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Com 150 effective essay writing

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A Sample Paper Bag Making Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a paper bag making business? If YES, here is a complete sample paper bag making business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a paper bag making business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample paper bag making marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for paper bag making businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. There are several business opportunities that stare at us no matter the part of the world that we may live in. Essay Writing! The truth is that if you want to become a millionaire faster than you think, then you best bet may be to essay and animations, start a business as against keeping a nine to five job.

Although starting a new business is not as easy as it sounds, but the truth is that, if you determined and focused, you can successfully build a business from the scratch to become a national phenomenon. As an aspiring entrepreneur who is effective writing looking towards starting a business, one of the businesses you can consider starting is to on graphics, go into paper bag manufacturing. It is a fact that there are large markets for paper bags and the likes. All you need to do is to ensure that you conduct thorough feasibility studies and market survey before launching the com 150 effective essay, business. If you truly want to start your paper bag making business on a right footing, then the business plan template below will help you achieve that. A Sample Paper Bag Making Business Plan Template. Gre Topics Essay! Paper bag is one commodity that is used mostly in com 150 essay writing the retailing industry for packaging stuffs that are bought from departmental stores, supermarkets, and in the open market; although nylon bags cum polythene bags are also used, but most people prefer paper bags for obvious reasons.

This goes to show that there is indeed a very large market for paper bags in our world; hence loads of investors cum aspiring entrepreneur are pitching their tent in the paper bag manufacturing industry. On Graphics And Animations! Businesses in effective essay the Cardboard Packaging and movie in essay quotes Paper Bag Manufacturing industry manufactures paper bags in various sizes and designs for com 150 effective essay the purpose of essay students, carrying stuffs that are bought from departmental stores, supermarkets, pharmacy stores and in the open market. Com 150 Effective Essay! Aside from the manufacturing of paper bags, companies in this line of business also manufacture cardboard packaging and thesis paper bags and sacks. Cardboard packaging includes corrugated and com 150 solid cardboard boxes, folding cartons and should have customized cardboard containers. Essay Writing! In recent times, the conditions in the Cardboard Packaging and Paper Bag Manufacturing industry have been relatively volatile. The revenue generated in the industry is heavily influenced by national demand for consumer goods, as the thesis, majority of the products that are produced in the industry are sold for com 150 downstream use in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. The Cardboard Packaging and Paper Bag Manufacturing industry is indeed a major sector of the economy of and animations, most countries in the world (United States of effective writing, America, Italy, France, United Kingdom, China and for responsibility India et al). Statistics has it that in the United Kingdom alone, the essay writing, Cardboard Packaging and Paper Bag Manufacturing industry generates a whooping sum of well over thesis statements for alcatraz $4 billion annually from more than 483 registered and licensed big scale cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing companies scattered all around the effective essay writing, United Kingdom.

The industry is responsible for the employment of well over 26,885 people. And Animations! Experts project the industry to grow at a 1.5 percent annual rate. The establishment in this industry that has a dominant market share in the United Kingdom are; DS Smith Packaging Ltd, SAICA Pack UK Limited and Smurfit Kappa UK Ltd. Com 150 Effective Writing! Over and above, the Cardboard Packaging and Paper Bag Manufacturing industry is a profitable industry and it is open for any aspiring entrepreneur to come in and establish his or her business; you can chose to start on a small scale or you can chose to thesis, start on a large scale with standard manufacturing factories both in the United States of America and in countries in Asia where you can get cheaper labor and raw materials. Paper Bag Making Business Plan Executive Summary. Effective Writing! James Whitney® Packaging Company is have uniforms persuasive essay a standard and registered paper bag and com 150 effective writing cardboard packaging manufacturing company that will be located in Saint Paul – Minnesota; in an ideal location highly suitable for the kind of business we want to establish. We have been able to lease a facility that is big enough (a 20 thousand square foot facility) to fit into the design of the kind of standard paper bag and cardboard manufacturing company that we intend launching. James Whitney® Packaging Company will be involved in on graphics and animations the manufacturing of a wide range of com 150 effective essay, paper bags and cardboard packing cum casing for both corporate and individual clients. Essay! We are set to services a wide range of essay, clientele not just in the United States of America, but also all parts of the why schools have, world. We are aware that there are several large and small paper bag and cardboard packaging manufacturing companies all around the United States of com 150 effective essay writing, America, which is why we spent time and resources to conduct a thorough feasibility studies and market survey so as to be well positioned to favorably compete with all our competitors.

James Whitney® Packaging Company will ensure that all the paper bags and cardboard packaging materials that leave of factory are of the essay, highest quality and highly durable and affordable. We want to build a business with a wide range of clientele base that cut across business in writing the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on one relationship with our customers no matter how large the numbers of gre topics, our customers’ base may grow to. James Whitney® Packaging Company will at all times demonstrate her commitment to essay writing, sustainability, both individually and why schools should have uniforms as a firm, by actively participating in our communities and integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our customers’ needs precisely and effective essay completely whenever they patronize our products. Thesis Statements For Alcatraz! We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in our world, for our partners, employees and for our customers.

James Whitney® Packaging Company is a family business that is owned by James Whitney and his immediate family members. James Whitney has a Diploma in paper bag cum cardboard packaging Making and a B.Sc. in Business Administration, with well over 10 years of experience in the cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing industry, working for some of the effective, leading brand in the United States. He will be bringing in his vast hands – on experience to build James Whitney® Packaging Company to become a top brand. And Animations! James Whitney® Packaging Company is in essay writing the cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing industry to manufacture a wide range of paper bags and cardboard packing cum casing for both corporate and individual clients. We are set to services a wide range of project, clientele not just in the United States of America, but also all parts of the world and of course to make profits, which is why we will ensure we go all the effective writing, way to give our clients and for responsibility potential clients options. We will do all that is permitted by the law of the United States to achieve our business goal, aim and ambition of com 150, starting the business. Our product offerings are listed below; Manufacturing customized paper bags Manufacturing paper bags for essay food storage bags Manufacturing paper bags for grocery bags Manufacturing paper bags for merchandise bags Manufacturing paper bags for trash bags Manufacturing paper bags for packaging Manufacturing corrugated cardboard boxes, cartons and cases Manufacturing non-corrugated cardboard boxes, cartons and cases Manufacturing corrugated cardboard in rolls or sheets. Our vision is to become the com 150, leading brand in essay the cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing industry in Minnesota and to establish a one stop cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing company.

Our mission is to establish a world – class cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing company whose products will not only be used by both small and big corporations in effective the FMCG sector in the United States of America, but also be exported to other countries of the world. James Whitney® Packaging Company do not intend to start a cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing business in a small scale; our intention of starting a cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing company is to build a standard and one stop cardboard packaging and for responsibility paper bag manufacturing company in Saint Paul Minnesota. Although our cardboard packing and com 150 essay paper bag manufacturing company might not be as big as DS Smith Packaging Ltd, SAICA Pack UK Limited and Smurfit Kappa UK Ltd et al, but we will ensure that we put the calendar, right structure in place that will support the writing, kind of growth that we have in mind while setting up the project management, business. We will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, honest, customer centric and effective essay writing are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of gre topics, ten years or more.

In view of that, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to essay writing, occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Factory Manager Human Resources and Admin Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and Marketing Manager Cardboard Packing and Paper Bags Designers and Making Experts Accountants / Cashiers Customer Services Executive. Roles and Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by quotes, recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the effective essay, success of the organization Reports to the board.

Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Updates job knowledge by thesis statements, participating in effective educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in should have persuasive essay professional organizations. Enhances department and organization reputation by accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to effective writing, add value to job accomplishments. Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carrying out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of why schools should persuasive essay, employees Responsible for com 150 effective arranging travel, meetings and appointments Oversees the smooth running of the daily office activities. Essay Students! Responsible for managing the daily activities in the cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing factory Ensures that proper records of com 150 effective essay, cardboard packing materials and paper bags are kept and gre topics essay warehouse does not run out of finished products Ensures that the essay, factory is in tip top shape and easy to locate Interfaces with third – party suppliers (vendors) of raw materials Controls cardboard packaging and paper bag distribution and supply inventory Supervise the workforce in the cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing factory. Manages vendor relations, market visits, and the ongoing education and development of the organizations’ buying teams Helps to ensure consistent quality of gre topics essay, cardboard packing and paper bag making raw materials are purchased and used Responsible for the purchase of cardboard packing and paper bag raw material for the organizations Responsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and writing and pricing orders to vendors Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget. Sales and Marketing Manager. Manages external research and coordinate all the internal sources of com 150 writing, information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Models demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by essay students, customer purchases Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and effective essay contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of development projects. Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the company in strategic meetings Helps increase sales and growth for the company. Cardboard Packing and Paper Designers and Making Experts.

Responsible for designing and manufacturing customized paper bags Responsible for designing and manufacturing paper bags for management calendar food storage bags Responsible for designing and manufacturing paper bags for grocery bags Responsible for designing and manufacturing paper bags for merchandise bags Responsible for designing and manufacturing paper bags for trash bags Responsible for designing and manufacturing paper bags for packaging Responsible for writing designing and thesis manufacturing corrugated cardboard boxes, cartons and cases Responsible for designing and manufacturing non-corrugated cardboard boxes, cartons and cases Responsible for designing and manufacturing corrugated cardboard in com 150 rolls or sheets. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for management calendar the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and com 150 writing financial reporting Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the organization Serves as internal auditor for the organization. Client Service Executive. Essay And Animations! Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with customers on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by effective essay writing, the human resources and management admin manager in an effective and effective essay writing timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is essay supplied to customers when they make enquiries. Com 150 Essay Writing! Paper Bag Making Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Thesis For Alcatraz! James Whitney® Packaging Company is in business to become one of the leading cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing companies in the United States of America and we are fully aware that it will take the com 150 effective, right business concept, management and organization – structure to achieve our goal. Management! We are quite aware that there are several large and small scale cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing companies all over the United States of America and even in the same location where we intend locating ours, which is why we are following the due process of establishing a business. We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is com 150 effective essay conducted for our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and be welled equipped to confront our threats. James Whitney® Packaging Company employed the essay on graphics and animations, services of an expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in the manufacturing industry to help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives.

This is the summary of the SWOT analysis that was conducted for James Whitney® Packaging Company; Our core strength lies in the high quality of com 150 essay writing, our finished cardboard packing materials and gre topics essay paper bags, the com 150 effective, power of our team and the state of the art and well – equipped cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing factory that we own. We have a team of students, highly trained and experienced cardboard packing and paper bag designers and makers and com 150 essay writing support staff members that can go all the way to produce top notch cardboard packing materials and students paper bags. We are well positioned in the heart of Saint Paul – Minnesota and we know we will attract loads of clients from the first day we open our factory. A major weakness that may count against us is the fact that we are a new cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing company and we don’t have the financial capacity to compete with multi – million dollars companies in the industry when it comes to manufacturing cardboard packing materials and paper bags at a rock bottom prices. So also, we may not have enough cash reserve to promote our business the way we would want to do. The fact that we are going to be operating our cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing company in Saint Paul – Minnesota provides us with unlimited opportunities to sell our products to a large number of small scale business and large corporations. We have been able to conduct thorough feasibility studies and market survey and we know what our potential clients will be expecting from effective essay, us; we are well positioned to take on the opportunities that will come our way. Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is gre topics economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power.

Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing company in same location where ours is located. So also, unfavorable government policies may also pose a threat for businesses such as ours. Paper Bag Making Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. In recent time, the conditions in effective the Cardboard Packaging and Paper Bag Manufacturing industry have been relatively volatile. The revenue generated in the industry is heavily influenced by national demand for consumer goods, as the majority of the products that are produced in the industry are sold for downstream use in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. One major trend in the cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing industry is that most players are leveraging on the fact that states in the US and even countries of the world are passing legislation that will put limit to the use of materials such as nylon bags and students polythene bags et al because of environmental hazard hence paper bags and cardboard packing materials have become a good substitute. Lastly, as part of marketing strategies, cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing companies now ensure that they go beyond mass production of paper bags and cardboard packing materials to producing customized paper bags and cardboard packing materials for bigger corporations who are in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. When it comes to mapping out strategies for com 150 effective essay a business such as cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing business, there is essay indeed a straightforward market. There are hardly any pharmaceutical stores, departmental stores, groceries stores, electronic stores, supermarkets and boutique et al that do not make use of paper bags or cardboard boxes for packaging goods bought from writing, their stores.

In view of that, we have positioned our cardboard packing and paper bags manufacturing company to service a wide range of clientele in the United States of America and other parts of the world. We have conducted our market research and feasibility studies and we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from us. We in calendar the cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing industry to supply our products to the following fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) organizations; Departmental Stores Groceries Stores Pharmaceutical Stores Electronic Stores Supermarkets Boutiques Mobile phones and com 150 accessories stores. Our Competitive Advantage. A close examination of the cardboard packaging and essay for responsibility paper bag manufacturing industry reveals that the essay writing, market has become much more intensely competitive over the last decade. As a matter of fact, you have to for responsibility students, be highly creative with your designs and market approach, customer centric and proactive if you must survive in this industry. We are aware of the stiffer competition and we are well prepared to compete favorably with other leading cardboard packing and com 150 effective essay writing paper bag manufacturing companies in quotes the United States and com 150 effective the globe. James Whitney® Packaging Company is launching a standard cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing company that will indeed become the preferred choice for businesses in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector both in the United States of America. Our cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing company is located in an ideal property highly suitable for the kind of thesis statements for alcatraz, manufacturing company that we want to com 150 effective writing, run. We have enough parking spaces that can accommodate well over 30 cars / trucks per time.

One thing is certain, we will ensure that we manufacture high quality and durable cardboard packing and paper bag products in our factory at all times. One of our business goals is to make James Whitney® Packaging Company a one stop cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing company. Our excellent customer service culture, various payment options and highly secured facility will serve as a competitive advantage for title in essay quotes us. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the effective essay, best within our category (startups cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing companies) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and project management achieve all our aims and objectives. We will also give good working conditions and essay writing commissions to freelance sales agents that we will recruit from time to for responsibility students, time. Paper Bag Making Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY.

James Whitney® Packaging Company is in business to com 150 effective essay, manufacture and supply cardboard packing and project management paper bags in the United States of America and other parts of the com 150 effective essay writing, world. We are in the cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing industry to maximize profits and we are going to go all the way out to ensure that we achieve or business goals and gre topics objectives. James Whitney® Packaging Company will generate income by selling the following products; Manufacturing customized paper bags Manufacturing paper bags for food storage bags Manufacturing paper bags for grocery bags Manufacturing paper bags for merchandise bags Manufacturing paper bags for effective trash bags Manufacturing paper bags for packaging Manufacturing corrugated cardboard boxes, cartons and cases Manufacturing non-corrugated cardboard boxes, cartons and title cases Manufacturing corrugated cardboard in rolls or sheets. The cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing industry is one industry that has a wide range of customers that cut across various manufacturing industries especially players in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. Com 150 Writing! We are well positioned to why schools should have essay, take on effective essay writing the available market in the United States of America and of course the rest of the and animations, world and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow the business and our clientele base. We have been able to critically examine the cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing industry and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the effective writing, following sales forecast. The sales projection is based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to should have, startups in Saint Paul – Minnesota. Writing! Below are the sales projection for James Whitney® Packaging Company, it is based on the location of why schools have uniforms essay, our business and other factors as it relates to cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing start – ups in the United States; N.B : This projection is done based on effective writing what is obtainable in thesis statements for alcatraz the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor manufacturing or retailing same shoe and footwear products and customer care services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at com 150 effective essay writing the same time it might be higher. Prior to settling for a location for thesis for alcatraz James Whitney® Packaging Company we conduct a thorough market survey and com 150 effective essay feasibility studies in order for us to be able to be able to penetrate the available market and become one of the preferred choice for businesses not only in Saint Paul – Minnesota, but also throughout the United States and the globe. Title In Essay Quotes! We have detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to attract the numbers of customers we want to attract per time.

We hired experts who have good understanding of the effective essay writing, cardboard packing and thesis for alcatraz paper bag manufacturing industry to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in the United States of America. In other to continue to be in business and grow, we must continue to manufacture and sell the com 150 effective, cardboard packing materials and on graphics and animations paper bags that we produce which is why we will go all out to empower or sales and marketing team to deliver. In summary, James Whitney® Packaging Company will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to win customers over; Open our cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing company in a grand style with a party for all. Introduce our cardboard packaging and com 150 effective paper bag manufacturing company by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to manufacturing organizations, stores and key stake holders in Saint Paul Minnesota and other parts of the United States Ensure that we manufacture a wide range of paper bags and cardboard packing materials Make use of thesis statements for alcatraz, attractive hand bills to effective writing, create awareness and essay on graphics and animations also to essay writing, give direction to gre topics essay, our factory Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places around Saint Paul – Minnesota Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on effective essay road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our products List our business and products on yellow pages ads (local directories) Leverage on the internet to gre topics essay, promote our products Engage in direct marketing and sales Encourage the use of Word of essay, mouth marketing (referrals) Paper Bag Making Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Despite the fact that our cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing company is calendar well positioned, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for com 150 effective the business. We are going to essay on graphics, explore all available means to promote our cardboard packaging and com 150 effective essay writing paper bag manufacturing company. James Whitney® Packaging Company has a long term plan of opening our factories in key locations in why schools should have uniforms essay Asia, South America and Africa which is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in the United States of essay, America before venturing out.

As a matter of fact, our publicity and should essay advertising strategy is not solely for winning customers over but to effectively communicate our brand. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on com 150 writing to promote and for alcatraz advertise James Whitney® Packaging Company; Place adverts on com 150 effective community based newspapers, radio stations and movie in essay quotes TV stations. Effective Writing! Encourage the use of word of mouth publicity from our loyal customers Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; YouTube, Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms to promote our business. Ensure that our we position our banners and movie in essay billboards in strategic positions all around Saint Paul Minnesota Distribute our fliers and handbills in com 150 effective essay target areas in and around our neighborhood Contact corporate organizations, and stores by for responsibility, calling them up and informing them of James Whitney® Packaging Company and com 150 the products we manufacture and sell Advertise our cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing company in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site Brand all our official cars and trucks and ensure that all our staff members and management staff wears our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals. Our Pricing Strategy. Aside from quality, pricing is one of the key factors that gives leverage to cardboard packaging and paper bag manufacturing company, it is normal for consumers to go to places where they can get cardboard packing and paper bags at cheaper price which is why big player in the shoe and footwear manufacturing industry like DS Smith Packaging Ltd, SAICA Pack UK Limited and Smurfit Kappa UK Ltd et al will always attract loads of thesis statements, corporate and individual clients. We know we don’t have the essay, capacity to compete with DS Smith Packaging Ltd, SAICA Pack UK Limited and Smurfit Kappa UK Ltd et al but we will ensure that the prices and quality of all our cardboard packing and paper bags products are competitive with what is obtainable amongst shoe and essay footwear manufacturing companies within our level.

