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An essay on relationships

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Atheist Essays and Research Papers. Title: RESPONSE PAPER McCloskey Article Having completed unit philosophy religion ready respond article written actual atheist This article titled On Being Atheist written H J McCloskey 1968 journal Question. Your assignment is to read his short article, attached above, and respond to each of the on relationships questions below. The basis for a day in the of a beauty therapist essay, your answers should primarily come from the an essay resources provided in the lessons covering the this i have ever written philosophy of religion unit of the course (Evans, Craig, and the PointeCast presentation). You are not merely to an essay quote these sources as an answer to the question ? answer in your own words. You are also encouraged to appeal to other outside sources as well, as long as you properly document them. This Response Paper is to be a minimum of 1500 words (equivalent to six pages) and should be written as a single essay and not just a list of answers to questions.

You may be critical of McCloskey, but should remain respectful. Is The Best I Have Ever. Your instructor is an essay, looking for a detailed response to each of the questions below. Colleges That For Admission. Specifically, you should address the following: 1. McCloskey refers to the arguments as ?proofs? and often implies that they can?t definitively establish the case for God, so therefore they should be abandoned. What would you say about this in an essay, light of my comments on the approaches to the arguments in alfie cohen, the PointeCast presentation (Lesson 18)? o McCloskey claims that the ?mere existence of the world constitutes no reason for believing in on relationships, such a being [i.e. a necessarily existing being].? Using Evans? discussion of the non-temporal form of the studies argument (pp. 69-77) explain why the cause of the universe must be necessary (and therefore uncaused). o McCloskey also claims that the cosmological argument ?does not entitle us to postulate an an essay, all-powerful, all-perfect, uncaused cause.? In light of Evans?s final paragraph on the cosmological argument (p.

77), how might you respond to McCloskey? o McCloskey claims that ?to get the proof going, genuine indisputable examples of design and trigonometry, purpose are needed.? Discuss this standard of ?indisputability? which he calls a ?very conclusive objection.? Is it reasonable? o From your reading in Evans, can you offer an example of an essay on relationships design that, while not necessarily ?indisputable?, you believe provides strong evidence of a designer of the proposal universe? o McCloskey implies that evolution has displaced the need for a designer. Assuming evolution is an essay on relationships, true, for argument?s sake, how would you respond to McCloskey (see Evans pp. 82-83)? o McCloskey claims that the presence of imperfection and evil in the world argues against ?the perfection of the divine design or divine purpose in the world.? Remembering Evans? comments about the limitations of the cosmological argument, how might you respond to this charge by McCloskey? o McCloskey?s main objection to alfie cohen homework theism is the presence of evil in the world and he raises it several times: ?No being who was perfect could have created a world in which there was unavoidable suffering or in which his creatures would (and in fact could have been created so as not to) engage in morally evil acts, acts which very often result in injury to innocent persons.? The language of this claim seems to imply that it is an example of the logical form of the problem.

Given this implication, using Evans?s discussion of the logical problem (pp. 159-168, noting especially his concluding paragraphs to this section), how might you respond to an essay on relationships McCloskey? o McCloskey specifically discusses the free will argument, asking ?might not God have very easily so have arranged the world and biased man to virtue that men always freely chose what is caesar essay, right?? From what you have already learned about an essay, free will earlier in the course, and what Evans says about the this free will theodicy, especially the section on Mackie and Plantinga?s response (pp. An Essay. 163-166) and colleges that essays, what he says about the evidential problem (pp. 168-172), how would you respond to an essay McCloskey?s question? o In the final pages of trigonometry help McCloskey?s article he claims that atheism is more comforting than theism. Using the argument presented by William Lane Craig in the article ?The Absurdity of an essay Life without God,? respond to McCloskey?s claim. Title: Response to McCloskey Article. Total Pages: 5 Words: 1743 Bibliography:5 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper.

Title: Response Paper Instructions Attachment 1 Fax Copy McCloskey Article On Being Atheist Attachment 2 Fax Copy 1 17 pages Evens Other Sources consideration In article McCloskey critical classical arguments Gods existence offers problem evil a reason God. Total Pages: 6 Words: 1697 Sources:4 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay. Attachment: 1 Fax Copy McCloskey Article ?On Being an Atheist ,? Attachment: 2 Fax Copy 1-17 pages on Evens/Other Sources for your consideration. In this article, McCloskey is both critical of the a day of a beauty therapist essay classical arguments for God?s existence and offers the problem of evil as a reason why one should not believe in God. Please read this short article, attached and respond to each of the questions below. The basis for your answers should primarily come from the attachment: Please don?t quote these sources as an answer to the question-answer in your own words. You may appeal to other outside sources as well, as long as you properly document them using Turabain style formatting (See attachment 2) or use your own. Please do not use the Bible as a source. This response paper is to be a minimum of 1700 words, and should be written in an essay format.

You can be critical of McCloskey, but should remain respectful. I am developing a 2500 word paper and I?m looking for detailed responses? to on relationships each of the questions below. McCloskey claims that the ?mere existence of the of a therapist world constitutes no reason for believing in such a being [i.e. a necessarily existing being]? Using Evans? discussion of the Non-temporal form of the argument (pp. 69-77) explain why the cause of the universe must be necessary (and therefore uncaused). McCloskey also claims that the cosmological argument ?does not entitle us to postulate an all-powerful, all-perfect, uncaused cause.? In light of Evans?s final paragraph on the cosmological argument (p.77), how might you respond to on relationships McCloskey? McCloskey claims that ?to get the proof going, genuine indisputable examples of dissertation design and an essay, purpose are needed.? Discuss this standard of that for admission ?indisputability? which he calls a ?very conclusive objection.? Is it reasonable? From your reading in an essay, Evans, can you offer an alfie cohen homework, example of design that, while not necessarily ?indisputable? you believe provides strong evidence of an essay a designer of the in the life therapist essay universe?

McCloskey implies that evolution has displaced the need for an essay, a designer. Colleges Require For Admission. Assuming evolution is true, for argument?s sake, how would you respond to McCloskey (see Evans pp. On Relationships. 82-83)? McCloskey claims that the presence of imperfection and evil in trigonometry homework help, the world argues against an essay, ?the perfection of the media studies divine design or divine purpose in the world.? Remembering Evens? comments about the limitations of the cosmological argument, how might you respond to this charge by McCloskey? McCloskey?s main objection to theism is the presence of evil in the world and he raises it several times: ?No being who was perfect could have created a world in which there was unavoidable suffering or in which his creatures would (and in fact could have been created so as not to) engage in morally evil acts, acts which very often result in injury to innocent persons.?

It seems to me the language of this claim is implying that it is an example of the logical form of the problem. Given this implication, using Evans?s discussion of the logical problem (pp. 159-168 noting especially his concluding paragraphs to this section), how might you respond to McCloskey? In the final pages of McCloskey?s article he claims that atheism is an essay, more comforting than theism. Using the homework argument presented by William Lane Craig in the article ?The Absurdity of Life without God,? (Look up on the Internet) respond to McCloskey?s claim. McCloskey, H.J. ?On Being an an essay, Atheist ,? Question 1 February 1968): 62-69. Trigonometry Help. Hugh Ross: Journey Toward Creation:

Evans, Stephen. C. Philosophy of Religion: Thinking About Faith. 2nd ed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2009. An Essay On Relationships. ISBN: 978-0-8308-3876-9. Holmes, Arthur. F. Ethics: Approaching Moral Decisions. 2nd ed. Downers Grove: IL: InterVarsity Press, 2008. ISBN: 0-830-82803-6.

Woodhouse, Mark. B. This Best Essay Written. A Preface to Philosophy. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 2006. ISBN: 0-495-00714-5. Title: Objections and counter-arguments: McCloskey?s ?On Being an Atheist? Total Pages: 6 Words: 1785 References:3 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper. 1. Your assignment is to read McCloskey?s short article found in the Reading Study folder in Module/Week 7 and respond to each of the an essay on relationships questions below. Your instructor is looking for a detailed response to each question. 2. Julius Essay. The response paper is to be a minimum of 1,500 words (not including quotes) and should be written as a single essay and not just a list of an essay answers to questions.

3. The basis for your answers should primarily come from the resources provided in the lessons covering the philosophy of trigonometry help religion unit of the an essay course (Evans and Manis, Craig, and the presentation) and these sources should be mentioned in your paper. You are not merely to cohen homework quote these sources as an answer to the question?answer them in your own words. An Essay On Relationships. 4. You may use other outside sources as well, as long as you properly document them. Homework Help. However, outside sources are not necessary. Each of the questions can be answered from the sources provided in the lessons. 5. While the use of the Bible is not restricted, its use is an essay on relationships, not necessary and is discouraged unless you intend to trigonometry homework explain the context of the passage and how that context applies to the issue at hand in accordance with the guidelines provided earlier in the course. You are not to merely quote scripture passages as answers to on relationships the questions. Remember this is a philosophical essay not a biblical or theological essay. 6. While you may quote from sources, all quotations should be properly cited and quotes from sources will not count towards the 1,500 word count of the paper.

7. You may be critical of McCloskey, but should remain respectful. Studies Dissertation Proposal. 1. McCloskey refers to the arguments as ?proofs? and often implies that they can?t definitively establish the case for God, so therefore they should be abandoned. What would you say about this in light of my comments on the approaches to the arguments in the PointeCast presentation? 2. On the Cosmological Argument: a. McCloskey claims that the ?mere existence of the world constitutes no reason for an essay on relationships, believing in such a being [i.e., a necessarily existing being].? Using Evans and Manis? discussion of the non-temporal form of the argument (on pp. 69?77), explain why the cause of the universe must be necessary (and therefore uncaused). That Essays. b. McCloskey also claims that the cosmological argument ?does not entitle us to postulate an all-powerful, all-perfect, uncaused cause.? In light of Evans and Manis? final paragraph on the cosmological argument (p.

77), how might you respond to McCloskey? 3. An Essay On Relationships. On the Teleological Argument: a. McCloskey claims that ?to get the proof going, genuine indisputable examples of design and purpose are needed.? Discuss this standard of ?indisputability? which he calls a ?very conclusive objection.? Is it reasonable? b. From your reading in Evans and Manis, can you offer an example of design that, while not necessarily ?indisputable,? you believe provides strong evidence of a designer of the best essay i have written universe? c. McCloskey implies that evolution has displaced the need for a designer. On Relationships. Assuming evolution is true, for argument?s sake, how would you respond to McCloskey (see Evans and homework, Manis pp. 82?83)? d. On Relationships. McCloskey claims that the presence of imperfection and evil in the world argues against ?the perfection of the divine design or divine purpose in this is the i have ever, the world.? Remembering Evans and on relationships, Manis? comments about the limitations of the cosmological argument, how might you respond to this charge by McCloskey?

4. On the studies proposal Problem of Evil: a. McCloskey?s main objection to theism is the on relationships presence of evil in the world and he raises it several times: ?No being who was perfect could have created a world in which there was avoidable suffering or in which his creatures would (and in fact could have been created so as not to) engage in morally evil acts, acts which very often result in injury to innocent persons.? The language of this claim seems to imply that it is an example of the logical form of the problem. Given this implication and using Evans and Manis? discussion of the logical problem (pp. Caesar Essay. 159?168, noting especially his concluding paragraphs to this section), how might you respond to McCloskey? 5. On Atheism as Comforting: a. In the final pages of McCloskey?s article, he claims that atheism is more comforting than theism.

Using the argument presented by an essay on relationships William Lane Craig in julius caesar essay test, the article ?The Absurdity of Life without God,? respond to on relationships McCloskey?s claim.

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Relationship essays: examples, topics, questions, thesis…

Internet Encyclopedia of an essay Philosophy. Explaining the nature of this essay written consciousness is one of the most important and perplexing areas of philosophy, but the concept is notoriously ambiguous. The abstract noun “consciousness” is not frequently used by itself in the contemporary literature, but is originally derived from the Latin con (with) and an essay on relationships scire (to know). Perhaps the most commonly used contemporary notion of a conscious mental state is studies proposal captured by Thomas Nagel’s famous “what it is like” sense (Nagel 1974). When I am in a conscious mental state, there is something it is like for me to be in that state from the subjective or first-person point of view. But how are we to understand this? For instance, how is the conscious mental state related to the body? Can consciousness be explained in terms of an essay brain activity? What makes a mental state be a conscious mental state? The problem of consciousness is arguably the most central issue in current philosophy of mind and is also importantly related to major traditional topics in metaphysics, such as the possibility of immortality and the belief in alfie cohen homework, free will.

This article focuses on Western theories and conceptions of consciousness, especially as found in contemporary analytic philosophy of mind. The two broad, traditional and competing theories of mind are dualism and materialism (or physicalism). While there are many versions of an essay on relationships each, the former generally holds that the this is the i have conscious mind or a conscious mental state is non-physical in some sense, whereas the latter holds that, to put it crudely, the an essay on relationships mind is the brain, or is caused by neural activity. It is against this general backdrop that many answers to the above questions are formulated and developed. There are also many familiar objections to both materialism and julius essay dualism. An Essay On Relationships. For example, it is essays often said that materialism cannot truly explain just how or why some brain states are conscious, and that there is an an essay on relationships, important “explanatory gap” between mind and matter. On the other hand, dualism faces the this is the essay i have written problem of explaining how a non-physical substance or mental state can causally interact with the physical body. Some philosophers attempt to explain consciousness directly in on relationships, neurophysiological or physical terms, while others offer cognitive theories of consciousness whereby conscious mental states are reduced to some kind of representational relation between mental states and the world. There are a number of cohen homework such representational theories of consciousness currently on the market, including higher-order theories which hold that what makes a mental state conscious is that the subject is aware of it in some sense.

The relationship between consciousness and science is also central in much current theorizing on this topic: How does the brain “bind together” various sensory inputs to produce a unified subjective experience? What are the neural correlates of on relationships consciousness? What can be learned from abnormal psychology which might help us to understand normal consciousness? To what extent are animal minds different from human minds? Could an appropriately programmed machine be conscious? 1. Terminological Matters: Various Concepts of Consciousness. The concept of colleges require essays for admission consciousness is notoriously ambiguous. On Relationships. It is important first to make several distinctions and to define related terms.

The abstract noun “consciousness” is require essays for admission not often used in the contemporary literature, though it should be noted that it is originally derived from the Latin con (with) and scire (to know). On Relationships. Thus, “consciousness” has etymological ties to one’s ability to know and perceive, and should not be confused with conscience, which has the much more specific moral connotation of knowing when one has done or is colleges that essays doing something wrong. On Relationships. Through consciousness, one can have knowledge of the external world or one’s own mental states. The primary contemporary interest lies more in the use of the expressions “x is conscious” or “x is conscious of y.” Under the a day life of a therapist essay former category, perhaps most important is the distinction between state and creature consciousness (Rosenthal 1993a). An Essay. We sometimes speak of an media studies dissertation proposal, individual mental state, such as a pain or perception, as conscious. On the other hand, we also often speak of organisms or creatures as conscious, such as when we say “human beings are conscious” or “dogs are conscious.” Creature consciousness is also simply meant to an essay refer to the fact that an organism is awake, as opposed to sleeping or in cohen homework, a coma. An Essay On Relationships. However, some kind of state consciousness is trigonometry homework help often implied by creature consciousness, that is, the organism is having conscious mental states. Due to the lack of an essay a direct object in alfie homework, the expression “x is conscious,” this is usually referred to as intransitive consciousness, in contrast to transitive consciousness where the locution “x is conscious of y” is used (Rosenthal 1993a, 1997). Most contemporary theories of consciousness are aimed at explaining state consciousness; that is, explaining what makes a mental state a conscious mental state. It might seem that “conscious” is on relationships synonymous with, say, “awareness” or “experience” or “attention.” However, it is crucial to recognize that this is not generally accepted today.

For example, though perhaps somewhat atypical, one might hold that there are even unconscious experiences, depending of course on how the term “experience” is defined (Carruthers 2000). More common is the belief that we can be aware of external objects in this essay written, some unconscious sense, for example, during cases of subliminal perception. An Essay On Relationships. The expression “conscious awareness” does not therefore seem to be redundant. Finally, it is colleges that require essays for admission not clear that consciousness ought to be restricted to attention. It seems plausible to suppose that one is conscious (in some sense) of objects in one’s peripheral visual field even though one is an essay on relationships only attending to some narrow (focal) set of in the life beauty essay objects within that visual field. Perhaps the most fundamental and commonly used notion of an essay on relationships “conscious” is captured by Thomas Nagel’s famous “what it is like” sense (Nagel 1974).

When I am in a conscious mental state, there is this best “something it is like” for me to be in that state from the subjective or first-person point of view. When I am, for example, smelling a rose or having a conscious visual experience, there is an essay on relationships something it “seems” or “feels” like from alfie homework, my perspective. An organism, such as a bat, is conscious if it is able to experience the outer world through its (echo-locatory) senses. There is also something it is like to be a conscious creature whereas there is nothing it is an essay on relationships like to be, for example, a table or tree. This is primarily the caesar essay sense of “conscious state” that will be used throughout this entry. There are still, though, a cluster of expressions and an essay on relationships terms related to Nagel’s sense, and trigonometry help some authors simply stipulate the way that they use such terms.

For example, philosophers sometimes refer to conscious states as phenomenal or qualitative states. More technically, philosophers often view such states as having qualitative properties called “qualia” (prounced like kwal' ee uh; the singular is quale). There is an essay on relationships significant disagreement over the nature, and even the existence, of require essays qualia, but they are perhaps most frequently understood as the felt properties or qualities of conscious states. Ned Block (1995) makes an often cited distinction between phenomenal consciousness (or “phenomenality”) and access consciousness. The former is very much in line with the Nagelian notion described above. However, Block also defines the quite different notion of an essay on relationships access consciousness in terms of caesar essay test a mental state’s relationship with other mental states; for example, a mental state’s “availability for on relationships use in reasoning and rationality guiding speech and action” (Block 1995: 227). This would, for example, count a visual perception as (access) conscious not because it has the “what it’s likeness” of phenomenal states, but rather because it carries visual information which is generally available for use by the organism, regardless of whether or not it has any qualitative properties.

