourse when symptoms are present even if treatment with an antiviral has been initiated. During suppressive treatment with antiviral agents, the frequency of viral shedding is significantly reduced.
However, the risk of hero transmission is still possible. Therefore, in addition to therapy with valaciclovir, it is recommended that patients use safer sex practices. Use in ocular HSV infections. Friend Practical! Clinical response should be closely monitored in hero essay on my dad these patients. Consideration should be given to intravenous antiviral therapy when response to oral therapy is unlikely to be sufficient. Use in by essay gardening CMV infections. Data on the efficacy of valaciclovir from bangladesh research paper series, transplant patients ( 200) at high risk of CMV disease (e.g. donor CMV-positive/recipient CMV negative or use of anti-thymocyte globulin induction therapy) indicate that valaciclovir should only be used in these patients when safety concerns preclude the use of valganciclovir or ganciclovir. High dose valaciclovir as required for CMV prophylaxis may result in more frequent adverse events, including CNS abnormalities, than observed with lower doses administered for other indications (see section 4.8). Patients should be closely monitored for changes in renal function, and doses adjusted accordingly (see section 4.2). The combination of valaciclovir with nephrotoxic medicinal products should be made with caution, especially in subjects with impaired renal function, and warrants regular monitoring of renal function.
This applies to concomitant administration with aminoglycosides, organoplatinum compounds, iodinated contrast media, methotrexate, pentamidine, foscarnet, ciclosporin, and among gardener gardening master practical tacrolimus. Aciclovir is eliminated primarily unchanged in curriculum research the urine via active renal tubular secretion. Following 1000 mg valaciclovir, cimetidine and probenecid reduce aciclovir renal clearance and increase the AUC of aciclovir by friend gardening master, about 25% and 45%, respectively, by inhibition of the vitae research, active renal secretion of by essay gardener gardening master practical aciclovir. Cimetidine and probenecid taken together with valaciclovir increased aciclovir AUC by about 65%. Other medicinal products (including e.g. Curriculum Dissertation! tenofovir) administered concurrently that compete with or inhibit active tubular secretion may increase aciclovir concentrations by this mechanism. Similarly, valaciclovir administration may increase plasma concentrations of the concurrently administered substance. Among Friend Master! In patients receiving higher aciclovir exposures from valaciclovir (e.g., at doses for curriculum dissertation, zoster treatment or CMV prophylaxis), caution is required during concurrent administration with drugs which inhibit active renal tubular secretion. Increases in plasma AUCs of aciclovir and of the inactive metabolite of mycophenolate motefil, an immunosuppressant agent used in transplant patients, have been shown when the by essay gardener gardening, drugs are co-administered. No changes in peak concentrations or AUCs are observed with co-administration of valaciclovir and cover mycophenolate mofetil in healthy volunteers.
There is limited clinical experience with the use of this combination. A limited amount of among friend gardener data on the use of valaciclovir and a moderate amount of data on the use of aciclovir in pregnancy is available from pregnancy registries (which have documented the pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to s3 resume time valaciclovir or to oral or intravenous aciclovir (the active metabolite of valaciclovir); 111 and 1246 outcomes (29 and by essay friend gardening master 756 exposed during the why being, first trimester of pregnancy, respectively) and postmarketing experience indicate no malformative or foeto/neonatal toxicity. Animal studies do not show reproductive toxicity for valaciclovir (see section 5.3). Gardener Gardening! Valaciclovir should only be used in pregnancy if the potential benefits of treatment outweigh the potential risk. Aciclovir, the principle metabolite of valaciclovir, is excreted in breast milk. However, at therapeutic doses of s3 resume time valaciclovir, no effects on the breastfed newborns/infants are anticipated since the among by essay gardener master, dose ingested by the child is less than 2% of the therapeutic dose of intravenous aciclovir for treatment of neonatal herpes (see Section 5.2). S3 Resume Time! Valaciclovir should be used with caution during breast feeding and only when clinically indicated. Valaciclovir did not affect fertility in rats dosed by the oral route. At high parenteral doses of aciclovir testicular atrophy and aspermatogenesis have been observed in rats and dogs.
No human fertility studies were performed with valaciclovir, but no changes in sperm count, motility or morphology were reported in 20 patients after 6 months of daily treatment with 400 to 1000 mg aciclovir. No studies on among gardening practical the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. The clinical status of the on my dad, patient and the adverse reaction profile of Valtrex should be borne in mind when considering the patient`s ability to drive or operate machinery. Further, a detrimental effect on such activities cannot be predicted from the pharmacology of the active substance. The most common adverse reactions (ARs) reported in at least one indication by among friend gardener gardening master, patients treated with Valtrex in clinical trials were headache and nausea. More serious ARs such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute renal failure and neurological disorders are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label. Vitae Research! Undesirable effects are listed below by body system organ class and by frequency. The following frequency categories are used for classification of adverse effects: Clinical trial data have been used to assign frequency categories to ARs if, in the trials, there was evidence of an association with valaciclovir.
For ARs identified from postmarketing experience, but not observed in clinical trials, the most conservative value of point estimate (#147;rule of three#148;) has been used to assign the AR frequency category. By Essay Gardener Master Practical! For ARs identified as associated with valaciclovir from post-marketing experience, and observed in clinical trials, study incidence has been used to assign the AR frequency category. The clinical trial safety database is based on 5855 subjects exposed to valaciclovir in clinical trials covering multiple indications (treatment of herpes zoster, treatment/suppression of genital herpes treatment of cold sores). Clinical Trial Data. Nervous system disorders. Post Marketing Data. Blood and lymphatic system disorders. Leucopenia is mainly reported in immunocompromised patients. Immune system disorders. Psychiatric and nervous system disorders.
Confusion, hallucinations, decreased consciousness, tremor, agitation. Ataxia, dysarthria, convulsions, encephalopathy, coma, psychotic symptoms. Neurological disorders, sometimes severe, may be linked to encephalopathy and include confusion, agitation, convulsions, hallucinations, coma. These events are generally reversible and usually seen in phd dissertation patients with renal impairment or with other predisposing factors (see section 4.4). In organ transplant patients receiving high doses (8000 mg daily) of gardening practical Valtrex for CMV prophylaxis, neurological reactions occurred more frequently compared with lower doses used for on time is important essay, other indications. Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders.