The payment policy adopted by com 150 effective essay, James Whitney® Packaging Company is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America. Here are the payment options that James Whitney® Packaging Company will make available to essay for responsibility, her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via Point of Sale Machine (POS) Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for farm produces purchase without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and com 150 effective promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for the purchase of our products. In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. If you intend to go big by renting / leasing a big facility, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for workers to be creative and productive. Thesis Statements! This means that the com 150 effective, start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business. The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and on graphics and animations can be overlooked. As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a cardboard packing and paper bag manufacturing business; it might differ in other countries due to the value of their money. This is the com 150 essay writing, key areas where we will spend our start – up capital on; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in the United States of America $750.

Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and movie in essay quotes other software) $3,300. Com 150! Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of Micah Smith® Shoes Footwear, Inc. in the amount of essay, $3,500 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per effective essay copy) for the total amount of $3,580. The total cost for hiring Business Consultant – $2,500. The total cost for payment of insurance policy covers (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $9,400. The total cost for movie in essay long term leasing of a standard warehouse / factory $250,000 The total cost for remodeling the warehouse / factory $20,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery ( $500 ) and phone and com 150 effective utility deposits ( $2,500 ). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $100,000 The total cost for should have Start-up inventory (purchase of tools and equipment and the purchase of raw materials inclusive) $250,000 The total cost for counter area equipment $9,500 The total cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 The total cost for effective essay the purchase and installation of CCTVs: $10,000 The cost for the purchase of office furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al): $4,000. The total cost of launching a Website: $600 The total cost for our opening party: $7,000 Miscellaneous: $10,000. We would need an estimate of $950,000 to successfully set up our cardboard packing and uniforms persuasive paper bag manufacturing business in Saint Paul Minnesota. Please note that this amount includes the salaries of all the staff for the first month of operation.

Generating Funding / Startup Capital for James Whitney® Packaging Company. James Whitney® Packaging Company is a family business that is solely owned and financed by James Whitney and his immediate family members. We do not intend to welcome any external business partners, which is why we have decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital to writing, 3 major sources. These are the for responsibility, areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the com 150 writing, start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from essay, family members and essay writing friends Apply for loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about title quotes $250,000 (Personal savings $200,000 and writing soft loan from family members $50,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $700,000 from our bank. All the essay on graphics and animations, papers and effective document have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount. Paper Bag Making Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure.

If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. One of our major goals of starting James Whitney® Packaging Company is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the have, business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of com 150, gaining approval and winning customers over is to manufacture durable and quality cardboard packing materials and paper bags and to retail them a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in title the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while. Com 150! James Whitney® Packaging Company will make sure that the essay for responsibility students, right foundation, structures and essay processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare is well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is for alcatraz designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and com 150 essay writing re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. As a matter of on graphics and animations, fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of six years or more. We know that if that is put in com 150 place, we will be able to essay on graphics, successfully hire and com 150 effective retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of facility and remodeling the facility (cardboard packing and thesis for alcatraz paper bag manufacturing factory): In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from com 150 writing, family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and gre topics essay Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of machines and equipment: Completed Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and com 150 effective around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Compilation of the list of products that will be manufacturing: Completed Establishing business relationship with vendors – supplier of cardboard packing and paper bag making raw materials, key stakeholders and suppliers of paper bags and cardboard packing materials: In Progress.

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Italian Culture Essay Essays and Research Papers. dragging down the European -- and the global --economies. Just this month we have witnessed, hundreds of essay, protesters, most of them young people, demonstrating . Project? outside the Treasury Ministry building, protesters were hoisting banners denouncing the Italian president of the European Central. Given most of the efforts being taken to essay writing reduce the statements for alcatraz swelling deficit are directly aimed at com 150, the pockets of the people. Can you really blame them? Some of the hard number as found on project management www.cnn.com (This is reflective. Culture of Italy , European Union , Government debt 1626 Words | 4 Pages. Difference Between Italian and Italian-Americans. country. Many sophisticated people think about the culture or the fashion but unfortunately far too many Americans instead think about . stereotypical Italian -Americans such as, Guido’s or the com 150 writing mafia, to represent their depiction.

In modern society the media plays a huge role in the way we perceive the world. Due to negative portrayal of Italian -Americans by essay the media and reality television, Americans are quick to com 150 effective writing apply inaccurate stereotypes to all Italians . From the unification of the city states to the. Anti-Italianism , Culture of Italy , Italian American 2256 Words | 6 Pages. and based on the book which has the same name. On Graphics? In the film, Josie has learnt to deal with a range of issue which helps her find out com 150 essay writing, who is she. Her attitude . to essay on graphics Michael (her Dad) had changed very clearly throughout the film. Essay? Josie also accepts her Italian heritage after listening to her Noona’s stories. Essay? She changes her thinking about destiny finding that her family are blessed at the end, instead of essay, thinking they are cursed at the start. Dealing with a huge of amount problems helps Josie make up her. Change , Family , Father 975 Words | 2 Pages.

The Clash of Languages in the Italian -Canadian Novel By Licia Canton In recent years, ethnic minority writing has played a major . Pole in shedding light on management the complexity of the Canadian identity. Italian -Canadians figure among the numerous communities active on writing the Canadian literary scene. Calendar? In the last decade in particular the effective writing Italian -Canadian literary corpus, which traces its development alongside the growing Italian -Canadian community, has seen numerous publications, especially novels. Canada , Cogito ergo sum , Italian culture 39748 Words | 100 Pages. Approach are quite different from the ones that are seen in the United States of America. Management? To an American or any other person other than an . Italian , these teaching strategies are quite revolutionary. However, to effective essay an Italian the child rearing strategies the Reggio Emilia school use are not very abstract because they mirror the culture and essay on graphics and animations, lifestyle of an Italian . A major aspect of the Reggio Emilia schools’ philosophy is founded on the idea of creativity, thus “all learning in the Reggio Emilia Schools. Art , Culture of Italy , Education 819 Words | 3 Pages.

Dhl Commercial - Marketing in Triad Countries. company in two different country of the triad market. I chose to analyse the advertising used by DHL in effective essay, the US and Italian markets. DHL is a . services company that “offers integrated services and tailored, customer-focused solutions for should uniforms essay managing and transporting letters, goods and information”1 , as the company state in its website, and the concept is the same both in the english and italian version. The features required by com 150 essay customers in the US and Italy are almost the same regarding the basic expectations. Advertising , Brand , Developed country 1187 Words | 4 Pages. Informational Report: Bringing Snapple to Italy. especially for Italians . Title? In order to build a business relationship, some cultural understanding must be acquired to combat the differences . between Italian and essay, American business people. For this reason, it is good to understand these four aspects: (1) how to build a relationship with an movie title in essay, Italian ; (2) what the best ways are to advertise in Italy; (3) where the com 150 effective country’s current economic landscape stands; (4) what kind of current events affect business relations. Relationships with Italians Before focusing.

Economics , Economy , Germany 1319 Words | 5 Pages. feeling isolated from their inherited culture . ‘Looking for Alibrandi’ tells the story of Josie Alibrandi, a 17 year old girl in the mist of quotes, . her HSC year, struggling to writing find where she belongs both within her school and her place within her Italian heritage. In the have persuasive essay opening scene we are immediately introduced to an Italian culture . The first image is a close up of tomato paste in a large tub that emphasises cultural context and ‘Tinterella Di Luna’, a classic Italian song is being played on a record player. A Celebration , Close-up , Culture 1144 Words | 3 Pages. ?Michael Hu Professor Ott Italian 60 June 10, 2014 Commedia All’Italiana Films that are made in Italy are well-known worldwide, . especially the Italian -style comedy, which has won a lot academic awards and writing, earned enormous applause and praises. Essay On Graphics And Animations? However, there are something behind the laughter tries to tell the com 150 essay audience within the project Italian -style comedy. Com 150 Effective Essay? Commedia All’italliana thrives for gre topics its uses of com 150 essay, innovative and bold subjects and contents, and management calendar, a profound and twisted ending; besides, humor in. Big Deal on Madonna Street , Comedy , Comedy films 1256 Words | 4 Pages. unique qualities portrayed in this young girl, struggling with her identity. She is a remarkably imagitive young person possessing a quick temper. She is a . confused girl searching to find where she belongs in the two different cultures . Writing? These cultures , being australian and italian , are very demanding on such a young girl, having to mould herself for each and find an gre topics, equalibrium of both.

She has major difficulties coping with the harsh reality of prejudice and these problems soon take their toll on her. Australia , Culture , Family 778 Words | 2 Pages. on the rest of the world. Canali DeCarlo (2009) characterize Italy as a country full of dynamic heritage. Com 150 Effective Essay Writing? Full of movie in essay, passion, Italy has potential to effective essay writing . Gre Topics? satisfy the appetite of any tourist, enthusiast or historian. Urbanization, elegance, ancient culture and essay, superb cuisine have competitively positioned Italy for the tourist market (Canali DeCarlo, 2009, pp 8-22). Gre Topics Essay? Is this same region culturally prepared for globalization and able to open its boundaries to foreign partners and investors to effective writing embrace. Geert Hofstede , Globalization , Italian culture 3321 Words | 9 Pages. Alibrandi who is essay for responsibility students, a 17 year old Italian Australian or ‘wog’ as some know it, in the novel and film of ‘Looking for Alibrandi’. Much of the . discussion of Alibrandi has centred around this portrayal of the effective essay multi-cultural society of Australia, although remarkably, the essay novel has managed to largely avoid the negative and effective writing, superficial issues pigeon-holing so much realist fiction for young adults is essay, victim to. There is no question that Marchetta's own experiences as an com 150 effective essay writing, Italian -Australian have informed her.

Australia , Character , Fiction 528 Words | 2 Pages. WATER LOGGED COMPANY MARKETING PLAN. and environmentally friendly. After our American marketing plan we expect to have and income of 9 to why schools 11 million USD, for the first year. (See the US . marketing plan for more information) 2. Italy Despite being en plein recession a big part of the Italian economy is the writing exportation of flowers and on graphics and animations, plants which according to a recent research produces 1.6 billion income every year. So differently from the US market, in this country we’re going to have this business as our main target. Better, these business. Gardening , Italian culture , Italian people 4697 Words | 26 Pages. Italian Culture David Herbetko Eastern University Italian Culture In preparation for your trip, . research was done to help you with the com 150 effective many cultural differences you may encounter in Italy.

Cultural awareness helps us remember to honor beliefs and sensibilities that are not necessarily our own, so that as we interact with people from other cultures , no unintended breach of good manners or conversational blunders occur (Terry, 2008). To make things flow a little easier, Italian culture has been. Catholic Church , Culture , Forza Italia 717 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Italian and Egyptian Culture. has its own culture . Different country has different culture . Culture plays an important role in every part of essay for responsibility, . life of citizens and we can see the effect of com 150 effective writing, culture in the behaviour of people . Culture varies from country to country .Doing business in on graphics, different country means doing business in different work environment or we can say that doing business in different culture therefore it is necessary to sound knowledge of culture where we are going to com 150 do business the study of culture covers many. Arabic language , Egypt , Egyptian Arabic 2146 Words | 6 Pages. Topic: An Essay on Culture AN ESSAY ON CULTURE Culture is a term often used . while studying society because culture and society go hand in hand, without proper understanding of why schools persuasive essay, concept of culture , or more precise the understanding of com 150 effective, culture of ‘that society’, the study of society or any of its components becomes incomplete.

So then let’s look at movie title in essay, some definitions of culture to essay writing understand the concept better. DEFINITIONS OF CULTURE E.B. Gre Topics? Taylor was the first to writing coin the term culture in the. Akki rotti , Anthropology , Cultural studies 917 Words | 3 Pages. ? Culture Essay One’s culture is the foundation on essay on graphics which someone bases his or her life.

Any alteration to com 150 these . familiarized practices is seemingly unnatural and abnormal. This causes one to be greatly influenced to endure the life and essay students, practices they are already accustomed to. A person's culture always informs how he or she views others and the world by influencing familiar cultural norms. As one first grows up engrossing a culture of their own, he develops his own set of cultural normalities. Culture , Sociology 798 Words | 3 Pages. Culture has effected our lives in essay, one way or another, and if we like it or not. Statements For Alcatraz? Think about com 150 effective writing it, it's a chance you wouldn't have the same . religion, the same rules, the same thoughts, the same idea to what's right or wrong, etc. Many family patterns that my family participates in are: prayer, dining together, discussing world events, and personal opinions/beliefs.

Our family is very busy; it is seldom when both my parents' are home before 6 PM. In Essay Quotes? My family is very open to cultural diversity. My grandparents. Easter egg , Egg hunt , Egg rolling 879 Words | 3 Pages. The Culture that I will focus on effective writing is Spanish Culture . Spanish Culture has a lot of factors and history ranging from . music all the way to food and management calendar, holidays. Spanish Culture has a lot of stuff that is able to separate them from other cultures and countries around the world.

The languages that are used mostly in Spanish culture are Spanish and Latin. The majority of Spanish countries talk in either one or both of these languages. The next biggest idea of com 150 effective essay writing, Spanish culture is food. Gre Topics Essay? Most families for. Al-Andalus , Cinco de Mayo , Culture 904 Words | 3 Pages. present paper contrasts the com 150 effective essay writing importance of two divergent approaches to training, approaches that are either universalistic (etic) or particularistic (emic) in for responsibility students, . Com 150 Essay? nature. While most extant literature on cross-cultural communication focuses primarily on culture -specific-emic-approaches, this paper stresses the value of also drawing on pan-cultural-universalistic-approaches. We illustrate the utility of such an approach through the example of politeness theory (Brown Levinson, 1978, 1987). Politeness.

Anthropology , Cross-cultural communication , Cultural anthropology 1222 Words | 4 Pages. ? Culture essay 03 Human life consists of why schools should uniforms persuasive essay, constant conflict, difference of opinions, differences in com 150 effective essay, worldview. Not spared this . religion. Muslim religious world as during the time of its existence is different in that it is movie quotes, constantly there is a division, the emergence of essay writing, new trends and gre topics, sects. The main reason for com 150 effective this separation can be considered a close relationship in the past, the essay state and the religious life, worldly ambitions were transferred into the sphere of the spiritual life, supported. Abu Bakr , Ali , Caliph 1595 Words | 5 Pages. ? Culture Culture is a person’s complete way of life. It includes arts, knowledge, beliefs, customs, inventions, language, . morals, law, technology and com 150 effective essay writing, traditions.

Culture is learned through people such as your family and society. It is learned patterns of behavior. Culture is the way you act, feel and think. The foundation of culture was developed in prehistoric times. Every culture has family relationships, a way of obtaining food and shelter, protecting itself from invaders, religious beliefs. College , Culture , Education 1167 Words | 4 Pages. All countries develop their own unique cultures to gre topics essay live by. There are many differences and similarities between my home country’s . culture and the American culture that I live in now.

Both countries have very different factors which make up their culture ; starting from their food and values. Effective Essay? The cultures are also similar in the way that they enjoy similar forms of entertainment like music. In Mexico, my home country, their culture can be expressed by many factors like the thesis statements food they eat. Essay Writing? The same. Culture , Difference , Food 536 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay on gre topics Italian Immigrants. THEME: My great aunts experience as an com 150 essay writing, Italian Immigrant ABSTRACT: My great aunts family immigrated to Pennsylvania in the early 1900’s from . Italy. Her and her 6 siblings faced some obstacles while growing up. Times were hard as it was during the Great Depression.

Being Italian / Catholic in a predominately White Protestant area was very difficult for the family in both school and later in finding jobs. Her father worked to support the management calendar family while her mother stayed home to take care of the com 150 effective essay house/kids. 1930s , Depression , Family 1061 Words | 3 Pages. The course integrates reading, writing, speaking, listening comprehension, and grammar as well as the writing process, organization, grammar and mechanics, . and sentence structure. Students will produce three essays and essay, several paragraphs. The content of the essay course focuses on American culture and issues facing new immigrants. The course is designed for Limited English Proficient students at on graphics, Cincinnati State who are enrolled in a pre-tech or degree program.

In addition, the course may attract LEP. Comprehension , English grammar , Essay 660 Words | 5 Pages. To start with, what the author discusses in effective essay writing, the essay are the definition of fashion,the meaning of fashion and the interaction of this meaning . with cultural values and finally he discusses the communication of fashion. Then author emphasizes the ways fashion uses to communicate and movie in essay, discussion of communication models that fashion uses by examining whether fashion is the meaning of an interaction between cultural values and visual culture or fashion is com 150 effective essay writing, a reflection of an on graphics, identity, a way to convey messages. Communication , Culture , Meaning of life 904 Words | 3 Pages. Assimilation into American Culture: Italian and com 150 effective, Irish Migrants. many people all around the world. Over twelve million immigrants during the late 1800s and management calendar, early 1900s passed through Ellis Island, the first federal . immigrant inspection station of the free world. Of the newcomers, a portion of them consisted of Italian Americans and Irish Americans.

Throughout history, these groups have contributed to what is effective, termed multiculturalism. Being the minority, these two groups have also experienced power-conflicts through their quests of assimilation. The two ethnic groups. Chicago , Italian American , New York City 1341 Words | 6 Pages. Imprint of Italian and Irish Americans on statements the American Culture. many people all around the world. Over twelve million immigrants during the late 1800s and early 1900s passed through Ellis Island, the first federal . immigrant inspection station of the free world.

Of the newcomers, a portion of them consisted of Italian Americans and Irish Americans. Essay Writing? Throughout history, these groups have contributed to what is termed multiculturalism. Being the minority, these two groups have also experienced power-conflicts through their quests of assimilation. The two ethnic groups. Chicago , Italian American , New York City 1341 Words | 6 Pages.

?Study of French Culture Final Essay Introduction When looking through French history during the Versailles . Thesis? Period, there’s something attracts me a lot: it seems that “mistress” plays an important role throughout the history. It’s an essay writing, interesting phenomenon as the word “mistress” tends to be related with “secret” in many cultures . While in French culture , there’s even a word “Maitresse-en-titre” which means “official mistress” 1. It seems that you cannot speak about a king without. Francois Boucher , Louis XIV of in essay, France , Louis XV of France 925 Words | 3 Pages. Free Essays Search: Sort By: Most Relevant Color Rating Essay Length Home Search Essays . FAQs Tools Lost Essay ? Contact Essay Color Key Free Essays Unrated Essays Better Essays Stronger Essays Powerful Essays Term Papers Research Papers Privacy Our Guarantee Popular Essays Excellent Essays Free Essays A-F Free Essays G-L Free Essays M-Q Free Essays R-Z Essay Topics Plagiarism Donate a Paper . Cross-cultural communication , Cross-cultural studies , Culture 1870 Words | 7 Pages. There’s something to suit everybody’s fancy! Talking about his culture and the beauty of writing, its art, I could write thousands and thousands of . pages about gre topics essay .The contribution that Italy has taken in the course of history to world culture in com 150 effective essay, fact was, according to all historians, immense and essay, varied. The innovations that Italy has brought in all fields of essay writing, culture along 2,500 years of history are innumerable; in the two periods in project management, which the Italian territory was the center of the civilization of the time, during. Europe , Italian cuisine , Italian language 722 Words | 2 Pages. Renaissance Comparison Essay Megan Pepper Axia College of University of Phoenix Renaissance Comparison Essay The Late . Writing? Middle Ages were known as a time of decline, but the Renaissance led an essay for responsibility, outburst of cultural and intellectual creativity.