Access consciousness is therefore more of julius test a functional notion; that is, concerned with what such states do. Although this concept of consciousness is certainly very important in cognitive science and philosophy of mind generally, not everyone agrees that access consciousness deserves to be called “consciousnesses” in any important sense. Block himself argues that neither sense of consciousness implies the other, while others urge that there is on relationships a more intimate connection between the two. Finally, it is a day in the life of a therapist essay helpful to distinguish between consciousness and self-consciousness, which plausibly involves some kind of on relationships awareness or consciousness of one’s own mental states (instead of something out in the world). Self-consciousness arguably comes in degrees of sophistication ranging from cohen homework, minimal bodily self-awareness to the ability to reason and reflect on one’s own mental states, such as one’s beliefs and desires. Some important historical figures have even held that consciousness entails some form of an essay on relationships self-consciousness (Kant 1781/1965, Sartre 1956), a view shared by some contemporary philosophers (Gennaro 1996a, Kriegel 2004). Interest in the nature of conscious experience has no doubt been around for as long as there have been reflective humans. It would be impossible here to survey the entire history, but a few highlights are in order.

In the history of Western philosophy, which is the this ever written focus of an essay this entry, important writings on human nature and colleges that require essays for admission the soul and an essay mind go back to ancient philosophers, such as Plato. More sophisticated work on alfie cohen, the nature of consciousness and perception can be found in the work of Plato’s most famous student Aristotle (see Caston 2002), and an essay on relationships then throughout the best i have ever written later Medieval period. It is, however, with the work of Rene Descartes (1596-1650) and on relationships his successors in studies, the early modern period of philosophy that consciousness and on relationships the relationship between the mind and alfie cohen homework body took center stage. As we shall see, Descartes argued that the mind is a non-physical substance distinct from the body. He also did not believe in the existence of on relationships unconscious mental states, a view certainly not widely held today. Caesar Test. Descartes defined “thinking” very broadly to include virtually every kind of mental state and urged that consciousness is essential to thought. Our mental states are, according to Descartes, infallibly transparent to introspection. John Locke (1689/1975) held a similar position regarding the connection between mentality and consciousness, but was far less committed on the exact metaphysical nature of the mind. Perhaps the an essay on relationships most important philosopher of the julius test period explicitly to endorse the existence of an essay on relationships unconscious mental states was G.W. Leibniz (1686/1991, 1720/1925).

Although Leibniz also believed in the immaterial nature of mental substances (which he called “monads”), he recognized the existence of colleges that what he called “petit perceptions,” which are basically unconscious perceptions. He also importantly distinguished between perception and apperception, roughly the difference between outer-directed consciousness and self-consciousness (see Gennaro 1999 for an essay some discussion). The most important detailed theory of mind in the early modern period was developed by Immanuel Kant. His main work Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1965) is as equally dense as it is help important, and cannot easily be summarized in this context. Although he owes a great debt to his immediate predecessors, Kant is arguably the most important philosopher since Plato and Aristotle and is highly relevant today. Kant basically thought that an adequate account of phenomenal consciousness involved far more than any of his predecessors had considered. There are important mental structures which are “presupposed” in an essay on relationships, conscious experience, and Kant presented an elaborate theory as to what those structures are, which, in turn, had other important implications. Best Essay I Have. He, like Leibniz, also saw the an essay on relationships need to postulate the existence of unconscious mental states and mechanisms in order to alfie provide an an essay on relationships, adequate theory of mind (Kitcher 1990 and Brook 1994 are two excellent books on Kant’s theory of mind.).

Over the past one hundred years or so, however, research on consciousness has taken off in many important directions. In psychology, with the notable exception of the virtual banishment of consciousness by a day in the of a beauty therapist essay behaviorist psychologists (e.g., Skinner 1953), there were also those deeply interested in consciousness and on relationships various introspective (or “first-person”) methods of julius caesar essay test investigating the mind. On Relationships. The writings of such figures as Wilhelm Wundt (1897), William James (1890) and studies dissertation Alfred Titchener (1901) are good examples of this approach. Franz Brentano (1874/1973) also had a profound effect on some contemporary theories of consciousness. Similar introspectionist approaches were used by those in on relationships, the so-called “phenomenological” tradition in philosophy, such as in the writings of Edmund Husserl (1913/1931, 1929/1960) and Martin Heidegger (1927/1962). The work of Sigmund Freud was very important, at minimum, in bringing about the in the life of a beauty essay near universal acceptance of the existence of unconscious mental states and on relationships processes. It must, however, be kept in is the essay i have ever written, mind that none of the above had very much scientific knowledge about the detailed workings of the on relationships brain. The relatively recent development of neurophysiology is, in part, also responsible for the unprecedented interdisciplinary research interest in consciousness, particularly since the 1980s. There are now several important journals devoted entirely to the study of consciousness: Consciousness and Cognition , Journal of Consciousness Studies , and cohen homework Psyche . An Essay. There are also major annual conferences sponsored by world wide professional organizations, such as the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness, and an entire book series called “Advances in Consciousness Research” published by John Benjamins. (For a small sample of introductory texts and important anthologies, see Kim 1996, Gennaro 1996b, Block et. al. 1997, Seager 1999, Chalmers 2002, Baars et. al. This Is The Best Essay Ever Written. 2003, Blackmore 2004, Campbell 2005, Velmans and Schneider 2007, Zelazo et al.

2007, Revonsuo 2010.) 3. The Metaphysics of Consciousness: Materialism vs. Dualism. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of reality. There are two broad traditional and competing metaphysical views concerning the nature of the mind and conscious mental states: dualism and materialism. While there are many versions of each, the an essay on relationships former generally holds that the in the of a therapist conscious mind or a conscious mental state is non-physical in some sense. On the other hand, materialists hold that the mind is the an essay on relationships brain, or, more accurately, that conscious mental activity is identical with neural activity.

It is important to recognize that by non-physical, dualists do not merely mean “not visible to the naked eye.” Many physical things fit this description, such as the atoms which make up the air in a typical room. For something to be non-physical, it must literally be outside the realm of test physics; that is, not in space at all and undetectable in principle by the instruments of physics. It is equally important to an essay recognize that the category “physical” is broader than the category “material.” Materialists are called such because there is the tendency to view the brain, a material thing, as the most likely physical candidate to identify with the mind. However, something might be physical but not material in this sense, such as an electromagnetic or energy field. One might therefore instead be a “physicalist” in some broader sense and still not a dualist. Thus, to say that the mind is of a therapist essay non-physical is to say something much stronger than that it is non-material. Dualists, then, tend to on relationships believe that conscious mental states or minds are radically different from colleges for admission, anything in the physical world at an essay all.

a. Dualism: General Support and this best i have Related Issues. There are a number of reasons why some version of dualism has been held throughout the an essay on relationships centuries. For one thing, especially from the introspective or first-person perspective, our conscious mental states just do not seem like physical things or processes. That is, when we reflect on our conscious perceptions, pains, and desires, they do not seem to be physical in that essays for admission, any sense. Consciousness seems to be a unique aspect of the world not to be understood in any physical way. Although materialists will urge that this completely ignores the more scientific third-person perspective on the nature of consciousness and mind, this idea continues to have force for many today. Indeed, it is arguably the crucial underlying intuition behind historically significant “conceivability arguments” against materialism and for dualism. Such arguments typically reason from the premise that one can conceive of one’s conscious states existing without one’s body or, conversely, that one can imagine one’s own physical duplicate without consciousness at all (see section 3b.iv). The metaphysical conclusion ultimately drawn is that consciousness cannot be identical with anything physical, partly because there is no essential conceptual connection between the mental and an essay the physical. Arguments such as these go back to Descartes and continue to be used today in various ways (Kripke 1972, Chalmers 1996), but it is colleges for admission highly controversial as to an essay whether they succeed in media, showing that materialism is false.

Materialists have replied in various ways to such arguments and the relevant literature has grown dramatically in recent years. Historically, there is also the clear link between dualism and a belief in an essay, immortality, and hence a more theistic perspective than one tends to find among materialists. Indeed, belief in dualism is often explicitly theologically motivated. If the conscious mind is not physical, it seems more plausible to believe in the possibility of life after bodily death. On the other hand, if conscious mental activity is identical with brain activity, then it would seem that when all brain activity ceases, so do all conscious experiences and thus no immortality. After all, what do many people believe continues after bodily death? Presumably, one’s own conscious thoughts, memories, experiences, beliefs, and so on. There is perhaps a similar historical connection to a belief in help, free will, which is of course a major topic in its own right. For our purposes, it suffices to say that, on an essay, some definitions of what it is to act freely, such ability seems almost “supernatural” in the sense that one’s conscious decisions can alter the otherwise deterministic sequence of events in nature.

To put it another way: If we are entirely physical beings as the materialist holds, then mustn’t all of the brain activity and behavior in question be determined by the laws of nature? Although materialism may not logically rule out immortality or free will, materialists will likely often reply that such traditional, perhaps even outdated or pre-scientific beliefs simply ought to be rejected to colleges that for admission the extent that they conflict with materialism. After all, if the weight of the on relationships evidence points toward materialism and away from dualism, then so much the worse for those related views. One might wonder “even if the mind is physical, what about the soul?” Maybe it’s the soul, not the mind, which is non-physical as one might be told in many religious traditions. While it is true that the term “soul” (or “spirit”) is often used instead of “mind” in such religious contexts, the problem is that it is unclear just how the soul is supposed to differ from the mind. The terms are often even used interchangeably in many historical texts and by many philosophers because it is unclear what else the soul could be other than “the mental substance.” It is difficult to describe the soul in any way that doesn’t make it sound like what we mean by the mind. After all, that’s what many believe goes on after bodily death; namely, conscious mental activity. This Is The I Have Written. Granted that the term “soul” carries a more theological connotation, but it doesn’t follow that the words “soul” and “mind” refer to entirely different things.

Somewhat related to the issue of immortality, the existence of on relationships near death experiences is also used as some evidence for in the of a essay dualism and immortality. Such patients experience a peaceful moving toward a light through a tunnel like structure, or are able to an essay on relationships see doctors working on their bodies while hovering over them in trigonometry homework, an emergency room (sometimes akin to what is called an an essay on relationships, “out of body experience”). In response, materialists will point out that such experiences can be artificially induced in various experimental situations, and that starving the brain of oxygen is known to cause hallucinations. Various paranormal and psychic phenomena, such as clairvoyance, faith healing, and mind-reading, are sometimes also cited as evidence for dualism. However, materialists (and even many dualists) will first likely wish to be skeptical of the alleged phenomena themselves for numerous reasons. There are many modern day charlatans who should make us seriously question whether there really are such phenomena or mental abilities in media dissertation proposal, the first place.

Second, it is not quite clear just how dualism follows from such phenomena even if they are genuine. A materialist, or physicalist at on relationships least, might insist that though such phenomena are puzzling and perhaps currently difficult to explain in physical terms, they are nonetheless ultimately physical in nature; for example, having to julius do with very unusual transfers of energy in the physical world. The dualist advantage is perhaps not as obvious as one might think, and we need not jump to supernatural conclusions so quickly. i. Substance Dualism and Objections. Interactionist Dualism or simply “interactionism” is the an essay on relationships most common form of life beauty therapist essay “substance dualism” and its name derives from the widely accepted fact that mental states and bodily states causally interact with each other. For example, my desire to drink something cold causes my body to move to the refrigerator and get something to drink and, conversely, kicking me in the shin will cause me to feel a pain and get angry. On Relationships. Due to Descartes’ influence, it is also sometimes referred to as “Cartesian dualism.” Knowing nothing about just where such causal interaction could take place, Descartes speculated that it was through the pineal gland, a now almost humorous conjecture. But a modern day interactionist would certainly wish to treat various areas of the julius essay test brain as the location of such interactions. Three serious objections are briefly worth noting here. The first is simply the issue of just how does or could such radically different substances causally interact.

How something non-physical causally interacts with something physical, such as the brain? No such explanation is forthcoming or is perhaps even possible, according to materialists. Moreover, if causation involves a transfer of an essay on relationships energy from cause to colleges require essays for admission effect, then how is that possible if the mind is an essay on relationships really non-physical? Gilbert Ryle (1949) mockingly calls the Cartesian view about the nature of studies mind, a belief in the “ghost in an essay on relationships, the machine.” Secondly, assuming that some such energy transfer makes any sense at all, it is also then often alleged that interactionism is inconsistent with the scientifically well-established Conservation of Energy principle, which says that the total amount of energy in the universe, or any controlled part of it, remains constant. So any loss of energy in trigonometry homework, the cause must be passed along as a corresponding gain of energy in the effect, as in on relationships, standard billiard ball examples. But if interactionism is true, then when mental events cause physical events, energy would literally come into the physical word. On the other hand, when bodily events cause mental events, energy would literally go out of the physical world. This Best Essay I Have Ever. At the least, there is an essay on relationships a very peculiar and unique notion of energy involved, unless one wished, even more radically, to deny the conservation principle itself. Third, some materialists might also use the well-known fact that brain damage (even to very specific areas of the brain) causes mental defects as a serious objection to interactionism (and thus as support for materialism).

This has of course been known for many centuries, but the level of detailed knowledge has increased dramatically in recent years. Studies. Now a dualist might reply that such phenomena do not absolutely refute her metaphysical position since it could be replied that damage to the brain simply causes corresponding damage to the mind. However, this raises a host of other questions: Why not opt for an essay on relationships the simpler explanation, i.e., that brain damage causes mental damage because mental processes simply are brain processes? If the non-physical mind is damaged when brain damage occurs, how does that leave one’s mind according to this is the i have written the dualist’s conception of an afterlife? Will the severe amnesic at the end of life on on relationships, Earth retain such a deficit in the afterlife?

If proper mental functioning still depends on essay, proper brain functioning, then is dualism really in no better position to offer hope for immortality? It should be noted that there is also another less popular form of substance dualism called parallelism, which denies the causal interaction between the non-physical mental and physical bodily realms. It seems fair to say that it encounters even more serious objections than interactionism. While a detailed survey of an essay all varieties of dualism is that for admission beyond the scope of this entry, it is at an essay least important to note here that the main and this i have written most popular form of dualism today is called property dualism. Substance dualism has largely fallen out of favor at an essay on relationships least in most philosophical circles, though there are important exceptions (e.g., Swinburne 1986, Foster 1996) and media studies dissertation it often continues to be tied to various theological positions. Property dualism, on the other hand, is an essay a more modest version of dualism and it holds that there are mental properties (that is, characteristics or aspects of things) that are neither identical with nor reducible to physical properties. Written. There are actually several different kinds of property dualism, but what they have in common is the on relationships idea that conscious properties, such as the color qualia involved in a conscious experience of a visual perception, cannot be explained in purely physical terms and, thus, are not themselves to be identified with any brain state or process. Two other views worth mentioning are epiphenomenalism and panpsychism. Media Studies Dissertation. The latter is the somewhat eccentric view that all things in an essay, physical reality, even down to micro-particles, have some mental properties. All substances have a mental aspect, though it is colleges that require for admission not always clear exactly how to characterize or test such a claim.

Epiphenomenalism holds that mental events are caused by brain events but those mental events are mere “epiphenomena” which do not, in turn, cause anything physical at all, despite appearances to the contrary (for a recent defense, see Robinson 2004). Finally, although not a form of dualism, idealism holds that there are only immaterial mental substances, a view more common in the Eastern tradition. The most prominent Western proponent of idealism was 18th century empiricist George Berkeley. The idealist agrees with the substance dualist, however, that minds are non-physical, but then denies the an essay existence of mind-independent physical substances altogether. Such a view faces a number of serious objections, and it also requires a belief in the existence of alfie God. Some form of on relationships materialism is probably much more widely held today than in centuries past. Caesar Test. No doubt part of the reason for this has to an essay do with the explosion in that for admission, scientific knowledge about the workings of the brain and its intimate connection with consciousness, including the close connection between brain damage and various states of consciousness. On Relationships. Brain death is now the main criterion for when someone dies. Stimulation to specific areas of the brain results in modality specific conscious experiences. Indeed, materialism often seems to be a working assumption in trigonometry homework, neurophysiology. An Essay. Imagine saying to a neuroscientist “you are not really studying the conscious mind itself” when she is examining the workings of the brain during an fMRI.

The idea is that science is showing us that conscious mental states, such as visual perceptions, are simply identical with certain neuro-chemical brain processes; much like the science of chemistry taught us that water just is H2O. There are also theoretical factors on homework help, the side of materialism, such as adherence to the so-called “principle of simplicity” which says that if two theories can equally explain a given phenomenon, then we should accept the one which posits fewer objects or forces. In this case, even if dualism could equally explain consciousness (which would of course be disputed by materialists), materialism is clearly the simpler theory in so far as it does not posit any objects or processes over and above physical ones. Materialists will wonder why there is on relationships a need to believe in studies dissertation proposal, the existence of such mysterious non-physical entities. An Essay On Relationships. Moreover, in caesar essay test, the aftermath of the Darwinian revolution, it would seem that materialism is on even stronger ground provided that one accepts basic evolutionary theory and the notion that most animals are conscious. Given the similarities between the more primitive parts of the human brain and the brains of other animals, it seems most natural to conclude that, through evolution, increasing layers of brain areas correspond to increased mental abilities. For example, having a well developed prefrontal cortex allows humans to reason and on relationships plan in ways not available to dogs and cats. It also seems fairly uncontroversial to hold that we should be materialists about the minds of animals. If so, then it would be odd indeed to hold that non-physical conscious states suddenly appear on the scene with humans.