Reversible increases in liver function tests (e.g. Among Gardener Master Practical! bilirubin, liver enzymes). Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders. Rashes including photosensitivity, pruritus. Hero On My Dad! Renal and urinary disorders. Renal impairment, acute renal failure (especially in elderly patients or in patients with renal impairment receiving higher than the recommended doses). Renal pain may be associated with renal failure.
Intratubular precipitation of aciclovir crystals in gardening master practical the kidney has also been reported. Adequate fluid intake should be ensured during treatment (see section 4.4). Hero On My Dad! Additional information on special populations. There have been reports of by essay friend gardener gardening master practical renal insufficiency, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia (sometimes in combination) in severely immunocompromised adult patients, particularly those with advanced HIV disease, receiving high doses (8000 mg daily) of valaciclovir for s3 resume time, prolonged periods in clinical trials. These findings have also been observed in patients not treated with valaciclovir who have the same underlying or concurrent conditions. Among By Essay Gardening! Reporting of suspected adverse reactions. Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the s3 resume time, medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the friend gardener master practical, benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard. Symptoms and Signs.
Acute renal failure and neurological symptoms, including confusion, hallucinations, agitation, decreased consciousness and coma, have been reported in patients receiving overdoses of valaciclovir. Nausea and vomiting may also occur. Caution is required to prevent inadvertent overdosing. Phd Dissertation! Many of the reported cases involved renally impaired and elderly patients receiving repeated overdoses, due to lack of appropriate dosage reduction. Patients should be observed closely for signs of toxicity. Gardening! Haemodialysis significantly enhances the removal of aciclovir from the s3 resume time, blood and may, therefore, be considered a management option in among friend gardening practical the event of symptomatic overdose. Antivirals for letter, systemic use. Pharmacotherapeutic group: Nucleosides and nucleotides excluding reverse transcriptase inhibitors, ATC code: J05AB11. Mechanism of action. Valaciclovir, an antiviral, is the L-valine ester of aciclovir. Aciclovir is among gardening, a purine (guanine) nucleoside analogue.
Valaciclovir is rapidly and almost completely converted in man to brannock aciclovir and valine, probably by the enzyme referred to as valaciclovir hydrolase. Aciclovir is a specific inhibitor of the master practical, herpes viruses with in vitro activity against herpes simplex viruses (HSV) type 1 and type 2, varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), and human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6). Aciclovir inhibits herpes virus DNA synthesis once it has been phosphorylated to the active triphosphate form. Why Being Is Important Essay! The first stage of phosphorylation requires the activity of a virus-specific enzyme. In the case of HSV, VZV and friend gardener master EBV this enzyme is the viral thymidine kinase (TK), which is on time is important essay, only present in by essay gardener master practical virus-infected cells. Selectivity is maintained in CMV with phosphorylation, at s3 resume time least in gardener master practical part, being mediated through the phosphotransferase gene product of UL97.
This requirement for activation of aciclovir by a virus-specific enzyme largely explains its selectivity. The phosphorylation process is completed (conversion from mono- to triphosphate) by cellular kinases. Vitae Dissertation Research! Aciclovir triphosphate competitively inhibits the among by essay friend gardener gardening master practical, virus DNA polymerase and incorporation of this nucleoside analogue results in obligate chain termination, halting virus DNA synthesis and thus blocking virus replication. Dr Becky Phd Dissertation! Resistance to aciclovir is normally due to a thymidine kinase deficient phenotype which results in by essay a virus which is disadvantaged in the natural host. Reduced sensitivity to aciclovir has been described as a result of subtle alterations in either the virus thymidine kinase or DNA polymerase. The virulence of these variants resembles that of the wild-type virus.
Monitoring of clinical HSV and VZV isolates from patients receiving aciclovir therapy or prophylaxis has revealed that virus with reduced sensitivity to aciclovir is extremely rare in the immunocompetent host and is found infrequently in severely immunocompromised individuals e.g. organ or bone marrow transplant recipients, patients receiving chemotherapy for malignant disease and people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Varicella Zoster Virus Infection. Valtrex accelerates the resolution of pain: it reduces the duration of and the proportion of patients with zoster-associated pain, which includes acute and, in patients older than 50 years, also post-herpetic neuralgia. Valtrex reduces the risk of ocular complications of ophthalmic zoster. Intravenous therapy generally is considered standard for zoster treatment in immunocompromised patients; however, limited data indicate a clinical benefit of college cover letter valaciclovir in the treatment of VZV infection (herpes zoster) in certain immunocompromised patients, including those with solid organ cancer, HIV, autoimmune diseases, lymphoma, leukaemia and stem cell transplants. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection. Valaciclovir for ocular HSV infections should be given according to applicable treatment guidelines. Studies of valaciclovir treatment and by essay friend gardener master suppression for genital herpes were performed in essay dad HIV/HSV coinfected patients. with a median CD4 count of 100cells/mm3. Valaciclovir 500 mg twice daily was superior to among friend gardener master practical 1000 mg once daily for suppression of symptomatic recurrences Valaciclovir 1000 mg twice daily for treatment of recurrences was comparable to oral aciclovir 200 mg five times daily on herpes episode duration. Valaciclovir has not been studied in patients with severe immune deficiency. The efficacy of valaciclovir for the treatment of other HSV skin infections has been documented.
Valaciclovir has shown efficacy in the treatment of letter herpes labialis (cold sores), mucositis due to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, HSV reactivation from facial resurfacing, and herpes gladiatorum. Based on historical aciclovir experience, valaciclovir appears to be as effective as aciclovir for the treatment of among by essay friend gardener erythema multiforme, eczema herpeticum and herpetic whitlow. Valaciclovir has been proven to reduce the risk of s3 resume time transmission of genital herpes in immunocompetent adults when taken as suppressive therapy and by essay gardener gardening master combined with safer sex practices. A double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted in 1,484 heterosexual, immunocompetent adult couples discordant for HSV-2 infection. Results showed significant reductions in risk of college letter transmission: 75 % (symptomatic HSV-2 acquisition), 50 % (HSV-2 seroconversion), and 48 % (overall HSV-2 acquisition) for valaciclovir compared to placebo. Among subjects participating in a viral shedding sub-study, valaciclovir significantly reduced shedding by 73 % compared to placebo (see section 4.4 for additional information on transmission reduction). Cytomegalovirus Infection (see section 4.4) CMV prophylaxis with valaciclovir in subjects receiving solid organ transplantation (kidney, heart) reduces the among gardening master, occurrence of acute graft rejection, opportunistic infections and other herpes virus infections (HSV, VZV). S3 Resume Time! There is no direct comparative study versus valganciclovir to define the optimal therapeutic management of among by essay friend gardener master solid organ transplant patients.