During the fourteenth century in the cities of Northern Italy, many scholars and social elite became more interested in literature and ideas of ancient Greece and Rome. As the interest in Classical civilization grew people began to dismiss many of the com 150 writing ideas. Ancient Greece , Europe , Italian Renaissance 837 Words | 3 Pages. Language Gender and Culture Essay. ? Language, Gender, and essay, Culture Essay In our world there are so people that are being overrated, from their skin color, to how . they talk or to where they came from or the way they walk, everything from what people wear to where people come from and com 150 effective writing, their ethnic background. These people are looked down on from the rest of society for just being themselves and essay, doing only what they know to do. For some, it’s wrong if others do not act just like them and they put them down for it. Stereotypes can. Antagonist , Audre Lorde , Audre Lorde Project 879 Words | 3 Pages.

Italian Architecture Abstract Nowadays, under the effect of industrial civilization, more and more modern cities choose towering skyscrapers . as their landmark buildings, and tend to com 150 essay build in the city centers practical but tedious buildings, which made all the metropolis looks very similar. Students? However, in com 150 writing, Europe, a lot of movie title in essay quotes, countries committed to conserve their heritage of domestic old-style buildings. Among them, Italy acts as bellwether. This essay takes into consideration three typical masterworks. Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome , Architecture 1431 Words | 5 Pages. Australian Aboriginal Culture - Essay. nomadic people who came to Australia about 40,000 – 60,000 years ago from Southeast Asia. Com 150 Effective Writing? Religion is a great part of uniforms, Aboriginal culture . The . essay answers these questions: What do Aboriginals belief? What is com 150 effective essay writing, a Kinship system? What is Dreaming and Dreamtime? What rituals does Aboriginals have?

Religion The Aborigines have a complex belief in creation, spirits and culture that gives a definite distinctiveness from any other religion in movie title in essay quotes, the world. Effective? Thousands of persuasive essay, years ago, Australian Aboriginal people. Australia , Australian Aboriginal culture , Death 1084 Words | 4 Pages. ?Sabika Khan Irina Nizova English 1301-6006 25 June 2014 “Identifying Cultures ” All around the world we are one big melting pot. Meaning . there are a huge variety of different cultures throughout different nations. But I simply ask one question, how does someone tell them apart? There are many ways to differentiate cultures with many different factors. One in particular would be the language they speak.

In a more general prospective, if someone were to live in writing, Mexico they would obviously speak. Culture , Judith Ortiz Cofer , Morality 1232 Words | 6 Pages. a foreground and a context into what to expect for that particular culture . In fact there is a criteria in which any text may be classed as . Calendar? this. Intergenerational, Intertextual, Multidimensional. In short these words mean that the texts within this accumulation relate to com 150 essay writing each other, they refer to project each other within themselves or insinuate links or they apply to the masses and are regarded of any particular text type. In this essay I will be exploring different Cumulative texts within the boundaries.

Culture , Dead Poets Society , Education 1786 Words | 5 Pages. American Popular Culture Leonel Gutierrez SOC/ 105 September 11, 2012 Gregory Shrout American Popular . Culture Our communities are built on a foundation whose culture we build. Through our culture , we define who we are as individuals and how our societies influence our communities. American popular culture has a great influence on our personal decisions and is a very important aspect of our lifestyle. Through television, magazines, newspapers, music, sports. Culture , High culture , Mainstream 846 Words | 3 Pages. ?Merin Abraham AP Human Geography Mrs. Lewellen 5th hour 11/6/14 The Culture of com 150 effective essay, Egypt The culture of Egypt is have uniforms, very unique and . fascinating.

Every aspect of Egyptian culture has distinctive characteristics that make up the culture . The main religion of effective essay, Egypt is Islam, which is practiced by the majority of Egyptians which also governs their personal, political, economic and have uniforms persuasive, legal lives. Muslims are required to com 150 writing pray five times a day, at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening. The specific timing. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Coptic language 787 Words | 2 Pages. texts studies in class helped you to why schools uniforms persuasive understand Australian culture ? The composers of In Sydney’s Suburbs, An Endless Summer and effective, Love Letter: . Gre Topics? McIver’s Baths have helped me to further understand Australian culture by using a variety of language devices and com 150 effective essay writing, techniques to uncover the Australian culture . Essay Students? Chris West, the author of In Sydney’s Suburbs, An Endless Summer reveals that Australians respect the harsh landscape and com 150, presents beach culture as a prominent aspect n the lives of essay, Australia.

Helen Pitt. Australia , Australian Aboriginal culture , Climate change in Australia 716 Words | 3 Pages. ? Why ask yourself what is diversity? Or What is culture ? Diversity and essay writing, culture are two words in which that even if the essay . definition is com 150 effective essay, not understood or known, these two words are all around us, and we are very much involved in each daily. Diversity is why schools should persuasive, nothing more than differences among all humans. According to Luther College (2014) diversity describes the similarities and com 150 effective, differences that people have. Management? Diversity has territorial differences and similarities in their thoughts and identities among. Culture , Discrimination , Ethnic group 810 Words | 4 Pages.

Losing Your Culture Culture , a building block of society, and the individual spirit throughout the world. Individuals . Culture and Heritage were as a whole on the frontlines for many African Americans during the twentieth century for it was an under appreciated topic due to racism. In the stories Passing and Everyday Use, the main theme revolved around the loss of culture due to effective essay writing their color of essay on graphics and animations, skin. One of the Characters from Everyday Use such as Dee and effective essay, Irene or Clare from gre topics essay, Passing, felt unappreciated. African American , Black people , Family 2183 Words | 6 Pages. Major Essay II Culture and Values (final draft) The short story, “The One Who Walk Away from Omelas” by Ursula K. Le Guin is . a metaphorical look at how we as a society are content to accept things the com 150 effective way they are instead of taking a stand for what is right. In the story Le Guin begins by describing a perfect utopia, from the “eighteen peaks burned with white-gold fire across the why schools persuasive miles of sunlit air” to the “great water-meadow called Green Fields”, Omelas is a picture perfect city (Le Guin pg. 2007 singles , Homelessness , Homelessness in the United States 1089 Words | 3 Pages. Challenges faced by com 150 effective writing Italians Struggled after Immigration. By Jeremy Lampkin The ethnic group that I most closely identify with is . Italian . The Italians started to immigrate to the United States in 1880.

They immigrated to many different areas based on what part of Italy they came from. For example the Sicilians settled in thesis statements for alcatraz, New Orleans while the Neapolitans and Calabrians settled in com 150 essay writing, Minnesota. Italians tended to for responsibility form enclaves where they settled to feel safer and still be able to practice. Illegal immigration , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 866 Words | 3 Pages. ?King’s College London Modern Language Centre BA/BSc/MA/MSc Examinations 4AALIT01 Italian 1 6AALI201 Italianfor Graduates: Module . 1 INSTRUCTIONS FOR ORAL TEST Summer 2013 (Period 2) 1 student and 2 examiners The oral examination takes 15 minutes and consists of com 150 essay, two parts. Part 1: A five-minute response to visual stimulus (you will receive the picture on the day of the oral). You will be asked to complete one of the tasks listed. Part 2: a ten-minute open discussion. Christopher Nolan , Following , Idiom 386 Words | 5 Pages. Essay on project Corruption Culture in Pakistan. law, effective and impartial accountability.

Media also plays significant role in creating the awareness among masses and government plan to curb the . pervasive corruption with an iron hand. Read more: Essay on Corruption Culture in Pakistan 2011-12 outline http://www.friendsmania.net/forum/ essay -writing-notes-applications-letters/100809.htm#ixzz1R4ooIzzT. Bribery , Corruption , Karachi 2058 Words | 6 Pages. Jaclyn Dignan Culture Clash Paper 2/1/07 The one thing that humans have a hard time understanding is that animals do not think like . humans at all. Com 150 Writing? Their mentality is living off of food, shelter, and should have uniforms essay, sex. Com 150 Effective Essay Writing? Culture Clash really helped me realize just how confusing an animal's behavior really is. It's not impossible to get to an animal's level of project management, behavior using Pavlov's operant and effective essay writing, classical conditioning, which is fascinating. A few of the more confusing things that I have come across are how to.

Aggression , Dog , Pet 1638 Words | 4 Pages. African Cultures Africa has more than 800 languages native to its continent. African cultures are so diverse that they are . different from any other culture of the world. African cultures contain many different languages. Essay? African languages range from common French to languages unheard of to most people such as Swahili.

African arts are much different than American arts. Their art involves much more creative pottery, masks, and paintings. Africa has a very interesting culture . Reasons being the. Africa , African Union , French language 1221 Words | 4 Pages. Chinese culture is vastly different form of living than here in the United States. Chinese cultural practices like “face saving, social . ritual, family-based structures and connections, and other aspects of Chinese culture were preventing Western firms from imposing their impersonal and highly efficient business practices in effective, China” (RARICK p. 1). Gre Topics Essay? For those reasons, China was characterized as being difficult to do business with. “’History has had an enormous influence on business operations and. China , Confucianism , Confucius 1300 Words | 4 Pages. Influence of com 150 effective essay writing, Celebrities on Pop Culture The pop culture of any area consists of many factors that ought to be considered . when assessing the impact of any one specific icon. American pop culture specifically, has many symbols that represent the many different areas of pop culture and the preferences of the fans. Through an array of examples, the strong influence of celebrities on citizens of America can easily be seen through an analysis of the pop culture . The demographic, style, and behavior.

Culture , Demographic profile , Demographics 757 Words | 3 Pages. East Indian Culture Course Number: 1409 Instructor: Melanie K. Why Schools Uniforms? Hail February 12, 2013 The term culture has many . definitions depending upon the type of culture that you are referring to. In this situation; culture , is defined as the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief and com 150 effective writing, behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to for responsibility future generations. I believe that culture of an ethnic group starts at the beginning of time before people understood that their. Extended family , Family , Health care 861 Words | 3 Pages. poverty, a series of effective, natural disasters, civil war and oppression from Northern Italy the Southern Italians started coming to America in flocks . between 1876 and 1976. The most concentrated migrations of management calendar, Italians happened between 1880 and com 150 writing, 1920. Italians came to America not to escape these hardships, but to work and send money home to Italy in order to get their families out of poverty. Seventy percent of Italian immigrants were men and project calendar, less than ten percent of them worked in agriculture, a sign that their.

Child mortality , Infant mortality , Italian American 1799 Words | 5 Pages. Rios Summer Reading Essay : Culture Culture , it represents a place and its different types of com 150 essay writing, people that live . there. This great varied term can be expressed in many lots of ways. There many definitions to the word culture . One of the definitions we use today is basically what makes up a civilization. A British anthropologist named Sir Edward Burnett defined culture into different categories, not just race or ethnicity, which is a common way of people determining ones culture . Different behavioral. 2002 albums , Anthropology , Behavior 537 Words | 2 Pages. and fire calls- many of movie in essay quotes, which result in death. In our culture , and every culture , death is an inevitable fact of life. We all, . at some point in our lives, are going to encounter the com 150 essay death of someone close to us.

Whether it will be a family member, friend or ourselves, young or old, it is essay, going to happen and we will have to face it. Death affects everyone differently and the way we cope with loss varies with every person and with every culture . When the com 150 effective essay writing majority of us think of for responsibility, death, we see someone. Death , Human , I Cried 1811 Words | 4 Pages. excommunicated (Kraybill, Nolt, and Johnson-Weiner, 2012). Gender relations are another unique element of the Amish culture . The men and . women of the Amish community assume well-defined gender roles. Essay Writing? In most Amish families, the wives are devoted to domestic serves such as: cooking cleaning and essay on graphics and animations, motherhood. On the other hand, the com 150 husbands are known as the essay students financial provider. Just as other cultures , these generalizations do not apply to all. Some cases, wives own business and is considered the bread winner. Amish , Amish Mennonite , Anabaptist 1549 Words | 5 Pages.

Erik Wilson Indian Culture Paper History Ms. Saliche 2/11/12 The Art of Indian Dance: Bharatanatyam “Dance is the hidden . Effective Essay Writing? language of the soul.” Dance is something way more than just fist-pumping at some party. Dance has deep meaning; it is an art form that can range from the simplest of steps to the most intricate set of moves. In Indian culture , like in any other culture , dance is a cultural tradition that has been around for essay centuries. In this paper, I will discuss the several. Bharatanatyam , Chennai , Dance 797 Words | 3 Pages. Race Pendleton 4/29/13 Italian Immigration 1880-1920 Many people have emigrated from Italy to com 150 essay America over gre topics, the past few centuries. . During the com 150 effective writing time period of 1880-1920, the largest number of for responsibility students, Italians arrived in America as nearly four million Italian immigrants came to the states. Most came from either Sicily or southern Italy and were mostly comprised of lower income people. A majority of the effective essay immigrants were known as the birds of passage. Life was often hard for Italians in America as they were.

Immigration , Immigration to the United States , Italian diaspora 1399 Words | 4 Pages. are not as acute as one would think. Essentially the split occurred to the political question of who should succeed the Prophet Muhammad as the leader of the . community. Iraqi hospitality is an gre topics, Arab and com 150 essay writing, Muslim tradition is deeply engrained in the culture . Guests are treated like kings and essay students, must always be fed and looked after. Com 150 Writing? A tradition within Islam actually stipulates someone is allowed to stay in your home for 3 days before you can question why they are staying and when they will leave, Invitations. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , Euphrates 1033 Words | 3 Pages.

The Amish Having no electricity, no phones or even any modern day technology- to us it would be a major culture shock but to the Amish . it is just another day in life. Why Schools Have Persuasive? The Amish are considered a society that is outdated and old. I have learned from researching that they can be fully functional. The way they dress is probably the most obvious sign of what sets them off from everyone else. The men, women, and kids have a certain way they have to dress every day. Men generally wear dark colored.

Amish , Beard , Marriage 1037 Words | 3 Pages. ITALIAN STEREOTYPES Stereotypes always tend to have some truth mixed in with a few generalisations and a bit of com 150 writing, exaggeration. Here a small . list that Italians usually do in their life. The typically Italian man has dark eyes and a dark complexion, with black hair. He is essay, very passionate and lazy and he works in factory or into an office. The typical Italian woman has a round shape. She is very charming and she works as housewife. The Italians usually live in effective essay, flats in for responsibility students, the city.

They pay. Anti-Italianism , Coffee , Dolce Gabbana 893 Words | 3 Pages.

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COM 150 Effective Essay Writing - …

utexas dissertation Critics of the case study method believe that the study of a small number of cases can offer no grounds for establishing reliability or generality of findings. Others feel that the intense exposure to study of the case biases the findings. Some dismiss case study research as useful only effective essay as an exploratory tool. Yet researchers continue to use the case study research method with success in carefully planned and gre topics essay, crafted studies of real-life situations, issues, and problems. Reports on case studies from many disciplines are widely available in the literature. This paper explains how to use the case study method and com 150 effective writing, then applies the method to an example case study project designed to examine how one set of users, non-profit organizations, make use of an electronic community network. The study examines the issue of whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in some way to non-profit organizations and what those benefits might be. Many well-known case study researchers such as Robert E. Stake, Helen Simons, and Robert K. Yin have written about case study research and suggested techniques for organizing and conducting the research successfully.

This introduction to case study research draws upon their work and proposes six steps that should be used: Determine and define the research questions Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques Prepare to collect the data Collect data in the field Evaluate and analyze the data Prepare the report Step 1. Determine and Define the Research Questions. The first step in case study research is to establish a firm research focus to which the in essay, researcher can refer over the course of study of a complex phenomenon or object. The researcher establishes the focus of the study by forming questions about the situation or problem to be studied and determining a purpose for com 150 effective essay, the study. The research object in a case study is often a program, an entity, a person, or a group of people. Each object is likely to be intricately connected to political, social, historical, and personal issues, providing wide ranging possibilities for questions and adding complexity to why schools should uniforms persuasive essay the case study. The researcher investigates the object of the case study in depth using a variety of data gathering methods to produce evidence that leads to writing understanding of the case and answers the research questions.

Case study research generally answers one or more questions which begin with how or why. Essay For Responsibility! The questions are targeted to a limited number of events or conditions and their inter-relationships. To assist in targeting and com 150 effective writing, formulating the and animations, questions, researchers conduct a literature review. This review establishes what research has been previously conducted and leads to refined, insightful questions about the problem. Careful definition of the effective writing, questions at the start pinpoints where to look for evidence and helps determine the methods of analysis to be used in the study. The literature review, definition of the purpose of the case study, and early determination of the potential audience for the final report guide how the study will be designed, conducted, and publicly reported. Step 2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques. During the for responsibility, design phase of case study research, the researcher determines what approaches to use in selecting single or multiple real-life cases to examine in depth and which instruments and data gathering approaches to use.

When using multiple cases, each case is treated as a single case. Each case?s conclusions can then be used as information contributing to the whole study, but each case remains a single case. Effective Writing! Exemplary case studies carefully select cases and carefully examine the management calendar, choices available from among many research tools available in com 150 writing order to management calendar increase the validity of the com 150 essay, study. Thesis Statements For Alcatraz! Careful discrimination at the point of selection also helps erect boundaries around the case. The researcher must determine whether to study cases which are unique in com 150 effective essay writing some way or cases which are considered typical and may also select cases to represent a variety of geographic regions, a variety of size parameters, or other parameters.

A useful step in the selection process is to repeatedly refer back to the purpose of the should have uniforms, study in order to focus attention on where to look for cases and evidence that will satisfy the purpose of the study and answer the com 150 effective writing, research questions posed. Title In Essay! Selecting multiple or single cases is a key element, but a case study can include more than one unit of essay embedded analysis. For example, a case study may involve study of a single industry and a firm participating in that industry. This type of case study involves two levels of analysis and increases the complexity and amount of data to be gathered and analyzed. A key strength of the case study method involves using multiple sources and techniques in the data gathering process. The researcher determines in advance what evidence to gather and what analysis techniques to use with the data to answer the research questions. Data gathered is project calendar, normally largely qualitative, but it may also be quantitative. Tools to collect data can include surveys, interviews, documentation review, observation, and even the collection of physical artifacts. The researcher must use the designated data gathering tools systematically and properly in collecting the evidence. Throughout the design phase, researchers must ensure that the study is well constructed to ensure construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability.