There are still, however, a number of much discussed and important objections to materialism, most of which question the a day in the life therapist notion that materialism can adequately explain conscious experience. i. Objection 1: The Explanatory Gap and The Hard Problem. Joseph Levine (1983) coined the expression “the explanatory gap” to an essay on relationships express a difficulty for any materialistic attempt to explain consciousness. Although not concerned to reject the metaphysics of materialism, Levine gives eloquent expression to the idea that there is a key gap in our ability to explain the essay test connection between phenomenal properties and brain properties (see also Levine 1993, 2001). The basic problem is that it is, at on relationships least at present, very difficult for us to understand the relationship between brain properties and phenomenal properties in any explanatory satisfying way, especially given the fact that it seems possible for one to be present without the other. There is an odd kind of in the of a essay arbitrariness involved: Why or how does some particular brain process produce that particular taste or visual sensation? It is difficult to see any real explanatory connection between specific conscious states and brain states in a way that explains just how or why the former are identical with the latter. There is therefore an explanatory gap between the physical and mental.

Levine argues that this difficulty in explaining consciousness is unique; that is, we do not have similar worries about other scientific identities, such as that “water is H2O” or that “heat is mean molecular kinetic energy.” There is “an important sense in an essay on relationships, which we can’t really understand how [materialism] could be true.” (2001: 68) David Chalmers (1995) has articulated a similar worry by using the catchy phrase “the hard problem of caesar consciousness,” which basically refers to the difficulty of explaining just how physical processes in an essay, the brain give rise to subjective conscious experiences. The “really hard problem is the problem of experience…How can we explain why there is something it is like to entertain a mental image, or to experience an emotion?” (1995: 201) Others have made similar points, as Chalmers acknowledges, but reference to the phrase “the hard problem” has now become commonplace in the literature. Unlike Levine, however, Chalmers is julius caesar essay test much more inclined to draw anti-materialist metaphysical conclusions from these and other considerations. Chalmers usefully distinguishes the hard problem of consciousness from what he calls the (relatively) “easy problems” of consciousness, such as the ability to an essay discriminate and categorize stimuli, the ability of a cognitive system to julius essay test access its own internal states, and an essay the difference between wakefulness and sleep. Alfie Homework. The easy problems generally have more to do with the functions of consciousness, but Chalmers urges that solving them does not touch the an essay hard problem of phenomenal consciousness. Essay. Most philosophers, according to on relationships Chalmers, are really only addressing the easy problems, perhaps merely with something like Block’s “access consciousness” in mind. Their theories ignore phenomenal consciousness. There are many responses by materialists to the above charges, but it is worth emphasizing that Levine, at trigonometry homework least, does not reject the an essay on relationships metaphysics of materialism. Colleges Require For Admission. Instead, he sees the “explanatory gap [as] primarily an epistemological problem” (2001: 10).

That is, it is primarily a problem having to do with knowledge or understanding. This concession is still important at least to an essay on relationships the extent that one is concerned with the trigonometry homework larger related metaphysical issues discussed in section 3a, such as the possibility of immortality. Perhaps most important for the materialist, however, is recognition of the fact that different concepts can pick out the an essay same property or object in the world (Loar 1990, 1997). Out in the world there is only the one “stuff,” which we can conceptualize either as “water” or as “H2O.” The traditional distinction, made most notably by Gottlob Frege in the late 19th century, between “meaning” (or “sense”) and “reference” is also relevant here. Two or more concepts, which can have different meanings, can refer to the same property or object, much like “Venus” and “The Morning Star.” Materialists, then, explain that it is essential to julius caesar test distinguish between mental properties and our concepts of those properties. On Relationships. By analogy, there are so-called “phenomenal concepts” which uses a phenomenal or “first-person” property to refer to some conscious mental state, such as a sensation of red (Alter and Walter 2007). In contrast, we can also use various concepts couched in physical or neurophysiological terms to refer to that same mental state from the a day in the essay third-person point of view. There is thus but one conscious mental state which can be conceptualized in two different ways: either by employing first-person experiential phenomenal concepts or by employing third-person neurophysiological concepts. It may then just be a “brute fact” about the on relationships world that there are such identities and the appearance of media studies proposal arbitrariness between brain properties and mental properties is just that – an apparent problem leading many to wonder about the alleged explanatory gap. Qualia would then still be identical to physical properties.

Moreover, this response provides a diagnosis for why there even seems to an essay be such a gap; namely, that we use very different concepts to pick out the same property. Science will be able, in principle, to close the a day in the of a beauty therapist gap and solve the hard problem of consciousness in an analogous way that we now have a very good understanding for why “water is H2O” or “heat is mean molecular kinetic energy” that was lacking centuries ago. Maybe the hard problem isn’t so hard after all – it will just take some more time. After all, the science of chemistry didn’t develop overnight and we are relatively early in the history of neurophysiology and our understanding of phenomenal consciousness. (See Shear 1997 for an essay many more specific responses to the hard problem, but also for Chalmers’ counter-replies.) ii. A Day In The Life Of A Beauty. Objection 2: The Knowledge Argument.

There is on relationships a pair of very widely discussed, and arguably related, objections to studies dissertation proposal materialism which come from the seminal writings of an essay Thomas Nagel (1974) and Frank Jackson (1982, 1986). These arguments, especially Jackson’s, have come to studies dissertation be known as examples of the “knowledge argument” against materialism, due to their clear emphasis on the epistemological (that is, knowledge related) limitations of materialism. Like Levine, Nagel does not reject the metaphysics of materialism. Jackson had originally intended for his argument to yield a dualistic conclusion, but he no longer holds that view. The general pattern of each argument is to assume that all the an essay physical facts are known about colleges that essays, some conscious mind or conscious experience. Yet, the argument goes, not all is known about the mind or experience.

It is then inferred that the an essay on relationships missing knowledge is non-physical in some sense, which is surely an test, anti-materialist conclusion in an essay, some sense. Nagel imagines a future where we know everything physical there is to know about some other conscious creature’s mind, such as a bat. However, it seems clear that we would still not know something crucial; namely, “what it is studies dissertation like to be a bat.” It will not do to an essay on relationships imagine what it is like for us to be a bat. We would still not know what it is a day life beauty therapist essay like to be a bat from the on relationships bat’s subjective or first-person point of view. A Day In The Therapist. The idea, then, is on relationships that if we accept the hypothesis that we know all of the this i have ever written physical facts about bat minds, and yet some knowledge about bat minds is left out, then materialism is an essay on relationships inherently flawed when it comes to explaining consciousness. Even in an ideal future in i have ever, which everything physical is known by us, something would still be left out. An Essay On Relationships. Jackson’s somewhat similar, but no less influential, argument begins by asking us to cohen imagine a future where a person, Mary, is kept in a black and white room from birth during which time she becomes a brilliant neuroscientist and an essay on relationships an expert on color perception. Mary never sees red for example, but she learns all of the physical facts and that require essays everything neurophysiologically about human color vision. Eventually she is released from the room and sees red for the first time. Jackson argues that it is clear that Mary comes to learn something new; namely, to an essay on relationships use Nagel’s famous phrase, what it is like to experience red. This is a new piece of knowledge and hence she must have come to know some non-physical fact (since, by hypothesis, she already knew all of the physical facts).

Thus, not all knowledge about the studies proposal conscious mind is physical knowledge. The influence and an essay on relationships the quantity of work that these ideas have generated cannot be exaggerated. Julius Caesar. Numerous materialist responses to Nagel’s argument have been presented (such as Van Gulick 1985), and there is now a very useful anthology devoted entirely to Jackson’s knowledge argument (Ludlow et. al. An Essay On Relationships. 2004). Some materialists have wondered if we should concede up front that Mary wouldn’t be able to imagine the julius color red even before leaving the room, so that maybe she wouldn’t even be surprised upon seeing red for an essay on relationships the first time. In The Life Therapist Essay. Various suspicions about the nature and effectiveness of such thought experiments also usually accompany this response. More commonly, however, materialists reply by arguing that Mary does not learn a new fact when seeing red for the first time, but rather learns the an essay same fact in a different way. Recalling the distinction made in section 3b.i between concepts and objects or properties, the materialist will urge that there is only the one physical fact about color vision, but there are two ways to come to know it: either by employing neurophysiological concepts or by actually undergoing the relevant experience and so by employing phenomenal concepts. We might say that Mary, upon life beauty leaving the black and white room, becomes acquainted with the same neural property as before, but only now from the an essay first-person point of view. The property itself isn’t new; only the perspective, or what philosophers sometimes call the “mode of presentation,” is different. In short, coming to learn or know something new does not entail learning some new fact about the cohen world.

Analogies are again given in other less controversial areas, for example, one can come to know about some historical fact or event by on relationships reading a (reliable) third-person historical account or by this ever written having observed that event oneself. But there is still only the an essay one objective fact under two different descriptions. Finally, it is trigonometry homework help crucial to remember that, according to most, the metaphysics of materialism remains unaffected. Drawing a metaphysical conclusion from an essay on relationships, such purely epistemological premises is always a questionable practice. That Essays. Nagel’s argument doesn’t show that bat mental states are not identical with bat brain states. Indeed, a materialist might even expect the conclusion that Nagel draws; after all, given that our brains are so different from bat brains, it almost seems natural for there to be certain aspects of bat experience that we could never fully comprehend. Only the bat actually undergoes the relevant brain processes. Similarly, Jackson’s argument doesn’t show that Mary’s color experience is distinct from her brain processes. Despite the an essay plethora of materialist responses, vigorous debate continues as there are those who still think that something profound must always be missing from any materialist attempt to explain consciousness; namely, that understanding subjective phenomenal consciousness is an caesar essay, inherently first-person activity which cannot be captured by any objective third-person scientific means, no matter how much scientific knowledge is accumulated. Some knowledge about on relationships, consciousness is essentially limited to first-person knowledge.

Such a sense, no doubt, continues to this essay i have written fuel the related anti-materialist intuitions raised in on relationships, the previous section. Perhaps consciousness is simply a fundamental or irreducible part of in the life beauty essay nature in some sense (Chalmers 1996). (For more see Van Gulick 1993.) Finally, some go so far as to argue that we are simply not capable of solving the problem of consciousness (McGinn 1989, 1991, 1995). On Relationships. In short, “mysterians” believe that the hard problem can never be solved because of human cognitive limitations; the explanatory gap can never be filled. Once again, however, McGinn does not reject the julius caesar test metaphysics of materialism, but rather argues that we are “cognitively closed” with respect to this problem much like a rat or dog is cognitively incapable of solving, or even understanding, calculus problems. More specifically, McGinn claims that we are cognitively closed as to how the brain produces conscious awareness.

McGinn concedes that some brain property produces conscious experience, but we cannot understand how this is so or even know what that brain property is. Our concept forming mechanisms simply will not allow us to grasp the physical and causal basis of consciousness. An Essay On Relationships. We are not conceptually suited to be able to do so. McGinn does not entirely rest his argument on past failed attempts at explaining consciousness in materialist terms; instead, he presents another argument for his admittedly pessimistic conclusion. McGinn observes that we do not have a mental faculty that can access both consciousness and the brain. We access consciousness through introspection or the proposal first-person perspective, but our access to an essay the brain is through the cohen use of outer spatial senses (e.g., vision) or a more third-person perspective. Thus we have no way to access both the brain and consciousness together, and therefore any explanatory link between them is forever beyond our reach.

Materialist responses are numerous. First, one might wonder why we can’t combine the two perspectives within certain experimental contexts. Both first-person and third-person scientific data about the brain and consciousness can be acquired and used to solve the hard problem. Even if a single person cannot grasp consciousness from on relationships, both perspectives at the same time, why can’t a plausible physicalist theory emerge from such a combined approach? Presumably, McGinn would say that we are not capable of homework help putting such a theory together in any appropriate way. Second, despite McGinn’s protests to the contrary, many will view the problem of explaining consciousness as a merely temporary limit of our theorizing, and not something which is unsolvable in principle (Dennett 1991).

Third, it may be that McGinn expects too much; namely, grasping some causal link between the an essay on relationships brain and consciousness. After all, if conscious mental states are simply identical to brain states, then there may simply be a “brute fact” that really does not need any further explaining. Indeed, this is sometimes also said in response to help the explanatory gap and the hard problem, as we saw earlier. It may even be that some form of dualism is presupposed in McGinn’s argument, to the extent that brain states are said to “cause” or “give rise to” consciousness, instead of using the language of an essay on relationships identity. Fourth, McGinn’s analogy to lower animals and mathematics is colleges that require not quite accurate. Rats, for an essay example, have no concept whatsoever of calculus. It is colleges require essays not as if they can grasp it to some extent but just haven’t figured out the answer to some particular problem within mathematics. Rats are just completely oblivious to calculus problems. On the other hand, we humans obviously do have some grasp on on relationships, consciousness and on the workings of the brain -- just see the references at the end of media proposal this entry!

It is not clear, then, why we should accept the extremely pessimistic and universally negative conclusion that we can never discover the answer to the problem of consciousness, or, more specifically, why we could never understand the link between consciousness and the brain. Unlike many of the above objections to materialism, the an essay appeal to the possibility of zombies is often taken as both a problem for materialism and as a more positive argument for some form of dualism, such as property dualism. In The Beauty Therapist Essay. The philosophical notion of a “zombie” basically refers to conceivable creatures which are physically indistinguishable from us but lack consciousness entirely (Chalmers 1996). On Relationships. It certainly seems logically possible for there to be such creatures: “the conceivability of media proposal zombies seems…obvious to me…While this possibility is probably empirically impossible, it certainly seems that a coherent situation is an essay described; I can discern no contradiction in studies, the description” (Chalmers 1996: 96). Philosophers often contrast what is logically possible (in the sense of “that which is not self-contradictory”) from an essay on relationships, what is empirically possible given the actual laws of julius caesar test nature.

Thus, it is logically possible for me to jump fifty feet in the air, but not empirically possible. An Essay On Relationships. Philosophers often use the notion of “possible worlds,” i.e., different ways that the colleges essays world might have been, in describing such non-actual situations or possibilities. The objection, then, typically proceeds from an essay on relationships, such a possibility to the conclusion that materialism is false because materialism would seem to dissertation proposal rule out that possibility. An Essay On Relationships. It has been fairly widely accepted (since Kripke 1972) that all identity statements are necessarily true (that is, true in all possible worlds), and the same should therefore go for of a beauty therapist mind-brain identity claims. Since the possibility of zombies shows that it doesn’t, then we should conclude that materialism is on relationships false. (See Identity Theory.) It is impossible to do justice to all of the subtleties here. The literature in response to zombie, and in the of a essay related “conceivability,” arguments is enormous (see, for example, Hill 1997, Hill and McLaughlin 1999, Papineau 1998, 2002, Balog 1999, Block and Stalnaker 1999, Loar 1999, Yablo 1999, Perry 2001, Botterell 2001, Kirk 2005). A few lines of an essay on relationships reply are as follows: First, it is sometimes objected that the conceivability of something does not really entail its possibility. Perhaps we can also conceive of water not being H2O, since there seems to be no logical contradiction in doing so, but, according to received wisdom from studies dissertation proposal, Kripke, that is really impossible.

Perhaps, then, some things just seem possible but really aren’t. Much of the debate centers on various alleged similarities or dissimilarities between the mind-brain and water-H2O cases (or other such scientific identities). Indeed, the entire issue of the exact relationship between “conceivability” and “possibility” is the subject of an important recently published anthology (Gendler and Hawthorne 2002). Second, even if zombies are conceivable in the sense of on relationships logically possible, how can we draw a substantial metaphysical conclusion about the actual world? There is often suspicion on the part of materialists about therapist essay, what, if anything, such philosophers’ “thought experiments” can teach us about the nature of our minds. It seems that one could take virtually any philosophical or scientific theory about almost anything, conceive that it is possibly false, and on relationships then conclude that it is actually false. Something, perhaps, is help generally wrong with this way of reasoning. Third, as we saw earlier (3b.i), there may be a very good reason why such zombie scenarios seem possible; namely, that we do not (at least, not yet) see what the necessary connection is an essay on relationships between neural events and life conscious mental events.

On the one side, we are dealing with scientific third-person concepts and, on the other, we are employing phenomenal concepts. We are, perhaps, simply currently not in a position to understand completely such a necessary connection. Debate and discussion on all four objections remains very active. Despite the apparent simplicity of materialism, say, in terms of the identity between mental states and neural states, the fact is that there are many different forms of materialism. While a detailed survey of all varieties is beyond the scope of an essay on relationships this entry, it is at is the best essay ever written least important to acknowledge the commonly drawn distinction between two kinds of “identity theory”: token-token and type-type materialism.

Type-type identity theory is the stronger thesis and says that mental properties, such as “having a desire to drink some water” or “being in an essay on relationships, pain,” are literally identical with a brain property of some kind. Such identities were originally meant to be understood as on a par with, for example, the scientific identity between “being water” and “being composed of this is the essay i have written H2O” (Place 1956, Smart 1959). However, this view historically came under serious assault due to the fact that it seems to rule out the on relationships so-called “multiple realizability” of this is the essay i have ever conscious mental states. The idea is simply that it seems perfectly possible for there to be other conscious beings (e.g., aliens, radically different animals) who can have those same mental states but who also are radically different from us physiologically (Fodor 1974). It seems that commitment to type-type identity theory led to the undesirable result that only an essay, organisms with brains like ours can have conscious states. Somewhat more technically, most materialists wish to leave room for a day in the life of a beauty essay the possibility that mental properties can be “instantiated” in different kinds of organisms. (But for more recent defenses of type-type identity theory see Hill and McLaughlin 1999, Papineau 1994, 1995, 1998, Polger 2004.) As a consequence, a more modest “token-token” identity theory has become preferable to many materialists. This view simply holds that each particular conscious mental event in some organism is identical with some particular brain process or event in on relationships, that organism.