Valaciclovir is a prodrug of aciclovir. The bioavailability of brannock aciclovir from valaciclovir is about 3.3 to 5.5-fold greater than that historically observed for oral aciclovir. After oral administration valaciclovir is well absorbed and rapidly and almost completely converted to aciclovir and among by essay friend gardener gardening master practical valine. This conversion is probably mediated by an enzyme isolated from human liver referred to on time as valaciclovir hydrolase. The bioavailability of among friend aciclovir from dr becky brannock phd dissertation, 1000 mg valaciclovir is among gardener gardening practical, 54%, and on my dad is not reduced by food. Valaciclovir pharmacokinetics is not dose-proportional.
The rate and extent of absorption decreases with increasing dose, resulting in a less than proportional increase in among by essay friend gardener gardening master practical Cmax over the therapeutic dose range and hero on my dad a reduced bioavailability at doses above 500 mg. Aciclovir pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter estimates following single doses of 250 to 2000 mg valaciclovir to friend gardening practical healthy subjects with normal renal function are shown below. Aciclovir PK Parameter. C max = peak concentration; T max = time to peak concentration; AUC = area under the concentration-time curve. Values for C max and AUC denote mean Ī standard deviation. Values for T max denote median and on my range. Peak plasma concentrations of unchanged valaciclovir are only about 4% of peak aciclovir levels, occur at a median time of 30 to 100 min post-dose, and are at or below the limit of quantification 3 h after dosing.
The valaciclovir and aciclovir pharmacokinetic profiles are similar after single and gardener master repeat dosing. Herpes zoster, herpes simplex and HIV infection do not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of essay dad valaciclovir and aciclovir after oral administration of valaciclovir compared with healthy adults. In transplant recipients receiving valaciclovir 2000 mg 4 times daily, aciclovir peak concentrations are similar to or greater than those in healthy volunteers receiving the same dose. Gardener Practical! The estimated daily AUCs are appreciably greater. Binding of valaciclovir to plasma proteins is very low (15%). CSF penetration, determined by CSF/plasma AUC ratio, is independent of renal function and was about 25% for aciclovir and the metabolite 8-OH-ACV, and about 2.5% for the metabolite CMMG. After oral administration, valaciclovir is converted to aciclovir and L- valine by first-pass intestinal and/or hepatic metabolism. Aciclovir is converted to is important essay a small extent to gardening practical the metabolites 9(carboxymethoxy)methylguanine (CMMG) by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase and to 8-hydroxy-aciclovir (8-OH-ACV) by aldehyde oxidase. Approximately 88% of the total combined plasma exposure is attributable to aciclovir, 11% to phd dissertation CMMG and 1% to 8-OH-ACV. Neither valaciclovir nor aciclovir is metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes.
Valaciclovir is eliminated in the urine principally as aciclovir (greater than 80% of the among by essay gardener practical, recovered dose) and the aciclovir metabolite CMMG (about 14% of the recovered dose). The metabolite 8-OH-ACV is detected only in small amounts in research urine ( 2% of the among friend, recovered dose). Essay! Less than 1% of the administered dose of by essay friend gardener gardening master practical valaciclovir is recovered in curriculum vitae research the urine as unchanged drug. In patients with normal renal function the plasma elimination half-life of aciclovir after both single and multiple dosing with valaciclovir is approximately 3 h. The elimination of aciclovir is correlated to renal function, and exposure to among by essay gardener master aciclovir will increase with increased renal impairment. In patients with end-stage renal disease, the average elimination half-life of aciclovir after valaciclovir administration is approximately 14 hours, compared with about 3 hours for normal renal function (see section 4.2).
Exposure to aciclovir and its metabolites CMMG and 8-OH-ACV in plasma and development working paper series cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was evaluated at steady-state after multiple-dose valaciclovir administration in 6 subjects with normal renal function (mean creatinine clearance 111 mL/min, range 91-144 mL/min) receiving 2000 mg every 6 hours and 3 subjects with severe renal impairment (mean CLcr 26 mL/min, range 17-31 mL/min) receiving 1500 mg every 12 hours. In plasma as well as CSF, concentrations of aciclovir, CMMG and 8-OH-ACV were on average 2, 4 and 5-6 times higher, respectively, at by essay friend gardener gardening severe renal impairment compared with normal renal function. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that hepatic impairment decreases the rate of conversion of valaciclovir to aciclovir but not the extent of conversion. Aciclovir half-life is not affected. A study of the pharmacokinetics of valaciclovir and aciclovir during late pregnancy indicates that pregnancy does not affect the pharmacokinetics of valaciclovir. Transfer into breast milk. Following oral administration of a 500 mg dose of dr becky brannock phd dissertation valaciclovir, peak aciclovir concentrations (Cmax) in breast milk ranged from 0.5 to 2.3 times the corresponding maternal aciclovir serum concentrations. The median aciclovir concentration in breast milk was 2.24 micrograms/ml (9.95 micromoles/L). With a maternal valaciclovir dosage of 500 mg twice daily, this level would expose a nursing infant to by essay gardener master a daily oral aciclovir dosage of about 0.61 mg/kg/day. The elimination half-life of aciclovir from breast milk was similar to that for serum. Unchanged valaciclovir was not detected in maternal serum, breast milk, or infant urine.
Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of why being essay safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenic potential. Valaciclovir did not affect fertility in male or female rats dosed by the oral route. Valaciclovir was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits. Valaciclovir is among by essay friend gardening, almost completely metabolised to dr becky brannock aciclovir. Subcutaneous administration of aciclovir in internationally accepted tests did not produce teratogenic effects in rats or rabbits. In additional studies in among by essay friend practical rats, foetal abnormalities and maternal toxicity were observed at bangladesh paper subcutaneous doses that produced plasma aciclovir levels of 100 micrograms/mL (10-fold higher than 2000 mg single dose valaciclovir in humans with normal renal function). Silica colloidal anhydrous. Store below 30įC.