Construct validity requires the researcher to use the correct measures for the concepts being studied. Internal validity (especially important with explanatory or causal studies) demonstrates that certain conditions lead to other conditions and requires the use of multiple pieces of evidence from multiple sources to uncover convergent lines of inquiry. The researcher strives to establish a chain of evidence forward and backward. External validity reflects whether or not findings are generalizable beyond the immediate case or cases; the more variations in places, people, and procedures a case study can withstand and still yield the same findings, the more external validity. Techniques such as cross-case examination and within-case examination along with literature review helps ensure external validity. Reliability refers to the stability, accuracy, and precision of measurement. Exemplary case study design ensures that the procedures used are well documented and can be repeated with the same results over and over again. Step 3. Prepare to Collect the Data.

Because case study research generates a large amount of data from multiple sources, systematic organization of the data is important to prevent the researcher from becoming overwhelmed by the amount of com 150 data and to prevent the researcher from losing sight of the for responsibility students, original research purpose and questions. Com 150 Essay! Advance preparation assists in handling large amounts of data in project a documented and systematic fashion. Researchers prepare databases to com 150 effective essay writing assist with categorizing, sorting, storing, and retrieving data for essay, analysis. Exemplary case studies prepare good training programs for investigators, establish clear protocols and com 150 effective writing, procedures in essay advance of investigator field work, and conduct a pilot study in advance of moving into the field in essay order to thesis statements for alcatraz remove obvious barriers and problems. The investigator training program covers the basic concepts of the study, terminology, processes, and methods, and teaches investigators how to properly apply the techniques being used in the study.

The program also trains investigators to understand how the com 150 effective essay, gathering of data using multiple techniques strengthens the study by providing opportunities for triangulation during the analysis phase of the study. The program covers protocols for case study research, including time deadlines, formats for narrative reporting and field notes, guidelines for collection of documents, and thesis, guidelines for field procedures to com 150 be used. Investigators need to be good listeners who can hear exactly the words being used by those interviewed. Qualifications for investigators also include being able to ask good questions and interpret answers. Essay! Good investigators review documents looking for com 150 essay, facts, but also read between the lines and pursue collaborative evidence elsewhere when that seems appropriate. Calendar! Investigators need to be flexible in real-life situations and not feel threatened by unexpected change, missed appointments, or lack of office space. Investigators need to understand the purpose of the study and grasp the effective essay, issues and must be open to contrary findings. Investigators must also be aware that they are going into the world of real human beings who may be threatened or unsure of what the case study will bring. After investigators are trained, the final advance preparation step is to select a pilot site and conduct a pilot test using each data gathering method so that problematic areas can be uncovered and corrected.

Researchers need to anticipate key problems and events, identify key people, prepare letters of introduction, establish rules for confidentiality, and actively seek opportunities to revisit and revise the research design in order to address and add to the original set of research questions. 4. Collect Data in in essay quotes the Field. The researcher must collect and store multiple sources of evidence comprehensively and systematically, in formats that can be referenced and sorted so that converging lines of com 150 inquiry and patterns can be uncovered. Researchers carefully observe the object of the case study and identify causal factors associated with the for responsibility, observed phenomenon. Renegotiation of arrangements with the objects of the study or addition of questions to interviews may be necessary as the study progresses. Case study research is flexible, but when changes are made, they are documented systematically. Exemplary case studies use field notes and databases to categorize and com 150 essay writing, reference data so that it is readily available for subsequent reinterpretation. Field notes record feelings and intuitive hunches, pose questions, and document the work in progress. They record testimonies, stories, and should have, illustrations which can be used in later reports. They may warn of impending bias because of the detailed exposure of the client to special attention, or give an early signal that a pattern is emerging. They assist in determining whether or not the inquiry needs to be reformulated or redefined based on what is being observed.

Field notes should be kept separate from the data being collected and com 150 essay, stored for analysis. Maintaining the relationship between the issue and the evidence is mandatory. The researcher may enter some data into a database and essay on graphics and animations, physically store other data, but the researcher documents, classifies, and com 150 effective writing, cross-references all evidence so that it can be efficiently recalled for sorting and examination over the course of the study. Step 5. Evaluate and Analyze the Data. The researcher examines raw data using many interpretations in order to find linkages between the research object and the outcomes with reference to the original research questions.

Throughout the evaluation and analysis process, the researcher remains open to new opportunities and insights. The case study method, with its use of multiple data collection methods and for responsibility, analysis techniques, provides researchers with opportunities to effective essay triangulate data in order to strengthen the research findings and conclusions. The tactics used in analysis force researchers to move beyond initial impressions to improve the likelihood of accurate and reliable findings. Exemplary case studies will deliberately sort the in essay quotes, data in many different ways to expose or create new insights and will deliberately look for conflicting data to disconfirm the analysis. Researchers categorize, tabulate, and recombine data to address the initial propositions or purpose of the com 150 effective writing, study, and conduct cross-checks of facts and discrepancies in accounts.

Focused, short, repeat interviews may be necessary to gather additional data to verify key observations or check a fact. Specific techniques include placing information into arrays, creating matrices of categories, creating flow charts or other displays, and tabulating frequency of title in essay events. Essay! Researchers use the quantitative data that has been collected to thesis corroborate and support the qualitative data which is most useful for understanding the rationale or theory underlying relationships. Another technique is to use multiple investigators to gain the advantage provided when a variety of perspectives and insights examine the effective writing, data and the patterns. When the multiple observations converge, confidence in the findings increases.

Conflicting perceptions, on the other hand, cause the researchers to pry more deeply. Another technique, the why schools essay, cross-case search for writing, patterns, keeps investigators from reaching premature conclusions by requiring that investigators look at the data in many different ways. Essay For Responsibility Students! Cross-case analysis divides the data by type across all cases investigated. One researcher then examines the data of that type thoroughly. When a pattern from one data type is effective writing, corroborated by the evidence from another, the finding is essay, stronger.

When evidence conflicts, deeper probing of the differences is necessary to identify the com 150 effective writing, cause or source of why schools uniforms persuasive conflict. In all cases, the researcher treats the evidence fairly to produce analytic conclusions answering the original how and why research questions. Step 6. Prepare the report. Exemplary case studies report the com 150, data in project management a way that transforms a complex issue into one that can be understood, allowing the reader to question and com 150, examine the why schools have persuasive, study and reach an com 150 essay writing, understanding independent of the researcher. The goal of the written report is to portray a complex problem in a way that conveys a vicarious experience to the reader. Case studies present data in very publicly accessible ways and may lead the reader to apply the statements, experience in his or her own real-life situation. Researchers pay particular attention to displaying sufficient evidence to gain the reader?s confidence that all avenues have been explored, clearly communicating the boundaries of the case, and giving special attention to conflicting propositions. Techniques for com 150 effective writing, composing the report can include handling each case as a separate chapter or treating the case as a chronological recounting. Some researchers report the case study as a story. During the report preparation process, researchers critically examine the document looking for thesis, ways the com 150 effective, report is incomplete. The researcher uses representative audience groups to review and comment on the draft document.

Based on the comments, the researcher rewrites and makes revisions. Some case study researchers suggest that the document review audience include a journalist and some suggest that the documents should be reviewed by the participants in the study. Applying the Case Study Method to an Electronic Community Network. Step 1. Determine and Define the Research Questions. In general, electronic community networks have three distinct types of users, each one a good candidate for case study research. The three groups of users include people around the should have persuasive, world who use the electronic community network, the non-profit organizations using the electronic community network to provide information to potential users of their services, and the community that forms as the result of interacting with other participants on the electronic community network.

In this case, the writing, researcher is primarily interested in determining whether or not the electronic community network is management, beneficial in some way to non-profit organization participants. The researcher begins with a review of the essay writing, literature to determine what prior studies have determined about management calendar this issue and uses the com 150 writing, literature to define the following questions for the study of the non-profit organizations providing information to the electronic community network: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network? How do non-profit organization participants determine what to place on movie in essay quotes, the electronic community network? Do the essay, non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission?

How? Step 2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques. Many communities have constructed electronic community networks on the World Wide Web. At the outset of the essay, design phase, the researcher determines that only one of these networks will be studied and further sets the study boundaries to include only some of the non-profit organizations represented on com 150 effective, that one network. The researcher contacts the Board of Directors of the community network, who are open to the idea of the case study. The researcher also gathers computer generated log data from the network and, using this data, determines that an in-depth study of representative organizations from four categories -- health care, environmental, education, and religious -- is feasible. The investigator applies additional selection criteria so that an urban-based and a rural-based non-profit are represented in the study in order to examine whether urban non-profits perceive more benefits from community networks than rural organizations. The researcher considers multiple sources of data for this study and selects document examination, the gathering and study of organizational documents such as administrative reports, agendas, letters, minutes, and news clippings for each of the gre topics essay, organizations. In this case, the investigator decides to com 150 effective writing also conduct open-ended interviews with key members of each organization using a check-list to guide interviewers during the interview process so that uniformity and essay students, consistency can be assured in the data, which could include facts, opinions, and unexpected insights. In this case study, the researcher cannot employ direct observation as a tool because some of the organizations involved have no office and meet infrequently to conduct business directly related to the electronic community network. Effective Essay Writing! The researcher instead decides to survey all Board members of the selected organizations using a questionnaire as a third data gathering tool.

Within-case and cross-case analysis of data are selected as analysis techniques. Step 3. Prepare to Collect the Data. The researcher prepares to for alcatraz collect data by first contacting each organization to be studied to gain their cooperation, explain the purpose of the study, and assemble key contact information. Since data to be collected and examined includes organizational documents, the researcher states his intent to request copies of these documents, and plans for storage, classification, and retrieval of these items, as well as the interview and survey data. The researcher develops a formal investigator training program to include seminar topics on non-profit organizations and com 150 writing, their structures in each of the project management, four categories selected for this study. Effective! The training program also includes practice sessions in conducting open-ended interviews and documenting sources, suggested field notes formats, and a detailed explanation of the purpose of the case study. The researcher selects a fifth case as a pilot case, and the investigators apply the data gathering tools to the pilot case to essay students determine whether the planned timeline is feasible and whether or not the interview and survey questions are appropriate and effective.

Based on the results of the pilot, the researcher makes adjustments and assigns investigators particular cases which become their area of expertise in the evaluation and analysis of the data. Step 4. Collect Data in the Field. Investigators first arrange to visit with the Board of Directors of each non-profit organization as a group and ask for copies of the organization?s mission, news clippings, brochures, and any other written material describing the organization and its purpose. The investigator reviews the purpose of the study with the entire Board, schedules individual interview times with as many Board members as can cooperate, confirms key contact data, and requests that all Board members respond to the written survey which will be mailed later. Investigators take written notes during the com 150 effective writing, interview and record field notes after the interview is and animations, completed. The interviews, although open-ended, are structured around the research questions defined at the start of the case study.

Research Question: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network? Interview Questions: How did the effective, organization make the students, decision to place data on the World Wide Web community network? What need was the organization hoping to fulfill? Research Question: How do non-profit organization participants determine what to com 150 essay writing place on the electronic community network? Interview Questions: What process was used to select the information that would be used on the network? How is the information kept up to date? Research Question: Do the non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in essay furthering their mission? How?

Interview Questions: How does the organization know if the electronic community network is beneficial to the organization? How does the electronic community network further the mission of the organization? What systematic tracking mechanisms exist to determine how many or what types of users are accessing the organization information? The investigator?s field notes record impressions and com 150, questions that might assist with the interpretation of the interview data. The investigator makes note of stories told during open-ended interviews and title, flags them for potential use in the final report. Com 150 Effective Essay! Data is entered into statements, the database. The researcher mails written surveys to com 150 effective writing all Board members with a requested return date and a stamped return envelope.

Once the thesis, surveys are returned, the researcher codes and enters the data into the database so that it can be used independently as well as integrated when the case study progresses to the point of cross-case examination of data for all four cases. Step 5. Evaluate and effective essay writing, Analyze the Data. Within-case analysis is the first analysis technique used with each non-profit organization under study. The assigned investigator studies each organization?s written documentation and survey response data as a separate case to identify unique patterns within the data for that single organization. Individual investigators prepare detailed case study write-ups for each organization, categorizing interview questions and answers and thesis, examining the data for within-group similarities and differences.

Cross-case analysis follows. Investigators examine pairs of essay writing cases, categorizing the similarities and differences in each pair. Investigators then examine similar pairs for differences, and dissimilar pairs for have uniforms, similarities. As patterns begin to emerge, certain evidence may stand out as being in conflict with the patterns. In those cases, the investigator conducts follow-up focused interviews to confirm or correct the initial data in order to tie the evidence to the findings and to state relationships in answer to the research questions. Step 6 Prepare the Report. The outline of the report includes thanking all of the participants, stating the problem, listing the research questions, describing the com 150 effective essay, methods used to conduct the have essay, research and any potential flaws in the method used, explaining the data gathering and com 150 writing, analysis techniques used, and project management, concluding with the com 150, answers to the questions and suggestions for further research.

Key features of the report include a retelling of statements specific stories related to com 150 effective writing the successes or disappointments experienced by for responsibility students, the organizations that were conveyed during data collection, and com 150 essay writing, answers or comments illuminating issues directly related to the research questions. Gre Topics Essay! The researcher develops each issue using quotations or other details from the data collected, and points out the triangulation of data where applicable. The report also includes confirming and conflicting findings from literature reviews. The report conclusion makes assertions and suggestions for further research activity, so that another researcher may apply these techniques to essay another electronic community network and its participants to determine whether similar findings are identifiable in other communities. Final report distribution includes all participants. Applicability to Library and Information Science. Busha, C. H., Harter, S. On Graphics And Animations! P. (1980).

Research methods in librarianship, techniques and interpretation. New York: Academic Press. Chang, H. C. (1974). Library goals as responses to structural milieu requirements: A comparative case study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. DuMont, R. R. (1975). The large urban public library as an agency of social reform, 1890-1915. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of effective essay writing Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Eisenhardt, K. Why Schools Have Persuasive Essay! M. (1989).

Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), 352-550. Emory, C. W., Cooper, D. R. (1991). Business research methods. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Irvin. Goldhor, H. (1972). An introduction to scientific research in effective essay writing librarianship. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois. Hamel, J. (with Dufour, S., Fortin, D.). Project Calendar! (1993). Case study methods.

Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Harris, S., Sutton, R. (1986). Com 150 Essay! Functions of parting ceremonies in dying organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 19, 5-30. Lawson, V. (1971). Reference service in university libraries, two case studies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York. McAdams, D. C. (1979). Essay! Powerful actors in public land use decision making processes: A case study in Austin, Texas. Effective Writing! Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. McClure, C. R., Hernon, P. (Eds.). (1991).

Library and information science research: perspectives and strategies for improvement. Gre Topics! Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Miller, F. (1986). Use, appraisal, and research: A case study of social history . The American Archivist: 49 (4), 371-392. Paris, M. (1988). Library school closings: Four case studies. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Patton, M. Q. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Powell, R. R. (1985). Basic research methods for librarians. Com 150 Essay Writing! Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Schindler, D. In Essay! (1996).

Urban youth and com 150, the frail elderly: Reciprocal giving and statements for alcatraz, receiving. New York: Garland. Simons, H. (1980). Towards a science of the singular: Essays about case study in educational research and evaluation. Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia, Centre for Applied Research in effective essay Education. Stake, R. E. (1995).

The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Swisher, R., McClure, C. R. (1984). Research for decision making, methods for librarians. Chicago: American Library Association. Taylor, R. S. (1967). Question-negotiation and information-seeking in libraries. Bethlehem, PA: Center for the Information Sciences. U.S. Department of Education. (1988).

Rethinking the library in the information age: Issues in library research: proposals for the 1990s. Volume II. Washington, DC. Weiss, C.H., Bucuvala, M. J. (1980). Social science research and decision-making. New York: Columbia University Press. Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. P., Newcomer, K. E. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of practical program evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Yin, R. K. (1984). Case study research: Design and methods.

Newbury Park, CA: Sage. This page is created and maintained by Sue Soy [email protected] Last Updated 02/12/2006. Copyright 1996 Susan K. Soy. Please feel free to copy and essay, distribute freely for com 150 essay, academic purposes with attribution.

Cite as: Soy, Susan K. (1997). The case study as a research method . Unpublished paper, University of Texas at project management calendar Austin.

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COM 150 com150: Effective Essay …

What Font Should You Use For Your Resume? Apparently This Matters To People. Com 150 Effective Essay! Over the last few weeks, there#8217;s been not one, not two, but at least six mainstream media articles about what font you #8220;absolutely must use#8221; on your resume. Business News Daily, Bloomberg Business, Huffington Post, USA Today, NPR, even The Onion got in on this action. And it#8217;s not like everyone suddenly had a typographic epiphany: each of quotes these articles piggybacks off the one before it.

It#8217;s a frigging style-piece tsunami out there. Why not get swept up in com 150 effective it too? Let the waves of project modern journalism wash over us. Com 150 Effective! Do you think the font you choose for essay, your resume really matters? Meh, it probably does. Somewhere less than #8220;having a T14 degree#8221; and effective essay, more than #8220;the brand of your leather folio,#8221; but it still probably matters a little #8212; especially if you envision some sap pouring over thousands of resumes at once. Essay On Graphics! But is that really how law firm hiring decisions get made? Even at on-campus interviewing I only ever had 10 or 11 meetings in a day. Effective Essay Writing! And when I stopped going on campus, I never looked at more than 2 or 3 at why schools uniforms persuasive, a time. Ultimately, I can#8217;t help but think The Onion#8217;s coverage of com 150 effective essay this probably hits the nail on why schools should have persuasive essay, the head: “Nothing says ‘I’m currently unemployed’ like a painstakingly selected font.” But let#8217;s indulge this call to adventure and check out some of the com 150 essay writing, fonts recommended in these articles by using them in action by converting select sentences from an actual cover letter from a current candidate looking for a job #8212; a former mid-level Biglaw associate, laid off during the recession: Times New Roman #8212; Hurray!

You have Microsoft Word! Good for you. Hell, even Microsoft Word stopped using Times New Roman as the default, that#8217;s how much it#8217;s hated. And yet here it is on have uniforms persuasive, the recommended list. Actually, this was the most controversial selection to come out of essay writing these articles. For Responsibility Students! Some of the essay writing, experts polled for the litany of articles described the gre topics essay, venerable standby as a safe option. Others described it as lazy. Indeed, one creative director said, #8220;It’s like putting on sweatpants.#8221; This isn#8217;t a new opinion in com 150 effective essay these pages. On the other hand, the legal industry isn#8217;t filled with people who respect rocking the boat. While it#8217;s not true that every court expects submissions in boring, old Times New Roman, most still put it on thesis for alcatraz, a very limited list of acceptable options. So when you#8217;re writing up your resume, do you want to convey to your future Biglaw masters that you#8217;re #8220;boring/traditional#8221; or #8220;bold/rebellious#8221;?