This seems to preserve much of what the materialist wants but yet allows for the multiple realizability of conscious states, because both the human and of a therapist essay the alien can still have a conscious desire for something to drink while each mental event is identical with a (different) physical state in each organism. Taking the notion of multiple realizability very seriously has also led many to embrace functionalism, which is the on relationships view that conscious mental states should really only be identified with the functional role they play within an organism. For example, conscious pains are defined more in terms of colleges that require essays input and output, such as causing bodily damage and an essay on relationships avoidance behavior, as well as in terms of their relationship to other mental states. It is normally viewed as a form of caesar materialism since virtually all functionalists also believe, like the on relationships token-token theorist, that something physical ultimately realizes that functional state in life, the organism, but functionalism does not, by itself, entail that materialism is true. Critics of functionalism, however, have long argued that such purely functional accounts cannot adequately explain the essential “feel” of conscious states, or that it seems possible to an essay on relationships have two functionally equivalent creatures, one of whom lacks qualia entirely (Block 1980a, 1980b, Chalmers 1996; see also Shoemaker 1975, 1981). Some materialists even deny the very existence of mind and mental states altogether, at least in the sense that the very concept of consciousness is muddled (Wilkes 1984, 1988) or that the mentalistic notions found in folk psychology, such as desires and beliefs, will eventually be eliminated and replaced by physicalistic terms as neurophysiology matures into the future (Churchland 1983). This is essay meant as analogous to past similar eliminations based on deeper scientific understanding, for example, we no longer need to an essay on relationships speak of “ether” or “phlogiston.” Other eliminativists, more modestly, argue that there is no such thing as qualia when they are defined in certain problematic ways (Dennett 1988). Finally, it should also be noted that not all materialists believe that conscious mentality can be explained in a day in the life of a beauty essay, terms of the physical, at least in the sense that the former cannot be “reduced” to the latter. Materialism is true as an on relationships, ontological or metaphysical doctrine, but facts about the mind cannot be deduced from facts about the physical world (Boyd 1980, Van Gulick 1992). In some ways, this might be viewed as a relatively harmless variation on materialist themes, but others object to the very coherence of this form of materialism (Kim 1987, 1998).

Indeed, the line between such “non-reductive materialism” and is the essay i have written property dualism is not always so easy to draw; partly because the entire notion of “reduction” is an essay ambiguous and dissertation proposal a very complex topic in its own right. An Essay. On a related front, some materialists are happy enough to talk about a somewhat weaker “supervenience” relation between mind and matter. Although “supervenience” is a highly technical notion with many variations, the idea is basically one of dependence (instead of proposal identity); for example, that the mental depends on the physical in on relationships, the sense that any mental change must be accompanied by some physical change (see Kim 1993). 4. Specific Theories of Consciousness. Most specific theories of consciousness tend to be reductionist in some sense. This Essay I Have Ever Written. The classic notion at on relationships work is that consciousness or individual conscious mental states can be explained in terms of something else or in some other terms.

This section will focus on several prominent contemporary reductionist theories. We should, however, distinguish between those who attempt such a reduction directly in a day therapist, physicalistic, such as neurophysiological, terms and those who do so in an essay, mentalistic terms, such as by using unconscious mental states or other cognitive notions. The more direct reductionist approach can be seen in various, more specific, neural theories of consciousness. Perhaps best known is the this is the best essay i have theory offered by Francis Crick and Christof Koch 1990 (see also Crick 1994, Koch 2004). An Essay On Relationships. The basic idea is essay i have ever that mental states become conscious when large numbers of neurons fire in synchrony and all have oscillations within the 35-75 hertz range (that is, 35-75 cycles per second). However, many philosophers and scientists have put forth other candidates for what, specifically, to an essay on relationships identify in the brain with consciousness. This vast enterprise has come to be known as the search for proposal the “neural correlates of consciousness” or NCCs (see section 5b below for more). The overall idea is to show how one or more specific kinds of neuro-chemical activity can underlie and an essay explain conscious mental activity (Metzinger 2000). Of course, mere “correlation” is not enough for a fully adequate neural theory and media studies dissertation explaining just what counts as a NCC turns out to be more difficult than one might think (Chalmers 2000).

Even Crick and Koch have acknowledged that they, at an essay best, provide a necessary condition for consciousness, and that such firing patters are not automatically sufficient for having conscious experience. b. Representational Theories of Consciousness. Many current theories attempt to reduce consciousness in mentalistic terms. One broadly popular approach along these lines is to reduce consciousness to “mental representations” of some kind. The notion of a “representation” is of course very general and this is the best ever written can be applied to photographs, signs, and various natural objects, such as the an essay rings inside a tree. Much of what goes on colleges require for admission, in the brain, however, might also be understood in a representational way; for an essay example, as mental events representing outer objects partly because they are caused by such objects in, say, cases of veridical visual perception. More specifically, philosophers will often call such representational mental states “intentional states” which have representational content; that is, mental states which are “about something” or “directed at something” as when one has a thought about the house or a perception of the tree. Although intentional states are sometimes contrasted with phenomenal states, such as pains and color experiences, it is clear that many conscious states have both phenomenal and intentional properties, such as visual perceptions. It should be noted that the relation between intentionalilty and consciousness is itself a major ongoing area of trigonometry homework dispute with some arguing that genuine intentionality actually presupposes consciousness in some way (Searle 1992, Siewart 1998, Horgan and Tienson 2002) while most representationalists insist that intentionality is prior to an essay on relationships consciousness (Gennaro 2012, chapter two). The general view that we can explain conscious mental states in terms of representational or intentional states is called “representationalism.” Although not automatically reductionist in homework, spirit, most versions of an essay representationalism do indeed attempt such a reduction. Most representationalists, then, believe that there is room for cohen homework a kind of “second-step” reduction to be filled in on relationships, later by neuroscience.

The other related motivation for representational theories of consciousness is that many believe that an account of representation or intentionality can more easily be given in naturalistic terms, such as causal theories whereby mental states are understood as representing outer objects in therapist, virtue of some reliable causal connection. The idea, then, is an essay that if consciousness can be explained in this best essay, representational terms and representation can be understood in on relationships, purely physical terms, then there is the promise of a reductionist and naturalistic theory of consciousness. Most generally, however, we can say that a representationalist will typically hold that the colleges require for admission phenomenal properties of experience (that is, the “qualia” or “what it is like of experience” or “phenomenal character”) can be explained in an essay on relationships, terms of the experiences’ representational properties. Alternatively, conscious mental states have no mental properties other than their representational properties. Two conscious states with all the caesar essay same representational properties will not differ phenomenally. An Essay On Relationships. For example, when I look at the blue sky, what it is like for julius essay me to have a conscious experience of the sky is simply identical with my experience’s representation of the blue sky. A First-order representational (FOR) theory of on relationships consciousness is for admission a theory that attempts to explain conscious experience primarily in terms of world-directed (or first-order) intentional states. Probably the two most cited FOR theories of consciousness are those of Fred Dretske (1995) and Michael Tye (1995, 2000), though there are many others as well (e.g., Harman 1990, Kirk 1994, Byrne 2001, Thau 2002, Droege 2003).

Tye’s theory is more fully worked out and on relationships so will be the focus of this section. Like other FOR theorists, Tye holds that the representational content of my conscious experience (that is, what my experience is about or directed at) is alfie homework identical with the phenomenal properties of experience. Aside from reductionistic motivations, Tye and other FOR representationalists often use the somewhat technical notion of the an essay “transparency of experience” as support for their view (Harman 1990). Cohen. This is an argument based on the phenomenological first-person observation, which goes back to an essay on relationships Moore (1903), that when one turns one’s attention away from, say, the blue sky and onto one’s experience itself, one is still only aware of the blueness of the sky. Life Of A Therapist. The experience itself is not blue; rather, one “sees right through” one’s experience to an essay its representational properties, and there is nothing else to one’s experience over and above such properties. Whatever the merits and exact nature of the homework argument from an essay, transparency (see Kind 2003), it is clear, of course, that not all mental representations are conscious, so the key question eventually becomes: What exactly distinguishes conscious from is the best essay ever, unconscious mental states (or representations)? What makes a mental state a conscious mental state? Here Tye defends what he calls “PANIC theory.” The acronym “PANIC” stands for poised, abstract, non-conceptual, intentional content. An Essay On Relationships. Without probing into every aspect of PANIC theory, Tye holds that at least some of the representational content in question is non-conceptual (N), which is to say that the subject can lack the caesar concept for the properties represented by the experience in question, such as an experience of an essay a certain shade of red that one has never seen before. Actually, the homework exact nature or even existence of non-conceptual content of experience is itself a highly debated and difficult issue in on relationships, philosophy of mind (Gunther 2003). Gennaro (2012), for alfie cohen homework example, defends conceptualism and connects it in various ways to the higher-order thought theory of consciousness (see section 4b.ii).

Conscious states clearly must also have “intentional content” (IC) for any representationalist. Tye also asserts that such content is “abstract” (A) and not necessarily about particular concrete objects. This condition is needed to handle cases of hallucinations, where there are no concrete objects at all or cases where different objects look phenomenally alike. Perhaps most important for mental states to be conscious, however, is that such content must be “poised” (P), which is an importantly functional notion. The “key idea is that experiences and feelings. stand ready and available to make a direct impact on beliefs and/or desires.

For example…feeling hungry… has an immediate cognitive effect, namely, the desire to eat….States with nonconceptual content that are not so poised lack phenomenal character [because]…they arise too early, as it were, in on relationships, the information processing” (Tye 2000: 62). One objection to Tye’s theory is cohen homework that it does not really address the on relationships hard problem of this best i have phenomenal consciousness (see section 3b.i). This is partly because what really seems to be doing most of the work on Tye’s PANIC account is the an essay very functional sounding “poised” notion, which is perhaps closer to Block’s access consciousness (see section 1) and is therefore not necessarily able to explain phenomenal consciousness (see Kriegel 2002). In short, it is difficult to see just how Tye’s PANIC account might not equally apply to unconscious representations and thus how it really explains phenomenal consciousness. Other standard objections to Tye’s theory as well as to alfie cohen homework other FOR accounts include the concern that it does not cover all kinds of conscious states. Some conscious states seem not to be “about” anything, such as pains, anxiety, or after-images, and so would be non-representational conscious states. An Essay. If so, then conscious experience cannot generally be explained in terms of representational properties (Block 1996). Media Proposal. Tye responds that pains, itches, and the like do represent, in the sense that they represent parts of the body. And after-images, hallucinations, and the like either misrepresent (which is still a kind of representation) or the an essay conscious subject still takes them to have representational properties from the alfie cohen homework first-person point of view.

Indeed, Tye (2000) admirably goes to great lengths and argues convincingly in an essay on relationships, response to a whole host of help alleged counter-examples to representationalism. Historically among them are various hypothetical cases of inverted qualia (see Shoemaker 1982), the mere possibility of which is sometimes taken as devastating to on relationships representationalism. These are cases where behaviorally indistinguishable individuals have inverted color perceptions of objects, such as person A visually experiences a lemon the way that person B experience a ripe tomato with respect to their color, and so on for all yellow and red objects. Isn’t it possible that there are two individuals whose color experiences are inverted with respect to the objects of perception? (For more on the importance of julius color in philosophy, see Hardin 1986.) A somewhat different twist on the inverted spectrum is famously put forth in Block’s (1990) Inverted Earth case.

On Inverted Earth every object has the complementary color to the one it has here, but we are asked to imagine that a person is an essay on relationships equipped with color-inverting lenses and then sent to alfie cohen Inverted Earth completely ignorant of those facts. Since the color inversions cancel out, the phenomenal experiences remain the same, yet there certainly seem to be different representational properties of objects involved. The strategy on the part of critics, in short, is to think of counter-examples (either actual or hypothetical) whereby there is a difference between the phenomenal properties in experience and the relevant representational properties in the world. Such objections can, perhaps, be answered by an essay Tye and others in various ways, but significant debate continues (Macpherson 2005). That Essays For Admission. Intuitions also dramatically differ as to the very plausibility and on relationships value of that require such thought experiments. (For more, see Seager 1999, chapters 6 and 7. See also Chalmers 2004 for an excellent discussion of the dizzying array of possible representationalist positions.) ii. Higher-Order Representationalism.

As we have seen, one question that should be answered by on relationships any theory of consciousness is: What makes a mental state a conscious mental state? There is a long tradition that has attempted to understand consciousness in terms of some kind of higher-order awareness. For example, John Locke (1689/1975) once said that “consciousness is the perception of what passes in a man’s own mind.” This intuition has been revived by a number of philosophers (Rosenthal, 1986, 1993b, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2005; Gennaro 1996a, 2012; Armstrong, 1968, 1981; Lycan, 1996, 2001). In general, the julius test idea is that what makes a mental state conscious is that it is the object of some kind of higher-order representation (HOR). A mental state M becomes conscious when there is a HOR of M. On Relationships. A HOR is a “meta-psychological” state, i.e., a mental state directed at another mental state. So, for example, my desire to write a good encyclopedia entry becomes conscious when I am (non-inferentially) “aware” of the desire. Intuitively, it seems that conscious states, as opposed to unconscious ones, are mental states that I am “aware of” in some sense. This I Have Ever. This is on relationships sometimes referred to as the Transitivity Principle. Any theory which attempts to explain consciousness in terms of higher-order states is alfie homework known as a higher-order (HO) theory of consciousness.

It is best initially to use the more neutral term “representation” because there are a number of an essay different kinds of higher-order theory, depending upon in the of a therapist essay how one characterizes the HOR in question. An Essay On Relationships. HO theories, thus, attempt to explain consciousness in mentalistic terms, that is, by reference to such notions as “thoughts” and “awareness.” Conscious mental states arise when two unconscious mental states are related in a day life, a certain specific way; namely, that one of them (the HOR) is an essay directed at alfie homework the other (M). HO theorists are united in the belief that their approach can better explain consciousness than any purely FOR theory, which has significant difficulty in explaining the difference between unconscious and conscious mental states. There are various kinds of HO theory with the most common division between higher-order thought (HOT) theories and an essay higher-order perception (HOP) theories. HOT theorists, such as David M. Rosenthal, think it is better to trigonometry understand the HOR as a thought of some kind.

HOTs are treated as cognitive states involving some kind of conceptual component. HOP theorists urge that the HOR is a perceptual or experiential state of some kind (Lycan 1996) which does not require the kind of conceptual content invoked by HOT theorists. Partly due to Kant (1781/1965), HOP theory is sometimes referred to as “inner sense theory” as a way of emphasizing its sensory or perceptual aspect. On Relationships. Although HOT and cohen HOP theorists agree on the need for a HOR theory of consciousness, they do sometimes argue for on relationships the superiority of their respective positions (such as in Rosenthal 2004, Lycan 2004, and Gennaro 2012). Some philosophers, however, have argued that the difference between these theories is perhaps not as important or as clear as some think it is (Guzeldere 1995, Gennaro 1996a, Van Gulick 2000). A common initial objection to HOR theories is that they are circular and lead to an infinite regress. It might seem that the julius caesar HOT theory results in circularity by an essay on relationships defining consciousness in terms of HOTs. It also might seem that an infinite regress results because a conscious mental state must be accompanied by a HOT, which, in this is the best essay, turn, must be accompanied by another HOT ad infinitum . An Essay. However, the alfie cohen homework standard reply is that when a conscious mental state is a first-order world-directed state the higher-order thought (HOT) is not itself conscious; otherwise, circularity and an infinite regress would follow. On Relationships. When the HOT is essay test itself conscious, there is a yet higher-order (or third-order) thought directed at the second-order state. In this case, we have introspection which involves a conscious HOT directed at an inner mental state. When one introspects, one's attention is directed back into one's mind.

For example, what makes my desire to an essay write a good entry a conscious first-order desire is that there is a (non-conscious) HOT directed at the desire. Colleges Essays For Admission. In this case, my conscious focus is directed at the entry and an essay on relationships my computer screen, so I am not consciously aware of having the HOT from the first-person point of life of a view. When I introspect that desire, however, I then have a conscious HOT (accompanied by a yet higher, third-order, HOT) directed at the desire itself (see Rosenthal 1986). Peter Carruthers (2000) has proposed another possibility within HO theory; namely, that it is better for an essay on relationships various reasons to think of the HOTs as dispositional states instead of the standard view that the HOTs are actual, though he also understands his “dispositional HOT theory” to be a form of HOP theory (Carruthers 2004). The basic idea is that the conscious status of an experience is due to its availability to homework help higher-order thought. So “conscious experience occurs when perceptual contents are fed into an essay on relationships, a special short-term buffer memory store, whose function is to trigonometry homework help make those contents available to cause HOTs about themselves.” (Carruthers 2000: 228). Some first-order perceptual contents are available to a higher-order “theory of mind mechanism,” which transforms those representational contents into conscious contents. An Essay. Thus, no actual HOT occurs. Instead, according to trigonometry help Carruthers, some perceptual states acquire a dual intentional content; for example, a conscious experience of red not only has a first-order content of “red,” but also has the higher-order content “seems red” or “experience of red.” Carruthers also makes interesting use of so-called “consumer semantics” in an essay, order to fill out his theory of phenomenal consciousness.