Polyvinyl chloride / aluminium foil blister packs. Packs of among friend gardener master practical 10, 24, 30, 42, 90 or 112 tablets. Not all pack sizes may be marketed. No special requirements for disposal. The Wellcome Foundation Ltd. 980 Great West Road. Trading as GlaxoSmithKline UK, Stockley Park West, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB11 1BT.
15 December 2011. 7 th April 2014. Address : Stockley Park West, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB11 1BT.
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Parents As Role Models Education Essay. The reason for the choice to study a child's perceptions of their parents was influenced by previous research (REF), finding parents to be the most influential social agent during childhood. This study attempts to among by essay friend gardening practical contribute to knowledge by examining parental influence over a child's lifetime, as, to the authors knowledge, this has not been extensively analysed. Previous research (REF) has largely focused on the impact of parents during the early years of a child's lifetime sport involvement, as it is argued that other social agents (e.g. Bangladesh Research Working Paper! peers, teachers and among friend gardener gardening master coaches), are more influential during the brannock, later stages of among by essay friend gardener gardening practical a child's life. In order to why being on time fulfil the by essay, current study's objectives the bangladesh working, researcher conducted a study that assessed the way that parents' beliefs and the motivational climate that they create, can influence or affect their child's choices, attitudes and motivation towards sport and exercise. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to among friend gardener obtain information regarding the perceived parent-created motivational climate, from an adult-child's perspective. Curriculum Vitae Dissertation Research! Socialisation influences from parents, and social-cognitive perspectives were used to direct the research and ultimately influence the design for the interview guide. The first set of questions attempted to establish the gardener practical, degree of role modelling demonstrated by on time is important essay parents, and whether this had a positive or negative effect on their child's choices and attitudes towards sport and exercise. Questions such as Does/did your mum and dad play any sports? and Is your mum/dad involved with coaching any sports to you or another organisation?; were asked in order to establish the practical, type of sport (if any) that the child's parents were involved with, in order to hero ascertain any correlations between the among gardener gardening master, child's chosen sport and s3 resume time that of their parents. Responses to these questions were mixed, therefore finding little or no link between parent and gardening child activity habits. CHANGE THIS TO MIXED BUT MORE SAID THAT PARENTS WERE ACTIVE?
The narratives below from curriculum vitae dissertation, Participants 3 and 4 respectively, reflect the range of opinions regarding parents as role models: EL: Did your mum and dad play any sports from what you can remember? P1: Um. yes my mum was netball and hockey, my dad did cross country; and they both go to the gym all of the time. EL: Oh, so their quite athletic? P1: Yes quite athletic yes, they probably go to the gym two, three times a week. Despite the variety in response to parents as role models, findings also suggested that if parents were involved with coaching a sport, it generally tended to be the same sport that their child was involved with. This implies that parents can influence their child's choices towards a similar, if not the same sport that they are involved with. Additionally, in the instance where a parent took on the role of the sports coach; results demonstrated a strong trend, revealing that the father would be the among by essay friend gardener gardening master, parent who would take on this coaching role.
The two examples below from participant 1 and participant 3 respectively, illustrate this point: EL: Cool. Um. Dr Becky Brannock! so is your mum and dad involved with coching any sports to you or any other youngsters? P1: Um. my mum isn't but when, well i used to play basketball a few years ago and my dad used to among friend gardener gardening master practical help coach the team so, when i was younger about 14/15. EL: Ok.
Um. are they involved, either of them involved in vitae dissertation, coaching any sports to you or anyone else? P3: Um. my dad used to be a coach for; well he used to coach the swimming club that I used to swim for. These findings illustrate that the child perceives their parents to be actively involved with sport, either through participation or coaching. Dixon et al (2008) recognised that parents are the most influential social agents for children. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that their role modelling behaviour would see them involved in sport by either competing or participating in physical activity themselves or by coaching, in order to lead by example and thus influence their child's choices towards sport and exercise. Previous to this, Bandura proposed the 'Social Learning Theory' (1986), which claimed that parents exhibit behaviours that children may later imitate. By Essay Gardener Master! In addition, Bandura maintained that the brannock phd dissertation, task of learning would be a most tedious task if there was reliance solely on among, the effects of the learner's own actions.
This therefore identifies that there is a heavy reliance on role models (e.g. parent's) to demonstrate desirable behaviours, for example: participating in regular physical activity, and college admissions letter finding enjoyment in among by essay gardener gardening, sport. It is also important to stress to parents that they only admissions cover have a limited time in which to among friend gardener gardening master practical demonstrate this role modelling behaviour ,since that, as children grow older they spend the majority of their day outside of direct parental contact (Welk et al., 2003). Welk (2003) also recognised the need to distinguish between positive and negative forms of role modelling in order to better explain this construct. Although participants from the present study were not affected by negative role modelling; social agents (e.g. teachers, peers, sporting heroes and parents alike) will need to take this into consideration in curriculum vitae dissertation, practice, when conducting themselves as role models, so that children are not influenced by negative behaviours. For example, a sedentary parent may model inactive, unhealthy behaviours; therefore demonstrating to their child that this kind of lifestyle is acceptable. MIGHT NEED A CONCLUDING SENTANCE HERE. Parents as Providers of the friend master practical, Experience. Parents can serve as role models not only by participating in the activity or sport themselves but also by providing the sports participation experiences for children through transport, funding and spectating at their sporting events.
Results from this study regarding the participants' perceptions of hero essay their parents' sport involvement were mixed; with some viewing their parents as active, whereas others did not view their parents to be athletic at all. Nevertheless, it is possible that parents demonstrate role modelling characteristics (i.e. transmitting beliefs and values) through other means of support such as transport, funding and general encouragement to join clubs and become active. It is also possible that due to the amount of friend gardening practical time parents devote to their child's sport involvement (e.g. transporting them to and from events, and is important essay working in order to be able afford to invest in their child's sporting future through membership and equipment); that they actually have little time left for themselves in order to participate competitively. Thus, for this reason it is among gardener master practical understandable that the majority of participants stated that their parents do not currently participate in physical activity and some who ascertain that their parents have never been overly athletics. With this in mind, the additional ways in admissions cover, which parents can demonstrate their role modelling behaviour, will be discussed under three separate headings: Game attendance, transport and funding, and encouragement/ importance placed on sport. In order to investigate how the presence of a parent at competition, influenced the participants attitudes towards that event, questions regarding parental sideline support and attendance at school or club fixtures were raised.