Because it#8217;s going to be hard to thread that needle. Thankfully, some fonts exist that get you there. Trebuchet #8212; Like this one, if you#8217;re not into com 150 essay writing, the whole #8220;flowery serifs#8221; thing. Personally, I like a mild serif because it makes it look like something#8217;s actually happening on gre topics, the page. If letters get too minimalist, the effective essay writing, document starts to look more like some utilitarian sign pointing you to the nearest dog run than a document with a human face behind it. Trebuchet is thesis statements, just about com 150 writing, as minimalist as one can get before some funky effects start infecting your resume.

Helvetica #8212; Like with this font. Bloomberg Business chose Helvetica as the best possible font for job-seekers. I call bulls**t. Not that it didn#8217;t make for statements for alcatraz, an interesting movie (affiliate link), but the point of the documentary was how much everyone hates the essay writing, ubiquitous, blocky, space-guzzling typeface. Title In Essay Quotes! At one point in the film, it#8217;s described as #8220;fascist.#8221; How a font that attracts that much ire ever made it onto effective essay any list of recommendations boggles the project management calendar, mind. If you#8217;re writing a subway sign, use Helvetica. That said, this is the same reporter who published the Five Charts That Show You Should Apply To Law School This Year, so she may be suffering through a concussion.

If you#8217;re writing a resume #8212; or God help you a brief #8212; use something else. Arial #8212; Business News Daily suggested Arial, which is essay, just a knockoff of for responsibility students Helvetica. The lesson here is that Business News Daily is too cheap to have the original Helvetica on their computers. Calibri #8212; Finally, a suggestion that won#8217;t chew up the entire page. Com 150 Effective Essay! It#8217;s clear and legible. A little boring though. It#8217;s almost too minimalist, which can bite you in the ass when you try to describe your work experience and it barely fills a line and a half.

There#8217;s definitely a Goldilocks effect here: Helvetica looks like you#8217;re trying to snowball them by movie, padding out com 150, every word, while Calibri looks like you sketched your first draft on essay, a Post-It note. Garamond #8212; For my money, this is the Baby Bear#8217;s porridge. There are serifs that make it look like something interesting is actually happening on the page, but it#8217;s not as flourished and played out com 150 essay writing, as Times New Roman. This was the choice of on graphics and animations The Onion too: “Garamond it is. Glad I never have to com 150 effective, think about this ever again.” And once again, Wingdings is overlooked. Break out the pumpkin scented candles because fall is here and it’s brought with it a fresh batch of legal podcasts. Essay And Animations! Break out the pumpkin scented candles because fall is here and it’s brought with it a fresh batch of legal podcasts.

ATL readers are offered 1 free CLE course each month, thanks to Lawline. Com 150! ATL readers are offered 1 free CLE course each month, thanks to Lawline. Sign up for our newsletter. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. Federal Lawsuit Filed Against #8216;The Jews#8217; Associates In This City Just Got Their Raises. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. A Brand New Email Screw-Up For Abbe Lowell. The Ugliest Law Schools In America. Biglaw Associate Fails Bar Exam, Gets Fired, Sues Bar Examiners For Causing Job Loss.

Biglaw Firm Impresses Associates (And Staff) With Enhanced Parental Leave Policy. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. Lawyer Burnout And The Finish Line Problem. Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting. Man Opens Fire At Law Firm Representing His Ex. Biglaw Firm#8217;s Move To New Office Means It#8217;s Time For Some Buyouts. And Animations! (hidden for your protection) comments sponsored by. These findings just might force lawyers to reexamine how they think about the business of com 150 writing law. These findings just might force lawyers to reexamine how they think about the business of management law. On October 11, join ATL and com 150 writing, Exterro for a Legal Technology Competence Webinar.

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COM 150: EFFECTIVE ESSAY …

Essay. Com 150 Essay. Ungdom, oppror og tilpasning. Et essay om generasjonsdannelser. For Responsibility Students. Prolog. Com 150 Effective Essay. Guro Odegard. 1 SOSIOLOGI I DAG, ÅRGANG 46, NR. Essay And Animations. 3-4/ Essay Ungdom, opprør og tilpasning. Effective Writing. Et essay om generasjonsdannelser Guro Ødegård NOVA, Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus Prolog Det er sen fredag ettermiddag. Should Have Persuasive Essay. Festen i leiligheten i den delen av Oslo som ennå ikke er blitt overpriset, men som snart blir det, har vart i en times tid. Vi i Generasjon X henger på kjøkkenet som vi alltid har gjort.

I stua sitter den 20 år gamle, talentfulle leieboeren og spiller hardingfele, mens vennegjengen tramper takta. Com 150 Writing. Det er i denne situasjon tanken slår meg: Kunne dette skjedd den gangen jeg selv var 20? Neppe. Why Schools Should Have Uniforms Essay. Tanken på å feste sammen med de som kunne vært våre foreldre ville bryte ned det som den gang var en uoverstigelig generasjonskløft. Effective. Likeens ville det å hygge seg med tradisjonell folkemusikk vært gjenstand for en betydelig ironisering over essay, bønder i byen, før vi hadde svitsjet over com 150 effective essay writing, til U2, Bon Jovi, Roxette, Nirvana, REM, Oasis eller Blur. For Responsibility Students. Er det bare meg, eller er ungdom i dag annerledes enn da jeg selv var ung? Er det sånn at effective essay ulike ungdomsgenerasjoner opp gjennom historien er forskjellige eller er det bare vi som liker tanken på at statements for alcatraz det er slik? Etter en tid tok fela pause og ei munnharpe overtok. En sosiologs oppgave er å skape mening i det meningsløse.

Dette er mitt bidrag. 2 10 GURO ØDEGÅRD Innledning Tema for com 150 effective essay writing, dette essayet er ungdom og ungdomsgenerasjoner. Det er ment som et bidrag i diskusjonen om hvordan vi kan forstå de ungdomskulturelle endringstrekkene vi i dag står overfor. Det er flere fortellinger som kunne blitt fortalt avhengig av hvilke fagperspektiver som legges til grunn. Management Calendar. I min fortelling er det først og fremst sosiologiens bidrag, med begrepet generasjon som analytisk verktøy.

Innrammet av en historisk gjennomgang av det som både i faglitteraturen og populærkulturen blir løftet fram som forskjellige ungdomsgenerasjoner, er hensikten å peke på hvordan sosiologisk teori, begrepsapparat og empiri har bidratt til å forstå dannelsen av genera sjonsspesifikke identiteter. Effective Essay Writing. Ungdom som generasjon Sosiologiens oppdrag har langt på vei vært å omtale ungdom som en samfunnsmessig konstruksjon. Essay. Derfor har det vært vanskelig å definere ungdom innenfor en spesifikk alderskohort. Selv om myndighetsalderen på 18 er en formell avgrensning mellom barn og voksen, er grensen mellom barn og ungdom og mellom ungdom og voksen ikke formalisert på samme måte (se Fauske 2011). Com 150 Essay Writing. På den ene siden har utdanningseksplosjonen de seneste årene bidratt til en utvidelse av ungdomstiden ved at gre topics markører for com 150 effective essay, voksenliv, som foreldreskap, familieliv og lønnsarbeid, kommer senere i livsløpet. For Responsibility Students. Dette har ofte blitt forstått som en forlengelse av uansvarlighet. Writing. Samtidig, og på den andre siden, har Norges ratifisering av FNs barnekonvensjon i 1991 gitt oss en rekke lovreguleringer som gir barn både rettigheter og plikter (De forente nasjoner 1989 [2003]). Essay Students. Barn har i dag rett til medbestemmelse i skolehverdagen, i nærmiljøutvikling, i lokalpolitikken samt i familielivet. Com 150 Effective Writing. At vestlige demokratier enten har innført, prøver ut eller drøfter en justering av stemmerettsalderen fra 18 til 16 år, er en illustrasjon på hvordan grensene for thesis statements, medborgernes plikter og rettigheter kryper nedover i alder.

Med andre ord, ungdomstiden har utvidet seg både oppover og nedover og krever derfor en mer dynamisk definisjon, slik Howe og Strauss (2000: 40) prøver på her: A generation can be defined as a society-wide peer group, born over writing, a period roughly the why schools should have uniforms persuasive essay, same length as the effective, passage from statements for alcatraz, youth to com 150 effective essay, adulthood (in today s America, around twenty or twenty-one years), who collectively possess a common per- 3 UNGDOM, OPPRØR OG TILPASNING. Thesis Statements. ET ESSAY OM GENERASJONSDANNELSER 11 sona. The length need not always be the com 150 essay writing, same. Why Schools Should Have Uniforms Essay. A generation can be a bit longer or a bit shorter, depending on essay writing its coming of age experiences and in essay quotes, the vagaries of com 150 effective essay history. Why Schools Persuasive Essay. Howe og Strauss tar her høyde for at com 150 effective essay ulike generasjonserfaringer og samfunnsmessige hendelser og endringstrekk vi ikke har kontroll på, kan bidra til å forskyve generasjonsspesifikke aldersgrenser. Essay For Responsibility Students. En ting er en generasjons ytre aldergrenser, en annen ting er hva ungdom og ungdomstid representerer hvilken mening kategorien ungdom fylles med. Writing. Forståelsen av hva som definerer ungdomstidens innhold og ytre rammer har vært, og er fortsatt i endring. Essay. Går vi langt tilbake i tid skjedde det dramatiske gjennombruddet i forståelsen av barndom og ungdom da den franske filosofen Rousseau på 1700-tallet presenterte sine tanker rundt natur og kultur. Effective. Naturen var ikke lenger noe man skulle beseire, men spille på lag med. Essay. I 1762 kom Rousseau med sitt hovedverk Emile eller om oppdragelse, hvor han argumenterte for effective writing, en ny oppdragelse som i frihet skulle utvikle mennesket til naturlighet (Erikson 1969 [1950]; Rousseau 2010 [1762]).

Barnet skulle ha rett til læring gjennom aktivitet, ikke bare gjennom bøker og autoriteters kunnskapsoverføring. Quotes. Det Rousseau gjør er langt på vei å beskrive en sosialiseringsprosess. Essay Writing. Barn skulle ikke behandles som små voksne, men som selvstendige individer som under god veiledning av oppdrageren skulle dyrke barne- og ungdomsfasen på vei mot voksenlivet. Project. Rousseau s tankegods var kontroversielt og inspirerte også Skandinaviske kunstnere, blant annet den danske maleren Jens Juel ( ). Essay. I Nasjonalgalleriet i København henger maleriet Løpende Dreng som viser en ung gutt i fri bevegelse i naturen. For Alcatraz. Juel s maleri representerte den gang et kraftfullt og alternativt tankegods, og som det uttrykkes i teksten til maleriet: Takket være Rousseau ble børn nu ikke bare betragtet som små voksne, men som unge mennesker med deres egne behov. Perspektivet er knyttet til psykologien, som preget den første ungdomsforskningen på 1950 og -60-tallet. Effective Essay Writing. Den norske sosiologen og ungdomsforskeren Tormod Øia (1995) har beskrevet forståelsen av ungdom i denne tidsperioden for pubertetsperspektivet. Management Calendar. Unge er på vei, og målet med ungdomstiden er å forberede seg på en på forhånd definert voksenrolle. Com 150 Effective Writing. Perspektivet ble særlig tydelig i tilknytning til utdannelse og sosialiseringsbehov som oppstod i den tidlige kapitalismens borgerskap, da behovet for title in essay, en modningsfase ble aktualisert.

Selv om ungdomstiden ble ansett som en viktig periode for essay writing, modning, ble den også betraktet som en kritisk fase hvor. 4 12 GURO ØDEGÅRD risikoen for gre topics essay, avvikende atferd var til stede. Com 150 Essay. Voksenverdens bekymringer var særlig knyttet til denne risikoen (se også Pedersen 1994). Have Essay. En slik forståelse gjenfinnes også i tidlige systematiske studier av ungdom i Norge, som blant annet i idretts- og foreningsundersøkelsen blant 19 år gamle gutter på sesjon i I rapportens innledende tekst står det: (Men) når vi snakker om ungdommen, må vi ikke glemme at vi i virkeligheten snakker om oss selv, og alle i samfunnet. Com 150 Effective Essay. Ungdommen er bare barn som er vokset seg noe eldre og eldre som ennå er unge. Vi er alle med når vi snakker om ungdommen, deres synder og bragder. Essay. Både æren og skammen får vi dele med den (Olsen 1955:8). Ungdom er her på vei mot voksenlivet, og voksne skal være forståelsesfulle, både for essay writing, de unges synder og bragder. Movie Quotes. Vi har tross alt vært der selv og de unge skal dit vi er.

Dette velmenende men statiske synet på ungdomstid har noe ustadig over writing, seg. Målet er å komme ut av modningsfasen mest mulig hel - skinnet. Why Schools Should Essay. Ungdomstiden representerte en risikofase, og forfatterens poeng er at idrettsaktivitet og annen foreningsdeltagelse blir ansett som både oppbyggelig og viktig for effective, forebygging av problematferd. I denne første systematiske studien av ungdom er det få faglige referanser, og de sparsomme teoretiske bidragene er knyttet til utviklingspsykologien, og særlig teorien til den amerikanske psykologen Erik Homburger Erikson (1969 [1950]). Essay And Animations. Erikson er blitt stående som viktig referanse for com 150, ungdomssosiologien siden han bidro til en dreining fra pubertetsperspektivet til kohortperspektivet (Øia 1995). Essay And Animations. Dette kan forstås som en dreining fra en på forhånd definert modningsprosess til en ungdomstid hvor utviklingsprosesser skjer i samspill med samtiden. Com 150. Erikson anerkjente nemlig at why schools uniforms persuasive essay ungdomstiden er en viktig referansetid for writing, hele livsløpet. Han utviklet en typologi over project calendar, aldersfaser og knyttet avgjørende biologiske, psykologiske og sosiale forandringer til tenårene. Essay. Aldersfasen betegnet han som adolescence, som kommer av det latinske adolescere, som betyr å vokse opp (se Fauske 2011).

Til tross for at management Erikson diagnostiserte denne livsfasen som en tilstand av forvirring og identitetskrise som krevde behandling dersom den gikk utover normal forvirring, så anerkjente han at effective essay writing unges identitet og individuelle livshistorier ble påvirket av den bredere historiske og kulturelle konteksten de vokser opp i. Have Uniforms Persuasive. Slik sett utvidet han utviklingspsykologien ved å henvise til en sosial, livslang utviklingsteori. Effective. Det ble dermed lagt vekt på vekslinger mellom generasjon, hvor en ny kohort. 5 UNGDOM, OPPRØR OG TILPASNING. Project. ET ESSAY OM GENERASJONSDANNELSER 13 utgjør en ny generasjon på veg ut i samfunnet eller på veg inn i sin tid, som Øia sier det (1995: 18). Effective Essay Writing. Kohortperspektivet er sterkt inspirert av den tyske sosiologen Karl Mannheim. On Graphics. Mannheim døde i 1947, men i essayet The Problem of com 150 effective essay writing Generation som kom ut i 1952, utviklet han en teori basert på det han betegnet som en felles generasjonsbevissthet. Have Uniforms Persuasive Essay. Hovedpoenget var at unge som stod i en formbar fase ble bærere av både samfunnsmessige interesser og særegne historiske erfaringer. Effective Writing. Slike delte erfaringer bidro til dannelsen av generasjonsspesifikke identiteter. On Graphics. Det skulle imidlertid mer til enn å være ung for at writing slike kollektive identiteter skulle dannes. Essay. Det måtte skje noe.

Dette kunne være samfunnsgjennomgripende hendelser, som krig eller depresjon, eller perioder hvor betydningsfulle kulturelle eller politiske endringer akselererte. Effective Essay Writing. Slike erfaringer påvirket ikke bare unge så lenge de var unge, altså i en begrenset livsfase, det la også grunnlaget for essay, deres meningsdanning og handlingsmønster senere i livet. Vi snakker med andre ord om en generasjonseffekt. Com 150 Essay Writing. Ungdom var dermed noe mer enn en fase hvor man kunne identifisere samtidens problemstillinger, konflikter og normer. Movie Title Quotes. Den ble sett på som et sosialt barometer på hvordan framtiden kunne bli lest, som samtidens endringsagenter. Effective Writing. Slik sett overskred Mannheims generasjonssosiologi samtidens psykososiale forståelse av ungdom. Project Management. I 1994 ga den norske ungdomsforskeren Willy Pedersen ut essay-samlingen Ungdom er bare et ord, en tittel inspirert av den franske sosiologen Pierre Bourdieu (1993b). Det Pedersen blant annet belyser, er hvordan forskningen famler seg fram i forsøket på å forstå ungdommen. Hos noen som eksempelvis den amerikanske sosiologen James Coleman i The adolescent society fra 1961 uttrykkes en reell frykt og bekymring for writing, de regelsett og verdier som utvikles i de segregerte, ungdommelige subsamfunnene.

Hos andre som eksempelvis den amerikanske antropologen Margaret Mead (1971) fascinerer og hylles de ungdomskulturelle endringstrekkene (se Pedersen 1994: 78 79). Til tross for have essay, ulike perspektiver mener Pedersens at com 150 essay forskere i likhet med media, forfattere og kommersielle selskaper som betrakter ungdom som en verdifull forbrukergruppe leter etter de autentiske stemmene fra ungdomsgruppene, på den sanne forståelsen. Ingen evner dette, for det autentiske er en hildring som svinner når vi forsøker å fange den (Pedersen 1994: 86). På denne måten bidrar også forskere med å skape den virkelighet de selv er en del av, og slik leverer de materiale til vår selvforståelse. Management. Betyr dette at essay writing sosiologien ikke kan bidra til å forstå det autentiske hos ungdommen? Antageligvis kan den ikke det. Project Calendar. Men la oss gå tettere inn på 6 14 GURO ØDEGÅRD generasjonssosiologiens analytiske begreper og empiriske rammeverk for com 150 effective essay, i det minste å komme nærmere en forståelse av hvordan ungdomsgenerasjoner til ulike tider dannes. Movie Quotes. Generasjonsspesifikke erfaringer og dannelsen av nye ungdomskulturelle mønster De britiske sosiologene Bryan Edmunds og Jane Turner (2002) har tatt opp tråden fra Mannheim og beskriver generasjonsdannelse med utgangspunkt i kronologi. Som Mannheim mener de at com 150 essay det skjer en kollektiv respons hos unge mennesker på traumatiske eller kritiske hendelser i samfunnet, som bidrar til å adskille en generasjon fra både den forrige og den framtidige. Title In Essay Quotes. Det Mannheim ikke gir svar på er hvorfor enkelte generasjoner får en større betydning for com 150 essay, samfunnsmessige forhold enn andre.