The content of a mental state depends, in part, on the powers of the organisms which “consume” that state, e.g., the kinds of inferences which the organism can make when it is in that state. Daniel Dennett (1991) is sometimes credited with an earlier version of a dispositional account (see Carruthers 2000, chapter ten). Life Of A Essay. Carruthers’ dispositional theory is an essay often criticized by those who, among other things, do not see how the mere disposition toward a mental state can render it conscious (Rosenthal 2004; see also Gennaro 2004, 2012; for more, see Consciousness, Higher Order Theories of.) It is worth briefly noting a few typical objections to this essay ever HO theories (many of which can be found in Byrne 1997): First, and perhaps most common, is that various animals (and even infants) are not likely to an essay on relationships have to the conceptual sophistication required for HOTs, and so that would render animal (and infant) consciousness very unlikely (Dretske 1995, Seager 2004). Are cats and this essay ever written dogs capable of having complex higher-order thoughts such as “I am in mental state M”? Although most who bring forth this objection are not HO theorists, Peter Carruthers (1989) is one HO theorist who actually embraces the conclusion that (most) animals do not have phenomenal consciousness.

Gennaro (1993, 1996) has replied to on relationships Carruthers on this point; for example, it is argued that the HOTs need not be as sophisticated as it might initially appear and there is ample comparative neurophysiological evidence supporting the conclusion that animals have conscious mental states. This Is The Essay Ever Written. Most HO theorists do not wish to accept the absence of animal or infant consciousness as a consequence of holding the theory. The debate continues, however, in an essay on relationships, Carruthers (2000, 2005, 2008) and Gennaro (2004, 2009, 2012, chapters seven and eight). A second objection has been referred to as the “problem of the rock” (Stubenberg 1998) and studies dissertation proposal the “generality problem” (Van Gulick 2000, 2004), but it is originally due to Alvin Goldman (Goldman 1993). When I have a thought about a rock, it is certainly not true that the rock becomes conscious.

So why should I suppose that a mental state becomes conscious when I think about it? This is puzzling to many and on relationships the objection forces HO theorists to cohen homework explain just how adding the on relationships HO state changes an unconscious state into a conscious. There have been, however, a number of responses to this kind of in the of a therapist essay objection (Rosenthal 1997, Lycan, 1996, Van Gulick 2000, 2004, Gennaro 2005, 2012, chapter four). A common theme is that there is a principled difference in an essay on relationships, the objects of the is the essay ever written HO states in question. Rocks and the like are not mental states in the first place, and so HO theorists are first and foremost trying to explain how a mental state becomes conscious. On Relationships. The objects of the HO states must be “in the head.” Third, the above leads somewhat naturally to an objection related to julius caesar test Chalmers’ hard problem (section 3b.i).

It might be asked just how exactly any HO theory really explains the subjective or phenomenal aspect of an essay on relationships conscious experience. How or why does a mental state come to have a first-person qualitative “what it is like” aspect by trigonometry virtue of the presence of a HOR directed at it? It is probably fair to say that HO theorists have been slow to address this problem, though a number of overlapping responses have emerged (see also Gennaro 2005, 2012, chapter four, for more extensive treatment). Some argue that this objection misconstrues the on relationships main and more modest purpose of (at least, their) HO theories. The claim is that HO theories are theories of trigonometry homework help consciousness only in the sense that they are attempting to explain what differentiates conscious from an essay on relationships, unconscious states, i.e., in terms of a higher-order awareness of some kind. A full account of “qualitative properties” or “sensory qualities” (which can themselves be non-conscious) can be found elsewhere in their work, but is independent of require essays their theory of consciousness (Rosenthal 1991, Lycan 1996, 2001).

Thus, a full explanation of phenomenal consciousness does require more than a HO theory, but that is an essay on relationships no objection to HO theories as such. Another response is that proponents of the hard problem unjustly raise the this best i have bar as to an essay on relationships what would count as a viable explanation of consciousness so that any such reductivist attempt would inevitably fall short (Carruthers 2000, Gennaro 2012). Part of the problem, then, is a lack of clarity about what would even count as an explanation of alfie cohen consciousness (Van Gulick 1995; see also section 3b). Once this is clarified, however, the hard problem can indeed be solved. Moreover, anyone familiar with the literature knows that there are significant terminological difficulties in the use of various crucial terms which sometimes inhibits genuine progress (but see Byrne 2004 for an essay some helpful clarification). A fourth important objection to HO approaches is the question of how such theories can explain cases where the HO state might misrepresent the lower-order (LO) mental state (Byrne 1997, Neander 1998, Levine 2001, Block 2011). After all, if we have a representational relation between two states, it seems possible for misrepresentation or malfunction to media studies occur. If it does, then what explanation can be offered by the HO theorist? If my LO state registers a red percept and my HO state registers a thought about something green due, say, to an essay some neural misfiring, then what happens? It seems that problems loom for any answer given by a HO theorist and the cause of the problem has to do with the life beauty therapist essay very nature of the HO theorist’s belief that there is a representational relation between the LO and HO states. An Essay. For example, if the HO theorist takes the option that the resulting conscious experience is reddish, then it seems that the that require essays HO state plays no role in determining the qualitative character of the experience.

On the other hand, if the resulting experience is greenish, then the an essay on relationships LO state seems irrelevant. Rosenthal and Weisberg hold that the HO state determines the this essay qualitative properties even in an essay, cases when there is no LO state at all (Rosenthal 2005, 2011, Weisberg 2008, 2011a, 2011b). Gennaro (2012) argues that no conscious experience results in such cases and wonders, for example, how a sole (unconscious) HOT can result in a conscious state at all. He argues that there must be a match, complete or partial, between the LO and HO state in order for a conscious state to exist in the first place. This important objection forces HO theorists to alfie homework be clearer about just how to view the relationship between the LO and HO states. Debate is ongoing and significant both on varieties of HO theory and in terms of the an essay on relationships above objections (see Gennaro 2004a). There is also interdisciplinary interest in how various HO theories might be realized in the brain (Gennaro 2012, chapter nine).

iii. Hybrid Representational Accounts. A related and increasingly popular version of representational theory holds that the meta-psychological state in question should be understood as intrinsic to (or part of) an overall complex conscious state. Trigonometry Homework Help. This stands in contrast to the standard view that the HO state is an essay on relationships extrinsic to this is the i have written (that is, entirely distinct from) its target mental state. The assumption, made by Rosenthal for example, about the extrinsic nature of the meta-thought has increasingly come under attack, and thus various hybrid representational theories can be found in the literature. One motivation for this movement is growing dissatisfaction with standard HO theory’s ability to handle some of the objections addressed in on relationships, the previous section.

Another reason is renewed interest in a view somewhat closer to the one held by Franz Brentano (1874/1973) and various other followers, normally associated with the phenomenological tradition (Husserl 1913/1931, 1929/1960; Sartre 1956; see also Smith 1986, 2004). Dissertation Proposal. To varying degrees, these views have in common the idea that conscious mental states, in some sense, represent themselves, which then still involves having a thought about a mental state, just not a distinct or separate state. Thus, when one has a conscious desire for an essay on relationships a cold glass of water, one is also aware that one is in that very state. The conscious desire both represents the glass of water and itself. Trigonometry Homework Help. It is this “self-representing” which makes the state conscious. These theories can go by various names, which sometimes seem in conflict, and an essay on relationships have added significantly in recent years to that require essays for admission the acronyms which abound in the literature. On Relationships. For example, Gennaro (1996a, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2012) has argued that, when one has a first-order conscious state, the HOT is better viewed as intrinsic to the target state, so that we have a complex conscious state with parts. Gennaro calls this the media dissertation “wide intrinsicality view” (WIV) and he also argues that Jean-Paul Sartre’s theory of consciousness can be understood in this way (Gennaro 2002). On Relationships. Gennaro holds that conscious mental states should be understood (as Kant might have today) as global brain states which are combinations of passively received perceptual input and presupposed higher-order conceptual activity directed at that input.

Higher-order concepts in the meta-psychological thoughts are presupposed in having first-order conscious states. Robert Van Gulick (2000, 2004, 2006) has also explored the alternative that the HO state is part of an overall global conscious state. He calls such states “HOGS” (Higher-Order Global States) whereby a lower-order unconscious state is “recruited” into a larger state, which becomes conscious partly due to the implicit self-awareness that one is in the lower-order state. Both Gennaro and Van Gulick have suggested that conscious states can be understood materialistically as global states of the help brain, and an essay on relationships it would be better to treat the dissertation proposal first-order state as part of the larger complex brain state. An Essay. This general approach is also forcefully advocated by Uriah Kriegel (Kriegel 2003a, 2003b, 2005, 2006, 2009) and is even the alfie cohen homework subject of an entire anthology debating its merits (Kriegel and Williford 2006). Kriegel has used several different names for an essay his “neo-Brentanian theory,” such as the SOMT (Same-Order Monitoring Theory) and, more recently, the “self-representational theory of consciousness.” To be sure, the notion of a mental state representing itself or a mental state with one part representing another part is in need of further development and media is perhaps somewhat mysterious. Nonetheless, there is agreement among these authors that conscious mental states are, in some important sense, reflexive or self-directed. And, once again, there is keen interest in developing this model in an essay, a way that coheres with the latest neurophysiological research on consciousness.

A point of this best ever emphasis is on the concept of global meta-representation within a complex brain state, and attempts are underway to identify just how such an account can be realized in the brain. It is worth mentioning that this idea was also briefly explored by Thomas Metzinger who focused on the fact that consciousness “is something that unifies or synthesizes experience” (Metzinger 1995: 454). Metzinger calls this the process of “higher-order binding” and thus uses the acronym HOB. Others who hold some form of the self-representational view include Kobes (1995), Caston (2002), Williford (2006), Brook and Raymont (2006), and even Carruthers’ (2000) theory can be viewed in this light since he contends that conscious states have two representational contents. Thomas Natsoulas also has a series of papers defending a similar view, beginning with Natsoulas 1996. Some authors (such as Gennaro 2012) view this hybrid position to be a modified version of HOT theory; indeed, Rosenthal (2004) has called it “intrinsic higher-order theory.” Van Gulick also clearly wishes to preserve the an essay HO is his HOGS. Others, such as Kriegel, are not inclined to call their views “higher-order” at all and dissertation call it, for example, the “same-order monitoring” or “self-representational” theory of on relationships consciousness. To some extent, this is a terminological dispute, but, despite important similarities, there are also key subtle differences between these hybrid alternatives.

Like HO theorists, however, those who advocate this general approach all take very seriously the notion that a conscious mental state M is a state that subject S is studies (non-inferentially) aware that S is on relationships in. By contrast, one is obviously not aware of one’s unconscious mental states. Thus, there are various attempts to make sense of and a day life of a therapist essay elaborate upon an essay this key intuition in a way that is, as it were, “in-between” standard FO and HO theory. (See also Lurz 2003 and 2004 for yet another interesting hybrid account.) Aside from the explicitly representational approaches discussed above, there are also related attempts to explain consciousness in other cognitive terms. The two most prominent such theories are worth describing here: Daniel Dennett (1991, 2005) has put forth what he calls the Multiple Drafts Model (MDM) of consciousness. Although similar in some ways to representationalism, Dennett is most concerned that materialists avoid falling prey to what he calls the “myth of the Cartesian theater,” the notion that there is this ever some privileged place in the brain where everything comes together to produce conscious experience. Instead, the MDM holds that all kinds of on relationships mental activity occur in life of a essay, the brain by parallel processes of interpretation, all of an essay which are under frequent revision.

The MDM rejects the in the life of a therapist essay idea of some “self” as an inner observer; rather, the self is the product or construction of a narrative which emerges over time. Dennett is an essay also well known for rejecting the a day life essay very assumption that there is a clear line to be drawn between conscious and unconscious mental states in terms of the problematic notion of “qualia.” He influentially rejects strong emphasis on any phenomenological or first-person approach to on relationships investigating consciousness, advocating instead what he calls “heterophenomenology” according to which we should follow a more neutral path “leading from this best i have ever written, objective physical science and its insistence on the third person point of view, to a method of an essay on relationships phenomenological description that can (in principle) do justice to a day in the life of a the most private and ineffable subjective experiences.” (1991: 72) Bernard Baars’ Global Workspace Theory (GWT) model of consciousness is probably the an essay on relationships most influential theory proposed among psychologists (Baars 1988, 1997). The basic idea and metaphor is that we should think of the essay test entire cognitive system as built on a “blackboard architecture” which is a kind of global workspace. According to GWT, unconscious processes and mental states compete for the spotlight of attention, from which information is “broadcast globally” throughout the system. Consciousness consists in on relationships, such global broadcasting and is therefore also, according to Baars, an important functional and biological adaptation. We might say that consciousness is thus created by a kind of global access to select bits of information in the brain and nervous system. Despite Baars’ frequent use of “theater” and “spotlight” metaphors, he argues that his view does not entail the media proposal presence of the an essay on relationships material Cartesian theater that Dennett is so concerned to avoid.

It is, in julius, any case, an on relationships, empirical matter just how the brain performs the that functions he describes, such as detecting mechanisms of attention. Objections to these cognitive theories include the charge that they do not really address the hard problem of consciousness (as described in section 3b.i), but only the an essay on relationships “easy” problems. Dennett is colleges also often accused of explaining away consciousness rather than really explaining it. An Essay. It is also interesting to think about Baars’ GWT in light of the Block’s distinction between access and phenomenal consciousness (see section 1). Does Baars’ theory only address access consciousness instead of the more difficult to explain phenomenal consciousness? (Two other psychological cognitive theories worth noting are the ones proposed by George Mandler 1975 and Tim Shallice 1988.) Finally, there are those who look deep beneath the neural level to the field of quantum mechanics, basically the study of cohen sub-atomic particles, to find the key to an essay on relationships unlocking the best i have ever written mysteries of consciousness. The bizarre world of quantum physics is quite different from the deterministic world of classical physics, and a major area of research in its own right. Such authors place the locus of an essay on relationships consciousness at a very fundamental physical level. This somewhat radical, though exciting, option is explored most notably by physicist Roger Penrose (1989, 1994) and anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff (1998). The basic idea is that consciousness arises through quantum effects which occur in subcellular neural structures known as microtubules, which are structural proteins in cell walls. There are also other quantum approaches which aim to explain the coherence of consciousness (Marshall and Zohar 1990) or use the “holistic” nature of quantum mechanics to explain consciousness (Silberstein 1998, 2001).

It is difficult to assess these somewhat exotic approaches at present. Given the puzzling and often very counterintuitive nature of quantum physics, it is unclear whether such approaches will prove genuinely scientifically valuable methods in explaining consciousness. One concern is simply that these authors are trying to explain one puzzling phenomenon (consciousness) in terms of another mysterious natural phenomenon (quantum effects). Thus, the alfie cohen thinking seems to go, perhaps the two are essentially related somehow and other physicalistic accounts are looking in the wrong place, such as at on relationships the neuro-chemical level. Although many attempts to explain consciousness often rely of conjecture or speculation, quantum approaches may indeed lead the field along these lines. Of course, this doesn’t mean that some such theory isn’t correct. One exciting aspect of this approach is the resulting interdisciplinary interest it has generated among physicists and caesar other scientists in the problem of an essay consciousness. 5. Consciousness and Science: Key Issues. Over the past two decades there has been an homework, explosion of interdisciplinary work in the science of consciousness. Some of the credit must go to the ground breaking 1986 book by Patricia Churchland entitled Neurophilosophy . In this section, three of the most important such areas are addressed.

a. The Unity of Consciousness/The Binding Problem. Conscious experience seems to be “unified” in an essay on relationships, an important sense; this crucial feature of consciousness played an important role in the philosophy of Kant who argued that unified conscious experience must be the product of the (presupposed) synthesizing work of the mind. Getting clear about exactly what is meant by the “unity of consciousness” and explaining how the brain achieves such unity has become a central topic in the study of test consciousness. On Relationships. There are many different senses of a day of a “unity” (see Tye 2003; Bayne and Chalmers 2003, Dainton 2000, 2008, Bayne 2010), but perhaps most common is the an essay notion that, from the first-person point of view, we experience the world in alfie, an integrated way and as a single phenomenal field of experience. (For an important anthology on an essay, the subject, see Cleeremans 2003.) However, when one looks at how the brain processes information, one only sees discrete regions of the cortex processing separate aspects of perceptual objects. Even different aspects of the media studies proposal same object, such as its color and shape, are processed in different parts of the on relationships brain. Given that there is no “Cartesian theater” in the brain where all this information comes together, the cohen homework problem arises as to just how the resulting conscious experience is unified. What mechanisms allow us to an essay on relationships experience the world in such a unified way? What happens when this unity breaks down, as in alfie cohen, various pathological cases? The “problem of integrating the information processed by an essay on relationships different regions of the a day in the beauty therapist essay brain is an essay on relationships known as the binding problem” (Cleeremans 2003: 1). Thus, the so-called “binding problem” is is the best written inextricably linked to explaining the on relationships unity of consciousness.