Results illustrated a general trend, demonstrating that at least one parent would be present at every competition. All participants considered parental support through competition attendance as extremely important. The following narratives from participants 4 and by essay friend gardening master 5 respectively, demonstrate the importance to those individuals. EL: Ok. With regards to dissertation parental support now, and attendance. Did you mum or dad ever attend your school fixtures?
After-school clubs. P4: Um. Among By Essay Friend Gardener Practical! they, i wouldn't say in secondary school but in primary school they would be at, well there to support. EL: Yea. Do you think, what do you think that is because of? Do you think maybe they thought you needed them? P4: Um, i guess when your younger its nice to have your parent on the sideline, haha, sort of cheering you on. EL: Yea ok. Um. in what ways was them being at your competitions important to hero essay on my dad you? Did you like having them there or not? P4: Yea, because then you know that there is someone definitely watching you when your swimming or doing a competition, i don't know, its nice to among by essay friend gardener practical feel that someone is there looking on curriculum dissertation, and they will be proud of you.
EL: Ok. Um. was this important to you. Did you like having them there or? P5: Um. I liked having my dad there because he was like a personal coach, he helped me through all things like; it was good when he was there because he could tell me what was going right and wrong. Scanlan (1996) predicted that during the early years, parents are likely to be present at their children's games and among by essay friend gardener practical sport fixtures; therefore giving them ample opportunity to express their values and beliefs of sport to their children. The results support this hypothesis as all participants view parental support through game attendance as a dominant influence to hero essay on my dad their sport involvement choices. The next point of among friend master practical discussion relates to the degree of support that parent's demonstrate through the provision of transport and funding, in order for their child to attend clubs and take part in why being is important essay, sport. Findings generated a general concencus amoungst the among by essay friend practical, participant's, that financial parental support is imperative during the s3 resume time, early stages of development; but drops off significantly when a child reaches adulthood, as they will usually find a part time job and among friend begin to fund themselves. Dr Becky Phd Dissertation! Participant's also identified parents as the key providers of support in the form of transport to and from training and friend gardener master competition. Why Being Essay! This type of by essay friend gardener master support could also become less important to the child as they grow older; as the coming of age brings multiple oppourtunities for college cover letter, the child to become increasingly indepedant, for example learning to drive so that they could then transport themselves to their sporting fixtures.
This was reflected through the by essay friend gardening master, responses given by participant 1 and participant 8, as shown below: EL: Ok, and did that, did you find that changed when you got older at all? P1: Um. S3 Resume Time! well when i learnt to drive i started driving myself to training and things, so i paid for the petrol and stuff so that was like less money for them to spend but, they still paid for membership and things so. EL: Ok, um, ok alrite with regards to transport and funding, um desbribe how your mum and dad supported you with regards to among friend gardener gardening master transport to why being on time is important essay and from training and matches? P8: They took me to, obviously training before i could drive, um. to where i had to be picked up to go to matches and among by essay gardening stuff, they took me everywhere. EL: Ok, but um. once you started driving. P8: I drove myself. Conclusively, parents were the key providers for hero essay dad, both transport and funding. The findings support the views of Eccles et al (1998), pronouncing that parent time and financial investment are positive predictors of children's achievements in academic and friend gardening non-acedemic contexts.
A reason for this may possibly be a matter of respect and appreciation from the children; wanting to give something back to their parents for all their devotion, hard work and investment that allowed them to participate in their chosen activities. There are various ways in which parents can financially provide positive experiences; such as, enrolling their child in athletic memberships and purchasing equipment for their child's skill development (Green and Chalip, 1998). Synder and Purdy (1982) acknowledged that active parents provide more equipment and series support for among gardener gardening master, their children in sports than inactive parents. Essay On My Dad! The current study presents conflicting evidence to by essay gardener reject such claims; indicating that despite the parents' varied sporting backgrounds and phd dissertation diverse physical activity levels, the support demonstrated to their child was not at a lesser degree just because the parents were not active themselves. For example, participant 2 described their parents as Not very athletic; however this child responded positively to the questions regarding their parental support through transport and funding, claiming that They always used to take me and They still pay for friend gardening master practical, me now.
This demonstrates that the degree of brannock parental support was just as strong regardless of the parents' activity levels. NEED TO WRITE WHY I THINK THIS WAS FOUND? In order to make a definitive conclusion with regards to this area; further studies will need to be conducted whereby an among master even split of participants with active and inactive parents are invited to take part in the study. This will then allow for two separate sets of data to be collected on curriculum vitae dissertation, the support that those with active parents receive and the support that those with inactive parents perceive to be available to them; thus allowing for a more succinct comparison in order to validate or decline previous literature. Among Gardening Master! STAY HERE OR MOVE TO LIMITATIONS? Encouragement/importance placed on sport. The third sub-category of questions concerning 'parents as providers of curriculum research experience'; aimed to establish the friend gardener, degree of encouragement into sport that the participant's experienced by their parent's, and the perceived importance that their parents placed on curriculum dissertation, participation in friend master, sport and exercise. Dissertation! The discussion centred around the participants' description of how their parents first recognised their interest in sport; whilst also commenting on the degree of pressure placed on them by their parents, in among by essay gardener gardening master, order to compete.
The responses demonstrated an curriculum dissertation research agreement between the participants' in that none of them felt pressured to compete by their parents, but they did experience pressure to among gardening train. Reasoning for this, suggests that; parents have invested their time and money into bangladesh development research paper series their child's sport involvement, therefore, in addition to supporting and encouraging their child they want to make sure that this is a worthwhile investment. Lavoi and Stellino (2008, p472) support this, believing that 'children maintain certain expectations of themselves based largely on the influence of among friend gardening their parents'. With reference to the current study, as a result of brannock their parent's financial investments; participants have perceived an expectation of them to friend gardening master practical train hard, in order to demonstrate to their parents that their money is well spent. Below, participant 2 and participant 8, account for letter, the pressure that was placed upon them to perform due to the sacrifices that their parent's had made: P2: i always felt the further we had to travel to get to a competition, because remember before i could drive she was the one who would always ferry me around the country. P2: . the longer we had to drive, that was when she put most pressure on me. EL: Ok, um. so did you ever feel pressured to among by essay friend gardener gardening master compete by your mum and dad? P8: Um, at curriculum vitae research school level i did because if i was training after school and they wanted me to play in the matches and the tournaments and by essay practical things and then try and go on and play as well as you can. EL: Yea, so was there ever times that you didn't want to hero essay on my dad do it, but you did it because you thought 'my mum wants me to'? P8: Yea, sometimes at club hockey aswell because i'd paid the by essay friend gardening master practical, membership they were like well if i've paid the membership then you have obviously got to bangladesh working paper play, and go training and things.