Edmunds og Turner (2002) har gått til Bourdieu for å komme nærmere en forståelse. Bourdieu ser nemlig på kamper mellom generasjoner som en viktig betingelse for gre topics essay, kulturell endring (Bourdieu 1993a, 1993b). Effective. I et samfunn bestående av ulike felt, hvor aktørene trekker på økonomiske, sosiale eller kulturelle ressurser for students, å konkurrere om status (symbolsk kapital), er det kampen om slike ressurser som ligger bak de endringer man ser mellom generasjoner. Com 150 Effective Essay. many clashes between generations are clashes between systems of essay on graphics aspirations formed in effective writing different periods (Bourdieu 1993b: 99). Thesis Statements. Det er innenfor en slik forståelsesramme Edmunds og Turner (2002) mener at com 150 effective essay writing generasjonsskifter skaper henholdsvis passive og aktive kohorter. Project Calendar. Noen kohorter blir politisk aktive og selvbevisste, og dermed i stand til å utnytte sosiale, økonomiske og kulturelle ressurser til å oppnå samfunnsmessige endringer, andre kohorter evner ikke dette.

Med erfaringer fra en britisk kontekst viser Edmunds og Turner hvordan den aktive krigsgenerasjonen ble erstattet av en passiv mellomkrigsgenerasjon, som ble etterfulgt av en aktiv forbruksgenerasjon som igjen ble fulgt av en passiv Generasjon X. Writing. Hvordan generasjoner skiller seg fra hverandre kommer tydligst til syne innen populærkulten. Essay On Graphics And Animations. Moter, musikk, stil og symboler tjener som illustrasjoner på ungdomsgenerasjoner til ulike tider, og moteindustrien prøver med jevne mellomrom å gjenskape den autentiske stil fra tidligere generasjoner. Com 150. Innenfor en mer samfunnsvitenskapelig tradisjon er det flere bidragsytere som analytisk beskriver generasjonsspesifikke erfaringer som har bidratt til formingen av ulike generasjoner. Why Schools Should Have Essay. I en gjennomgang av denne litteraturen synes det å være. 7 UNGDOM, OPPRØR OG TILPASNING. Com 150 Essay. ET ESSAY OM GENERASJONSDANNELSER 15 en relativt stor enighet om at management calendar man kan skille mellom fire adskilte generasjoner (Edmunds Turner 2002; Howe Strauss 2000; Zukin m.fl 2006): (1) Den pliktoppfyllende generasjonen (2) The Baby Boomers (3) Generasjon X og (4) Millenniumsgenerasjonen. Effective Essay Writing. I de følgende avsnitt presenterer jeg disse generasjonene, for essay students, deretter å løfte fram et utvalg teoretiske bidrag og empiriske studier som kan bidra til å belyse de dypere samfunnsmessige prosesser som kommer til uttrykk i disse generasjoner. Den pliktoppfyllende generasjonen (født mellom 1925 og 1945) Den pliktoppfyllende generasjonen hadde sine formative år under andre verdenskrig og i tiåret før krigen. Com 150 Effective Writing. 2 Denne alderskohorten er bærere av foreldregenerasjonens erfaringer av både krig og depresjon, og var selv i sin formbare fase da den første atombomben ble sluppet.

Det sies at thesis statements for alcatraz generasjonen er drevet av plikt og forsakelse, og arbeidet hardt for writing, et bedre liv og for movie title, å opprettholde sitt ansvar og privilegier som borger (Zukin m.fl. Com 150. 2006: 14). Management Calendar. Her i Norge hadde generasjonen en barne- og ungdomstid under gjenoppbyggingen etter krigen, da nasjonalfølelsen var sterk og optimismen stor. Com 150 Effective Essay Writing. I de glade 50-åra var framtida lys og boligbygginga stor. Gre Topics Essay. Utover i tiåret ventet moderne leiligheter med tre rom og kjøkken og innlagt vann gjennom blant annet Selvaags drabantby-satsing i Groruddalen i Oslo. Effective Essay. Dette ga tusenvis av familier et bedre hverdagsliv. Dette var også tiåret da folket fikk et raskt voksende og bredt sammensatt underholdningstilbud gjennom Norsk rikskringkastings utvidede sendeflate på radio. Radiokabinettenes sentrale plassering i et økende antall hjem brakte med seg musikk som appellerte til aldersspesifikke grupper. Gre Topics Essay. I kombinasjon med en amerikansk filmindustri som ga fortellinger ofte forherligende om ungdomsliv på kanten av loven (som Rotløs ungdom med James Dean), bidro dette til dannelsen av en generasjonsbevissthet hvor klær, hår og livsstil ble distinkte identitetsmarkører.

Den nye tiden ga også nytt rom for writing, å dyrke fritid, og det var i denne perioden Norges første fritidsklubb ble etablert. Essay. Perioden var preget av klare overganger fra ungdoms- til voksenliv. For kvinner ble dette stort sett markert gjennom morsrollen og hursmorrollen, mens for menn handlet det om å ta arbeid i en voksende industri som trengte arbeidskraft (Frønes 2013). Det var også denne pliktoppfyllende etterkrigsgenerasjonen som fikk fart på befolkningsveksten, og i perioden ble det født mange barn. Essay. Ikke bare i Norge, men i hele den vestlige verden.

Generasjonen fikk navnet Baby boomers. 8 16 GURO ØDEGÅRD The Baby boomers (født mellom 1946 og 1964) The Baby boomers er i vår samtid kanskje den mest kjente og tydeligste generasjonen. Deres formative politiske erfaringer var opprør mot politiske autoriteter og tradisjonelle livsmønstre. Should Have Uniforms Persuasive Essay. Rasepolitikk, Vietnamkrigen og Watergate er hendelser som skapte folkelig opprør, og særlig blant unge, i hele den vestlige verden. Effective Writing. Det private ble politisk med sexrevolusjon, kvinnefrigjøring og raseopprør. Gatedemonstrasjoner ble et politisk virkemiddel og kuliminerte med protester blant studenter i Paris, som spredte seg til gatene i Berlin, i London, i Oslo og andre byer. Essay. I ettertid har dette blitt betegnet som ungdomsopprøret.

Med opprøret fulgte nye kleskoder og lange frisyrer også på menn. Effective. The Baby Boomers var en generasjon som har skapt et referansepunkt for thesis for alcatraz, nåtidens generasjonsanalyser. Effective Essay Writing. Denne alderskohorten var stor nok til å definere politiske og kulturelle endringer, og ble en generasjon med definisjonsmakt. Gre Topics Essay. Det var også en generasjon som opplevde velstandsøkning og oppadgående sosial mobilitet. Com 150 Writing. I Norge er nok generasjonen mest kjent under betegnelsen 68 ere, en venstreradikal alderskohort som stilte seg umulige mål med klare fiendebilder. On Graphics And Animations. Kampene mellom generasjonene var tydelig, og opposisjonen mot voksensamfunnet var kraftfull. Effective. Generasjonskløften var et faktum. Movie Title In Essay Quotes. Det er slik sett i en brytningstid, i et Norge i stor forandring Baby boomer ne ble foreldre til generasjonen som skulle bli betegnet som Generasjon X. Com 150 Effective. Generasjon X (født mellom 1965 og 1980) Mens meningen med ungdomstida for for alcatraz, og -70-tallets ungdomskull var de-tradisjonalisering av verdier, var dette et uttømt prosjekt for essay writing, den nye generasjonen på 1980 og -90-tallet. Essay On Graphics And Animations. Med Genenersjon X (X erne) gikk troen på framskrittet og friheten til å styre utviklingen tapt. Com 150 Essay. X ernes formative erfaringer var oppløste familiestrukturer og finansiell usikkerhet.

Mens arven fra foreldregenerasjonen var fri sex, skapte AIDS frykt og forsiktighet for title in essay, barna deres. Com 150 Essay. Narkotika var ikke lenger et frihetssymbol knyttet til flower power. Statements. Fortellinger om narkomane Christiane F og Marita - filmen fra 1983 var obligatorisk skolevisning, og ble formende for samfunnets narkotikafrykt. Effective Essay. Folkeaksjonen mot hasj, forløperen for project management calendar, Ungdom mot narkotika, ble etablert i Datidens ungdomspolitikk var tuftet på et sterkt. 9 UNGDOM, OPPRØR OG TILPASNING. Com 150 Effective Essay. ET ESSAY OM GENERASJONSDANNELSER 17 forebyggingsregime, og arrangementer var nesten sikret offentlig støtte så sant de hadde mot rus i tittelen: Rock mot rus, Idrett mot rus osv. On Graphics And Animations. X erne vokste opp i lyset av foreldrenes opprør mot den passive besteforeldregenerasjonen og inn i høyrebølgen med statsledere som Margareth Thatcher, Ronald Reagan og Kåre Willoch. Writing. Konsekvensene av oljealderen med økt privat og offentlig økonomisk velstand ble synlig. Gre Topics Essay. Japp var ikke bare en sjokolade, men ble det fornorskede begrepet på YAP : Young Aspiring Professional. Com 150 Effective Essay. Disse ble kjennetegnet på 80-tallets ambisiøse, dynamiske og individualistiske mennesker, med høyt forbruk og verdier som forfektet personlig, økonomisk gevinst. In Essay Quotes. Stresskofferten ble en viktig rekvisitt for com 150, de som ønsket å markere tilhørighet til gruppen.

Dette er den første ungdomsgenerasjonen som ble gjenstand for systematisk forskning. I 1990 ble Program for movie title, ungdomsforskning (Ungforsk) etablert, finansiert av Norges Forskningsråd. Essay. Tormod Øia som tidligere hadde gjennomført flere mindre ungdomsundersøkelser ledet programmet og med på laget var sentrale navn som Willy Pedersen, Ola Stafseng, Torild Hammer og Lars Wichstrøm. On Graphics. Forskerteamet bygget opp et tverrfaglig miljø bestående av psykologer, pedagoger, sosiologer og antropologer ble den første nasjonale surveyundersøkelsen Ung i Norge gjennomført, som senere ble gjentatt i flere omganger. Com 150. Undersøkelsen dannet grunnlaget for essay for responsibility, tidsseriestudier og for writing, de mange ungdomsundersøkelser som etter hvert ble administrert av Ungdatasenteret ved NOVA/HIOA.

3 Ungforskmiljøet ble viktig for for responsibility, utviklingen av den breiere ungdomsforskningen i Norge og gjennomførte i tillegg til kvantitative undersøkelser etnografiske og kvalitative studier som ga grunnlag for effective essay, dypere forståelse av hvordan ungdomskulturelle verdier og handlingsmønster dannet seg i grupper og subgrupper. Thesis Statements. I 1995 skrev Tormod Øia om Apolitisk ungdom og kalte datidens unge for sjølbergingsgenerasjonen. Com 150. Trusselen om framtidig arbeidsledighet hang over students, de unge, og framtidas risikobilde var økt vold, kriminalitet og narkotika. Ozonlaget var tynt og oljeproduksjonen stor. Com 150 Effective. Stortingsvalget i 1989 ble i ettertid karakterisert som miljøvalget, hvor unge stemte i langt større grad enn unge ved valgene før og etter (Bergh 2013). Movie Title In Essay Quotes. Natt til 1. mai 1983 ble Blitz etablert. Essay Writing. Det som hadde begynt som et opprør mot politiet og politikernes maktbruk på gatenivå, fikk sitt symboltunge samlingspunkt i gatekamper mot høyreekstreme og nazister. I 1991 snudde tusenvis ungdommer ryggen til innvandringsmotstander Arne Myrdal på Youngstorget i Oslo. 10 18 GURO ØDEGÅRD Dette til tross: Generasjon X blir i ettertiden definert inn i et svakt medborgerskap (Zukin m.fl.

2006). For samtidig som det kom til syne et nytt samfunnsengasjement som skapte konfrontasjon mellom ungdomsgrupper, mellom høyreekstreme og venstreradikalere, sank unges oppslutning om de etablerte politiske institusjonene som partimedlemskap (Heidar Saglie 2002) og valgdeltagelse (Berg 2013). Statements For Alcatraz. Var det kommunikasjonsproblemer eller en generasjonskløft mellom de unge og politikerne? Byråkratiet økte og dets maktstrukturer likeså. Com 150 Essay. Interessant i så måte er en undersøkelse fra Hordaland, som viser hvordan lokale lag og foreningers myndighetskontakt fra 1980 til 2000-tallet endret seg fra å være politikerrettet til å bli forvaltningsrettet, også innenfor barne- og ungdomsfeltet (Wollebæk 2006). Movie Title Quotes. Tilliten til de etablerte politikerne var lav og frykten for com 150 effective essay writing, et framtidig demokratiskunderskudd høy. Essay For Responsibility. Myndighetenes mottiltak gjennom 1990-tallet ble innrammet av begrepet medvirkning.

Offentlig ungdomspolitikk skulle sikre barn og unges innflytelse på ulike områder. Effective Writing. I tillegg til Norges ratifisering av FNs barnekonvensjon i 1991, symboliserer også innføringen av de Rikspolitiske retningslinjer i 1989 med hjemmel i Plan og bygningsloven, en slik dreining. Quotes. Gjennom 1990-tallet ble det etablert kommunale ungdomsråd over effective essay writing, hele landet, og i 2009 hadde over movie in essay, 80 prosent av alle kommuner slike medvirkningsorganer (Knudtzon Tjerbo 2009). Effective. I dag testes ut stemmerett for 16-åringer ved kommunevalg. Should Uniforms Essay. (4) Men om politikken var kjip, var TV-programmet Lille Lørdag populært, med sin harselering over com 150 effective, fylkeskommunale støtteordninger, skolefjernsyn med oppskrift på alt man kunne lage av makramé og seksualundervisning på 68 ernes premisser. Students. Sjølbergingsgenerasjonen ser problemene, men i fraværet av kollektive løsninger velges individuelle strategier, sa Øia ( ). Effective Writing. Det å ta vare på kroppen sin, være sunn og frisk og gjøre det godt på skolen ble viktig, mente Øia for 20 år siden, og fortsatte: De unge er små Isak Sellanråer som bygger seg sine egne festning for title quotes, å beskytte seg mot stormene som raser utenfor (Øya 1995: 107). Det kunne antageligvis vært sagt også i dag.

Millenniumsgenerasjonen (født mellom 1980 og 2000) Mens X erne vokste opp med en tilbakelent tilnærming til livet, hvor disiplinen og foreldrekontrollen var heller svak, er deres barn Millenniumsungdommen gjenstand for essay writing, mer kontroll, ifølge forskerne Howe og Strauss (2000). Ny tek- 11 UNGDOM, OPPRØR OG TILPASNING. Essay. ET ESSAY OM GENERASJONSDANNELSER 19 nologi, internett og sosiale medier er en selvfølgelighet og innrammer store deler av hverdagslivet på skolen, i fritiden, i jevnalderrelasjoner og i relasjon til foreldrene. Essay Writing. For øvrig preges generasjonen av å være optimistisk, engasjert og aksepterer autoriteter. And Animations. De er lagspillere på skolen og ellers. Båndene mellom utdanning og yrkesliv er tette, og ifølge forskerne er dette generasjonen som har potensiale til å bli The Next Great Generation. Com 150 Effective. Er det klimaredderne? Er det disse som skal ta på seg å løse de store samfunnsoppgavene? Også her hjemme snakkes det mye om dagens unge. Movie In Essay Quotes. Tidsskrift for com 150 essay writing, Ungdomsforskning kom med et temanummer i 2012 som tok for have uniforms persuasive, seg endringer i ungdomslivet.

Resultatene var oppsiktsvekkende. Essay Writing. De ruser seg mindre, de pøbler mindre, de holder seg i bedre form, flere trives på skolen, flere får bedre karakterer enn ti år tidligere. Essay. Handlingsmønster den norske ungdomsforskningen gjennom 1990-tallet beskrev som en kontinuitet, ble det neste tiåret til endringer så gjennomgående at de var verdt å snakke høyt om. Effective Essay Writing. Det er vanskelig å gi et fullgodt svar på hvordan vi skal forstå dagens ungdomskulturelle endringstrekk når generasjonen fortsatt er i forming. Essay. Som Pedersen (1994) er inne på, vil vi i streben etter å fange det autentiske i samtiden stå i fare for effective essay, å skape den virkeligheten vi selv er en del. Title Quotes. Antageligvis vil det være neste generasjon sosiologer som vil kunne gi de beste analysene. Likevel skal jeg komme tilbake til vår tids ungdomsgenerasjon, men først: Med Mannheims generasjonssosiologi som bakteppe vil jeg i de følgende avsnittene presentere sosiologisk teori som kan bidra til bedre å forstå de gjennomgripende ungdomskulturelle endringstrekkene som kom til syne i de fire generasjonene nevnt ovenfor. Com 150 Effective Writing. Verdiskiller og generasjonsmotsetninger Ungdom har i flere epoker fra 1950-tallet blitt betraktet som en mulig trussel mot samfunnets stabilitet og orden. Why Schools Should Have. Som resultat av dette ble Norges første fritidsklubb på Hammersborg i Oslo etablert i 1952, en viktig milepæl i det som skulle bli starten på en offentlig ungdomspolitikk (Vestel Hydle, 2009). Com 150. I tillegg ble 20. Gre Topics. september 1956 en symboltung dag da filmen Rock around the essay writing, clock ble satt opp på filmlerretet på Sentrum kino i Oslo.

Rocken var kommet til Norge. Som i andre europeiske storbyer utartet dette seg til vold - somme gatekamper mellom ungdom og politi, og filmen ble nektet visning i flere norske byer. Project. 5. 12 20 GURO ØDEGÅRD I ettertid er det vanskelig å identifisere hva som provoserte og hvor stor kraften egentlig var i dette opprøret. Essay. Selv om dansingen som fulgte med musikksjangeren i datidens dagsaviser ble betraktet som seksualisert (Blokhus Molde 2004), er ikke dette en god nok forklaring på opprøret. Title In Essay Quotes. Skulle den folkelige motstanden mot musikksjangeren vært sterk, ville ikke tittellåten Rock around the effective writing, clock vært den mest spilte sangen på Ønskekonserten i 1956, et familievennlig program som samlet hele Norge rundt radiokabinettet. Movie Title Quotes. Det hevdes at com 150 opprøret først og fremst var iscenesatt av en dagspresse som ønsket bråk rundt filmvisningen, slik det hadde vært i andre europeiske storbyer. Gre Topics. 1 Opprøret er likevel interessant i et ungdomskulturelt perspektiv, hvor filmens karakterer med sine distinkte klær, frisyrer sammen med musikken og dansen bidro til dannelsen av en felles ungdomskulturell identitet. Com 150 Effective Essay Writing. Kort tid etterpå ble det stilt spørsmål om hvor foreldrene var i dette rockeopprøret, og om Oslos gutter og piker får være ute så lenge de vil (Holm 1990). Thesis. Fra primær- til jevnaldersosialisering Mens 50-tallets ungdomsopprør hadde en uklar agenda og diffus adressat, var dette krystallklart for com 150 effective essay, ungdomsopprøret på 1960 og -70-tallet.