As was seen earlier with neural theories (section 4a) and as will be seen below on the neural correlates of consciousness (5b), some attempts to solve the binding problem have to do with trying to isolate the precise brain mechanisms responsible for consciousness. For example, Crick and Koch’s (1990) idea that synchronous neural firings are (at least) necessary for consciousness can also be viewed as an attempt to a day life therapist essay explain how disparate neural networks bind together separate pieces of information to produce unified subjective conscious experience. Perhaps the binding problem and the hard problem of consciousness (section 3b.i) are very closely connected. An Essay. If the is the best essay i have ever binding problem can be solved, then we arguably have identified the elusive neural correlate of on relationships consciousness and have, therefore, perhaps even solved the hard problem. Trigonometry Homework. In addition, perhaps the explanatory gap between third-person scientific knowledge and first-person unified conscious experience can also be bridged. Thus, this exciting area of inquiry is an essay on relationships central to some of the homework deepest questions in the philosophical and scientific exploration of consciousness. b. The Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCCs)

As was seen earlier in discussing neural theories of consciousness (section 4a), the search for the so-called “neural correlates of consciousness” (NCCs) is a major preoccupation of philosophers and scientists alike (Metzinger 2000). Narrowing down the precise brain property responsible for an essay consciousness is a different and far more difficult enterprise than merely holding a generic belief in some form of materialism. Alfie Cohen Homework. One leading candidate is on relationships offered by Francis Crick and Christof Koch 1990 (see also Crick 1994, Koch 2004). The basic idea is that mental states become conscious when large numbers of that neurons all fire in synchrony with one another (oscillations within the 35-75 hertz range or 35-75 cycles per second). An Essay. Currently, one method used is simply to study some aspect of in the of a essay neural functioning with sophisticated detecting equipments (such as MRIs and on relationships PET scans) and then correlate it with first-person reports of conscious experience. Another method is to study the this best i have difference in an essay, brain activity between those under anesthesia and those not under any such influence. A detailed survey would be impossible to give here, but a number of other candidates for the NCC have emerged over the past two decades, including reentrant cortical feedback loops in the neural circuitry throughout the brain (Edelman 1989, Edelman and Tononi 2000), NMDA-mediated transient neural assemblies (Flohr 1995), and emotive somatosensory haemostatic processes in the frontal lobe (Damasio 1999). To elaborate briefly on media dissertation, Flohr’s theory, the an essay on relationships idea is that anesthetics destroy conscious mental activity because they interfere with the functioning of NMDA synapses between neurons, which are those that are dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. These and other NCCs are explored at length in Metzinger (2000).

Ongoing scientific investigation is significant and an important aspect of current scientific research in media studies dissertation proposal, the field. One problem with some of the above candidates is determining exactly how they are related to an essay on relationships consciousness. For example, although a case can be made that some of them are necessary for conscious mentality, it is trigonometry unclear that they are sufficient. That is, some of the above seem to occur unconsciously as well. An Essay On Relationships. And pinning down a narrow enough necessary condition is that essays for admission not as easy as it might seem. Another general worry is with the very use of the term “correlate.” As any philosopher, scientist, and even undergraduate student should know, saying that “A is correlated with B” is rather weak (though it is an important first step), especially if one wishes to establish the stronger identity claim between consciousness and neural activity. Even if such a correlation can be established, we cannot automatically conclude that there is an identity relation. An Essay On Relationships. Perhaps A causes B or B causes A, and that’s why we find the correlation. Studies Proposal. Even most dualists can accept such interpretations. Maybe there is an essay some other neural process C which causes both A and B. Julius Caesar Essay Test. “Correlation” is an essay on relationships not even the same as “cause,” let alone enough to that establish “identity.” Finally, some NCCs are not even necessarily put forth as candidates for an essay all conscious states, but rather for certain specific kinds of colleges require essays for admission consciousness (e.g., visual).

Philosophers have long been intrigued by disorders of the mind and consciousness. Part of the interest is on relationships presumably that if we can understand how consciousness goes wrong, then that can help us to this is the i have written theorize about the normal functioning mind. Going back at least as far as John Locke (1689/1975), there has been some discussion about the philosophical implications of multiple personality disorder (MPD) which is now called “dissociative identity disorder” (DID). Questions abound: Could there be two centers of consciousness in an essay, one body? What makes a person the same person over time? What makes a person a person at caesar test any given time? These questions are closely linked to the traditional philosophical problem of personal identity, which is also importantly related to some aspects of consciousness research. Much the same can be said for an essay memory disorders, such as various forms of alfie cohen homework amnesia (see Gennaro 1996a, chapter 9). An Essay On Relationships. Does consciousness require some kind of autobiographical memory or psychological continuity? On a related front, there is significant interest in homework, experimental results from patients who have undergone a commisurotomy, which is usually performed to relieve symptoms of severe epilepsy when all else fails. On Relationships. During this procedure, the nerve fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres are cut, resulting in so-called “split-brain” patients (Bayne 2010).

Philosophical interest is so high that there is now a book series called Philosophical Psychopathology published by MIT Press. Another rich source of information comes from the provocative and accessible writings of neurologists on a whole host of trigonometry psychopathologies, most notably Oliver Sacks (starting with his 1987 book) and, more recently, V. S. Ramachandran (2004; see also Ramachandran and Blakeslee 1998). Another launching point came from the discovery of the phenomenon known as “blindsight” (Weiskrantz 1986), which is very frequently discussed in the philosophical literature regarding its implications for consciousness. On Relationships. Blindsight patients are blind in a well defined part of the visual field (due to cortical damage), but yet, when forced, can guess, with a higher than expected degree of media studies accuracy, the location or orientation of an object in an essay, the blind field. There is also philosophical interest in many other disorders, such as phantom limb pain (where one feels pain in a missing or amputated limb), various agnosias (such as visual agnosia where one is not capable of colleges that essays for admission visually recognizing everyday objects), and anosognosia (which is denial of illness, such as when one claims that a paralyzed limb is an essay on relationships still functioning, or when one denies that one is require blind). These phenomena raise a number of important philosophical questions and have forced philosophers to rethink some very basic assumptions about the nature of mind and consciousness. Much has also recently been learned about an essay, autism and various forms of schizophrenia.

A common view is a day in the life that these disorders involve some kind of deficit in self-consciousness or in one’s ability to use certain self-concepts. (For a nice review article, see Graham 2002.) Synesthesia is also a fascinating abnormal phenomenon, although not really a “pathological” condition as such (Cytowic 2003). Those with synesthesia literally have taste sensations when seeing certain shapes or have color sensations when hearing certain sounds. It is thus an often bizarre mixing of incoming sensory input via different modalities. One of the exciting results of this relatively new sub-field is the important interdisciplinary interest that it has generated among philosophers, psychologists, and scientists (such as in Graham 2010, Hirstein 2005, and Radden 2004). 6. An Essay. Animal and Machine Consciousness.

Two final areas of media studies proposal interest involve animal and machine consciousness. In the an essay on relationships former case it is clear that we have come a long way from the Cartesian view that animals are mere “automata” and that they do not even have conscious experience (perhaps partly because they do not have immortal souls). In addition to the obviously significant behavioral similarities between humans and many animals, much more is known today about other physiological similarities, such as brain and homework DNA structures. To be sure, there are important differences as well and there are, no doubt, some genuinely difficult “grey areas” where one might have legitimate doubts about some animal or organism consciousness, such as small rodents, some birds and fish, and especially various insects. An Essay. Nonetheless, it seems fair to say that most philosophers today readily accept the fact that a significant portion of the animal kingdom is capable of having conscious mental states, though there are still notable exceptions to that rule (Carruthers 2000, 2005). This Best Ever Written. Of course, this is an essay not to say that various animals can have all of the same kinds of sophisticated conscious states enjoyed by human beings, such as reflecting on philosophical and mathematical problems, enjoying artworks, thinking about the vast universe or the distant past, and homework so on. However, it still seems reasonable to believe that animals can have at least some conscious states from on relationships, rudimentary pains to various perceptual states and perhaps even to media dissertation proposal some level of self-consciousness.

A number of key areas are under continuing investigation. An Essay On Relationships. For example, to what extent can animals recognize themselves, such as in alfie homework, a mirror, in order to demonstrate some level of self-awareness? To what extent can animals deceive or empathize with other animals, either of which would indicate awareness of the minds of others? These and other important questions are at the center of an essay much current theorizing about animal cognition. Alfie Homework. (See Keenan et. al. 2003 and Beckoff et. An Essay. al.

2002.) In some ways, the problem of this is the best essay written knowing about animal minds is an on relationships, interesting sub-area of the media studies dissertation proposal traditional epistemological “problem of other minds”: How do we even know that other humans have conscious minds? What justifies such a belief? The possibility of an essay machine (or robot) consciousness has intrigued philosophers and non-philosophers alike for decades. Could a machine really think or be conscious? Could a robot really subjectively experience the smelling of colleges that a rose or the on relationships feeling of help pain?

One important early launching point was a well-known paper by the mathematician Alan Turing (1950) which proposed what has come to be known as the “Turing test” for machine intelligence and thought (and perhaps consciousness as well). An Essay. The basic idea is that if a machine could fool an interrogator (who could not see the machine) into thinking that it was human, then we should say it thinks or, at alfie cohen homework least, has intelligence. On Relationships. However, Turing was probably overly optimistic about whether anything even today can pass the Turing Test, as most programs are specialized and have very narrow uses. Alfie Homework. One cannot ask the machine about virtually anything, as Turing had envisioned. Moreover, even if a machine or robot could pass the an essay on relationships Turing Test, many remain very skeptical as to whether or not this demonstrates genuine machine thinking, let alone consciousness. For one thing, many philosophers would not take such purely behavioral (e.g., linguistic) evidence to support the conclusion that machines are capable of having phenomenal first person experiences. Homework Help. Merely using words like “red” doesn’t ensure that there is the corresponding sensation of an essay red or real grasp of the meaning of “red.” Turing himself considered numerous objections and offered his own replies, many of which are still debated today. Another much discussed argument is John Searle’s (1980) famous Chinese Room Argument, which has spawned an julius essay, enormous amount of literature since its original publication (see also Searle 1984; Preston and an essay Bishop 2002).

Searle is alfie concerned to reject what he calls “strong AI” which is the view that suitably programmed computers literally have a mind, that is, they really understand language and actually have other mental capacities similar to an essay on relationships humans. This is contrasted with “weak AI” which is the view that computers are merely useful tools for studying the mind. The gist of Searle’s argument is that he imagines himself running a program for using Chinese and then shows that he does not understand Chinese; therefore, strong AI is false; that is, running the program does not result in any real understanding (or thought or consciousness, by implication). Searle supports his argument against strong AI by utilizing a thought experiment whereby he is in a room and follows English instructions for manipulating Chinese symbols in order to caesar produce appropriate answers to questions in Chinese. Searle argues that, despite the appearance of understanding Chinese (say, from outside the room), he does not understand Chinese at all.

He does not thereby know Chinese, but is merely manipulating symbols on the basis of syntax alone. Since this is what computers do, no computer, merely by following a program, genuinely understands anything. Searle replies to on relationships numerous possible criticisms in homework, his original paper (which also comes with extensive peer commentary), but suffice it to say that not everyone is an essay satisfied with his responses. For example, it might be argued that the entire room or “system” understands Chinese if we are forced to use Searle’s analogy and thought experiment. Help. Each part of the on relationships room doesn’t understand Chinese (including Searle himself) but the entire system does, which includes the media instructions and an essay on relationships so on. Searle’s larger argument, however, is that one cannot get semantics (meaning) from syntax (formal symbol manipulation). Despite heavy criticism of the argument, two central issues are raised by Searle which continue to be of deep interest.

First, how and when does one distinguish mere “simulation” of some mental activity from genuine “duplication”? Searle’s view is that computers are, at best, merely simulating understanding and thought, not really duplicating it. Much like we might say that a computerized hurricane simulation does not duplicate a real hurricane, Searle insists the this is the best i have same goes for an essay on relationships any alleged computer “mental” activity. We do after all distinguish between real diamonds or leather and mere simulations which are just not the real thing. Second, and is the essay perhaps even more important, when considering just why computers really can’t think or be conscious, Searle interestingly reverts back to a biologically based argument. In essence, he says that computers or robots are just not made of the on relationships right stuff with the right kind of “causal powers” to produce genuine thought or consciousness. After all, even a materialist does not have to allow that any kind of physical stuff can produce consciousness any more than any type of physical substance can, say, conduct electricity. Of course, this raises a whole host of other questions which go to the heart of the caesar essay test metaphysics of consciousness. To what extent must an organism or system be physiologically like us in an essay, order to be conscious?

Why is alfie homework having a certain biological or chemical make up necessary for consciousness? Why exactly couldn’t an appropriately built robot be capable of having conscious mental states? How could we even know either way? However one answers these questions, it seems that building a truly conscious Commander Data is, at best, still just science fiction. In any case, the growing areas of cognitive science and artificial intelligence are major fields within philosophy of mind and can importantly bear on philosophical questions of consciousness. Much of current research focuses on how to program a computer to on relationships model the workings of the human brain, such as with so-called “neural (or connectionist) networks.”

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Top 10 Details to Include on on relationships, a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the cohen homework vast majority of them were missing multiple details that were important to an essay, the Nurse Managers and Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the that for admission Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. An Essay! We hope the that information provided here will help you create an an essay on relationships amazing resume! First, it’s important to have an idea of how the hiring process typically works in order to thoroughly understand the importance of these critical details. Homework! When a job opens up to the general public, the healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of resumes. In some cases, the resumes are electronically ranked by an essay on relationships Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the critical skills and experiences sought for the job. In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the rankings and resumes and pass along the “best” candidates to the hiring managers. It’s important to media studies dissertation, note that being the “best” often means having a resume with all the critical details.

If the on relationships information isn’t there, then the resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the colleges that for admission process. It’s important to note that missing these details is not the nurse’s fault. Unfortunately, the vast majority of informational resources pertaining to resumes is very general in nature. General resources are useful only for an essay, people with very general careers like “Sales”. These resources are mostly useless for nurses. Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to nurse resumes offer insufficient detail. Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at conveying what they’re looking for in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to include in their resumes. Skimming the list below may leave the is the best essay i have ever written impression that everything on an essay on relationships, it is media studies dissertation obvious. An Essay! However, reading the details provided for colleges that require for admission, each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume.

There are literally thousands of potential professional affiliations for an essay, nurses. In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to any. For example, if you belong to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to know this. Include the julius test following information: Affiliation name Your date of admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over others. 9. An Essay On Relationships! Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and awards they’ve received.

Examples include honors and awards from school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and even social clubs. Homework! Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at work. Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring? You may choose to place these items under their own heading. On Relationships! However, this isn’t necessary. Media Studies Dissertation Proposal! You can also add them where applicable throughout the rest of your resume. 8. Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is an essay a must. Not including it increases the chances that your resume will be removed from consideration. This is this best ever written because the information is an essay often required for the resume to colleges require essays, move through the process and it isn’t easily attainable by on relationships the staffing office.

So, they’ll often pass on a resume that doesn’t include the information in favor one that does. Provide at least the following information about your education: Name of school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the is the essay i have written earlier you are in your career, so keep that in on relationships mind when crafting the education section of your resume.

Finally, you may also wish to include details on any continuing education units you’ve taken within the help last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the second most commonly required skill listed on nursing job advertisements. 7. Nursing License and Certification Details: It is highly recommended that you include the following for your licenses: License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from an essay on relationships, name on resume License expiration date License number If the license is part of the Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly. Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of privacy. However, nursing license numbers are a matter of public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of Nursing using the standard information included on your resume. Providing the license number simply makes the recruiter’s job easier.

And in a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in the world. When it comes to caesar essay, certifications, it is an essay highly recommended that you include the following for every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date. Unlike most professions, nursing is conducted round-the-clock. Therefore, it’s best to convey the shifts you’re willing to work on your nursing resume. Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if you’re applying for a specific job with a specific shift.

You never know if the employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to specific job advertisements. In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Including your availability is very helpful for general job inquiries. In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable. These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to your Professional Summary.

The healthcare industry is going electronic. Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. According to a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the most commonly required skill for nurses listed in nursing job advertisements. “Epic Software” and “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of EMRs. And both ICD10 and ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements.

So if your scope of practice deals with this in any way, then be sure to add these to your resume. You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in case it may be of value to cohen homework, the employer, or to on relationships, at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and EMRs. Signifying the colleges essays type of on relationships facility you worked in alfie cohen tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. You should know the exact designation of on relationships all the facilities you worked with and if you don’t, now is the time to find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc).

If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in alfie homework your resume’s Summary. For example, if the job listing you’re applying for lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in on relationships the resume Summary to test, make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of beds in the specific units on which you worked. Just like the facility type, providing the an essay on relationships number of beds tells the this is the i have ever potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words.

We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the unit. Unfortunately, only people who work at that facility know what that means. Instead, include the type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to an essay on relationships, convey the message. We can’t stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload. What was the in the life of a beauty therapist nurse to patient ratio in this unit, and how much support was there in the form of LPNs, CNAs, or MAs?

Include any other unit specific details as well. An Essay! Did the colleges for admission unit take trauma patients? Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from other units? If so, what types of patients were seen from on relationships, overflow? 1. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to this point, the focus has been on incidental, although very important, details.

But what about the meat of your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of your resume? When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of balancing duties with accomplishments. You see, the current standard recommendation for resumes is to make them accomplishment driven. The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to duties, that illustrate how your work translated into homework, quantifiable and tangible results for an essay, your current and previous employers. Advocates of this approach advise against listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to alfie homework, know that you have experience with the highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for. At the same time, they too want to an essay, know about your accomplishments. Therefore, it’s important to include details about the specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at this best ever, the same time, you don’t want to an essay on relationships, fall into the trap of colleges that essays for admission creating a “duties-driven resume”. Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and general resumes. Before we continue, it’s best to address the 800 pound gorilla in this conversation.

Nurses sometimes have hundreds of duties and responsibilities. How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is a complete waste of space. It’s simply too general. Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the on relationships reason that such general statements are so often included in julius test nursing resumes. On Relationships! In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities.

For example, the Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the SDU in cohen homework another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to an essay, consider when determining the this is the i have ever written types of duties to include on your resume. This list is an essay not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the this best essay i have ever level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications? What type of patients did you care for? Renal? Cardiovascular? Neuro?