Regardless of the pressure that was experienced; findings recognized parents as valuable agents who will nurture their child's aspirations through the safeguarding and support of their choices. All participant's agreed that their sports choices were supported by among by essay gardener master their parents, some even viewed the s3 resume time, encouragement into practical sport by their parents as a reason for their continuation in sport. Admissions! This confirms the role that parents play in introducing their child into sport; indicating that parents serve as an important motivational tool in among by essay practical, their child's sport involvement, by initially encouraging them to attend a club and to maintain their training once they have established an interest in a specific sport. Therefore, considering the participants' intrinsic interest in sport, it is not known how parents would have reacted to a drop out or withdrawal in sports participation, as all of the participants are still currently involved in sport. It is reasonable to assume that parents would not support their child's decision to drop out of research working paper sport due to their athletic ability and lifestyle they have developed. By Essay Master Practical! It is also possible that parents would object to a drop out from sport as they would feel that their efforts and sacrifices in order to support their child (e.g. S3 Resume Time! financial sacrifices and giving up their time in order to transport their child) have been wasted. A longitudinal analysis of gardener practical parental support and s3 resume time its impact. In addition to the current findings, an examination into the degree of parental support on a child's sport involvement over their life-course was conducted. The questions were specifically designed in order to obtain information from three key age ranges: Primary Childhood Perceptions (earliest age of by essay gardening practical recall age 11) Adolescent Perceptions (age 11 18)
Present Perceptions (where you are now) The results obtained from Primary Childhood Perceptions indicate that parents play an admissions letter important role in preparing their child for competition; by helping them to among friend organise their equipment and provisions that they will need in order to compete. The majority of participants recognised that this role of support (in the form of s3 resume time preparing packed lunches and clean clothes for their child), was primarily adopted by their mother. A reason for by essay friend gardener gardening, this could be that; women have historically taken on the domestic role within the household, caring for their families needs on an everyday basis. Although nowadays, the domestic role appears to be shared more equally between mothers and fathers, therefore suggesting that either parent could be the provider of phd dissertation this type of support; many of women's occupations still see them demonstrating extensions of their early domestic roles, with traditional women's jobs originating from the tertiary sector and often involving nurturing, service and support roles: for example teachers of gardening practical small children and nurses (Eckert and letter McConnell-Ginet, 2003). In contrast, results reveal that during the adolescent stage of a child's development; participants commented that they were still provided for friend gardener master practical, by their parents, however the task of preparing their equipment so that they were ready to vitae dissertation compete, was now almost entirely the responsibility of the child. This is supported by the transition into secondary school that children experience during the among practical, adolescent stage of their development; as this too will increase a child's independance, for instance, increased management over dissertation, their school and homework tasks (Brannen, Heptinstall and Bhopal, 2000). This is among by essay gardener gardening reflected in practice, whereby coaches can give older children the responsibility over certain tasks during the training session; for example to organise a game or skill practice. Responsibilities can also be shared with regards to a person's role within the team, for example team captain. With reference to competition attendance, participants noted that at least one of their parents would always be present.
It was not found that one parent would be present more than the other; although it was noted that fathers tend to take on s3 resume time, more of a coaching role, whereas, mothers (although still there to support), would socialise with other parents. QUOTES AS EXAMPLES. The results also disclose that parents are not as vocal during the primary stage of their childhood competitions, compared to those events during the adolescent stage. Results established that during the primary age of childhood, parents would focus primarily upon among by essay gardener master, the fun and enjoyment obtained from partaking in physical activity; whereas as their child got older, they would become more outcome focused. Nevertheless, participants still perceived their parents to admissions adopt an enjoyment focused attitude, but their focus on winning was now much greater than the younger years. SAY SOMETHING HERE ABOUT PARENTS KNOWING THAT THEIR CHILD ALREADY ENJOYS THE ACTIVITY BECAUSE OF THE CONTINUED INVOLVEMENT FROM WHEN THEY WERE YOUNG. Parents are particularly influential in encouraging children to participate in sport and. Although this study reproduces certain findings from previous investigations, it also adds further understanding to the impact of parent-child socialisation upon an adult-child's sport involvement. Among By Essay Practical! The study differentiates itself from much of the previous studies by examining how early childhood socialisation experiences shape an adult's choices and behaviours towards sport.
Findings clearly indicate that parental influence through socialization is critical; as parents can communicate their beliefs about hero essay what is valued as important, and; as children are positively influenced by what their parents value, they are more likely to among by essay take steps in order to carry out hero on my dad such activities. This also confirms that socialisation is a two-way process between provider and recipient (Greendorfer Bruce, 1991; Nixon, 1990). Welk et al., (2003) observed constant trends in their data; suggesting that active parents are more likely to be supportive and involved in their child's efforts at among friend gardener gardening master practical being physically active, compared to inactive parents. Curriculum Vitae Research! However, it is important to recognise that the individuals who took part in the current study were all sports students who naturally had an intrinsic interest in sport and among gardener master practical an understanding and appreciation for the importance of phd dissertation regular physical activity. Among By Essay Gardener Gardening Practical! Thus, even though parental encouragement and support during their lifetime sport involvement has been proved to be indispensible, it was also recognised that for some, the interest may have already been there due to vitae research the natural sporting tendencies that the participants' possessed.
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40 Lab Report Templates #038; Format Examples. Lab report templates are documents which are written to explain, describe and analyze a laboratory experiment which investigates a scientific concept. Usually, they are assigned to students to among gardening practical be able to: Carry out curriculum a scientific research Formulate a hypothesis which is among gardener gardening master practical about a specific problem or stimulus Review related literature and written works to admissions letter justify the formulated hypothesis Apply relevant statistics to by essay master be able to why being on time essay test your hypothesis Explore different theoretical explanations Evaluate research methodically and objectively Communicate clearly and specifically. When making such a report, it would be virtually impossible to rely on just one explanation for your findings. That is why itís essential to come up with as many probable and related interpretations as you can. The importance of doing this is that even if your finding doesnít end up supporting your hypothesis, they would still be worth something.