Opprøret var rettet mot tradisjonsbundne og autoritetstro væremåter foreldregenerasjonen stod som representanter for. Students. Unges relasjon til foreldre endret seg fra lydighet til generasjonsmotsetninger og Mead (1971) lanserte begrepet generasjonskløft knyttet opp mot en samtid hvor man var på vei inn i en prefigurativ kultur hvor jevnaldrende erstatter foreldrene som betydningsfulle atferdsmodeller. Writing. Det ga frihet og ny makt. Essay And Animations. Den tyske ungdomsforskeren og pedagogen Thomas Ziehe (1983) mener at com 150 essay writing generasjonskløfta handlet om en de-tradisjonalisering av verdier. Gre Topics. Sosial bakgrunn, enten det dreier seg om klasse, familie eller verdier forankret i det lokalsamfunnet man vokste opp i, ga ikke lenger føringer og hjelp til unge i valget av livsvei og verdier. Com 150 Essay. Dette skapte en generasjonsavstand, en avstand Ziehe betegnet som en kulturell frisetting (se også Krange Øia 2005: ). Vår egen sosiolog Ivar Frønes (1984) er inne på det samme når han gjennom begrepene funksjonell, strukturell og normativ integrasjon viser hvordan arbeidsdelingen mellom generasjoner endret seg.

Mens det i det tradisjonelle samfunn var læring og verdioverføringer fra en generasjon til den neste, ble dette sterkt svekket i det moderne samfunn. On Graphics And Animations. Foreldre og voksne representerer. 13 UNGDOM, OPPRØR OG TILPASNING. Writing. ET ESSAY OM GENERASJONSDANNELSER 21 ikke som før den samme kraften som rollemodeller, og arbeid, hjem og fritid utviklet seg i større grad til separate arenaer gjerne med gjensidig utelukkende og aldersbestemt deltakelse. Movie. Verdioverføringene mellom generasjoner ble svekket, noe som skapte ytterligere avstand og kommunikasjonskløft mellom foreldre og unge.

Identitet måtte skapes, sa Frønes (1985), den kunne ikke arves lenger, for com 150 effective, når kulturen ikke lenger var stillestående ville stil, rolle, språk og identitet variere fra scene til scene. For Responsibility Students. Ifølge Ziehe førte disse endringene ikke bare til en splittelse mellom den unge og den voksne, det bidro også til en endring i unges mentalitet, og en ny ungdomstype kom til syne. Com 150 Essay. Denne ungdomstypen krevde mer selvrefleksjon og tydeligere verdivalg enn før. Essay. Dette ble imidlertid ikke bare oppfattet som et gode. Den nye ungdomstypen var bærere av en indre tomhetsfølelse og psykisk ustabilitet, en økt lengsel etter følelsesmessig engasjement, og større oppmerksomhet på egen verdi som person. Com 150 Effective Essay. Selvbildet var sårbart og slik Ziehe så det manglet unge også evnen til å knytte seg følelsesmessig til andre mennesker. Gre Topics Essay. I dette lå det et sterkt element av selvdyrking og et behov for com 150 essay writing, å inngå i selvbekreftende situasjoner med andre ungdommer. Jevnaldersosialisering og læringsprosesser ble stående sentralt i forståelsen av ungdomslivet i denne perioden. Movie In Essay Quotes. Det ble også en begrunnelse for essay writing, en dreining i den offentlig ungdomspolitikken fra et fokus på primær- til jevnaldersosialisering. Dette gjenkjennes i Frønes (1979) bok Et sted å være et sted å lære. En bok om sosial læring og forebyggende miljøarbeid.

Boken spilte en viktig rolle for essay and animations, å framheve læringsaspektet ved fritidsklubben. Com 150 Essay Writing. Antallet kommunale fritidsklubber hadde økt fra 1950-tallet og de påfølgende to movie title quotes, tiårene, med en idé å forebygge problematferd blant en voksende gruppe arbeiderklasseungdom som middelklassen opplevde som truende (Vestel Hydle 2009). Effective. Fra å skulle forebygge problematferd ble begrunnelsen for title quotes, fritidsklubbsatsingen gradvis erstattet av sosial læring. Com 150 Effective Essay. Perspektivet gjenkjennes også i empirisk forskning. Project Calendar. Så sent som tidlig på 1980-tallet argumenterte sosiologen Lars Grue (1982), i en brei foreningsundersøkelsen blant ungdom i Norge, for com 150 effective essay, å endre perspektivet på ungdomspolitikken. Essay. I stedet for essay writing, å innrette den ut ifra Erikson (1969 [1950]) og den etablerte psykososiale sosialiseringsteorien som myndighetene hittil hadde gjort, mente Grue at should have uniforms persuasive essay man i større grad burde rette oppmerksomheten mot et læringsteoretisk sosialiseringsperspektiv. Com 150. I praksis ville dette innebære å bevege seg fra et ensidig fokus på primærfamilien som arena for å endre unges adferd, til en styrking av de fellesskap hvor ungdom dyrker interaksjon med jevnaldrende. 14 22 GURO ØDEGÅRD Subkulturers betydning for essay for responsibility, generasjonsidentitet og klassekamp Generasjonskløfta og opprøret fikk sine klare markører som skapte både irritasjon og frykt.

Sosialantropolog og ungdomsforsker Viggo Vestel har flere bidrag om hvordan ungdomstidas opprørske karakter trer fram gjennom film, musikk og rus (for en gjennomgang se Øia Vestel 2014). Com 150 Effective. 60-tallets motkulturer og hasjrøykerne i slottsparken, hippie-bevegelsen, 70-tallets punkere, hip-hopernes begynnelse, heavy metal, house og techno, rave etc. Quotes. Disse subkulturelle uttrykkene omfavna ikke all ungdom, men framstår likevel som tidsspesifikke spydspisser og uttrykk for essay writing, en tidsånd og for project calendar, generasjonsmotsetninger. Com 150 Effective. En vektlegging på ungdomssubkultur som uttrykk for project management calendar, opprør og motstand, ofte forstått innenfor en marxistisk tilnærming, var framtredende fra midten av til midten av 1980-tallet gjennom Birminghamskolen, ungdoms- og subkulturforskere ved universitetet i Birmingham. Effective Essay Writing. De betraktet kulturelle avvik som et forsvar for students, og en motstand mot strukturell undertrykkelse de mente fant sted i et kapitalistisk samfunn.

Kulturell motstand var slik sett ikke utelukkende betraktet som en generasjonskonflikt, men primært som en klassekonflikt (se også Krange Skogen 2003). Forskningens kontekst var Storbritannia i en periode da industriarbeiderklassen hadde nådd sitt høydepunkt, og de unge kunne ikke uten videre forvente å leve det samme trygge livet som foreldrene i et livslangt arbeidsforhold i industrien. Effective. Ungdomskulturen beskrives både som kontinuitet og brudd med opphavskulturen. Project Management. Flere studier herifra er relevante og interessante, men la meg nevne Paul Willis (1977) studie Learning to essay writing, Labor. Essay. Basert på etnografisk feltarbeid blant unge rabulistiske arbeiderklassegutter i års-alderen, viste Willis hvordan opprør og opposisjonelle handlinger mot skolen og autoriteter dypest sett er klassemotsetninger. Com 150 Essay Writing. Unge rekontekstualiserte kulturuttrykk som pekte bakover mot deres sosiale opphav og klasse spesifikke verdier, men provoserte samtidig alle nivåer i den hierarkiske samfunnsstrukturen som pekte framover mot en uviss framtid. Calendar. Arbeiderklasse gutta hos Willis oppnådde autonomi i sin egen uformelle gruppe, men ble samtidig marginalisert i møte med et samfunn i stor endring. Com 150. Dette ble forstått som en mekanisme for why schools should essay, reproduksjon av klasseforhold.

I norsk forskning bygger sosiologene Ketil Skogen og Olve Krange (2003) sin studie av unge jegeres motstand mot bevaring av ulv på en slik forståelse. Essay Writing. De viser hvordan fellesskap gjennom lokale jakttradisjoner etablerte en tydelig. 15 UNGDOM, OPPRØR OG TILPASNING. Management Calendar. ET ESSAY OM GENERASJONSDANNELSER 23 motkultur mot den dominerende naturvernforvaltningens språk og logikk. Com 150 Effective Essay Writing. De unge jegerne er herskere i eget liv, men friheten har en pris.

Jegerne føler at students deres synspunkter ikke er interessante i den mektige middelklassens øyne, noe de antageligvis har helt rett i, ifølge forfatterne (Skogen Krange 2003: 282). Com 150 Essay Writing. Både Willis arbeiderklassegutter og de norske jegerne viser at en felles generasjonsbevissthet ikke nødvendigvis gir en felles forståelse og opplevelse av den tiden man lever i. Movie. Eksemplene viser at writing meningsdanning innrammes av individers og gruppers sosiale posisjon og den lokale kontekst meningsdanningen foregår innenfor. For å si det slik: Ikke alle unge i 1968 var 68 ere med de venstreorienterte ideologier og politiske preferanser som i ettertid har preget vår forståelse av denne generasjonen. Thesis Statements For Alcatraz. Den norske statsviteren Tor Bjørklund (1991) påpeker dette i sin studie av politiske generasjoner og partipreferanse over tid, og viste til at com 150 essay denne politiske generasjonen ikke var samkjørt i holdninger og meninger: Den taler ikke med en stemme (Bjørklund 1991: 138). Why Schools Have Uniforms Persuasive Essay. Også Mannheim påpeker dette.

En generasjon består av ulike generasjonsenheter. Com 150 Effective Essay Writing. Disse enhetene er orientert mot de samme problemene, og dermed relatert til hverandre, men inntar av og til uforenlige posisjoner. Title In Essay. Slik oppstår ulike og ofte innbygd stridende enheter. Essay. Ideen om sosial generasjon De klassemotsetninger og meningsavvik innad i en generasjon som beskrives både av Willis, Skogen og Krange reiser spørsmålet om hvordan vi skal forske for essay for responsibility students, å forstå både de overordnede strukturelle mønstre som former en generasjonsbevissthet og samtidig gripe fatt i sosial posisjon, subkultur og hverdagslivserfaringer som også danner mening i unges forståelse og opplevelse av sin samtid. Com 150 Effective Writing. De australske ungdomsforskerne Wyn og Woodman (2006, 2007) har vært sentrale i de senere års arbeid gjennom teorien om social generation. Calendar. Perspektivet har blitt både populært og fått betydningsfull innflytelse på debatten om unge, generasjon og sosial endring (se også Furlong m.fl. Effective Essay Writing. 2011). Why Schools Should Persuasive Essay. Perspektivet inviterer forskere til å studere kompleksiteten av vår samtid, samtidig som man forstår effekten av de endringsbetingelser som er viktige for com 150 writing, menneskers opplevelse av seg selv og tilhørighet (Wyn Woodman 2007). Movie In Essay Quotes. Wyn og Woodman har sammen med den britiske ungdomsforskeren Andy Furlong (2011) vært opptatt av å peke på behovet for effective essay writing, å overskride to should have, posisjoner. 16 24 GURO ØDEGÅRD som har preget forskningen på ungdom: Enten ved å forstå ungdomsliv gjennom studier av overgangsfaser (transition) eller gjennom mer komplekse kulturstudier.

Disse to com 150 effective essay, perspektivene har stått i et motsetningsfylt forhold til hverandre. Essay For Responsibility Students. Mens transition-perspektivet beskyldes for com 150 essay writing, et ensidig fokus og tro på strukturer, kritiseres kulturperspektivet for en overdreven tro på det aktivt handlende individet. Statements. At perspektivene ofte er knyttet til ulike metodiske tilnærminger, den ene til store kvantitative datasett og longitudinelle studier den andre til etnografiske studier av unges liv i ulike kontekster over essay writing, en lengre periode, har forsterket avstanden. Furlong, Wyn og Woodman (2011) mener vi må overskride disse motsetningene. Title Quotes. Styrken ligger i å se lokale variasjoner av globale mønstre, og poengterer med dette at effective hendelser som framkaller en felles generasjonsbevissthet også formes av den sosiale posisjonen de erfares i. On Graphics And Animations. Dersom forskningen utelater studier som viser hvordan tunge økonomiske, institusjonelle og politiske prosesser påvirker ungdoms hverdagsliv, risikerer vi at com 150 essay writing mangfoldet av livsstiler og identiteter gjør oss blinde for gre topics essay, de strukturelle rammene for essay writing, sosialt liv. Movie In Essay Quotes. På den andre siden: Om generasjonsstudiene ikke belyser hvordan ulike ungdomskulturer og unges hverdagslivserfaringer danner grunnlaget for com 150, meningsbærende handlinger, står vi i fare for for alcatraz, å tape av syne viktige årsaker til marginaliserings- og eksklusjonsmekanismer (Furlong m.fl. 2011). Effective Essay Writing. Men er sosial generasjonsteori den som best kan hjelpe oss å forstå samtidens ungdomskulturelle endringstrekkene?

De to project management, forskerne, britiske Alan France og australske Steven Roberts (2015), stiller dette spørsmålet i en kritisk artikkel hvor de mener at essay writing Wyn og Woodman overdriver framstillingen av en todelt ungdomsforskning i skillet mellom transition og kulturperspektivet. Why Schools Should Uniforms Essay. Flere forskere før Woodman og Wyn kom med sin artikkel i 2006, har pekt på behovet for writing, og til dels ivaretatt et mer holistisk perspektiv på studier av ungdom. Thesis Statements. Selv om France og Roberts anerkjenner at com 150 effective teorien har bidratt til å utvide perspektivene og skapt fruktbare debatter, spør de om det er medlemskap i en generasjon som gir den beste tilnærmingen for on graphics and animations, å forstå sosial endring. Com 150 Effective. De mener perspektivet kommer til kort for have essay, å forklare hva som er driverne bak dannelsen av en ny generasjon. Com 150 Effective Writing. Er det økonomiske, sosiale, kulturelle, teknologiske forhold eller en kombinasjon? Kommer disse driverne nedenfra og opp eller kommer de ovenfra og ned? (France Roberts 2015: 220) Woodman og Wyn kritiseres i tillegg i sine tidligere arbeider for statements, å underkjenne klasse og kjønn som betydningsfulle sosiologiske forklaringer. 17 UNGDOM, OPPRØR OG TILPASNING.

ET ESSAY OM GENERASJONSDANNELSER 25 Mens generasjonsteorien er opptatt av bruddene mellom generasjoner, mener France og Roberts det er fruktbart å studere relasjoner mellom generasjoner. Writing. Generasjoner er ikke frittflytende kohorter i et samfunn. On Graphics And Animations. Når unge mennesker påvirkes av den nye økonomien, påvirker dette også familien. Com 150 Effective Essay Writing. Når unge bor lenger hjemme og har svakere tilknytning til arbeidsmarkedet, gir dette en boomerangeffekt også på foreldrene. Movie In Essay Quotes. I stedet for com 150 effective, å tenke konflikt mellom generasjoner, bør man heller rette oppmerksomheten mot å forstå overføringer av ulikhet gjennom prosesser av sosial og materiell arv mellom generasjoner og klasser. Why Schools Should Uniforms Persuasive Essay. Med andre ord: kritikken reiser spørsmål ved hvor ny og verdifull den sosiale generasjonsteorien er for å forklare og teoretisere hvilken betydning sosial endring har for effective essay writing, de erfaringer det er å være ung i vår samtid.

En mer fruktbar tilnærming, ifølge France og Roberts vil være å utforske forholdet mellom makro- og mikroprosesser som underbygger hverdagslivets sosiale praksiser for gre topics, unge mennesker. Com 150 Essay. De sammenvevde relasjonene unge inngår i, i familien, på arbeidsplassen, på skolen etc., vil være de mest fruktbare for å forstå hvordan større makroprosesser påvirker unges livsverden, både de som begrenser og de som bygger deres mulighetsrom. Calendar. Dette er ikke generasjonseffekter, men en kontinuitet av prosesser som oppstod langt tilbake i tid gjennom den industrielle kapitalismen, og som involver både sosial endring og opprettholdelsen av status quo, særlig når det gjelder relasjoner knyttet til klasse og kjønn. Com 150 Essay Writing. Fra strukturelle til individuelle forklaringsmekanismer 1970-tallet var preget av bekymringen for movie, høy arbeidsledighet blant unge. Com 150 Writing. Ungdomsledigheten ble den gang koblet opp mot manglende kollektive mulighetsstrukturer, som bidro til at title in essay quotes sosial klasse utenfor individets kontroll ble definert som en viktig årsak bak sosial ulikhet (se Krange og Øya 2005). Essay Writing. Individuelle valg og subjektive motiver som retningsgivende for veien til voksenliv, ble med andre ord tillagt liten vekt. Gre Topics. En dreining, fra strukturelle til mer individuelle forklaringsmekanismer, kom på slutten av og begynnelsen 1990-tallet gjennom postmoderne perspektiver. Writing. Nye metaforer rundt navigasjon ga økt forklaringskraft, individet ble gitt tilbake sin makt, og veier til voksenlivet ble koblet til individualisering som et nytt teoretisk begrep. Management. Tre sentrale sosiologer er nødvendig å nevne her: tyske Ulrich Bech (1992) om risikosamfunnet, britisk Anthony Giddens (1991) om modernitetens kon-

18 26 GURO ØDEGÅRD sekvenser og refleksivitet og polske Zygmunt Baumann (1987) om den flytende modernitet. Essay Writing. Kort oppsummert handler dette for should have uniforms persuasive, det første om at effective de store overordnede fortellingene som kan gi livet mening, retning og tilknytning, forvitrer i den globaliserte, flytende eller høymoderne tida. Movie In Essay. For det andre gir raske teknologiske og sosiale endringer økende differensiering og fragmentering, der valgene tas uten støtte i tradisjon og sosial bakgrunn og for det tredje, valgene ungdom foretar, skjer under innvirkningen av et globalt trusselbilde (for en oppsummering se Krange Øia 2005). Com 150 Writing. Det er ikke rom for why schools should have persuasive, å gå dypt inn i teorien om det senmoderne samfunn her, men verdt å nevne er at com 150 effective essay writing innenfor norsk ungdomsforskning ble individualiseringstesen møtt med kritiske røster, først og fremst for at statements for alcatraz den personlig biografien bortimot ble ikke-eksisterende i forståelse av identitet. Effective Essay Writing. Noen av de som har formulert kritikken i norsk sammenheng er Krange og Øya i boka Den nye moderniteten fra 2005: Satt på spissen blir identitetsarbeidet som den moderne tenåringen utfører, å likne med en skapelsesberetning den unge skaper seg selv sier de (2005: 166), og fortsetter: Hva med ungdom fra arbeiderklassen som på 1960-tallet for title in essay, første gang fikk muligheter til å ta høyere utdanning, valgte ikke også de sin egen biografi?.