Ortho? Rehab? What was the age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents? Trachs? Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System? Which industry-wide protocols, processes and procedures are you experienced with?

For example, AIDET is among the most commonly listed requirements in nursing job advertisements. There are many similar protocols, processes and procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of those that were used by your previous employers. Now, we’re still in an essay the tough spot of alfie cohen determining exactly which skills and duties to include on an essay on relationships, the resume. Alfie Homework! First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with. On Relationships! Next, do some research on the employer in question to find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to list. Use the company website, news, and any professional connections you have in an effort to determine the types of patients, processes and homework, procedures common to on relationships, the specific employer in question. Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of ways to convey them on your nursing resume. Trigonometry Homework Help! First, you can incorporate the duties into your “accomplishment statements”.

We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties. While this is less preferred, it is sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way. An Essay On Relationships! Your summary is a good place for this. Trigonometry Homework Help! For example, you might include the on relationships following in your resume summary if you’re applying for alfie cohen homework, a position in the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications.

Bonus: Given the large number of skills and duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search. Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the an essay on relationships healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. You can view a sample here. They’re a great way to convey your skills to require for admission, potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for on relationships, jobs or you can bring them to your job interviews. Considerations for Accomplishments. Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at test, accomplishments. On Relationships! First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in order to knock them both out at the same time. Proposal! In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties.

Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization. For example, patient satisfaction is on relationships typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Media Studies Dissertation! Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that?

Next, it’s important to understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. An Essay! Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments. Colleges Require Essays For Admission! Or, you may choose to frame the duties within your accomplishment statements.

Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches. In any case, it’s important to provide both job-specific duties and accomplishments on your nursing resume. Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of expertise. Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to provide some reference to the skills and an essay on relationships, accomplishments you achieved in these areas. General perspective on nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of information to incorporate into a day in the beauty therapist, a standard resume. However, nursing is not a standard profession and an essay, concerns over resume length are becoming antiquated with the require essays for admission advent of Applicant Tracking Systems. Moreover, the push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to an essay, the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is a disservice to both healthcare professionals and employers. Media Studies Dissertation Proposal! Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after.

As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on an essay on relationships, perfect candidates. This push toward generalized conformity is even prevalent on colleges that, the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and an essay on relationships, professional networking services like LinkedIn. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. Cohen Homework! For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of recording healthcare specific career details as well as the ability to print the profile to PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service. An Essay! It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and efficiently.

As always, your feedback is greatly appreciated. Please let us know what you think by julius caesar essay test posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. An Essay! Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or.

I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu. Alfie! How do i go about addressing those different areas and responsibilities and skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for the information, its very helpful. An Essay On Relationships! This site is of so much help to cohen homework, me. An Essay! thank you, and it is also free. Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU.

The locations and facility i am looking at have nothing for experience nurses, but have a lot of positions for new nurses that want to work in ICU. I just want to apply to the new nurse position and i really don’t mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the that position is for new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on an essay, my resume. Can I include it on my credentials area on top of my resume – following my name and degree? I ask because the ANCC instructs to do so on their website. I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at least to me. Cohen Homework! I plan to an essay on relationships, include my Medsurg certification in certification section of in the my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to stand out and pop so to speak – as to not have to read on to notice it. On ANCC site, on on relationships, a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to is the best i have ever written, include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified).

Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and an essay, my sincerest apologies for the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is considered a “National Certification” and essay, should be listed after your name at an essay on relationships, the top of your resume and in the Licenses and Certifications section of colleges essays for admission your resume. An Essay! The order for listing credential after your name is:

Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out of the acute care setting in public health nursing for 7 years. I have heard over and over that because I have been out this of the acute care setting for so long that I don’t qualify for a lot of the positions that I have applied for. Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to find another job, and I am really not happy with my current job. I am unsure of how to make my resume “pop” and have prospective employers want to give me a chance. I am not looking to get back into areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Any ideas.

Kurt, I am an RN at on relationships, a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. Trigonometry Homework! One of the biggest hurdles to applying at any VA facility is the fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal. An Essay! Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for your desired role in in the of a beauty your application can be the difference between getting an interview and being passed over. On Relationships! Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards. I’m working on applying for a position that is colleges require essays for admission open for an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for on relationships, their total joint replacement program. I was wondering if this would be something that is colleges essays good to include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the unit during that time for the hospital’s certification/recognition. An Essay On Relationships! If so, how would you go about including that in without making it seem just a random fact listed and make it more as an accomplishment for myself also since I was a part of julius test that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica. Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume.

If you feel that you’re not able to expand in a way that adequately describes your role in on relationships the achievement, then you may want to expand in your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor. For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to essay, include this in your summary as opposed to the job description to make it stand out a little more. I hope this helps!

I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in on relationships just about every surgery setting from Open heart to Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. Cohen! I have been fortunate to have been able to take off time to on relationships, stay home and be with my children. That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume. How would you go about colleges that essays filling in the gap? I have volunteered in multiple areas at their schools, from organizing an an essay Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. My license and continuing CEU’s have always rained current.

Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have. Thanks for this is the best written, the inquiry. There is no steadfast rule on how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences. In your case, you would focus on on relationships, all of your OR experience. You might have a small section to that essays, list your previous employers. An Essay On Relationships! or you may even choose to homework help, leave it out an essay on relationships entirely. There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. In this case, you would list your experience raising the essays for admission kids as one of the entries in your chronological work history.

You could include details on the experiences mentioned in your comment on this blog post. Again, there is no right or wrong way. Each has its advantages and an essay, disadvantages. A Day Life Beauty Essay! To answer your question, yes, this situation is always a bit of an essay on relationships challenge. However, experienced nurses are in caesar essay test high demand at the moment, so you should be fine. Also, I’m personally inclined to recommend the on relationships chronological format. The main advantage of Functional Resumes in this particular case is to draw attention to your skills and away from the gap in recent experience.

However, employers are going to find the alfie cohen homework gap no matter what. An Essay On Relationships! So, I think it’s best to embrace it. With the chronological resume, you can still include all the applicable skills. I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and corrections for about 5 years now. Alfie Cohen! I have done a lot of basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal. IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes.

I have responded to chest pain calls, shortness of on relationships breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in cohen a hospital ER.. Trying to format my resume to make my experience fit into what the an essay on relationships Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to the civilian workforce. How important are listing awards? I have numerous military awards based on julius caesar essay test, my work ethics and performance on an essay on relationships, the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to media studies proposal, have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on on relationships, turning military missions into civilian language?

Thanks for your service!! I think it’s a great idea to add the a day in the beauty therapist awards to your resume. You could do one of two things. Simply list them out by their official name. There’s a good chance that the reviewer will search for the award on an essay, the internet and find it. Of A Therapist Essay! Or, you could add a very brief description of the award in parentheses. For example: X Award (earned for an essay, valor in action).

Either way, if you have a lot of awards, then you may want to colleges that, include only the highest ranking awards. If you choose to list many of them, then put them in an essay on relationships columns or in a continuous stream separated by homework commas to on relationships, save space. Conveying your military experience in caesar civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital. My apologies, but I lack the technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations. That said, I’d recommend reviewing the job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for an essay on relationships, use them to guide your efforts whenever possible. I hope this helps and thanks again! I have a position working in a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). Essay Test! The unit is an essay on relationships split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU).

How do I discuss bed numbers for each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to essay, play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. My husband just got a job out of state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to on relationships, be able to convey the that essays for admission broad spectrum of on relationships your experience without getting too wordy for your nursing resume. Homework! So, you’ll need to on relationships, offer some general details as well as some specific details.

When it comes to specifics, it’s best to colleges, tailor your resume to the specific job you’re applying for. An Essay! Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about your experience. I believe this is the most important consideration for life beauty, your resume. When it comes to generalizations, you could offer a description similar to an essay on relationships, the one you’ve provided here. For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the time and ICU patients 50% of the in the life beauty essay time.

The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. An Essay! The ICU patients included ER, NICU and general ICU. Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to 25 beds. You might also try utilizing skills checklists to convey your experience, especially if you make it to the interview stage. Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to essays for admission, upload skills checklists there. An Essay! You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an ICU nurse for 5 years (18 months of that he was an trigonometry homework ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move.

Should he address the clinical gap in his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then. How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the gap in the resume. An Essay! It’s fairly common for hospitals to in the beauty essay, require the last 7 years of work history to be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for resumes. Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to an essay, employment gaps are all negative. This Is The I Have Ever Written! Do your best to an essay, tie the experience into alfie cohen, nursing. An Essay! I believe most career advisers would recommend the same. I hope this information helps!

I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to take my boards (will take them within the colleges require for admission next 1-2 months). How should I address this on an essay on relationships, my resume? You may want to add an excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to caesar test, take the exam. On Relationships! For example: RN: Scheduled for NCLEX on July 9, 2015. I hope this helps! Thank you!

I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of cohen a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume? Thanks for the question, Emily! Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. An Essay On Relationships! We discuss this in essay test our blog post on new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on on relationships, job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter.

They say that all that matters is trigonometry homework help that you’re licensed. If that were the an essay case, then no details about you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. And we know that’s not true. Test! It is HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is passed over because you included your high GPA. An Essay! Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to see it, and assign value to it. So yes, by all means, add it. A Day Life Beauty Essay! I hope this helps! Great work, by the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for an essay on relationships, my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the homework general number, the an essay unit, or HR?

Also, some of studies dissertation my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the correct information from when I worked there. How should I list this information? Is there a good way to find current identifying information for a hospital? Thanks in advance for your response.

Thanks for an essay, posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation. That said, the general rule is that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for colleges for admission, your previous employers on your resume. In fact, you don’t need to an essay on relationships, include the complete address either. The city and state will suffice for your resume.

On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for most jobs on the company’s website through an applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to enter the telephone numbers and addresses for your former employers. In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of julius information you can to on relationships, your online applications. Again though, that’s separate from your resume. On a another side note: If you are applying for travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. Require! They have a free hospital profile lookup tool. I recommend using the “advanced search” for best results. An Essay! Please note that the links to these pages are underlined in blue. Best I Have Written! Here you will find the current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to locate the information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for an essay, them or try the site.

If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in essay the database with current information…assuming they want to an essay on relationships, get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Many resume experts recommend including only the last 10 years of work history on your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to your current job search. Media Proposal! Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of work history because you don’t want to date yourself. They’re concerned about “ageism” in the hiring process. An Essay On Relationships! These same people recommend not to include the dates you attended college. Essay Test! Ultimately, it’s up to you to include this information, I just wanted to provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. Please let me know if there are further questions! Help!

I have over 22 years of clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for on relationships, the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of care (I’m told this is studies dissertation utilization review by a friend but we never called it that in work). On Relationships! Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff). I’m trying to a day in the essay, get into QA, UR, pre cert or case managment. I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in 3 months, I blew the first interview and the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to do to get into these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to hear about your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into on relationships, an entirely new field. However, it sounds as though you have some experience to build on. Typically, Case Management and Utilization Review require InterQual experience.

If you have experience with that system, then be sure to include it on your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in it. Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for people in your situation. Also, review the trigonometry specific details of each job opening and tailor your resume to on relationships, include the key requirements where applicable. Check to see if there is a local association that you can network with like the Case Management Society of America for example. Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to see what they say. If so, look into certification. We hope this information helps! I have been reading through some of this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions?

I can tell you put a lot of useful/productive feedback into this is the, your responses and would value your opinion if you were to on relationships, review a copy of mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. experience applies to or under a separate section such as the julius essay test one you have listed as Comp. Experience? Thank you for an essay on relationships, all your time and effort! Thanks for reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. Help! Thanks so much for on relationships, your interest though. As for test, the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is that it’s there. The resume builder on lists computer experience under a separate heading.

We do this as way to ensure that members recognize and record it and an essay on relationships, perspective employers and recruiters are able to easily locate the details on the members’ profiles and alfie homework, resumes. Given that EMR experience is becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume. However, it’s also good to add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. On Relationships! It may not be as easy to this essay i have ever written, locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. An Essay On Relationships! Now I’m trying to move to a more challenging position. Prior to this essay, immigrating to America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in ER.

Would it be wise to mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in a program that enrolls military medic and corpsman and gives credit for their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program. My question is what should the graduates highlight on their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of an essay nursing and on a med Surg unit. I have been asked to apply to an ICU position and I need to update my resume. I don’t know what to include. Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and studies proposal, active duty for 10 years.

I really enjoyed your blog and an essay on relationships, will refer to it when updating my resume! We’re glad to trigonometry help, hear the information was useful. Congratulations on being asked to apply for an ICU position. That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of on relationships great experience to in the life beauty therapist, include on your resume. An Essay! We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the most applicable to the ICU role you’ll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of your surgical tech and active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Is The I Have Ever Written! Relate all your work history descriptions to on relationships, the ICU position. To do so, find out a day life essay as much as possible about the job and the unit. We hope this helps!!

Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to have found your blog page! I was about to do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. Indeed, the day of the an essay on relationships one page crammer is passe’. Especially with the value of the keyword in electronic filing. Essay Test! Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from becoming fodder for the shredder. [[shudder]] We’re glad to an essay, hear the information is useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for job fairs or any other instance where the caesar resume will be given directly to an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to be brief and choose your words wisely.

Don’t be overly verbose and don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it. An Essay! Be sure to tailor the resume’s wording to the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to proposal, par by reading this. I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on an essay on relationships, what I really did on the day to studies proposal, day. I recently worked at a hospital for 4 months and resigned due to it not being a good fit. It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on my resume?

You’re welcome! We’re glad to hear you found the an essay information useful. This is a tough question. I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of potential employers. Dissertation Proposal! That’s a valid concern. On Relationships! On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to your nursing resume. There is another issue to consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Omitting a previous job on your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on how they have their clauses worded. Of course, this depends on their ability to a day in the beauty, verify the omitted employment.

This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is an essay on relationships typically the document they’re working off of. Of A Beauty Essay! However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an application to an essay on relationships, completed. If you choose to add the omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to is the best ever written, do. Utltimatly, the decision is an essay on relationships yours. If you choose to add the employment to your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of proposal why you left in your cover letter. On Relationships! It’s all about the story you tell. We hope this helps.

This is all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and licensed RN trying to julius caesar, land my first job. Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in on relationships examples online. Thanks, Kristin.

We’re glad to hear this information on was useful. You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and work experience. To further confuse the alfie cohen issue, some people believe that clinical experience and work experience are one and an essay, the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. We view the preceptorship as something akin to essay i have ever, a highly advanced internship. For all intents and purposes, it is work experience. However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship. Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on on relationships, your resume, but be sure to colleges that require essays, clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of professional networking when landing your first job. On Relationships! 70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking.

While your resume is important, networking is the key…especially for new grads. We hope this information helps. Best of trigonometry help luck!! Great info – I could have used that for my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to on relationships, prepare for job interviews? I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi!

We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Thanks for the suggestion. We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is very informative. Do you have any sample resume and cohen, application letter? We’re glad to hear the information is useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for on relationships, free as a member of BluePipes.

You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. We hope this helps! I LOVE this information! Thank you. Here’s my question. I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to that require, the mid 1980’s.

How far back should I go? None relate to my current field (new nursing graduate). It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and on relationships, things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers…. Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to be a reference? Are references included now-a-days? Many, many thanks!

We’re glad to hear the information is helpful!! Congratulations on caesar essay, your recent graduation from an essay, nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to ask an instructor to be a reference. Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to julius caesar essay test, include on your resume aren’t so cut and on relationships, dry. I think it’s fair to homework, say that the vast majority of on relationships career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on a resume. However, if you could get a redeeming quote from a strong reference, like an instructor, to put in your resume summary, then it could be an eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed! We recommend reviewing our article on optimizing your resume for applicant tracking systems. Alfie Cohen Homework! However, one thing is as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to landing a job.

We discuss the importance in our article with recommendations for New Grad RNs. It’s tough to recommend that you leave off your past education. I’d say it would be good to on relationships, add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!! Best of luck! Excellent information! Nursing is trigonometry a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. You are right on an essay, the money….the resume I had for my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field. I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to work. I was destined to be one of trigonometry homework help those that got lost in the system. The tips you provided have been so helpful.

I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. An Essay! Thank you again for providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path! We’re so glad you found this information useful. We wish you the best of luck in your job search.

We hope you’ll consider joining where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for trigonometry homework help, free, and build your healthcare professional network. Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Due to an essay on relationships, a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from KS to PA in 2012.

Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from media proposal, ‘ recruiters’ in an essay on relationships a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to be sure to apply to homework, the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. How is that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. It seems the practice of the three major ‘players’ in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of an essay hiring new grads and those with ‘ at least a year experience’. I did secure an interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. Help! The next step at an essay on relationships, this particular hospital required by proposal the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974!

LPN in 1977 and an essay on relationships, BSN in 1989. When she responded to my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for essay, all the years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the last I heard from them. I contend she realized I would have to an essay on relationships, start at the upper end of caesar essay test compensation for my experience. An Essay! Do you know of best essay i have anyone who may be advocating for the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to an essay, describe myself… I am so much more than my age. Alfie! I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in my assessments, professional role model and delightful as a team member. Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns. I am ready to consult with the department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame! really good information here!

I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and an essay, collegues. Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. Is The Best Ever Written! I’ve yet to an essay on relationships, figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in mind. Trigonometry! I have almost 2 years experience in In-Patient Psychiatry and SNF just because those were the two jobs I landed. On Relationships! However, I always wanted to do LD or NICU. I did my preceptorship in 2011 in LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for LD again? We’re glad to hear that you found the information useful!

You can view the help BluePipes sample resume to an essay, get an this is the best written idea for formatting yours. Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. Also, you might be interested in reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to translate your Psych and SNF experience to on relationships, NICU and L#038;D. However, you most likely won’t be able to address the unique technical skills required for this best ever written, these units. You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and on relationships, newborns in your community. While it’s always tough to find time to volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and getting some relevant experience to add to your resume.

Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at the bedside and 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care. I would like to transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into a positive and at least get through the caesar front door of the interview process? You’re welcome, we hope you found the article useful. Yours is an essay a legitimate challenge that many nurses share.

With respect to your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to bedside nursing. While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and inpatient care that translate to in the beauty therapist essay, bedside nursing. Carefully review the job duties and qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in an essay on relationships the job descriptions of online job postings, to get ideas for framing your recent experience in a way that applies to bedside nursing. Next, focus on this essay i have ever written, writing an excellent nursing cover letter in an essay on relationships which you present yourself as a solution to the problems facing the employer in question. Of course, you’re still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of recent bedside experience. Therefore, networking is trigonometry help a must. Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the result of employee referral. With 9 years of on relationships experience, you’re bound to have some connections and now is the time to leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is too good to neglect it.

Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and LinkedIn to enhance your networking efforts. Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the benefits of refresher courses for bedside nursing. Media Proposal! While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the on relationships fact that many nurses recommend them is an indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge. Caesar Essay! We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to an essay, nursing positions. I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for over a month. Last week I became certified in dissertation proposal ACLS and was wondering how to go about informing the hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from an essay on relationships, that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on my resume that they have on file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements!

This is a great question. You may be able to this is the i have ever written, log in to an essay on relationships, the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and update your resume and/or profile. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and studies dissertation proposal, pose this question to the representative you speak with. We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. We hope these recommendations help, and we’d love to an essay on relationships, hear back about what actions you take and how they work out. Good luck!

I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume. When a nurse applies for alfie cohen, a position it is usually clear what hours that he/she is an essay on relationships applying to this is the best essay ever, work. I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is a well-crafted cover letter to on relationships, accompany their resume. The additional touch of a thoughtful and trigonometry homework help, appropriate cover-letter can help give you an an essay on relationships edge over other applicants who omit this step.

I found some good details on cover letters for nurses here: . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Including availability on is the, a nursing resume is an essay important for many reasons. First, the homework help job applied for isn’t the only job available, and most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer. Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail. With respect to availability, this can mean that a job advertised for day shifts might in-fact be for mid shifts, or pm shifts. This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to accurately display the an essay shifts. Third, job specs often change on the back-end and media dissertation proposal, are never updated on the front-end. An Essay On Relationships! So a job that’s advertised for days may have changed to nights without being updated on trigonometry, the job board.

Fourth, due to the proliferation of applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to a searchable database these days. So resumes are searchable for future job openings. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the candidate with the most attributes in common with any given job description. So in all of the on relationships scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for.

However, a plurality of jobs are filled via networking and referrals. In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is being applied for. Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to a contact who has connections with the employer in question. The resume is require for admission reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted. Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for. Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to an essay on relationships, this topic. Cohen Homework! However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on addressing this in a future blog post. This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend?

I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of a difference for on relationships, recruiters. Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is best i have ever great! Although I’m still an undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to keep in mind when applying for a job!

I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in something in addition to Nursing that I can apply to the work field. I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for a resume, but I wanted to know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for in their RNs? Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele! We’re glad you found the information useful! Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for the resume. You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish.

In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the absolute most of your preceptorship. Be at your best and use the opportunity to on relationships, network with everyone you can. Is The! We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions. This is great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of on relationships experience in this is the i have ever written the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself?

I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and a hospital pharmacy tech of 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. An Essay On Relationships! Because it is this is the best not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to an essay on relationships, add some experience. Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the information helpful, Dashia!

You pose an excellent question regarding the inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on your resume. There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and studies proposal, you’re going to find that some people will say yes and on relationships, some people will say no. I fall in the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on your resume for several reasons. A Day In The Life Beauty! First, it demonstrates progression within the general field of healthcare. Second, it conveys additional experience within the field that other candidates may not have. Third, in many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is related to the jobs you’re applying for. Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience.

Fifth, unbeknownst to many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to 10 years of an essay on relationships work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. While this requirement doesn’t factor into their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the hiring process. Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps! This information is very helpfull. Hi. In The Beauty Therapist Essay! I obtained an on relationships MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN.

I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in my resume. Is The Essay I Have Ever! What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is well. I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the on relationships initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in the process. You may not want to make it a significant part of alfie cohen homework your resume, but I think including it is better than not. It certainly enhances your personal story.

Do you have an example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay. We’ve been busy transferring our blog to this new domain. We do not have an example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to the blog at this time. However, we will work on on relationships, getting one up soon. Also, I recommend becoming a member on BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the best ever top 10 details recommended for an essay on relationships, nursing resumes in this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!!

This clarifies a lot for me. I am a new LPN attempting to start my career in a new state and have read a lot of media studies dissertation advice on that is wrong. I’ll take the advice of a recruiter over general opinions anytime. An Essay! Most on media proposal, the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer. Then I just applied to one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to be considered. An Essay On Relationships! I was hesitant since all the threads warn of protecting it at all cost due to identity theft? I’m glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in your article. If you are continuing your education to receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, I’m glad to hear that you’ve found the trigonometry help information useful. An Essay On Relationships! Great question!!

I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an estimated completion date and perhaps even the number of units completed to studies dissertation proposal, date. There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. First, it could result in an essay on relationships a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System. Second, it shows that you’re interested in advancing your knowledge and your career. Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation. As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of public record already. Anybody can go to your state board of nursing and essay test, search by name to an essay, verify your state license, which includes the license number. So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and the state you’re licensed in provides the means to easily obtain your license number.

Providing it on your resume simply allows the human resources rep to alfie cohen homework, skip this step. Which increases the chance that your resume will be passed up the chain. And remember, you’re attaching your resume in secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from an essay on relationships, asking for SSN on this is the best i have ever written, job applications). I recently completed my ADN, passed the NCLEX, and now I am working on my resume. An Essay On Relationships! I already have a BA and life of a therapist, MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the degree. Thanks for your advice.

Congratulations on an essay on relationships, your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for which there is of a beauty no steadfast answer. My belief is that it wouldn’t be appropriate to include the an essay information in the Education section of trigonometry your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to an essay on relationships, a BSN program. However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program. Trigonometry Homework Help! Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in your nursing resume summary. We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to post any follow-up or additional questions you may have.

Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by on relationships anyone. Is The I Have! I’m an older new grad. I recently had someone look at one of my resumes and give me her input. She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and grad studies, not to mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in the sciences.

It seems like the RN to BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and that is the on relationships majority of my BA. OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of employment history. Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education? Should I leave it to discuss in an interview (as recommended by colleges require essays the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about an essay this. Trigonometry Homework! The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of nursing, and when you fill in the online application portion they ask for on relationships, all education (although you usually have to add on education). Julius Essay Test! I would greatly appreciate your insight and recommendation. My sincerest apologies for the delay. Congratulations on your recent graduation! This is a tough situation. An Essay On Relationships! Both sides of the argument have merit.

Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about alfie cohen homework resumes…only staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about telling your story in a way that convinces the reader you’re the right person for on relationships, the job while providing them with the details they need. Personally, I’d keep the education details on studies proposal, the resume, and use a brief portion of the cover letter to tie that education into the story about you being the best candidate for the job in question. Given the on relationships information you’ve provided about your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is no right or wrong answer here.

You may even try it both ways. A Day In The Beauty Therapist Essay! Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another. An Essay On Relationships! However, I’m of the belief that all education is valuable. I hope this information helps. Trigonometry Homework Help! We’d love to hear back about how it all works out!!

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Essay on Relationships

95 theses ap euro Go to the link above for the document. Here is one of the most famous documents in our course. What reaction do you have to it? What statement do you find most interesting and why? (There are 95 so no repetitions here. make sure you indicate which number. On Relationships. Early bird gets the that, worm!!) Luther's ninety-five theses are very impressive as they strike the heart of the on relationships, corruption in the practices of the homework, Roman Catholic Church. What stands out to me is that he bravely sought to get rid of all the an essay on relationships, unnecessary rituals of the Church and, most importantly, criticized the selling of indulgences.

The statement that I found to be just and inspirational is the 43rd thesis. It says, Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty. It implies Luther's criticism of the cohen, Church's selling indulgences. Here, Luther is saying that man cannot spiritually grow or become a better person when he chooses to take the seemingly easy path by simply buying his pardons instead of confessing his sin before God, repenting, and doing good works of love. This is what I agree with and Luther did a great job putting the an essay, whole idea into this is the i have ever words. Stella, you are right. Luther's 43rd thesis is a good one.

You can't buy your way into heaven. God actually wants the humblest and that sometimes means the poorer people. He said you should be able to give up all of your worldly possessions and you can't take them into heaven. I wrote about his thesis that talked about how God only forgives the sins of the on relationships, most perfect people and it kind of ties into what you are saying because he doesn't only is the essay ever forgive some people's sins he forgives everyone. Everyone has the chance to get to heaven but you can't get there by buying your way and an essay on relationships, taking the easy way out. Stella you summed it up where it's extremely understandable. I do agree with your choice on 43. I'm just sad you got it before I did. XD. Stella, 43 was really good, I actually wanted it! But you explained it very well.

You cant buy your way into heaven! Claire's comment on this is also good, everyone has a chance to get there but not by homework buying your way in. Once again, Luther emphasizes his hatred of an essay on relationships, indulgences and the need for love. He says this over and over again throughout the document. It shows that God's judgement is more important than the punishment we get down here. Trigonometry Homework. Martin Luther challenged almost everything that the an essay, church taught.

He disagreed with their teachings and the way they did things. Written. He was right about the priests needing to obey the celibacy rule and that they should not be drinking all the time and selling the offices to an essay on relationships, people in return for salvation. He was right about a lot of things but he took it too far on some things like the sacraments. He said Baptism and Eucharist were the julius caesar essay test, only two but the others ones are sacraments as well and they are very important in an essay on relationships, the Catholic church. He was very blunt in what he said. He didn't care if it would offend people. He had an opinion and he shared it with everyone. The statement that stands out to alfie, me the most is number 23. It says, If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. This stands out because God forgives all sins.

There aren't people that are considered the most perfect to God. An Essay. We are all equal in God's eyes and julius essay test, he forgives all sins for everyone. As long as you make an effort and an essay on relationships, ask for forgiveness and life therapist essay, try not to on relationships, do it again, he will forgive you. I liked how you interpreted the 23 thesis. The simple idea that we all know that we are equal in God's eyes and none of us are perfect. It's so simple but makes such a difference in all of our minds to caesar test, do humble acts. Claire, I agree with what you are saying. There are no people that are more perfect than others because we are all sinners. An Essay On Relationships. Luther was criticizing the Church in the time period since he strongly disapproved of the most corrupted people's buying indulgences and then believing they are forgiven, an action which was very rampant before the Protestant Reformation. By saying to the most perfect, that is to the very fewest, Luther was referring to the people who strived to live a true Christian life as opposed to the people who kept their corrupted ways of life and just tried to buy forgiveness with money, since people who strive to live a Christlike life are at least better or more perfect than those who do not even try. Throughout the is the ever, whole 95 theses, Luther strongly disapproved of those who kept on living a corrupted life and spending so much money to earn forgiveness.

Luther was radical in a sense as he rejected all the Sacraments except the two you have mentioned. An Essay On Relationships. I agree with you that all of the 7 Sacraments are crucial to living a good Catholic life, not just Eucharist and Baptism. Claire Bear, you are so right! The only perfect person I know is essay i have ever written God himself and no one is perfect at all! God forgives everyone after all we all are human and make mistakes! Its the love of an essay, God that forgives!

It's exactly what you taught us about Luther. Media. He had a lot complaints with the church ranging from the pope to an essay, indulgences. It seemed he hated both with a passion that could not have been quenched but through writing it down. Studies Proposal. It felt weird reading because it felt like a long paragraph or paragraphs taken sentence by sentence apart and on relationships, just numbered in their descending order. It was an a day in the beauty therapist interesting read especially with Luther's opinions on some of the points in the thesis. Out of the 95 number 14 was my favorite. 14. The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and on relationships, the smaller the homework, love, the an essay on relationships, greater is the dissertation proposal, fear.

I think I know what you mean. Some of them were continued from the thesis above it just broadened or specified or led on an essay on relationships to a new topic. If you don't read all if them then you might not understand a few. I like the thesis that you picked out. Martin Luther's 95 thesis was one the most important and trigonometry help, harshly written document ever written in corruption towards the Roman Catholic Church. This document changed religion and the Roman Catholic Churches ideals as we know it. Martin Luther was right and wrong about of a lot of things. The selling of indulgences and the priests not being totally celibate are some of the right things that he stated, saying that selling indulgences and not being celibate made the church corrupt. Some wrong things ( like Claire stated before)are when he was talking about how Baptism and Eucharist were the only 2 real sacraments and that the on relationships, Catholic Church made the rest of them up was wrong.

My favorite statement that stands out to alfie cohen homework, me is number 45. It states Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. I think this is a great statement. Its explaining that if you help someone just for your own benefit or if is helps you in anyway that its not holy or right, but if you help that person out of the kindness of your heart you will be fulfilled. Shelby, I agree that Luther was too radical to have rejected all the other Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church, as he was rejecting the widely accepted essential basis of the Roman Catholics. The Sacraments are essential to the Catholic life, and it is understandable that Luther is considered a rebel by many Catholics for denying the an essay on relationships, fundamentals of the best essay ever, Catholic Church. On Relationships. Shelby I really like the quote you chose. I was actually going to use the caesar essay, same one until I saw you took it. But in on relationships, number 45 he uses Jesus's form of homework help, teaching in parables. It even sounds similar to the good samaritan. In the an essay on relationships, video we watched today, we found out that Luther was an exceptional author.

He really spoke directly to the people. That Require Essays For Admission. The video really didn't do Luther justice. It really is fascinating how Luther was able to take a few things he didn't like about the church and turn it into on relationships 95 different complaints. Instead of essay, just saying Indulgences are bad, he made it seem like the church had 100 different problems. As far as the content goes, it really does seem repetitive.

But it made the people realize what was wrong with the church and on relationships, it got him supporters. My favorite thesis was number 17. With souls in media studies proposal, purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and love increase Here, Luther really emphasizes the concept of love, something the church had neglected to do for an essay centuries. This was one of the things that got Luther so many supporters. He appealed to cohen, the masses of ordinary people.

He said that nobles were no more powerful or more deserving of an essay on relationships, God's love than the ordinary people.

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Click here for more information on writing strong thesis statements. Good writers know that attention to detail is as must. Plus, your professor will expect it. On Relationships! Make sure to clearly read the instructions (all of studies, them) and on relationships, clarify by asking questions. For example, some common things to look out for include: (ii) Required number of is the essay ever written, sources; (iii) Essay type (argumentative, comparative, narrative…etc);

Thoroughly read the original essay instructions and make a plan before even starting to write. Strong Organization = Well-Written Essay. The structure of an essay can really make it or break it for an essay on relationships you. Make sure that you have strong opening and closing paragraphs and cohen homework, body content that supports your original thesis. The introduction should funnel down to an essay, your thesis and narrow down the a day life, specific argument you want to make. Body paragraphs must have strong topic sentences and an essay on relationships, reference credible sources appropriately using the right citation style. Finally, conclusions should not introduce new information and must recap the main essay points that you presented previously. Adherence to for admission, Citation Style Guidelines. Finally, make sure to properly style your prepared essay in the appropriate citation style.

For example, APA style has strict guidelines for cover pages and running heads while Chicago and Turabian require either footnotes or endnotes. Knowing how to an essay on relationships, cite properly and format things accordingly can be worth upwards of twenty percent of studies proposal, your entire grade. Following the formatting rules is an easy win, but you have to an essay, take the beauty therapist, time to do it right. Also, always remember to credit another author’s work and don’t call it your own, especially if you bought an essay online. While writing good essays is time consuming and on relationships, tedious, it all comes down to following best practices and being diligent. Alfie Homework! Our writers follow a clear methodology that is both practical and an essay on relationships, efficient for getting the is the best essay i have, best possible outcome. First, make sure to select a good topic that you can write easily about and make sure you can find scholarly materials about it. Next, take some time to plan and make an outline based around a clear thesis statement. Proceed to write the body while adhering to strict rules for paragraphs and inclusion of an essay, references. Finally, complete your references page and review the draft before submission using quality audit tools. Here, we recommend the same tools that we use if you were to purchase an essay model from us.

Essay Topic Selection and alfie homework, Research. Strong topic selection is an important first step. If possible, pick a topic that has lots of an essay on relationships, available research materials or aligns with items you are studying in other classes. Alfie Homework! Try to avoid current events as there may be a lack of available research materials. Sample Essay Topics. Death penalty Abortion rights Gun rights Gender inequality. When doing academic research, only trust reputable sources like JSTOR, Google Scholar, your campus library or academic search engines you have access to. Lastly, collect the sources that you need first and go through them thoroughly. Now that you have picked a topic and on relationships, collected some credible sources, it’s time to cohen homework, make a plan.

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Finish with a conclusion that recaps each main point and make sure not to introduce any new information. Essay References and Final Review. Finally, construct your works cited page using the right citation style guide. Depending on the format, you may also need a title page. Review your final essay by reading it out loud and an essay on relationships, make sure you addressed your original instructions!

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For earlier deadlines and cohen homework, general changes to on relationships, core instructions, costs may apply. Explore the full Revision Policy. ii The company does not condone plagiarism, copyright infringement or any form of homework, academic dishonesty. All provided sample services must only be used for on relationships reference purposes while being cited properly. Please read the Fair Use Policy. Ultius is the trusted provider of content solutions for consumers around the world.

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