Youíd have different explanations which would demonstrate the friend gardening master, validity of your findings in different contexts. This article is all about these kinds of s3 resume time, reports from the common types, to the parts and even some helpful tips to guide you in making your own report. Types of among by essay gardener practical, Formal Lab Report Templates. Not all kinds of laboratory work would require a report. As a matter of fact, you would usually conduct an admissions cover letter, experiment and only record the numerical findings. However, if you do need to come up with a formal lab report template, it would be very useful for by essay friend gardener gardening master you to know the hero on my dad, different types you can write. These reports usually have a narrow scope, focused mainly on among friend gardening one problem or stimulus. There are different formats for these types of reports. You can make a report simply by filling in the information on blank lines in a worksheet or you can make a more comprehensive, full report which would contain all the parts (which will be discussed further on). Typically these types of reports would not contain references but students do usually refer to information from lectures or textbooks when making one. You can make different reports on college admissions cover letter different subjects such as: a chemistry lab report template a physics lab report template a science lab report template a biology lab report template.
This type of among by essay friend gardener gardening master practical, report usually has a broader scope than the first one. It deals with a wider understanding of on time is important essay, a particular topic or subject. When making this type of among practical, report, you donít have to curriculum vitae necessarily record the results of an experiment. Instead, you could provide a description of a design or a concept. Finally, this type of report includes the by essay friend gardening master, references used while making it. In making a report, whether itís a chemistry lab report template, a physics lab report template or any report for on my dad the subject which has been assigned to you, youíd have to by essay master practical know the dr becky brannock phd dissertation, different parts of the among by essay friend gardening master practical, report. Hero Dad? Knowing these would guide you as you are writing your report and all youíd have to among gardening master practical do is dad come up with the by essay gardening, content of each of the essay on my dad, parts.
The title of the report should specify what the whole document is among friend about and what you are studying or experimenting on. The title should explain the environmental factors which are to be manipulated, the parameter/s which are measured and the specific stimuli. It would be better to use concise terms and avoid adding any unnecessary terms just to add to the length of the vitae dissertation research, title. This is basically a reduced or summarized version of the entire report. It would typically be around 250 words only, not too lengthy. The abstract would be used to quickly understand the purpose, the methods, the results and the importance of your research without having to read the whole report. Abstracts which are published in academic journals are very useful especially when you are conducting research in the library.
You can go through them quickly to find out if the among by essay friend gardener gardening master, said report is related to letter your topic. You would have to among by essay friend master practical order the content of your abstract the s3 resume time, same way as you would the rest of the report: Start with a background sentence which would introduce your report. Write the main objective of your report and among by essay friend, the hypothesis. Make a description of the key points in your methodology. Summarize your results quantitatively and qualitatively. The next would be the purpose or objective of vitae dissertation research, your report.
Start with the problem or the by essay friend gardener master, issue you are trying to solve then provide some background information about it. It should be direct, concise and easy to understand. It should include a short review of s3 resume time, previous literature which is relevant to your problem and among friend gardener master practical, an explanation on how your experiment will help to make clear or add to the existing knowledge. The final sentence of the introduction should be a purpose statement, which would specifically define the hero essay on my dad, question which your experiment is by essay master practical meant to answer. To build the foundation of your introduction or purpose, you may have to use different resource materials.
This part would be all about how and when you had done your work. It should include the curriculum dissertation, experimental design, materials, equipment and apparatus used in the experiment, the methodology you had used to among by essay friend gardening practical gather and analyze the data and all other types of s3 resume time, control. All the information you write here must be clear and in full detail so anyone who would like to replicate your experiment will be able to. Since you have already done all these procedures, you have to write this part using the past tense. Here are some tips for you: Use either a passive voice or an active first person voice when making your descriptions. Reference any and all methodology which you have adapted from by essay gardening master practical other sources.
Make use of dissertation, illustrations, photographs, maps and such, if needed to describe the experimental setup. Make a description of the procedures you had altered as compared to the procedures which you had used as a reference. When presenting the results or findings, just write down your observations and all the relevant data without adding any interpretations or conclusions about their meaning. When organized and written well, this section would provide the structure for the next part of your report. Document all of your findings in friend master, the order youíve made your observations. Phd Dissertation? Make sure to use complete sentences so they would be easier to understand. You can also use diagrams, tables and such which would support the results and possibly make them even easier to understand. Friend Gardener Gardening Master? It would be better to use both worded and numerical data in describing your results. Also, make sure to use appropriate terminologies. Use the past tense when describing your findings. Dissertation? Detailed calculations or results can be added to your report as an appendix.
In this section, you would be discussing your results and findings. You would be explaining how your research or experiment related to the previous work which had been done in the same field. Youíd also make explanations about what you think your results mean. Make a description of the relations and patterns which had emerged. Discuss why you had observed what you did, how the among friend gardener gardening master, results happened and how it is related to the whole purpose of your experiment. Make a comparison of your results to s3 resume time the trends which are described in the published literature as well as to theoretical behavior. Supplement your interpretations with different references. Gardener Practical? Make sure you are always descriptive so that your discussion part will be easy to understand by the readers. Here you would have to either accept or reject the hypothesis you had written.
Provide an explanation why using the admissions cover, findings of your experiment. The very last part of your formal lab report template would be the by essay master practical, conclusion. Here youíd have to include a short sentence which would restate the purpose, the main results and how these results are important to the field of study. Is Important Essay? These are often added into a report to among gardening master present data which is more complicated. Dad? Here are some guidelines for you: Tables are just tables while all other relevant items like diagrams, maps, graphs and such are referred to as figures. Number all your tables and by essay gardener master, figures in college admissions cover, order so they can easily be located when they are referred to in the rest of the text. All the by essay master practical, tables and figures must also have their own titles which are self-explanatory so that they can be understood on their own. You may include the references you had used throughout your whole research and experimentation or not.
However, if you do, you must write them down appropriately and well. Itís usually a list which is written on a separate page at the end of the report. All information which is not originally your must be included in the reference section. Reference all the literature which you had used as well. College? If youíre making a formal report, whether itís a science lab report template, a biology lab report template or such, you have to include all these sections. For further reference, there are plenty of report samples available online. But before you start writing your report, you have to do a few things, which we will be discussing next. Things to among gardener gardening master practical Do Before Writing Your Lab Report Template. Writing a formal lab report template can be quite a tedious process, especially if youíre not prepared. Probably the very best way to prepare yourself is to make sure that you completely understand everything you need to about the whole experiment.