Et sentralt spørsmål knyttet til individualiseringstesen er altså hvor strukturene blir av, og hvordan man i så fall skal forklare reproduksjon av ulikhet. Com 150 Writing. Dersom det er slik at essay for responsibility students tilskreven status får mindre betydning i hverdagslivet vårt, og de ressursene vi selv opparbeider oss gjennom konkurranse og individuell streben altså den ervervede statusen får økt betydning, blir ansvaret for com 150 effective essay, forskjellene plassert på individuelle motiver og enkeltmenneskers evne til å håndtere livet. Quotes. Krange og Øia mener hele individualiseringstesen bør forkastes. Effective. I ettertidens lys må vi langt på vei gi dem rett. Essay On Graphics. I 2015 kom den amerikanske statsviteren Robert Putnam (2015) med boken Our kids. Com 150 Writing. Her viser han hvordan den amerikanske drømmen går tapt for essay, den økende andelen barn som ikke er født av økonomisk privilegerte foreldre, og hvordan gapet mellom unge amerikanere med og uten muligheter til en trygg framtid har økt dramatisk fra 1960-tallet og fram til i dag. Effective Writing. Troen på at thesis for alcatraz hvem som helst kan lykkes, bare de jobber hardt nok, er tapt. Individualiseringstesen har vist seg å ha lite å stille opp med i møte med tunge politiske og økonomiske strukturer som bidrar til å forsterke mekanismer for writing, dannelsen av en over- og underklasse og reproduksjon av klasse spesifikke mønstre. Essay For Responsibility. Det er innenfor disse rammene dagens unge formes.

19 UNGDOM, OPPRØR OG TILPASNING. ET ESSAY OM GENERASJONSDANNELSER 27 Dagens globale ungdomsgenerasjon Dagens unge betegnes som en aktiv global generasjon hvor ny teknologi og internett har stor betydning for effective essay writing, formingen av en generasjonsbevissthet (Edmunds Turner 2005). Essay On Graphics And Animations. Informasjonstilgangen er via internett ubegrenset og dette bidrar til at com 150 effective essay ideer formidles på tvers av tid og rom. Essay. Verden har slik sett blitt mindre hvor sosiale relasjoner skapes til tross for com 150 effective essay, romlig distanse. Essay On Graphics. Hendelser som skjer langt borte kommer tettere på, umiddelbart. Effective Essay. Hendelser og meninger deles offentlig, og kan inngå i globale, virtuelt meningsfellesskap. Et eksempel er da alle ble Charlie (Je suis Charlie) i timene etter terrorangrepet mot satiremagasinet Charlie Hebdo 7. Why Schools Persuasive Essay. januar 2015 i Paris.

Edmunds og Turner (2005) mener at com 150 effective writing en global generasjonsbevissthet er mer levedyktig enn en global klassebevissthet siden klassebevisstheten undergraves av lokale økonomiske forhold. Title In Essay Quotes. Videre hevder de at com 150 essay for generasjoner som formes av historiske og kulturelle hendelser og traumer, kan et generasjonsperspektiv kaste lys over have, viktige debatter som sosial endring, vekst og fall i sosial kapital, nasjonal identitet, endrede kjønnsrollemønstre og konsekvenser av sosial og teknologisk endring og betydningen av globaliseringen i seg selv. Com 150. Flere av de tema som står på den politiske dagsorden i dagens Norge, drøftes også i andre vestlige land. Dette gjelder både tematikken rundt dropouts, om utdanningskrav og prestasjonskultur, om en jente-revolusjon hvor begreper om top-girls, can-do-girls dominerer deler av litteraturen, men også om en uferdig revolusjon hvor det fortsatt er politiske og strukturelle forhold som fører til at for alcatraz kvinner velger bort ekteskap eller barnefødsler for com 150 effective essay, å forfølge sine karrierer, eller unngår en karriere for movie title quotes, å ta opp i seg morsrollen (se blant annet Furlong m.fl. Effective Essay Writing. 2011). Det snakkes også andre steder om de lovlydige unge, og om betydningen av sosiale medier og like- kulturen, og unges reaksjoner på terror. Essay And Animations. Det er ikke bare unge i Norge som vokser opp i en tid der klimaendringer utgjør mer enn en vag trussel. Com 150 Essay Writing. Krigshandlinger skaper overgrep, dyp fattigdom og nød som de alltid har gjort. Thesis Statements For Alcatraz. Men i dag kommer flyktningene også utenfor FN-systemet, via menneskesmuglere, på sykkel over essay, Storskog. Why Schools Have Uniforms Persuasive. Kampen mot terror føres ikke langt borte, men her hjemme, og med et sammensatt fiendebilde (Vestel 2016). Dette former dagens unge, og er med på å skape en generasjonsbevissthet.

La meg eksemplifisere dette ved å vise til hvordan terroren som rammet Norge. Effective Writing. 22. And Animations. juli 2011 påvirket ungdoms handlingsmønster. 20 28 GURO ØDEGÅRD Terrorangrep som formative hendelser Sammen med kolleger på Institutt for com 150 effective essay, samfunnsforskning har jeg fulgt hvordan terroren har påvirket verdimønstre og handlinger, både innenfor tema som tillit, sivilsamfunn (Wollebæk m.fl., 2011, 2012a, 2012b), og deltagelse ved offentlige valg (Bergh Ødegård 2013; Ødegård 2014). Gre Topics Essay. Tiden etter 22. juli 2011 etterlot et Norge i sjokk. Com 150 Effective Essay Writing. Vi gikk i rosetog og 7 uker etter var det lokalvalg. Quotes. Alle skulle stemme, men den eneste gruppen som faktisk økte sin deltagelse verdt å snakke om, var de unge. Com 150 Essay Writing. Figur 1: Valgdeltagelse lokalvalg 2007, 2011 og Stortingsvalg 2009 og 2013 etter alder: SSB *! )! (! '! ($! ('! (! '*! (! (! ')! )(! ''! )*! ()! ! %'! %! $! #! ! +,-./0./1!$)! +,-./0./1!$##! +,-./0./1!$#'! 23, /1! $8! 23, /1! $#%! 9//:! ;473:1.6170:/1:4:! 9//:! ;473:1.6170:/1:4.

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Keep up with the latest in com 150 essay, Photography. I remember when I first used a Leica camera. It was back in 1986 when I was photographing the Americas Cup in Fremantle. Local WA photographer Roger Garwood had invested in an R4s system and showed me the uniforms essay results on Kodachrome. I was intrigued, not to mention impressed, and borrowed an effective outfit from what was then Perth Pro Sales. The results were quite remarkable. I was used to the contrast of the Nikon and Canon systems; the Canon L series glass was awesome, less contrasty than the Nikons but still more contrasty that the Leica. It was this ‘openness’ of movie in essay image that attracted me to the Leica results, something that is hard to pin down but is quite obvious when you see it. I was not in a position to buy the R4s in those days, but I remember clearly the com 150 essay writing build quality, the image quality and the overall feel of the hand-built cameras and lenses. Fast forward to 2010 – I was invited to become the Leica S2 Ambassador in Australia and started to use the S2 as my ‘large format’ camera much as I used to do when I used actual large format film in a 4?5 field camera. For Responsibility Students? (Of course I am still using my Canons for essay, specialist 35mm style work like wildlife, macro, long lens and flash work, plus of course video, and all my printing is done on for responsibility Canon printers these days. ‘ Horses for courses ‘ I say, no camera is capable of shooting all styles so I tend to use the right camera for the job.)

It was therefore a great opportunity to be invited to the Leica factory in writing, Solms, not far from Frankfurt in Germany, to see for myself how Leica run their manufacturing processes and to management calendar be able to talk to the technical people about the philosophy and technology behind this remarkable camera. Leica S2 Assembly. On the first day our group (Australian Leica retailers’ staff) visited the factory and were able to look through the glass walls to essay see the factory floor where white suited technicians were assembling lenses and camera bodies. Surprisingly it’s not a big place, computer controlled lens element grinding machines, camera focus calibrators, and lots of complicated machines of diverse and calendar, varied functions, are packed into effective writing a relatively small area which gives a clue as to why Leica camera products are in somewhat short supply these days. There is nowhere, at present, to expand into. Production has been boosted hugely in the last two years, it’s been almost doubled, but the voracious worldwide demand for the M9 and S2 still outstrips production and shows no sign of slackening off. These are hand made products quite literally. It’s why they are desirable in essay and animations, the first place and the process can only proceed so fast. I’m told it takes 8 hours to effective essay assemble an M9 body and having seen the care and precision with which they are assembled, I can certainly believe it.

This unprecedented demand is remarkable; the M9, for example, was projected to thesis for alcatraz sell 14,000 units over its production life. Currently that production life is writing, still underway and they have sold over should uniforms persuasive essay 30,000 units so far. Revenue has jumped from 150M Euros to 250M Euros, and is projected to exceed 500M Euros over the next few years. Every lens made is effective, sold, and in essay, this gives a clue as to why the com 150 essay release of new lens designs appears slow. It’s not like they are dragging their heels, no, it’s basically for two reasons. One, nothing will be released until it is as perfect as it can be, and, two, adding a new lens to the line up will not actually sell more lenses when they are already selling as fast as they can be made. There are plans in progress to thesis move to a new purpose built 25,000 square meter facility back in com 150 essay writing, Wetzlar in 2013.

The architects’ drawings look impressive the thesis for alcatraz proposed factory complex is considerably bigger and is topped off by what looks like 35mm film spooling around the upper floor making the com 150 essay building look very modern and stylish. There will be a gallery, show room and essay, a bigger factory floor capable of doubling the effective essay current production capacity, but in the meantime the Solms factory is pretty much ‘ maxed out ‘. During our tour we were not allowed to take photos through the glass, or anywhere else for that matter. Fortunately, for me, I was allowed to on graphics re-visit the following day and was granted a 30 minute opportunity to go inside the clean room (wearing a hair net, white coat and shoe coverings) to take some images of the S2 and effective essay, M9 camera assembly room. I have been photographing for almost 30 years, I have worked under intense pressure, in difficult situations, and in thesis for alcatraz, privileged places but having just thirty minutes to make some quick images of com 150 such a fascinating and significant place was daunting to say the essay on graphics least. I grabbed my S2, the 35mm and 120mm lenses, and that was it, no bags allowed in, but luckily I was allowed to take in my Gitzo tripod. My impression on the inside was one of quiet and purposeful industry with immense attention to the finest details. Everyone was focussed on the task in hand and, more importantly, everyone appeared to be taking great care in their work. There was no idle chatter, no distractions, no superfluous activity, but at the same time it was not tense or ‘pressurised’. Just a group of skilled craftsmen (and women) going about their tasks quietly and efficiently. As an example, I was able to watch the antireflection coating being applied to the edges of each glass element that combine to make a lens.

This is essentially a coat of black paint on the outside circumference of effective essay each glass element; every element needs such a black rim to reduce the possibility of stray light scattering inside the lens, thus reducing contrast. Thesis Statements? This coating is applied by hand to each and com 150 essay, every element. Apparently the machines were simply not able to perform to the level of consistency that Leica required. There are four technicians with the required level of skill, only gre topics essay four. That means that every lens made (and they produce a lot, maybe 1,000 per com 150 effective, month), containing multiple lens elements, will have had each one hand painted around its edge by on graphics, one of four people. This is com 150 essay writing, what you are paying for not only on graphics and animations are the products of effective superb quality but their hand-crafted nature appeals to many people in this era of mass production, short product cycles and the emphasis on project management more bells and whistles to shift boxes off shelves. Leica cameras do not change much from model to model, each is a refinement over the previous iteration. There is an almost nostalgic aura to the cameras, reminiscent of fine watches, high-end hi-fi systems or any other fine hand made luxury items. I get all this, and I quite like it on a personal level, but at the end of the day a camera has to perform its task, not just look and effective essay, feel good. I have an old Rolex Tudor watch which I adore it keeps quite poor time being fully mechanical, but I love the feel of it and would never swap it for a digital watch that is accurate to one second every century.

Fortunately, Leica cameras not only essay look and com 150, feel good, but they also perform at gre topics essay the highest levels. Images from the essay M9 can be every bit as good as those from a top of the line Canon or Nikon; actually, given the uncompromising quality of the optics, probably even better. The S2 is also a delight to use and the results are second to none, so you are getting genuine value for money a lot of money to should uniforms persuasive be sure, but then you do get a lot in return. Checking M9 Focus. After my visit to the heart of the factory I was able to spend some time with some of the production and effective writing, development team, people like Stephan Schulz (Head of Professional Imaging), Maike Harberts (who lead the title original development of the com 150 writing S2), Gerald Wagner (Service Manager) and Andreas Dippel (Public Relations). I spoke to Stephan Schulz at length and was able to put some questions to him; I will present our conversation in an interview style but this is not a transcript, more of a summary, and should not be taken as verbatim. When will we see the CS lenses? We had some issues with some suppliers of parts for the very precise shutter mechanisms and we had to change the way they are made and assembled. We are testing the essay for responsibility students new shutters now, probably through until September at the earliest. We won’t release them until they are as precise as possible. I’m told there is com 150, a new 30mm due out ‘very soon’, when will we see this lens?

Very soon. (grin) You will be very happy with the new lens. It is maybe a little better than the current 35mm with almost perfect edge sharpness. It’s almost the same size as the 35mm but it is should have, f2.8, not f2.5 like the current lens. When will we see the 30-90mm zoom? Again, it is definitely part of our roadmap and com 150 essay writing, will be released as soon as it is for responsibility students, finished. We are aiming for a very versatile design, so it will be smaller than you expect, and there will not be a CS version. This means we can design a smaller and lighter lens which is something a zoom lens should be.

Will we ever see LiveView on the S2 or future models? Not with a CCD sensor. It is effective essay, not possible. However, CCD sensors will not be used for ever, so future models may be able to have this. Given that other brands are continually increasing their megapixel size, will Leica be following the same trend? No, no more megapixels. For Alcatraz? It is enough we think.

Future development will be concentrating on shooting rates, lower noise, higher Dynamic Range and higher ISO abilities. There is a rumour on writing the Internet Forums that the histogram on the S2 is raw based is for responsibility students, this true? No, it is based on the jpeg preview. A histogram from raw data is not possible as the image cannot be said to com 150 essay exist yet. A white balance needs to be chosen and essay on graphics and animations, the red blue and green channels need to be combined to give a meaningful histogram. So we always give you more than you think.

If your histogram is good, then you will actually have more data in com 150 effective essay writing, the raw file than you expect. Early in the last decade Leica cameras were not setting the world on fire. The brand was strong, the project calendar product was solid but sales were heading in the wrong direction. The DMR Digital Module-R for the R8 and R9 was brilliantly innovative back in com 150 writing, 2003 and at for responsibility students 10MP was very competitive (given that the opposition brands were still offering 6MP cameras like the Canon D60 and the premium priced 11MP Canon 1Ds), but never really caught on. Then the R9 and writing, the R-Series was discontinued in 2009. The M8, a digital version of the M7 with a 10MP crop sensor came out at essay for responsibility students the end of effective writing 2006 and management calendar, was well received, although it had some teething problems that were rather exaggerated by the internet forum pixel peepers. I asked Stephan Daniel, Director of Product Management, about the beginnings of the newly found success of the com 150 effective essay company and he told me that “ The roots were laid out (the developments started) in 2007/2008 which resulted in the success starting 2009 and which is continuing still today .” I asked what were the main reasons for for responsibility students, the turnaround. He added “ First of all, successful important products such as M9, S2 System, X1 and the compact cameras.

Furthermore, the development in the Leica Store concept (now more than 50 stores / boutiques worldwide) and last but not least the growing markets in Eastern Europe and Asia .” Leice S2 Eyepieces. The M9 is a sensational camera, and, at writing 18MP with no anti-alias filter and superb optics, rivals the 20+ MP offerings from thesis statements for alcatraz, Canon, Nikon and effective, Sony. Gre Topics Essay? Sales of this camera took off and show no sign of abating so the pressure to effective essay writing bring out a new model (M10) at Photokina 2012 is thesis, probably less intense. With no confirmed comments to support this I’d expect to see the com 150 M10 still running an 18MP sensor, along with some ergonomic changes, better high ISO performance and maybe a faster shooting rate. Why Schools Should Have? None of that is particularly surprising if it ain’t broke don’t fix it ! Then there is the com 150 effective essay rumoured ‘compact mirrorless system’, also slated for in essay quotes, a 2012 release. Obviously there is a broad price gap between the X1 and the M9 and essay writing, a prudent manufacturer will want to fill that gap. There are also a lot of R-Series and M-Series lenses out there so maybe we will see some sort of essay EVF-based camera, not unlike the X1 which takes interchangeable lenses from these two systems either by adapter or built in. Effective Essay? I guess we will all have to wait and see!

The S2 remains a runaway success. For Responsibility? Even at its current lofty price point demand outstrips production. At the time of writing it’s almost three years since its announcement back in com 150 writing, September 2008 so speculation is rife about a possible replacement model (S3?). Again, given the success of the current model and gre topics, the clearly stated position of not following the effective megapixel race, I’d not expect to see a quantum leap, more of a refinement. Think in terms of even better high ISO performance, longer bulb exposures (please!), maybe a faster shooting rate and faster AF. With all that going on maybe Photokina 2012 will probably see a whole raft of new Leica products but in the meantime the guys (and gals) at Leica are not giving much away! About The Author. Nick Rains has been photographing landscapes all over the world since leaving University in 1983. In 1986 he spent a year in Perth, Western Australia covering the Americas Cup for a variety of International magazines such as Yachting World, London Times, and essay, Boat International. Images from this event also appeared in Sports Illustrated, Stern, Paris Match, Regatta and many other well known publications.

Over the last 20 years Nick has traveled the length and breadth of Australia covering over 500,000km in his search for com 150 effective, fine “Australian” images for the stock photography market. He makes his home in Brisbane, Queensland. Nick is now concentrating on photographic books of his favourite places, the latest title, “Australia’s A Photographer’s Eye” was published by Explore Australia Publishing in late 2009. In between outback trips, Nick shoots commercial and stock photographs at home and essay and animations, overseas as well as editing the magazine Better Digital Camera. He is a Leica S2 Ambassador and a Canon Training Lecturer.

You may also wish to visit Nick’s Web Site (www.nickrains.com), or contact him by e-mail ([email protected]). Nick Rains has been a professional photographer for the past 31 years during which time he has worked for well known publications such as Australian Geographic, Outback, GEO, Sports Illustrated, TIME, BBC and com 150 effective writing, m. [ Author’s Page and Articles ] Nick Rains has been a professional photographer for the past 31 years during which time he has worked for well known publications such as Australian Geographic, Outback, GEO, Sports Illustrated, TIME, BBC and m. [ Author’s Page and Articles ]