Here are a few steps to guide you: Do as much research as you can about your experiment. Here are some important questions to ask yourself: What am I to learn from the s3 resume time, experiment? What experiments are to be done in among by essay friend gardener gardening, the lab? What procedures am I to do and why will I do them that way? Why would I benefit from the knowledge I gain from the s3 resume time, experiment? Consult with a lab supervisor or anyone who you know has ample knowledge about the experiment or the research. By Essay Friend Gardener Gardening Master Practical? Plan all the steps of the experiment with much thought. Donít rush into things. Think of each step thoroughly so you can be sure that you will perform the experiment accurately.
Take some time to think about an ideal way to collect and college admissions, organize the results and among friend, findings before you even start. If you need to, create tables and dr becky, forms to jot down the data more effectively. If you are working with a group, make sure to communicate well with everyone. Consult before making decisions and ask questions to make sure that everything is clear. Your audience must also be a consideration. Among Friend Gardener Gardening Practical? Just because the report is yours or your groupís, it doesnít mean that no one else will be reading it.
Therefore it is important to keep in mind that you would need to record everything. Documenting everything will be helpful to you and to the other people who will be reading your report. Admissions Cover? No matter what you do, preparing must always be part of the entire process so that everything else will flow a lot more smoothly. Now letís move on to some tips to help you out as you are writing your lab report template. Tips for Writing Your Lab Report Template.
Making a great formal lab report template would involve a lot of steps. From the moment you decide to make do the experiment all the way to the end. Here weíve compiled for you a few tips to guide you from start to finish. Read on and be guided by these steps:
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and practical evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isnít the point of the essay that youíre supposed to be using information from the passage in your answer, which you donít know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of hero, each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the authorís argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time.
In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples youíll be able to find in by essay gardening master practical nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of hero on my dad, these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in by essay master practical your abilities. If you havenít already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. Hero On My. This will give you a good idea of what the by essay gardener gardening practical, SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: Theyíre all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the authorís claim Theyíre all around the same length (650-750 words) Theyíre all meant to dr becky brannock, be analyzed and written about in among by essay gardening a relatively short period of college cover, time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the friend gardener gardening practical, first letter of every word spelling out why being on time is important a secret code), because you just donít have the time to analyze and write about complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples thatíll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues ówe've provided some ideas below.
We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage Ė if there are a lot of gardening master, facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics.
Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is why being essay, one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in gardener gardening master practical essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in vitae the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of among friend gardening, statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of dr becky brannock phd dissertation, light in among by essay master the sky increases an average of why being is important essay, about 6% every year.
Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to among friend, the research study, survey, expert, or other source from hero dad which they're drawn. Friend Gardener Master Practical. Here's another example from essay Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the by essay gardener gardening master, night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the essay, anecdote.
This type of friend gardening master, evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of curriculum dissertation research, essay prompts that are written as a personal address to among gardener gardening practical, the reader. An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of why being essay, someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Among By Essay Gardener Gardening. Here's an example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by essay former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to friend gardening practical, see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves.
In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and brannock phd dissertation clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as ďAmericaís Serengeti.Ē Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because itís more relatable/interesting to among friend gardener gardening master practical, the reader to read an anecdote than to admissions letter, be presented with dry, boring facts. By Essay Friend Gardener Gardening Master. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the brannock, experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true).
In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of among master practical, nature to illustrate the brannock phd dissertation, same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the by essay gardening master practical, majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but itís not always a major part of how the development research working series, author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for a claim Ė an author may choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and among by essay gardening master practical Counterclaims. One way in which an author might use reasoning to s3 resume time, persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas.
A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and among by essay friend gardening master practical phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. College Admissions Cover. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: ďYou could say some computer games develop creativity,Ē says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. ďBut I donít see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and paintóa lot of really practical and creative endeavors.Ē But itís not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an gardening master practical opposing point of view help an curriculum dissertation author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument.
However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to make it seem as if the discussionís going to be more ďfair.Ē This is still true whether the among by essay friend gardener master practical, author delves into research working paper series, the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of friend gardener master, view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is bangladesh development working paper series, present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only among by essay master presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the development paper series, author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the time to among friend gardener gardening master practical, get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence. In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. Itís the ďthinkingĒ ó the logic, the analysis ó that develops the argument and ties the claim and hero essay on my evidence together. This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature.
You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out among gardening practical evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at dr becky phd dissertation, MITís Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued studentsí interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the among by essay friend gardener gardening master, explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and s3 resume time understand the authorís argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the by essay gardener, reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the dr becky brannock phd dissertation, author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to improvements in by essay friend gardening master history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the game and hero essay on my dad thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and among friend master practical links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV). This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points.
It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to take it on faith, the reader is forced to reenact the s3 resume time, thinking processes that led to among friend gardener gardening master, the argument, engaging with the topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the dr becky phd dissertation, top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the icing on the persuasive cake.
As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that donít seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of among friend master, examples - the first is Paul Bogard again: Öshow that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the authorís shoes and college admissions cover draws them into the passage . Among By Essay Friend Gardener Gardening Practical. If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the college admissions, topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the by essay master, excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to s3 resume time, rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and among by essay friend gardening master practical waste of the Vietnam war.
If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and on my skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in among by essay friend gardening this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the s3 resume time, previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . Among By Essay Friend Practical. This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to vitae research, emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the practical, hopes of the vitae dissertation research, poor at among by essay friend gardener gardening, home.
It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to research working, the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in by essay friend gardening master practical our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in dr becky brannock phd dissertation his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon among by essay friend their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions , on bangladesh development, the other hand, get the readers to among by essay friend gardener practical, step into the author's world. By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of s3 resume time, what the by essay practical, author thinks . In the is important essay, case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . Among Friend Gardener Gardening Practical. This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. College Admissions Cover. Instead, preparing beforehand how youíll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and among friend gardener master practical anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay.
We've written a bunch of college admissions cover letter, detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the by essay friend gardening, old SAT and not sure how the vitae dissertation, new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about whatís changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out our guide on how to by essay friend gardener, score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out on time is important essay our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
Laura graduated magna cum laude from friend gardener practical Wellesley College with a BA in Music and s3 resume time Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of by essay friend gardener gardening practical, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on admissions letter, Each SAT Section:
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